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Title:
PISTON MACHINE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/143897
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The purpose of the invention is to create a piston machine, in which both a cylinder (1) and also a piston (2), which is translatory-oscillating movable to and from within said cylinder, could be made of materials on the basis of ceramics, and in addition to that, when such machine is used as a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine, then the combustion of each fuel within a combustion chamber (6) could be essentially improved, which would then lead to essentially decreasing of harmful combustion gasses, in particular of NO and NO2, i.e. NOx, when compared with currently known gasoline or diesel internal combustion engines. A cylinder (1) of such piston machine comprises a smooth internal surface area (10), which is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod (3), ended with a radially inwards protruding upper rectangular step (111), and on the opposite side, which is faced towards the piston rod (3), with a radially inwards protruding lower rectangular step (112). A combustion chamber (6) within the cylinder (1) is in a direction away from said piston rod (3) extended by a conical chamber (11) having a pre-determined angle (a) of its tip (110). Said piston (2) is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod (3), furnished with a radially outwards protruding rim (21), the outer diameter of which is adjusted on the one hand to the internal diameter of said smooth internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1) and on the other hand also to said steps (111, 112).

Inventors:
SAJOVIC, Igo (Gaca 11, 1231 Ljubljana-Crnuce, SI)
Application Number:
SI2017/000024
Publication Date:
August 09, 2018
Filing Date:
September 15, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SAJOVIC, Igo (Gaca 11, 1231 Ljubljana-Crnuce, SI)
International Classes:
F02B23/06; F02F3/28; F04B39/00; F04B53/14
Foreign References:
US1662553A1928-03-13
US2898894A1959-08-11
US2709992A1955-06-07
GB1146589A1969-03-26
US1990618A1935-02-12
US1846656A1932-02-23
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BORSTAR, Dusan (Nova ulica 11, 1230 Domzale, SI)
Download PDF:
Claims:
PATENT CLAIMS

1. Piston machine, namely an internal combustion engine, comprising at least one operating cylinder (1) with at least one smooth internal surface area (10), and within said cylinder (1) there is tightly matching inserted a piston (2), which is translatory oscillating movable to and fro in the axial direction (X) of said cylinder (1) along said internal surface area (10) thereof, wherein said piston (2) is in an open first end portion (11) of said cylinder (1) furnished with a piston rod (3) and is pivotally around a transversal diametrical axis (Y), which extends perpendicularly with respect to the previously mentioned longitudinal axis (X) of the cylinder (1), connected with its first end portion (31), wherein the second end portion (32) of said piston rod (3) is embedded on an eccentric crank shaft (4), and wherein the second end portion (12) of the cylinder (1) is closed, optionally by means of a cylinder head (5), and wherein each combustion chamber (6) of the engine in each position of said piston (2) during its movement along said axial direction (X) of the cylinder (1) is defined with said internal surface area (11) of the cylinder, the closed end portion (12) of said cylinder (1) as well as with a front surface (20) of the piston (2), and wherein said cylinder (1) is in the area of said combustion chamber (6) furnished with at least one aperture

(151) , which is sealable by means of a valve (15 ) and is adapted for transporting each media towards the interior of the cylinder (1), as well as at least one aperture

(152) which is sealable by means of a valve (152') and is adapted for transporting each media from the interior of the cylinder (1) towards the exterior thereof, whereas said engine is furthermore optionally furnished with a suitable control assembly (7), which is adapted for closing and opening said apertures (151, 152) by means of said valves (15 , 152') with respect to each position of the piston (2) within the cylinder (1), characterized in that said smooth internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1) is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod (3), ended with a radiall inwards protruding upper rectangular step (111), and on the opposite side, which is faced towards the piston rod (3), with a radially inwards protruding lower rectangular step (112), and that the combustion chamber (6) within the cylinder (1) is in a direction away from said piston rod (3) extended by a conical chamber (11) having a predetermined angle (a) of its tip (110), while the piston (2) is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod (3), furnished with a radially outwards protruding rim (21), the outer diameter of which is adjusted on the one hand to the internal diameter of said smooth internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1) and on the other hand also to said steps (11 1, 112), and wherein said piston (2) is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod (3), furnished with a radially outwards extending truncated conical protrusion (22) having a pre-determined angle (β) of its tip (210), wherein said angle (β) on said protrusion (22) on the piston (2) is determined in such way that said truncated conical protrusion (22) on the piston (2) is insertable into said conical chamber (1 1) in the cylinder (1), and in that said apertures (151, 152), which are sealable by means of said valves (15 , 152') and are suitable for transporting of media into or from said cylinder (1), are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area (10) between said steps (1 11, 112).

2. Piston machine according to Claim 1, characterized in that said apertures (151, 152) for transporting media towards the interior of the cylinder (1) and outside from said cylinder (1), which are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1) between said steps (11 1, 1 12) are arranged in such manner, that in the first terminal position of the piston (2) i.e. in position of compression in which its protrusion (21) is located within the conical chamber (11) of the cylinder (1), said apertures (151, 152) which are sealable by means of valves (15 , 152') are located between the rim (21) of the piston (2) and the lower step (112) of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1), while in the second terminal position of the piston (2), i.e. in position of expansion, said apertures (151, 152) which are sealable by means of valves (15 , 152') are located between the rim (21) of the piston (2) and the upper step (111) of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1), and wherein said cylinder (1) is in the area of said chamber (11) furnished with at least one aperture (14, 14') serving for ignition of fuel in the area of said combustion chamber (6).

3. Piston machine according to Claim 1 or 2, characterized in that said angle (β) on the truncated conical protrusion (21) of the piston (2) at least approximately corresponds to said angle (a) on the tip (110) of said conical chamber (1 1) within the cylinder (1).

4. Piston machine according to Claim 1 or 2, characterized in that said angle (β) on the truncated conical protrusion (21) of the piston (2) is smaller than the angle (a) on the tip (1 10) of said conical chamber (11) within the cylinder (1).

5. Piston machine according to anyone of Claims 1 - 4, characterized in that a fuel injection device is mounted in the area of said fuel ignition aperture (14, 14') in the combustion chamber (6).

6. Piston machine according to anyone of Claims 1 - 4, characterized in that an ignition plug for ignition of a mixture of fuel and air is mounted in the area of said fuel ignition aperture (14, 14') in the combustion chamber (6).

7. Piston machine according to Claim 5, characterized in that an electric ignition plug for ignition of a mixture of fuel and air is mounted in the area of one of said fuel ignition apertures (14, 14') in the combustion chamber (6).

8. Piston machine according to anyone of Claims 1 - 7, characterized in that a fuel injection nozzle is mounted in the area of said fuel ignition aperture (14, 14') in the combustion chamber (6).

9. Piston machine according to anyone of Claims 1 - 8, characterized in that said cylinder (1) is furnished with at least one sensor, which is located in the area of said conical chamber (11) and is suitable for monitoring temperature within the combustion chamber (6).

10. Piston machine according to anyone of Claims 1 - 9, characterized in that said cylinder (1) is furnished with at least one sensor, which is located in the area of said conical chamber (1 1) and is suitable for monitoring pressure within the combustion chamber (6).

1 1. Piston machine according to anyone of Claims 1 - 10, characterized in that said piston (2) is furnished with a circumferential groove (23), which is located between its rim (21) and its end portion, which is faced towards the piston rod (3).

12. Piston machine, namely a machine suitable for operating as a piston pump or piston compressor, comprising at least one operating cylinder (1) with at least one smooth internal surface area (10), and within said cylinder (1) there is tightly matching inserted a piston (2), which is translatory oscillating movable to and fro in the axial direction (X) of said cylinder (1) along said internal surface area (10) thereof, wherein said piston (2) is in an open first end portion (11) of said cylinder (1) furnished with a piston rod (3) and is pivotally around a transversal diametrical axis (Y), which extends perpendicularly with respect to the previously mentioned longitudinal axis (X) of the cylinder (1), connected with its first end portion (31), wherein the second end portion (32) of said piston rod (3) is embedded on an eccentric crank shaft (4), and wherein the second end portion (12) of the cylinder (1) is closed, optionally by means of a cylinder head (5), and wherein each combustion chamber (6) of the piston machine is in each position of said piston (2) during its movement along said axial direction (X) of the cylinder (1) defined with said internal surface area (1 1) of the cylinder, the closed end portion (12) of said cylinder (1) as well as with a front surface (20) of the piston (2), and wherein said cylinder (1) is in the area of said combustion chamber (6) furnished with at least one aperture (151), which is sealable by means of a valve (15 ) and is adapted for transporting each media towards the interior of the cylinder (1), as well as at least one aperture (152) which is sealable by means of a valve (152') and is adapted for transporting each media from the interior of the cylinder (1) towards the exterior thereof, whereas said piston machine is furthermore optionally furnished with a suitable control assembly (7), which is adapted for closing and opening said apertures (151, 152) by means of said valves (Γ5 , 152'), depending on each position of the piston (2) within the cylinder (1), characterized in that said smooth internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1) is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod (3), ended with a radially inwards protruding upper rectangular step (1 1 1), and on the opposite side, which is faced towards the piston rod (3), with a radially inwards protruding lower rectangular step (1 12), and that the combustion chamber (6) within the cylinder (1) is in a direction away from said piston rod (3) extended by a conical chamber (1 1) having a pre-determined angle (a) of its tip (1 10), while the piston (2) is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod (3), furnished with a radially outwards protruding rim (21), the outer diameter of which is adjusted on the one hand to the internal diameter of said smooth internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1) and on the other hand also to said steps (111, 1 12), and wherein said piston (2) is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod (3), furnished with a radially outwards extending truncated conical protrusion (22) having a pre-determined angle (β) of its tip (210), wherein said angle (β) on said protrusion (22) on the piston (2) is determined in such way that said truncated conical protrusion (22) on the piston (2) is insertable into said conical chamber (11) in the cylinder (1), and in that said apertures (151, 152), which are sealable by means of said valves (15 , 152') and are suitable for transporting of media into or from said cylinder (1), are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area (10) between said steps (1 1 1, 112).

13. Piston machine according to anyone of Claim 12, characterized in that said apertures (151, 152) for transporting media towards the interior of the cylinder (1) and outside from said cylinder (1), which are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1) between said steps (111, 1 12) are arranged in such manner, that in the first terminal position of the piston (2) i.e. in position of compression in which its protrusion (21) is located within the conical chamber (1 1) of the cylinder (1), said apertures (151, 152) which are sealable by means of valves (15 , 152') are located between the rim (21) of the piston (2) and the lower step (1 12) of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1), while in the second terminal position of the piston (2), i.e. in position of expansion, said apertures (151, 152) which are sealable by means of valves (151 ', 152') are located between the rim (21) of the piston (2) and the upper step (11 1) of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area (10) of the cylinder (1).

Description:
Piston machine

The present invention refers to a piston machine, in particular to an internal combustion engine, which operates either as a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine. Each person skilled in the art should however understand that such engine may be used, by performing each required modifications in view of driving and transmission means as well as of controlling, also as a compressor or as a pump. In accordance with the International patent classification such inventions belong to pistons and cylinders of piston machines, which are characteristic with respect to material, of which they are made.

The purpose of the invention is to create a piston machine, in which both a cylinder and also a piston, which is translatory-oscillating movable to and from within said cylinder, could be made of materials on the basis of ceramics, and in addition to that, when such machine is used as a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine, then the combustion of each fuel within a combustion chamber could be essentially improved, which would then lead to essentially decreasing of harmful combustion gasses, in particular of NO and NO 2 , i.e. NO x , when compared with currently known gasoline or diesel internal combustion engines. Piston machines as such are known to persons skilled in the art. Such machine generally consists of at least one working cylinder, in which on the one hand in a tightly matching manner a piston is inserted, which is translatory oscillating movable to and fro along the interior of said cylinder. A piston road is pivotally connected to said piston, which is on the other end mounted on an eccentric crank shaft. Said cylinder is on the opposite side closed by an engine head, in which valves are embedded, which serve for establishing of interaction between a combustion chamber, which is available within the cylinder between the front surface of the piston and said engine head, and appropriate manifolds, which are located outside of the cylinder. Such piston machine may generally operate either as a pump/compressor or also as an internal combustion engine. When the machine is used as a pump or compressor, said crank shaft is powered by means of appropriate driving means, and its operating chamber is furnished with at least one valve assembly for supplying each media into said operation chamber, when the piston is in position of establishing vacuum therein, as well as for releasing the compressed media from said operation chamber upon displacing said piston in its another position. When the machine is functioning as an internal combustion engine, such engine is furnished with a fuel supplying manifold, which is communicating with an aperture in the area of a combustion chamber, which is in the need i.e. during combustion of the fuel and releasing of exhaust gases sealed by means of a valve, as well as an aperture for releasing of exhaust gases, which is in the need i.e. during compression and delivery each fuel into said combustion chamber also closed by a valve. Sealing between the surface of the piston and the internal surface of the cylinder us usually assured by means of piston rings. Due to compression and exhaustion of the fuel a heat is generated within said exhaustion chamber, and consequently the temperature therein is extremely high, so that all machine components, which serve for limiting said combustion chamber are exposed to extremely high mechanic and thermic stresses.

Piston machines are also mentioned in prior art documents, wherein such machines include a piston consisting of ceramics, which however means, that merely just a front surface of the piston, which is exposed to high temperatures within a combustion chamber, is made of ceramics. Such pistons are disclosed in JP S 6093161 A (Isuzu Motors Ltd), JP S 60101247 A (Riken K ), JP S 56118538 A (Toyota Motor Co Ltd) and US4306489 A (Exxon Research Engineering Co).

The present invention refers to a piston machine. When such machine is an internal combustion engine, it comprises at least one operating cylinder with at least one smooth internal surface area, and within said cylinder a piston is tightly matching inserted, which is translatory oscillating movable to and fro in the axial direction of said cylinder along said internal surface area thereof. Said piston is in an open first end portion of said cylinder furnished with a piston rod and is pivotally around a transversal diametrical axis, which extends perpendicularly with respect to the previously mentioned longitudinal axis of the cylinder, connected with its first end portion, wherein the second portion of said piston rod is embedded on an eccentric crank shaft. The second end portion of the cylinder is closed, optionally by means of a cylinder head, and each combustion chamber of the engine in each position of said piston during its movement along said axial direction of the cylinder is defined with said internal surface area of the cylinder, the closed end portion of said cylinder as well as with a front surface of the piston. Said cylinder is in the area of said combustion chamber furnished with at least one aperture, which is sealable by means of a valve and is adapted for transporting each media towards the interior of the cylinder, as well as at least one aperture which is sealable by means of a valve and is adapted for transporting each media from the interior of the cylinder towards the exterior thereof. Moreover, such engine is optionally furnished with a suitable control assembly, which is adapted for closing and opening said apertures by means of said valves depending on each position of the piston within the cylinder.

The invention provides that said smooth internal surface area of the cylinder is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod, ended with a radially inwards protruding upper rectangular step, and on the opposite side, which is faced towards the piston rod, with a radially inwards protruding lower rectangular step. The combustion chamber within the cylinder is in a direction away from said piston rod extended by a conical chamber having a pre-determined angle of its tip, while the piston is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod, furnished with a radially outwards protruding rim, the outer diameter of which is adjusted on the one hand to the internal diameter of said smooth internal surface area of the cylinder and on the other hand also to, said steps. Said piston is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod, furnished with a radially outwards extending truncated conical protrusion having a pre-determined angle of its tip, wherein said angle on said protrusion on the piston is determined in such way that said truncated conical protrusion on the piston is insertable into said conical chamber in the cylinder. Moreover, said apertures, which are sealable by means of said valves and are suitable for transporting of media into or from said cylinder, are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area between said steps.

In one of possible embodiments said apertures for transporting media towards the interior of the cylinder and outside from said cylinder, which are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area of the cylinder between said steps are arranged in such manner, that in the first terminal position of the piston i.e. in position of compression in which its protrusion is located within the conical chamber of the cylinder, said apertures which are sealable by means of valves, are located between the rim of the piston and the lower step of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area of the cylinder, while in the second terminal position of the piston, i.e. in position of expansion, said apertures which are sealable by means of said valves are located between the rim of the piston and the upper step of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area of the cylinder. In this, said cylinder is in the area of said chamber furnished with at least one aperture serving for ignition of fuel in the area of said combustion chamber. The invention further provides a possibility, according to which said angle on the truncated conical protrusion of the piston either at least approximately corresponds to said angle on the tip of said conical chamber within the cylinder, or is smaller than said angle on the tip of said conical chamber within the cylinder.

Moreover, a fuel injection device can be mounted in the area of said fuel ignition aperture in the combustion chamber, or an ignition plug for ignition of a mixture of fuel and air is mounted in the area of a fuel ignition aperture in the combustion chamber.

In a further embodiment of the invention, an electric ignition plug for ignition of a mixture of fuel and air is mounted in at least one of said fuel ignition apertures in the combustion chamber.

In a still further embodiment of the invention, an injection nozzle into combustion chamber is mounted in at least one of said fuel ignition apertures in said combustion chamber.

Moreover, said cylinder is furnished with at least one sensor, which is located in the area of said conical chamber and is suitable for monitoring temperature within the combustion chamber, and/or at least one sensor, which is located in the area of said conical chamber and is suitable for monitoring pressure within the combustion chamber.

Said piston is furnished with a circumferential groove, which is located between its rim and its end portion, which is faced towards the piston rod.

On the other hand, such piston machine according to the invention can also be available as a piston pump or a piston compressor. In such case such piston machine comprises at least one operating cylinder with at least one smooth internal surface area, and within said cylinder there is tightly matching inserted a piston, which is translatory oscillating movable to and fro in the axial direction of said cylinder along said internal surface area thereof. Said piston is in an open first end portion of said cylinder furnished with a piston rod and is pivotally around a transversal diametrical axis, which extends perpendicularly with respect to the previously mentioned longitudinal axis of the cylinder, connected with its first end portion. The second end portion of said piston rod is embedded on an eccentric crank shaft, and the second end portion of the cylinder is closed, optionally by means of a cylinder head.

A combustion chamber of the piston machine is in each position of said piston during its movement along said axial direction of the cylinder defined with said internal surface area of the cylinder, the closed end portion of said cylinder as well as with a front surface of the piston. Said cylinder is in the area of said combustion chamber furnished with at least one aperture, which is sealable by means of a valve and is adapted for transporting each media towards the interior of the cylinder, as well as at least one aperture which is sealable by means of a valve and is adapted for transporting each media from the interior of the cylinder towards the exterior thereof. Said piston machine is furthermore optionally furnished with a suitable control assembly, which is adapted for closing and opening said apertures by means of said valves depending on each position of the piston within the cylinder. Such piston machine is characterized by that said smooth internal surface area of the cylinder is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod, ended with a radially inwards protruding upper rectangular step, and on the opposite side, which is faced towards the piston rod, with a radially inwards protmding lower rectangular step. The combustion chamber within the cylinder is in a direction away from said piston rod extended by a conical chamber having a pre-determined angle of its tip, while the piston is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod, furnished with a radially outwards protruding rim, the outer diameter of which is adjusted on the one hand to the internal diameter of said smooth internal surface area of the cylinder and on the other hand also to said steps. Moreover, said piston is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod, furnished with a radially outwards extending truncated conical protrusion having a pre-determined angle of its tip, wherein said angle on said protrusion on the piston is determined in such way that said truncated conical protrusion on the piston is insertable into said conical chamber in the cylinder. Said apertures, which are sealable by means of said valves and are suitable for transporting of media into or from said cylinder, are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area between said steps.

In one of possible embodiments of such piston machine said apertures for transporting media towards the interior of the cylinder and outside from said cylinder, which are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area of the cylinder between said steps are arranged in such manner, that in the first terminal position of the piston i.e. in position of compression in which its protrusion is located within the conical chamber of the cylinder, said apertures which are sealable by means of valves are located between the rim of the piston and the lower step of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area of the cylinder, while in the second terminal position of the piston, i.e. in position of expansion, said apertures which are sealable by means of valves are located between the rim of the piston and the upper step of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area of the cylinder.

Now the invention will be described on the basis of embodiments as presented in the enclosed drawings, wherein

Fig. 1 is a cross-section of a piston machine along its diametrical plane and the state, in which the piston is located closely to its utmost lower position i.e. proximately to the crank shaft; and

Fig. 2 is analogous cross-section of a piston machine along its diametrical plane in the state, in which the piston is located closely to its upper position i.e. at approximately the maximum distance apart from the crank shaft. The invention refers to a piston machine, which is either a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine, or a processing machine like a pump or a compressor, which is in such case powered by appropriate driving means.

When said machine is functioning as an internal combustion engine, such engine comprises at least one operating cylinder 1 with at least one smooth internal surface area 10, and within said cylinder 1 there is tightly matching inserted a piston 2, which is translatory oscillating movable to and fro in the axial direction X of said cylinder 1 along said internal surface area 10 thereof.

Said piston 2 is in an open first end portion 11 of said cylinder 1 furnished with a piston rod 3 and is pivotally around a transversal diametrical axis Y, which extends perpendicularly with respect to the previously mentioned longitudinal axis X of the cylinder 1, connected with its first end portion 31. The second end portion 32 of said piston rod 3 is embedded on an eccentric crank shaft 4. The second end portion 12 of the cylinder 1 is closed, optionally by means of a cylinder head 5. Each combustion chamber 6 of said engine in each position of said piston 2 during its movement along said axial direction X of the cylinder 1 is defined with said internal surface area 1 1 of the cylinder, the closed end portion 12 of said cylinder 1 as well as with a front surface 20 of the piston 2.

Said cylinder 1 is in the area of said combustion chamber 6 furnished with at least one aperture 151, which is scalable by means of a valve 15 and is adapted for transporting each media towards the interior of the cylinder 1, as well as at least one aperture 152, which is sealable by means of a valve 152' and is adapted for transporting each media from the interior of the cylinder 1 towards the exterior thereof.

Said engine is furthermore optionally furnished with a suitable control assembly 7, which is adapted for closing and opening said apertures 151, 152 by means of said valves 15 V, 152' with respect to each position of the piston 2 within the cylinder 1. Said smooth internal surface area 10 of the cylinder 1 is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod 3, ended with a radially inwards protruding upper rectangular step 111, and on the opposite side, which is faced towards the piston rod 3, with a radially inwards protruding lower rectangular step 1 12.

The combustion chamber 6 within the cylinder 1 is in a direction away from said piston rod 1 extended by a conical chamber 11 having a pre-determined angle a of its tip 110, while the piston 2 is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod 3, furnished with a radially outwards protruding rim 21, the outer diameter of which is adjusted on the one hand to the internal diameter of said smooth internal surface area 10 of the cylinder 1 and on the other hand also to said steps 1 1 1, 112. Moreover, said piston 2 is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod 3, furnished with a radially outwards extending truncated conical protrusion 22 having a pre-determined angle β of its tip 210, wherein said angle β on said protrusion 22 on the piston 2 is determined in such way that said truncated conical protrusion 22 on the piston 2 is insertable into said conical chamber 11 in the cylinder 1.

Said apertures 151, 152, which are sealable by means of said valves 15 , 152' and are suitable for transporting of media into or from said cylinder 1, are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area 10 between said steps 1 11, 112.

In one of possible embodiments of the invention said apertures 151, 152 for transporting media towards the interior of the cylinder 1 and outside from said cylinder 1, which are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area 10 of the cylinder 1 between said steps 1 1 1, 1 12 are arranged in such manner, that in the first terminal position of the piston 2 i.e. in position of compression in which its protrusion 21 is located within the conical chamber 11 of the cylinder 1, and said apertures 151, 152, which are sealable by means of valves 15 , 152', are located between the rim 21 of the piston 2 and the lower step 1 12 of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area position of expansion, said apertures 151, 152, which are sealable by means of valves 15 Γ, 152' are located between the rim 21) of the piston 2 and the upper step 1 1 1 of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area 10 of the cylinder 1. Said cylinder 1 is in the area of said chamber 1 1 furnished with at least one aperture 14, 14' serving for ignition of fuel in the area of said combustion chamber 6.

Said angle β on the truncated conical protrusion 21 of the piston 2 either at least approximately corresponds to said angle a on the tip 1 10 of said conical chamber 11 within the cylinder 1, or can be - like in Figs. 1 and 2 - smaller than said angle a on the tip 110 of said conical chamber 11 within the cylinder 1.

A fuel injection device can be mounted in the area of said fuel ignition aperture 14, 14' in the combustion chamber 6, in addition to which optionally also an ignition plug for ignition of a mixture of fuel and air is mounted in the area of said fuel ignition aperture (14, 14') in the combustion chamber (6).

It is also possible that only an electric ignition plug for ignition of a mixture of fuel and air can be mounted in the area of the combustion chamber 6.

When the machine is used as a diesel engine, a fuel injection nozzle is mounted in the area of said fuel ignition aperture 14, 14' in the combustion chamber 6.

Said cylinder 1 is moreover optionally furnished with at least one sensor, which is located in the area of said conical chamber 1 1 and is suitable for monitoring temperature within the combustion chamber 6 and/or with at least one sensor, which is located in the area of said conical chamber 11 and is suitable for monitoring pressure within the combustion chamber 6.

The piston 2 can be also furnished with a circumferential groove 23, which is located between its rim 21 and its end portion, which is faced towards the piston rod 3. Each displacement of a piston 2 results in movement of the piston rod 3 and consequently rotation of the crank shaft 4. By opening of one of said apertures 151, 152 and downwardly movement the piston 2 the air or optionally a mixture of fuel and air is enabled to enter the combustion chamber 6, upon which the piston 2 starts moving upwards, by which the air or the mixture of fuel and air is compressed, upon which either due the compression itself and injected fuel or by means of an ignition plug combustion of such compressed mixture of the fuel and air is initiated, which results to displacement of the piston 2 towards the crank shaft 4, by which also each generated exhaust gases are allowed to flow exit the combustion chamber through the residual aperture 151, 152 towards the exhausting manifold, which is as such not shown in the drawings. Upon that, the described sequence of strokes is repeated.

When the piston machine is operating as a processing machine like a piston pump or a piston compressor, then such machine comprises at least one operating cylinder 1 with at least one smooth internal surface area 10, and within said cylinder 1 there is tightly matching inserted a piston 2, which is translatory oscillating movable to and fro in the axial direction X of said cylinder 1 along said internal surface area 10 thereof. Also in such case said piston 2 is in an open first end portion 11 of said cylinder 1 furnished with a piston rod 3 and is pivotally around a transversal diametrical axis Y, which extends perpendicularly with respect to the previously mentioned longitudinal axis X of the cylinder 1, connected with its first end portion 31, wherein the second end portion 32 of said piston rod 3 is embedded on an eccentric crank shaft 4, and wherein the second end portion 12 of the cylinder 1 is closed, optionally by means of a cylinder head 5. Each combustion chamber 6 of the piston machine is in each position of said piston 2 during its movement along said axial direction X of the cylinder 1 defined with said internal surface area 1 1 of the cylinder, the closed end portion 12 of said cylinder 1 as well as with a front surface 20 of the piston 2. Said cylinder 1 is in the area of said combustion chamber 6 furnished with at least one aperture 151 , which is sealable by means of a valve 151 ' and is adapted for transporting each media towards the interior of the cylinder 1, as well as at least one aperture 152 which is sealable by means of a valve 152' and is adapted for transporting each media from the interior of the cylinder 1 towards the exterior thereof. Said piston machine is furthermore optionally furnished with a suitable control assembly 7, which is adapted for closing and opening said apertures 151, 152 by means of said valves 15 , 152', depending on each position of the piston 2 within the cylinder 1.

Said smooth internal surface area 10 of the cylinder 1 is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod 3, ended with a radially inwards protruding upper rectangular step 111, and on the opposite side, which is faced towards the piston rod 3, with a radially inwards protruding lower rectangular step 1 12. The combustion chamber 6 within the cylinder 1 is in a direction away from said piston rod 1 extended by a conical chamber 11 having a pre-determined angle a of its tip 110, while the piston 2 is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod 3, furnished with a radially outwards protruding rim 21, the outer diameter of which is adjusted on the one hand to the internal diameter of said smooth internal surface area 10 of the cylinder 1 and on the other hand also to said steps 111, 112. Said piston 2 is on its side, which is faced away from the piston rod 3, furnished with a radially outwards extending truncated conical protrusion 22 having a pre-determined angle β of its tip 210, wherein said angle β on said protrusion 22 on the piston 2 is determined in such way that said truncated conical protrusion 22 on the piston 2 is insertable into said conical chamber 11 in the cylinder 1.

In one of possible embodiments said apertures 151, 152* which are sealable by means of said valves 15 , 152' and are suitable for transporting of media into or from said cylinder 1, are arranged in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area 10 between said steps 1 1 1, 112.

In another possible embodiment of the invention said apertures 151, 152 for transporting media towards the interior of the cylinder 1 and outside from said cylinder 1, which are located in the area of said smooth cylindrical internal surface area 10 of the cylinder 1 between said steps 1 1 1, 112, can also be arranged in such manner, that in the first terminal position of the piston 2 i.e. in position of compression in which its protrusion 21 is located within the conical chamber 1 1 of the cylinder 1, said apertures 151, 152 which are sealable by means of valves 15 Γ, 152' are located between the rim 21 of, the piston 2 and the lower step (112) of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area 10 of the cylinder 1, while in the second terminal position of the piston 2, i.e. in the position of expansion, said apertures 151, 152, which are sealable by means of valves 15 , 152', are located between the rim 21 of the piston 2 and the upper step 11 1 of the smooth cylindrical internal surface area 10 of the cylinder 1.

Oscillation of the piston 2 is performed by means of displacing the piston rod 3 thanks to rotation of the crank shaft 4 by means of appropriate driving means, which is not shown in the drawings. By downwardly displacement of the piston 2 and releasing one of said apertures 151, 152 each media is allowed to enter into the chamber 6, upon which by displacement of the piston 2 in opposite direction said media is compressed and then exported through another aperture 151, 152.