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Title:
PISTON ENGINE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/001600
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The stationary support (2) has the shape of a solid of revolution and creates the central part of the engine, rotating rotor (3) is concentrically placed on this stationary support (2), and at least one rotary ring (9) situated eccentrically with regard to rotor (3) is arranged outwards around the rotor (3). Cylinders (5) are located inside the rotor (3) and disposed on imaginary circle (k) concentric with the rotor (3), in the position tangential relative to this imaginary circle (k). Connecting rods (7) are hinged by their bottoms on the connecting rod journals (8) mounted on the rotary ring (9) having teeth (10) and protrusions (11). The rotor (3) body (31) face is a toothed disk (32) having the same diameter (d1) and teeth (10) like the rotary ring (9). On the opposite side of the body (31) there is arranged a nose (33). The main shaft (4) with two gear wheels (12, 13) is parallel with the axis of the stationary support (2).

Inventors:
CHROMCAK, Stanislav (613 Celadna, 73912, CZ)
Application Number:
CZ2018/050033
Publication Date:
January 03, 2019
Filing Date:
June 08, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CHROMCAK, Stanislav (613 Celadna, 73912, CZ)
CHROMCAK, Stanislav (Okruzni 454, Vsetin, Rokytnice, 75501, CZ)
International Classes:
F01B13/04
Foreign References:
FR709083A1931-08-03
RU2088762C11997-08-27
US20070062469A12007-03-22
FR324116A1903-03-24
EP1846646A12007-10-24
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
RYLKOVA, Iva (Polska 1525, Ostrava-Poruba, 70800, CZ)
Download PDF:
Claims:
C L A I M S

1. Piston engine comprising a case (1) in which a stationary support (2), rotating rotor (3), rotating main shaft (4), at least two cylinders (5) are located, each of said cylinders (5) comprises a piston (6) slidab!e inside the cylinder (5) and mounted on a connecting rod (7) running out of the cylinder (5), characterized by that the stationary support (2) has the shape of a solid of revolution and creates the central part of the engine, rotating rotor (3) is concentrically placed on this stationary support (2), and at least one rotary ring (9) situated eccentrically with regard to rotor (3) is arranged outwards around the rotor (3), the cylinders (5) for pistons (6) being located inside the rotor (3), where they are disposed on at least one imaginary circle (k) concentric with the rotor (3) in the position tangential relative to this imaginary circle (k), and the connecting rods (7) of pistons (8) running out from these cylinders (5) being hinged by their bottoms on the connecting rod journals (8) mounted on the rotary ring (9).

2. Piston engine according to claim 1 , characterized by that the rotary ring (9) has on its outer circumference a row of teeth (10) creating a toothing here, and on its inner circumference it has protrusions (1 1) created for the connecting rod journals (8).

3. Piston engine according to claims 1 and 2, characterized by that the rotor (3) has a body (31), the face of which has the appearance of a toothed disk (32) that has the diameter (d1), the number of teeth (10) and the size of the teeth (10) identical with that of the rotary ring (9), while a nose (33) is arranged on the opposite side of the rotor (3) body (31).

4. Piston engine according to claim 3, characterized by that the main shaft (4) is parallel with the axis of the stationary support (2) and the rotor (3), while two gear wheels (12, 13) are firmly fixed on the main shaft (4), of which the first gear wheel (12) is arranged in the plane of the toothed disk (32) outwards of its outer circumference and engages with the toothing of the toothed disk (32), and the second gear wheel (13) is arranged in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the rotary ring (9) outwards of its outer circumference and engages with the teeth (10) of the rotary ring (9), furthermore, there is a third gear wheel (1 ) contained off the main shaft (4) that is rotatabie in the axis parallel to the axis of the main shaft (4) and has a starter (15) mounted on it

5. Piston engine according to claim 4, characterized by that the third gear wheel (14) is arranged in the same plane as the first gear wheel (12) and it engages with the said first gear wheel (12). 6. Piston engine according to claims 4 and 5, characterized by that a movable support (16) is mounted movably on the main shaft (4) and at least two auxiliary shafts (17, 18) are mounted on the movable support (16), a fourth gear wheel (19) is mounted rotatably on the first auxiliary shaft (17) and a fifth gear wheel (20) is rotatably mounted on the second auxiliary shaft (18) while both said gear wheels (19, 20), the fourth gear wheel ( 9) as well as the fifth gear wheel (20), engage with the teeth (10) of the rotary ring (9).

7. Piston engine according to claim 6, characterized by that all the contained gear wheels (12, 13, 14, 19, 20) have the same tooth (10) size as the rotary ring (9), while at least the second gear wheel (13) has the same diameter (d2) and the number of teeth (10) as the first gear wheel (12).

8. Piston engine according to claim 7, characterized by that ail the contained gear wheels (12, 13, 14, 19, 20) have the same diameter (c/2) and the same number of teeth (10).

9. Piston engine according to any of claims 6 to 8, characterized by that the movable support (16) is pivotable relative to the main shaft (4). 10. Piston engine according to any of claims 6 to 9, characterized by that the movable support (16) is pivotable on the shaft (4) within the adjustable range by means of a slider (21), while the maximum allowable swing of the movable support (16) is delimited by stops (22).

11. Piston engine according to any of claims 6 to 10, characterized by that inside the rotor (3) nose (33), there is at ieast one bearing (23) arranged that is rotatable on a connecting journal (24), which is fixed with its one end to the case (1) and with the other end to the stationary support (2), while this connecting journal (24) is coaxial with the axis of the stationary support (2) as well as of the rotor (3).

12. Piston engine according to any of claims 1 to 1 1 , characterized by that it is equipped with a set of rotary rings (9) that are placed parallel to each other eccentrically with respect to the rotor (3), all with the centre (S2) on the same axis and bearing the connecting rod journals (8), while the rotor (3) is equipped with a corresponding number of adequately situated cylinders (5) fitted with the pistons (6) and spaced on imaginary circles (k) concentric with the rotor (3), where these cylinders (5) are placed in position tangential to the corresponding imaginary circle {k}, with the connecting rods (7) of the pistons (6) running out from the rotor (3) outward and hinged here on the connecting rod journals (8) of the relevant, by its position corresponding, rotary ring (9).

13. Piston engine according to claim 12, characterized by that the circles (k) are fitted with the same number of cylinders (5) disposed on them at the same distance, while the adjacent circles (k) with the cylinders (5) are turned through an angle relatively to each other.

Description:
Piston engine

Technical Field The technical solution relates to a piston engine with several pistons, especiall for automotive and machinery industry.

Background Art Combustion engines, which are currently most frequently used as drives in the automotive and machinery industry, have usually the form of a mechanism with pistons whose connecting rod is mounted on a crankshaft. The connecting rods are mounted on the crankshaft either in one row, or in two rows in the V-shaped arrangement or in a single plane against each other. The cylinders, in which the engine pistons are placed, are pointed at the axis of the crankshaft. During operation, the rotation of crankshaft results in the change of the arm of rotation so that the arm of rotation is minimal at the highest cylinder pressure. The disadvantage of these engines is the fact that a constant stopping and acceleration of the piston occurs, which dissipates the kinetic energy obtained by combustion. Another disadvantage is the low efficiency due to the change of the arm of rotation.

Another type of engine is a rotary piston engine without connecting rod and crankshaft. For example EP 1 846646 describes a rotor-piston spark-ignition engine with three pistons. The engine is composed of three or more interacting, liquid-cooled disc shaped housings which are arranged parallel to each other. Each disc-shaped housing contains a spark plug, exhaust gas opening and intake opening. In the fixed housing, which forms the engine case, an annular rotor is mounted that has an interna! toothing into which the pinion engages. The rotor is equipped with two ring gears. There are segments attached to this rotor at both sides of each individual working chamber of the cylinders, which segments serve to seal the working chambers. The inlets for the combustion medium create channels in the housing. There are three pistons that are at an angle of 120° to each other and are connected into an eccentric three-pointed star, which is eccentrically inserted inside the rotor and mounted on pivot pins in the rotor case. The pistons are not connected by a connecting rod, they are fixed and there are hinged cylinders located on them. Joints are located inside the rotor. There is also an eccentrically mounted output shaft of the engine inside the rotor.

Currently, a rotary internal combustion engine based on the principle of gas expansion in a variable combustion chamber, known as the Wankei engine, is also frequently used in the technique. This engine includes an ellipsoid housing in which a rotor that follows the ellipsoidal shape is orbiting. Two rotationaliy supported pistons are contained in such engines and the centre of each piston is also rotational, but with different movement. The balancing of the engine construction is achieved by implementing the pistons in pair.

The common disadvantage of existing internal combustion engines used for the automotive industry is the fact that they have small torque. To achieve adequately high torque, the engine must be operated at high rotor speeds, which gives rise to emissions due to limited time for combustion. To reduce emissions, the device must be equipped with flue gas catalysts, which is financially and materially demanding. The device must necessarily be equipped with a gearbox designed to reduce the speed to drive vehicles or other equipment. Disclosure of Invention

The aforementioned drawbacks are eliminated by the proposed technical solution. A piston engine is designed comprising a case in which a stationary support, rotating rotor, rotating main shaft, at least two cylinders are Iocated, each of said cylinders comprises a piston slidable inside the cylinder and mounted on a connecting rod running out of the cylinder. The essence of the new solution consists in that the stationary support has the shape of a solid of revolution and creates the central part of the engine, rotating rotor is concentrically placed on this stationary support, and an eccentrically situated rotary ring is arranged outwards around the rotor, the cylinders for pistons being Iocated inside the rotor where they are disposed on at least one imaginary circle concentric with the rotor in the position tangential relative to this imaginary circle, and the connecting rods of pistons running out from these cyiinders being hinged by their bottoms on the connecting rod journals that are mounted on the rotary ring.

The rotary ring is on its outer circumference equipped with a toothing formed by a plurality of teeth, and its inner circumference is equipped with protrusions for connecting rod journais. The connecting rod journals are preferably situated on these protrusions.

The rotor is resolved so that its body has preferably a front part, i.e. a face, created in the shape of a toothed disk, while on the opposite side of the rotor a nose is arranged in the region of the central part of the body. The diameter d1 , the number of teeth, and the size of the teeth of the toothed disk must be the same as these parameters of the rotary ring.

The main shaft is situated in parallel with the axis of the stationary support and with the axis of the rotor, and two gear wheels are fixed on the main shaft, firmly to it. The first gear wheel lies in the plane of the toothed disk outwards of its outer circumference and engages with the toothing of the toothed disk. The second gear wheel is arranged in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the rotary ring outwards of its outer circumference and engages with the toothing of the rotary ring. Furthermore, off the main shaft, there is a third gear wheel that is rotatab!e in the axis parallel to the axis of the main shaft and a starter is fixed on it.

The third gear wheel is preferably arranged in the same plane as the first gear wheel so that it engages with the first gear wheel.

A movable support is rnovably mounted on the main shaft, and at least two auxiliary shafts are mounted on the movable support. Fourth gear wheel is mounted on the first auxiliary shaft rotatab!y to it and a fifth gear wheel is rotatably mounted on the second auxiliary shaft, and the two said wheels, the fourth gear wheel as well as the fifth gear wheel, are dimensioned to engage with the teeth of the rotary ring.

All the gear wheels contained must have the same tooth size as the rotary ring, with at least the second gear wheel having the same diameter d2 and the number of teeth as the first gear wheei.

Preferably, all the gear wheels have the same diameter d2 and the same number of teeth.

The movable support is preferably pivotable relative to the main shaft. The movable support is preferably pivotable within the adjustable range by means of a slider, the maximum allowable swing of the movable support being also preferably delimited by stops.

Inside the rotor nose, at least one bearing rotatable on the connecting journal is preferably arranged, where the said connecting journal is attached by one end to the case and by the other end to the stationary support. This connecting journal is coaxial with the axis of the stationary support and the rotor.

Rotary rings according to the proposed solution can be even two or more. The piston engine according to the proposed solution may preferably be provided with a plurality of rotary rings that are placed parallel to each other eccentrically with respect to the rotor, all centred on the same axis, and are bearing the connecting rod journals for the connecting rods of pistons, the rotor being provided with a corresponding number of cylinders spaced on imaginary circles concentric with the rotor in positions tangential to respective imaginary circle k and with the connecting rods of pistons terminated at the connecting rod journals that are borne by the said rotary rings.

Preferably, in the case of a plurality of rotary rings, the imaginary circles k are fitted with the same number of cylinders disposed on them at the same distance, the adjacent circles k with the cylinders being turned through an angle relative to each other.

The designed piston engine is particularly suitable for the automotive and machinery industry. It has a high torque even at low speeds, which a flows better and more complete combustion process in the cylinder and consequently reduction of harmful emissions in the exhaust gases and exhalations. The invention can be used for engines whose working medium is compressed air, steam, or a compressed non-flammable gaseous medium, which is useful particularly for areas with high concentrations of flammable substances and in areas with the risk of explosion of flammable or explosive substances. However, the engine according to the invention can also be used for the working media of the type of flammable gases, mist and aerosoi mixtures of liquid fuels or very finely ground flammable solid particles. The engine can work as a compression engine, spark engine, two-stroke as well as four-stroke, atmospheric as well as supercharged engine. It can be used both for propu!sion of technological Sines and machines, and as drive unit in road, off-road and railway vehicles, in ships, in surface and submerged as well as subterranean systems. The invention allows, inter alia, the engine to be created as a component inserted into a large hub of vehicle wheel, where the fuel supply and flue gas venting can be solved at the end of the vehicle axle.

Review of Figures on Drawings The invention is illustrated by the drawings, where

Fig. 1 shows a side view of an exemplary designed engine with one eccentric rotary ring in partial section representing a cutting of of a portion of case,

Fig. 2 shows a side view of the same engine at a vertical cross-section taken through the centre of the stationary support and the rotor,

Fig. 3 shows a view from the right side relative to Fig. 1 inward the engine after cutting off of the portion of case along the line A-A indicated in Fig. 1,

Fig. 4 shows a view from the right relative to Fig. 1 on a vertical cross section taken through the rotary ring and the rotor along the line B-B indicated in Fig. 1, Fig. 5 shows a detail of the cylinder with the piston and the mounting of the piston connecting rod on the protrusion of the rotary ring, in the same view as on the previous figure,

Fig. 6 shows a movable support located on a stationary support in the case with the stops and the slider when viewed from the left relative to Fig. 1 and with partial section through the engine case, and

Fig. 7 is a front view of the case with the engine, view from the right relative to Fig. 1. Furthermore,

Fig. 8 shows a side view of another exemplary designed engine with plurality of eccentric rotary rings and with cylinders with pistons in multiple rows in partial section representing a cutting off of a portion of case,

Fig. 9 shows a side view of the same engine at a vertical cross-section taken through the centre of the stationary support and the rotor, and

Fig. 10 shows a view into the engine from the right side relative to Fig. 8, with partial section representing cutting off of the portion of case. Example of the Best Embodiment of the invention

An example of the best simpler embodiment of the invention is the piston engine according to the figures Fig. 1 to 7.

The piston engine has a case I in which a stationary support 2, rotating rotor 3 and rotating main shaft 4 are located. Further, four cylinders 5 are included, each of which comprises a piston 6 slidable inside the cylinder 5 and mounted on a connecting rod 7 that extends outwards from the cylinder 5 where it is movably mounted on a connecting rod jouma! 8. The stationary support 2 has the shape of a solid of revolution. In the figures, the stationary support 2 is in the shape of an elongated hemisphere, but it may also have a different shape such as a cylinder, a cone, an assembiy of sections of truncated cones of various diameters, etc. It creates the central part of the engine and the rotor 3 is placed on it rotatably and concentrically with the stationary support 2. The surfaces of contact between the rotor 3 and the stationary support 2 are smooth and of matching shapes. For purposes of illustration, the common centre of the stationary support 2 and the rotor 3 is marked on figures as SI . An eccentrically situated rotary ring 9 is arranged outwards around the rotating rotor 3. The centre of the rotary ring 9 is marked on the figures as S2. The cylinders 5 for pistons 6 are located inside the rotor 3 where they are disposed on an imaginary circle k concentric with the rotor 3. The cylinders 5 are positioned tangentially to this imaginary circle k, and the connecting rods 7 of pistons 6 are running out from the rotor 3 outwardly towards the rotary ring 9, where their bottoms are hinged on the connecting rod journals 8 mounted on the rotary ring 9.

On Its outer circumference, the rotary ring 9 has a toothing of a row of teeth 10, and on its inner circumference, it has several protrusions 1_i created, which are running in the plane of the rotary ring 9 and are projecting on its inner circumference towards its centre S2. These protrusions 1 are created here solely in order that connecting rod journals 8 could be situated on them.

The rotor 3 has a body 31 , on one side of which a toothed disk 32 is arranged, and on its opposite side a nose 33 running out from the centre SI is located. As shown in Fig. 3, the toothed disk 32 has the diameter d±, the number of teeth 10 and the size of the teeth 10 identical with that of the rotary ring 9. The main shaft 4 is revolving and runs in parallel with the axis of the stationary support 2 as well as with the axis of the rotor 3. Two gear wheels 12, 13 are firmly fixed on the main shaft 4. Of these, the first gear wheel 12 is arranged in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the toothed disk 32, outwards of its outer circumference. The first gear wheel 12 has its dimensions and position selected so that it engages with the toothing of the toothed disk 32. There is also the second gear wheel 13 firmly fixed on the main shaft 4, which is arranged so that its toothing engages with the teeth 10 of the rotary ring 9. Still there is a third gear wheel 14 included outside the main shaft 4. In this concrete example, the third gear wheel 14 lies in the same plane as the first gear wheel 12, is rotatable in the axis parallel to the axis of the main shaft 4 and engages with the first gear wheel 12. This third gear wheel 14 bears a starter 15 on it. Alternatively, it is possible to place the third gear wheel 14 elsewhere, however it must be always situated as rotatable in the axis parallel with the axis of the main shaft 4.

On the main shaft 4, there is a movable support 16 . mounted movably with respect to the main shaft 4, and having a shape of a flat triangular body with central opening. The main shaft passes through the lower comer part of the movable support 16. In its remaining two corners, there are two auxiliary shafts 17, 18 fixed, one in each corner. Fourth gear wheel 19 is mounted on the first auxiliary shaft 17 rotatably with respect to it, and a fifth gear wheel 20 is rotatably mounted on the second auxiliary shaft 18 rotatably with respect to it. Both said gear wheels 19, 20, i.e. the fourth gear wheel 19. as well as the fifth gea wheel 20, engage with the circumferential teeth 10 of the rotary ring 9. Ail the gear wheels 12, 13, 14, 19, 20 contained have the same tooth 10 size as the rotary ring 9. From these at ieast the second gear wheel 3 must have the same diameter d2 and the same number of teeth 10 as the first gear wheel 12. in the demonstrated preferred embodiment, all the gear wheels 12, 13, 14, 19, 20 have the same diameter d2 and the same number of teeth 10.

The movable support 16 is seated rotatably within adjustable range with respect to the main shaft 4 so that it is pivotable with its two remaining corners. Its central opening is so big as to allow its positioning on the rotor 3 as well as the pivoted movement of the movable support 16 on the rotor 3. Carrying out the pivoted movement is achieved by means of a slider 21 that is mounted in a suitable place, in this case near one of the corners of the movabie support 16. The maxima! allowed swing of the movable support 16 is determined by stops 22.

inside the rotor 3 nose 33, at least one bearing 23 is arranged that is rotatab!e on the connecting journal 24, which has its one end mounted in the case 1 and the other end mounted to the stationary support 2. This connecting journal 24 is coaxial with the axis of the stationary support 2 and hence also with the axis of the rotor 3.

in ail cases of embodiment, the pistons 6 contained must be secured on the connecting rods 7. The connecting rod 7 is intended to mean here, in accordance with conventional technical terminology, a piston rod hinged with its both ends movably to the mounting positions. From which the movabie attachment of the connecting rod 7 to the piston 6 is carried out in a conventional manner by means of the gudgeon pin 25, whereas for the opposite end of the connecting rod 7, i.e. its bottom, the aforedescribed movabie mounting on the rotary ring 9 by means of a connecting rod journal 8 is designed.

Number of the cylinders 5 is not limited, it depends in particular on the dimensions of the engine elements. Cylinders 5 may also be in two or more rows and may be positioned side by side or shifted to one another for improved torque curve of the engine, in the case when a greater number of the cylinders 5 are contained and the cylinders 5 are thus distributed on two or more imaginary circles k, the connecting rod journals 8 are adequately spaced either in multiple rows of one common adequately extended rotary ring 9 or the number of the contained rotary rings 9 is appropriately increased. Figures Fig. 8 to Fig. 10 show such a more complex embodiment of the designed engine. In this embodiment, unlike the previous example, the piston engine is equipped with a plurality of rotary rings 9. The practical number of the rotary rings 9 may be between two and 15, according to the need and purpose. In this example, four rotary rings 9 are shown. Not only the number of the rotary rings 9, but also the number of the cylinders 5 with the pistons 6 is increased, in the case of increased number, the rotary rings 9 are placed parallel to each other, all eccentrically with respect to the rotor 3, all with centre S2 on the same axis, and all with the protrusions JJ. in which the connecting rod journals 8 for the connecting rods 7 of pistons 6 are hinged. The rotor 3 is equipped with corresponding number of the cylinders 5 fitted with the pistons 6 and arranged similarly as in the previous example, i.e. distributed on imaginary circles k concentric with the rotor 3, where the cylinders 5 are in the position tangential to the respective imaginary circle k, the pistons 6 are in the cylinders 5, and the connecting rods 7 of pistons 6 are running out from the cylinders 5 and from the rotor 3 outwards where they are terminated with the abovementioned hinging on the connecting rod journals 8 situated on the protrusions 1 1. o the positiona!ly corresponding rotary rings 9. As shown in Fig. 10, the circles k are fitted with the same number of cylinders 5 spaced out thereon with the same spacing, and the adjacent circles k with the cylinders 5 being partially rotated relative to each other.

The engine further comprises the usual necessary structural and operating elements such as necessary inlet and outlet means for fuel, coolants, lubricating media, exhaust gas and the like, not shown in the figures. The supply of these media can be provided via the stationary support 2 and the rotor 3. Furthermore, there are seals, spark plugs, valves etc. included, which are not shown in the figures.

During the operation of the engine, the rotor 3 rotating on the bearing 23 and carrying cylinders 5 with pistons 6 revolves around the stationary support 2. Eccentricity existing between the centre S of the rotor 3 and the centre S2 of the rotary ring 9 or rotary rings 9 ensures stroke of the pistons 6. The pistons 6 and the cylinders 5 have constant speed, no stopping and acceleration of the pistons 6 or cylinders 5 occurs and hence no dissipation of energy in working cycle takes place. Using the slider 2Λ , it is possible to change the distance between the centres SI and S2 even during the engine operation and in this way to change the stroke of the pistons 6, so as to change the operational parameters of the engine according to the actual need. The arm of rotation is permanently constant and only the force delivered by pistons 6 in the course of the working cycle is variable. Rotor 3 and all the contained rotary rings 9 are performing synchronized movement in the same direction of rotation. Synchronisation of this movement is ensured by the rotating main shaft 4 with the elements contained on it. The main torque of the engine is dependent on the distance of the centre of the cylinders 5 from the centre SI of the rotor 3, area of individual cylinders 5 and the working pressure of the pistons 6. W

10

Review of Reference Signs

1 case

2 stationary support

3 rotor

4 main shaft

5 cylinder

6 piston

7 connecting rod

8 connecting rod journal

9 rotary ring

10 tooth

11 protrusion

12 first gear wheel

13 second gear wheel

14 third gear wheel

15 starter

16 movable support

17 first auxiliary shaft

18 second auxiliary shaft

19 fourth gear wheel

20 fifth gear wheel

21 slider

22 stop

23 bearing

24 connecting journal

25 gudgeon pin

31 body

32 toothed disk

33 nose