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Title:
PLANARIZATION METHODS FOR PACKAGING SUBSTRATES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/256932
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Embodiments of the present disclosure generally relate to planarization of surfaces on substrates and on layers formed on substrates. More specifically, embodiments of the present disclosure relate to planarization of surfaces on substrates for advanced packaging applications, such as surfaces of polymeric material layers. In one implementation, the method includes mechanically grinding a substrate surface against a polishing surface in the presence of a grinding slurry during a first polishing process to remove a portion of a material formed on the substrate; and then chemically mechanically polishing the substrate surface against the polishing surface in the presence of a polishing slurry during a second polishing process to reduce any roughness or unevenness caused by the first polishing process.

Inventors:
CHEN, Han-Wen (US)
VERHAVERBEKE, Steven (US)
CHAKRABORTY, Tapash (IN)
LIANTO, Prayudi (US)
GORADIA, Prerna Sonthalia (IN)
SEE, Guan Huei (US)
PARK, Giback (US)
BUCH, Chintan (US)
GAN, Pin Gian (US)
HUNG, Alex (US)
Application Number:
US2020/035778
Publication Date:
December 24, 2020
Filing Date:
June 02, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
APPLIED MATERIALS, INC. (US)
International Classes:
B24B37/04; C09G1/02; C09K3/14; H01L21/3105; H01L21/56
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PATTERSON, B. Todd et al. (US)
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Claims:
Claims:

1. A method for planarization of a substrate, the method comprising:

positioning a substrate in a polishing apparatus, the substrate comprising a polymeric material;

exposing a substrate surface to a first polishing process, the first polishing process comprising:

delivering a grinding slurry to a polishing pad of the polishing apparatus, the grinding slurry comprising:

a first plurality of colloidal particles having a grit size between about 1.2 pm and about 53 pm;

a non-ionic polymer dispersion agent; and

an aqueous solvent; and

exposing the substrate surface to a second polishing process, the second polishing process comprising:

delivering a polishing slurry to the polishing pad of the polishing apparatus, the polishing slurry comprising:

a second plurality of colloidal particles having a grit size between about 25 nm and about 500 nm.

2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the first plurality of colloidal particles comprises a material selected from the group consisting of silica, alumina, ceria, ferric oxide, zirconia, diamond, boron nitride, titania, and silicon carbide.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein a weight percentage of the first plurality of colloidal particles in the grinding slurry is between about 2% and about 20%.

4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the non-ionic polymer dispersion agent is selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, glycerin, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, and polyvinylpyrrolidone.

5. The method of claim 4, wherein the non-ionic polymer dispersion agent is mixed with the aqueous solvent in a ratio between about 1 :1 and about 1 :4 v/v dispersion aaenhaaueous solvent

6. The method of claim 1 , wherein the polymeric material is selected from the group consisting of polyimide, polyamide, parylene, and silicone.

7. The method of claim 1 , wherein the second plurality of colloidal particles have a grit size between about 25 nm and about 250 nm.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the second plurality of colloidal particles comprises a material selected from the group consisting of silica, alumina, ceria, ferric oxide, zirconia, titania, and silicon carbide.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the second plurality of colloidal particles are formed from a different material than the material of the first plurality of colloidal particles.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein a weight percentage of the second plurality of colloidal particles in the polishing slurry is between about 1 % and about 25%.

1 1 . The method of claim 10, wherein the polishing slurry further comprises one or more of water, alumina, and potassium hydroxide.

12. A method for planarization of a substrate, the method comprising:

exposing a substrate to a first polishing process, the first polishing process comprising:

polishing the substrate with a grinding slurry, the grinding slurry comprising a first plurality of colloidal particles having a grit size between about 1 pm and about 55 pm;

exposing the substrate surface to a second polishing process, the second polishing process comprising:

polishing the substrate with a polishing slurry, the polishing slurry comprising a second plurality of colloidal particles having a grit size between about 20 nm and about 500 nm.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the first plurality of colloidal particles comprises a material selected from the group consisting of silica, alumina, ceria, ferric oxide, zirconia, diamond, boron nitride, titania, and silicon carbide.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein a weight percentage of the first plurality of colloidal particles in the grinding slurry is between about 2% and about 20%.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the grinding slurry further comprises a non-ionic polymer dispersion agent selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, glycerin, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, and polyvinylpyrrolidone.

16. The method of claim 13, wherein the second plurality of colloidal particles comprises a material selected from the group consisting of silica, alumina, ceria, ferric oxide, zirconia, diamond, boron nitride, titania, and silicon carbide.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein the second plurality of colloidal particles comprises a different material than the material of the first plurality of colloidal particles.

18. The method of claim 12, wherein a weight percentage of the second plurality of colloidal particles in the polishing slurry is between about 1 % and about 25%.

19. The method of claim 12, wherein the substrate is a polymeric substrate comprising polyimide, polyamide, parylene, or silicone.

20. A method for planarization of a substrate, the method comprising:

positioning a substrate in a polishing apparatus, the substrate comprising a polymeric material selected from the group consisting of polyimide, polyamide, parylene, and silicone;

exposing a substrate surface to a first polishing process, the first polishing process comprising:

delivering a grinding slurry to a polishing pad of the polishing apparatus, the polishing pad pressed against the substrate surface and rotated at a velocity between about 50 rotations per minute and about 100 rotations per minute, the grinding slurry comprising: a first plurality of colloidal particles having a grit size between about 1.2 pm and about 20 pm and a weight percentage between about 2% and about 20%;

a non-ionic polymer dispersion agent selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, glycerin, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, and polyvinylpyrrolidone; and

an aqueous solvent;

exposing the substrate surface to a second polishing process, the second polishing process comprising:

delivering a polishing slurry to the polishing pad of the polishing apparatus, the polishing slurry comprising:

a second plurality of colloidal particles having a grit size between about 25 nm and about 200 nm and a weight percentage between about 1 % and about 25%; and

recycling the first and second pluralities of colloidal particles to reform the grind slurry and the polishing slurry.

Description:
PLANARIZATION METHODS FOR PACKAGING SUBSTRATES

BACKGROUND

Field

[0001] Embodiments of the present disclosure generally relate to planarization of surfaces on substrates and on layers formed on substrates. More specifically, embodiments of the present disclosure relate to planarization of surfaces on substrates for advanced packaging applications.

Description of the Related Art

[0002] Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is one process commonly used in the manufacture of high-density integrated circuits to planarize or polish a layer of material deposited on a substrate. Chemical mechanical planarization and polishing are useful in removing undesired surface topography and surface defects, such as rough surfaces, agglomerated materials, crystal lattice damage, scratches, and contaminated layers or materials. Chemical mechanical planarization is also useful in forming features on a substrate by removing excess material deposited to fill the features, and to provide an even surface for subsequent patterning operations.

[0003] In conventional CMP techniques, a substrate carrier or polishing head mounted on a carrier assembly positions a substrate secured therein in contact with a polishing pad mounted on a platen in a CMP apparatus. The carrier assembly provides a controllable load, i.e. , pressure, on the substrate to urge the substrate against the polishing pad. An external driving force moves the polishing pad relative to the substrate. Thus, the CMP apparatus creates polishing or rubbing movement between the surface of the substrate and the polishing pad while dispersing a polishing composition, or slurry, to affect both chemical activity and mechanical activity.

[0004] Recently, polymeric materials have been increasingly used as material layers in the fabrication of integrated circuit chips due to the versatility of polymers for many advanced packaging applications. However, conventional CMP techniques are inefficient for polymeric material planarization due to the reduced removal rates associated with polymer chemistries. Thus, planarization of polymeric material layers becomes a limiting factor in the fabrication of advanced packaging structures.

[0005] Therefore, there is a need in the art for a method and apparatus for improved planarization of polymeric material surfaces.

SUMMARY

[0006] Embodiments of the present disclosure generally relate to planarization of surfaces on substrates and on layers formed on substrates. More specifically, embodiments of the present disclosure relate to planarization of surfaces on substrates for advanced packaging applications, such as surfaces of polymeric material layers.

[0007] In one embodiment, a method of substrate planarization is provided. The method includes positioning a substrate formed of a polymeric material into a polishing apparatus. A surface of the substrate is exposed to a first polishing process in which a grinding slurry is delivered to a polishing pad of a polishing apparatus. The grinding slurry includes colloidal particles having a grit size between about 1 .2 pm and about 53 pm, a non-ionic polymer dispersion agent, and an aqueous solvent. The substrate surface is then exposed to a second polishing process in which a polishing slurry is delivered to the polishing pad of the polishing apparatus. The polishing slurry includes colloidal particles having a grit size between about 25 nm and about 500 nm.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0008] So that the manner in which the above-recited features of the present disclosure can be understood in detail, a more particular description of the implementations, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to implementations, some of which are illustrated in the appended drawings. It is to be noted, however, that the appended drawings illustrate only typical implementations of this disclosure and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, for the disclosure may admit to other equally effective implementations. [0009] Figure 1 illustrates a schematic sectional view of a polishing apparatus, according to an embodiment described herein.

[0010] Figure 2 illustrates a flow diagram of a process for substrate surface planarization, according to an embodiment described herein.

[0011] To facilitate understanding, identical reference numerals have been used, where possible, to designate identical elements that are common to the figures. It is contemplated that elements and features of one implementation may be beneficially incorporated in other implementations without further recitation.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0012] Embodiments of the present disclosure generally relate to planarization of surfaces on substrates and on layers formed on substrates. More specifically, embodiments of the present disclosure relate to planarization of surfaces on substrates for advanced packaging applications, such as surfaces of polymeric material layers. In one implementation, the method includes mechanically grinding a substrate surface against a polishing surface in the presence of a grinding slurry during a first polishing process to remove a portion of a material formed on the substrate; and then chemically mechanically polishing the substrate surface against the polishing surface in the presence of a polishing slurry during a second polishing process to reduce any roughness or unevenness caused by the first polishing process.

[0013] Certain details are set forth in the following description and in Figures 1 and 2 to provide a thorough understanding of various implementations of the disclosure. Other details describing well-known structures and systems often associated with substrate planarization and polishing are not set forth in the following disclosure to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the description of the various implementations.

[0014] Many of the details, dimensions, angles and other features shown in the Figures are merely illustrative of particular embodiments. Accordingly, other embodiments can have other details, components, dimensions, angles and features without departing from the spirit or scope of the present disclosure. In addition, further embodiments of the disclosure can be practiced without several of the details described below.

[0015] Embodiments described herein will be described below in reference to a planarization process that can be carried out using a chemical mechanical polishing system, such as a REFLEXION ® , REFLEXION® LK™, REFLEXION® LK Prime™, and MIRRA MESA ® polishing system available from Applied Materials, Inc. of Santa Clara, California. Other tools capable of performing planarization and polishing processes may also be adapted to benefit from the implementations described herein. In addition, any system enabling the planarization processes described herein can be used to advantage. The apparatus description described herein is illustrative and should not be construed or interpreted as limiting the scope of the embodiments described herein.

[0016] Figure 1 illustrates an exemplary chemical mechanical polishing apparatus 100 that may be used to planarize a material layer for advanced packaging applications, such as a polymeric substrate 1 10. Typically, a polishing pad 105 is secured to a platen 102 of the polishing apparatus 100 using an adhesive, such as a pressure sensitive adhesive, disposed between the polishing pad 105 and the platen 102. A substrate carrier 108, facing the platen 102 and the polishing pad 105 mounted thereon, includes a flexible diaphragm 1 1 1 configured to impose different pressures against different regions of the substrate 1 10 while urging the substrate 1 10 to be polished against a polishing surface of the polishing pad 105. The substrate carrier 108 further includes a carrier ring 109 surrounding the substrate 1 10.

[0017] During polishing, a downforce on the carrier ring 109 urges the carrier ring 109 against the polishing pad 105, thus preventing the substrate 1 10 from slipping from the substrate carrier 108. The substrate carrier 108 rotates about a carrier axis 1 14 while the flexible diaphragm 21 1 urges a desired surface of the substrate 1 10 against the polishing surface of the polishing pad 105. The platen 102 rotates about a platen axis 104 in an opposite rotational direction from the rotation direction of the substrate carrier 108 while the substrate carrier 108 sweeps back and forth from a center region of the platen 102 to an outer diameter of the platen 102 to, in part, reduce uneven wear of the polishing pad 105. As illustrated in Figure 1 , the platen 102 and the polishing pad 105 have a surface area that is greater than a surface area of the surface of the substrate 1 10 to be polished. However, in some polishing systems, the polishing pad 105 has a surface area that is less than the surface area of the surface of the substrate 1 10 to be polished. An endpoint detection system 130 directs light towards the substrate 1 10 through a platen opening 122 and further through an optically transparent window feature 106 of the polishing pad 105 disposed over the platen opening 122.

[0018] During polishing, a fluid 1 16 is introduced to the polishing pad 105 through a fluid dispenser 1 18 positioned over the platen 102. Typically, the fluid 1 16 is a polishing fluid, a polishing or grinding slurry, a cleaning fluid, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the fluid 1 16 is a polishing fluid comprising a pH adjuster and/or chemically active components, such as an oxidizing agent, to enable chemical mechanical polishing and planarization of the material surface of the substrate 1 10 in conjunction with the abrasives of the polishing pad 105.

[0019] Figure 2 is a flow diagram of a process 200 for planarizing a surface of a substrate, according to an embodiment described herein. The process 200 begins at operation 210 by positioning the substrate into a polishing apparatus, such as the polishing apparatus 100. Although described and depicted as a single layer, the substrate may include one or more material layers and/or structures formed thereon. For example, the substrate may include one or more metal layers, one or more dielectric layers, one or more interconnection structures, one or more redistribution structures, and/or other suitable layers and/or structures.

[0020] In one example, the substrate comprises a silicon material such as crystalline silicon (e.g., Si<100> or Si<1 1 1 >), silicon oxide, strained silicon, silicon germanium, doped or undoped polysilicon, doped or undoped silicon wafers, patterned or non- patterned wafers, silicon on insulator (SOI), carbon doped silicon oxides, silicon nitride, doped silicon, and other suitable silicon materials. In one example, the substrate comprises a polymeric material such as polyimide, polyamide, parylene, silicone, epoxy, glass fiber-reinforced epoxy molding compound, epoxy resin with ceramic particles disposed therein, and other suitable polymeric materials. [0021] Further, the substrate may have various morphologies and dimensions. In one embodiment, the substrate is a circular substrate having a diameter between about 50 mm and about 500 mm, such as between about 100 mm and about 400 mm. For example, the substrate is a circular substrate having a diameter between about 150 mm and about 350 mm, such as between about 200 mm and about 300 mm. In some embodiments, the circular substrate has a diameter of about 200 mm, about 300 mm, or about 301 mm. In another example, the substrate is a polygonal substrate having a width between about 50 mm and about 650 mm, such as between about 100 mm and about 600 mm. For example, the substrate is a polygonal substrate having a width between about 200 mm and about 500 mm, such as between about 300 mm and about 400 mm. In some embodiments, the substrate has a panel shape with lateral dimensions up to about 500 mm and a thickness up to about 1 mm. In one embodiment, the substrate has a thickness between about 0.5 mm and about 1.5 mm. For example, the substrate is a circular substrate having a thickness between about 0.7 mm and about 1.4 mm, such as between about 1 mm and about 1.2 mm, such as about 1.1 mm. Other morphologies and dimensions are also contemplated.

[0022] At operation 220, the surface of the substrate to be planarized is exposed to a first polishing process in the polishing apparatus. The first polishing process is utilized to remove a desired thickness of material from the substrate. In one embodiment, the first polishing process is a mechanical grinding process utilizing a grinding slurry supplied to a polishing pad of the polishing apparatus. The grinding slurry includes colloidal particles dispersed in a solution comprising a dispersion agent. In one embodiment, the colloidal particles utilized in the grinding slurry are formed from an abrasive material such as silica (S1O2), alumina (AL2O3), ceria (CeC ), ferric oxide (Fe203), zirconia (ZrC ), diamond (C), boron nitride (BN), and titania (TiC ). In one embodiment, the colloidal particles are formed from silicon carbide (SiC).

[0023] The colloidal particles utilized for the first polishing process range in grit size from about 1 pm to about 55 pm, such as between about 1.2 pm and about 53 pm. For example, the colloidal particles have a grit size between about 1.2 pm and about 50 pm; between about 1.2 pm and about 40 pm; between about 1.2 pm and about 30 pm; between about 1 .2 m and about 20 pm; between about 1 .2 pm and about 10 pm; between about 5 pm and about 50 pm; between about 5 pm and about 40 pm; between about 5 pm and about 30 pm; between about 5 pm and about 20 pm; between about 5 pm and about 15 pm; between about 10 pm and about 55 pm; between about 20 pm and about 55 pm; between about 30 pm and about 55 pm; between about 40 pm and about 55 pm; between about 50 pm and about 55 pm. Increasing the grit size of the colloidal particles dispersed in the grinding slurry may increase the rate at which material may be removed from the substrate during the mechanical grinding process.

[0024] A weight percentage of the colloidal particles in the grinding slurry ranges from about 1 % to about 25%, such as between about 2% and about 20%. For example, the weight percentage of the colloidal particles in the grinding slurry ranges from about 5% to about 15%; from about 6% to about 14%; from about 7% to about 13%; from about 8% to about 12%; from about 9% to about 1 1 %. In one embodiment, the weight percentage of the colloidal particles in the grinding slurry is about 10%.

[0025] The dispersion agent in the grinding slurry is selected to increase the grinding efficiency of the colloidal particles. In one embodiment, the dispersion agent is a non ionic polymer dispersant, including but not limited to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), ethylene glycol (EG), glycerin, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). In one example, the dispersion agent is PEG with a molecular weight up to 2000. For example, the dispersion agent may be PEG 200, PEG 400, PEG 600, PEG 800, PEG 1000, PEG 1500, or PEG 2000. The dispersion agent is mixed with water or an aqueous solvent comprising water in a ratio between about 1 : 1 volume/volume (v/v) and about 1 :4 (v/v) dispersion agentwater or aqueous solvent. For example, the dispersion agent is mixed with water or an aqueous solvent in a ratio of about 1 :2 (v/v) dispersion agentwater or aqueous solvent.

[0026] In some embodiments, the grinding slurry further includes a pH adjustor, such as potassium hydroxide (KOFI), tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAFI), ammonium hydroxide (NFUOFI), nitric acid (FINO3) or the like. The pH of the grinding slurry can be adjusted to a desired level by the addition of one or more pH adjustors. [0027] During the first polishing process, the substrate surface and the polishing pad, such as polishing pad 105, are contacted at a pressure less than about 15 pounds per square inch (psi). Removal of a desired thickness of material from the substrate may be performed with a mechanical grinding process having a pressure of about 10 psi or less, for example, from about 1 psi to about 10 psi. In one aspect of the process, the substrate surface and polishing pad are contacted at a pressure between about 3 psi and about 10 psi, such as between about 5 psi and about 10 psi. Increasing the pressure at which the polishing pad and substrate surface contact generally increases the rate at which material may be removed from the substrate during the first polishing process.

[0028] In one embodiment, the platen is rotated at a velocity from about 50 rotations per minute (rpm) to about 100 rpm, and the substrate carrier is rotated at a velocity from about 50 rpm to about 100 rpm. In one aspect of the process, the platen is rotated at a velocity between about 70 rpm and about 90 rpm and the substrate carrier is rotated at a velocity between about 70 rpm and about 90 rpm.

[0029] Mechanical grinding of the substrate during the first polishing process as described above can achieve an improved removal rate of substrate material compared to conventional planarization and polishing process. For example, a removal rate of polyimide material of between about 6 pm/min and about 10 pm/min can be achieved. In another example, a removal rate of epoxy material of between about 6 pm/min and about 12 pm/min can be achieved. In yet another example, a removal rate of silicon material of between about 4 pm/min and about 6 pm/min can be achieved.

[0030] After completion of the first polishing process, the surface of the substrate, now having a reduced thickness, is exposed to a second polishing process in the same polishing apparatus at operation 230. The second polishing process is utilized to reduce any roughness or unevenness caused by the first polishing process. In one embodiment, the second polishing process is a CMP process utilizing a polishing slurry having finer colloidal particles than described with reference to the mechanical grinding process.

[0031] In one embodiment, the colloidal particles utilized for the second polishing process range in grit size from about 20 nm to about 500 nm, such as between about 25 nm and about 300 nm. For example, the colloidal particles have a grit size between about 25 nm and about 250 nm; between about 25 nm and about 200 nm; between about 25 nm and about 150 nm; between about 25 nm and about 100 nm; between about 25 nm and about 75 nm; between about 25 nm and about 50 nm; between about 100 nm and about 300 nm; between about 100 nm and about 250 nm; between about 100 nm and about 225 nm; between about 100 nm and about 200 nm; between about 100 nm and about 175 nm; between about 100 nm and about 150 nm; between about 100 nm and about 125 nm; between about 150 nm and about 250 nm; between about 150 nm and about 250 nm; between about 150 and about 225 nm; between about 150 nm and about 200 nm; between about 150 nm and about 175 nm. Increasing the grit size of the colloidal particles dispersed in the polishing slurry generally increases the rate at which material may be removed from the substrate during the second polishing process.

[0032] The colloidal particles utilized in the polishing slurry are formed from Si02, AL2O3, Ce02, Fe203, Zr02, C, BN, T1O2, SiC, or the like. In one embodiment, the colloidal particles utilized in the polishing slurry are formed from the same material as the colloidal particles in the grinding slurry. In another embodiment, the colloidal particles utilized in the polishing slurry are formed from a different material than the colloidal particles in the grinding slurry.

[0033] A weight percentage of the colloidal particles in the polishing slurry ranges from about 1 % to about 30%, such as between about 1 % and about 25%. For example, the weight percentage of the colloidal particles in the grinding slurry ranges from about 1 % to about 15%; from about 1 % to about 10%; from about 1 % to about 5%; from about 10% to about 30%; from about 10% to about 25%.

[0034] In some embodiments, the colloidal particles are dispersed in a solution including water, alumina (AI2O3), KOFI, or the like. The polishing slurry may have a pFH in a range of about 4 to about 10, such as between about 5 and about 10. For example, the polishing slurry has a pFH in a range of about 7 to about 10, such as about 9. One or more pH adjustors may be added to the polishing slurry to adjust the pH of the polishing slurry to a desired level. For example, the pH of the polishing slurry may be adjusted by the addition of TMAH, NH 4 OH, HNOs, or the like. [0035] During the second polishing process, the substrate surface and the polishing pad are contacted at a pressure less than about 15 psi. Smoothening of the substrate surface may be performed with a second polishing process having a pressure of about 10 psi or less, for example, from about 2 psi to about 10 psi. In one aspect of the process, the substrate surface and polishing pad are contacted at a pressure between about 3 psi and about 10 psi, such as between about 5 psi and about 10 psi.

[0036] In one embodiment, the platen is rotated during the second polishing process at a velocity from about 50 rpm to about 100 rpm, and the substrate carrier is rotated at a velocity from about 50 rpm to about 100 rpm. In one aspect of the process, the platen is rotated at a velocity between about 70 rpm and about 90 rpm and the substrate carrier is rotated at a velocity between about 70 rpm and about 90 rpm.

[0037] After the first and/or second polishing processes, the used slurries may be processed through a slurry management and recovery system for subsequent reuse. For example, the polishing apparatus may include a slurry recovery drain disposed below the polishing platen, such as platen 102. The slurry recovery drain may be fluidly coupled to a slurry recovery tank having one or more filters to separate reusable colloidal particles from the used grinding and polishing slurries based on size. Separated colloidal particles may then be washed and reintroduced into a fresh batch of slurry for further polishing processes.

[0038] The polishing and grinding slurries may be constantly circulated or agitated within the slurry management and recovery system. Constant circulation or agitation of the slurries prevents settling of the colloidal particles and maintains substantially uniform dispersion of the colloidal particles in the slurries. In one example, the slurry management and recovery system includes one or more vortex pumps to pump the slurries throughout the system. The open and spherical pumping channels reduce the risk of the colloidal particles clogging the pumps, thus enabling efficient circulation of the slurries within the slurry management and recovery system. In a further example, the slurry management and recovery system includes one or more slurry containment tanks having mixing apparatuses configured to constantly agitate stored slurries. [0039] It has been observed that substrates planarized by the processes described herein have exhibited reduced topographical defects, improved profile uniformity, improved planarity, and improved substrate finish. Furthermore, the processes described herein provide improved removal rates of various materials utilized with substrates for advanced packaging applications, such as polymeric materials.

[0040] While the foregoing is directed to implementations of the present disclosure, other and further implementations of the disclosure may be devised without departing from the basic scope thereof, and the scope thereof is determined by the claims that follow.