Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
PLANTS HAVING INCREASED TOLERANCE TO HERBICIDES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/019860
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention refers to a method for controlling undesired vegetation at a plant cultivation site, the method comprising the steps of providing, at said site, a plant that comprises at least one nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) which is resistant or tolerant to a PPO-inhibiting herbicide by applying to said site an effective amount of said herbicide. The invention further refers to plants comprising wild-type or mutated PPO enzymes, and methods of obtaining such plants.

Inventors:
APONTE, Raphael (Carl Bosch Str. 86, Ludwigshafen, 67063, DE)
TRESCH, Stefan (Schlossstr. 119, Neustadt Hambach, 67434, DE)
PARRA RAPADO, Liliana (Walther- Blumenstock- Str. 22, Offenburg, 77654, DE)
SEISER, Tobias (Feldbergstr. 18, Mannheim, 68163, DE)
PAULIK, Jill M (215 King George Loop, Cary, 27511, US)
WITSCHEL, Matthias (Hoehenweg 12b, Bad Duerkheim, 67098, DE)
Application Number:
EP2017/068817
Publication Date:
February 01, 2018
Filing Date:
July 26, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
BASF AGRO B.V. (Groningensingel 1, 6835 EA Arnhem, 6835 EA, NL)
International Classes:
C07D405/12; A01N43/40; C12N15/82
Domestic Patent References:
WO2016120116A12016-08-04
WO1995002580A21995-01-26
WO2015022636A22015-02-19
WO2013189984A22013-12-27
WO2012080975A12012-06-21
WO2007024739A22007-03-01
WO2012080975A12012-06-21
WO2013189984A22013-12-27
WO2015022636A22015-02-19
WO2015092706A12015-06-25
WO2015022640A22015-02-19
WO2007000077A12007-01-04
WO1994011516A11994-05-26
WO2002068607A22002-09-06
WO2008141154A22008-11-20
WO2005107437A22005-11-17
WO2006024820A12006-03-09
WO2006037945A12006-04-13
WO2007071900A12007-06-28
WO2007096576A12007-08-30
WO1993022443A11993-11-11
WO2000015815A12000-03-23
WO2002015701A22002-02-28
WO1993007278A11993-04-15
WO1995034656A11995-12-21
WO2003018810A22003-03-06
WO2003052073A22003-06-26
WO1999043838A11999-09-02
WO1993007256A11993-04-15
WO2006136596A22006-12-28
WO2008124495A22008-10-16
Foreign References:
EP0242236A11987-10-21
EP0337899A11989-10-18
EP0293356A11988-11-30
US5767373A1998-06-16
US5939602A1999-08-17
US20100100988A12010-04-22
US5366892A1994-11-22
US5747450A1998-05-05
US5737514A1998-04-07
US5723756A1998-03-03
US5593881A1997-01-14
US5981722A1999-11-09
US5792931A1998-08-11
US4940935A1990-07-10
US5188642A1993-02-23
US20070004912A12007-01-04
US20050246798A12005-11-03
US20050060767A12005-03-17
US5561236A1996-10-01
US5276268A1994-01-04
US15624708A2008-05-30
US6380465B12002-04-30
US6121512A2000-09-19
US5349127A1994-09-20
US6649814B22003-11-18
US6300544B12001-10-09
US6232529B12001-05-15
US5952544A1999-09-14
US5602321A1997-02-11
US5565350A1996-10-15
EP1198985A12002-04-24
US5773702A1998-06-30
US5859348A1999-01-12
EP0374753A21990-06-27
EP0427529A11991-05-15
EP0451878A11991-10-16
US5380831A1995-01-10
US5436391A1995-07-25
US5424412A1995-06-13
US5593874A1997-01-14
US6072050A2000-06-06
US5659026A1997-08-19
US5608149A1997-03-04
US5608144A1997-03-04
US5604121A1997-02-18
US5569597A1996-10-29
US5466785A1995-11-14
US5399680A1995-03-21
US5268463A1993-12-07
US5608142A1997-03-04
US6177611B12001-01-23
EP0424047A11991-04-24
US5322783A1994-06-21
EP0397687A11990-11-22
US5376543A1994-12-27
US5169770A1992-12-08
US5990387A1999-11-23
EP2009063387W2009-10-14
EP2009063386W2009-10-14
US20090049567A12009-02-19
US6653529B22003-11-25
US6027945A2000-02-22
US6368800B12002-04-09
Other References:
MATRINGE ET AL., BIOCHEM., vol. 1. 260, 1989, pages 231
DUKE ET AL., WEED SCI., vol. 39, 1991, pages 465
NANDIHALLI ET AL., PESTICIDE BIOCHEM. PHYSIOL., vol. 43, 1992, pages 193
MATRINGE ET AL., FEBS LETT., vol. 245, 1989, pages 35
YANASE; ANDOH, PESTICIDE BIOCHEM. PHYSIOL., vol. 35, 1989, pages 70
LEE ET AL., PLANT PHYSIOL., vol. 102, 1993, pages 881
SASARMEN ET AL., CAN. J. MICROBIOL., vol. 39, 1993, pages 1155
DAILEY ET AL., J. BIOL. CHEM., vol. 269, 1994, pages 813
KATAOKA ET AL., J. PESTICIDE SCI., vol. 15, 1990, pages 449
SHIBATA ET AL.: "Research in Photosynthesis", vol. III, 1992, KLUWER, pages: 567 - 70
OSHIO ET AL., Z. NATURFORSCH., vol. 48c, 1993, pages 339
SATO ET AL.: "ACS Symposium on Porphyric Pesticides", 1994, ACS PRESS
CHE ET AL., Z. NATURFORSCH., vol. 48c, 1993, pages 350
PADGETTE S. R. ET AL., J.BIOL. CHEM., vol. 266, 1991, pages 33
WALSH; HEADON: "Protein Biotechnology", 1994, WILEY
GEISER ET AL., GENE, vol. 48, 1986, pages 109
VAN DAMME ET AL., PLANT MOL. BIOL., vol. 24, 1994, pages 825
JONES ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 266, 1994, pages 789
MARTIN ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 262, 1993, pages 1432
MINDRINOS ET AL., CELL, vol. 78, 1994, pages 1089
CASTLE ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 304, 2004, pages 1151 - 1154
SCHUBERT ET AL., J. BACTERIOL., vol. 170, 1988, pages 5837 - 5847
"Farm Chemicals Handbook 2000", vol. 86, 2000, MEISTER PUBLISHING COMPANY, article "The Compendium of Pesticide Common Names"
B. HOCK; C. FEDTKE; R. R. SCHMIDT: "Herbizide [Herbicides", 1995, GEORG THIEME VERLAG
W. H. AHRENS: "Herbicide Handbook, 7th ed.", 1994, WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA
K. K. HATZIOS: "Herbicide Handbook, Supplement for the 7th edition", 1998, WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA
CREIGHTON: "Proteins", 1984, W.H. FREEMAN AND COMPANY
TERPE, APPL. MICROBIOL. BIOTECHNOL., vol. 60, 2003, pages 523 - 533
SCHULTZ ET AL., PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA, vol. 95, 1998, pages 5857 - 5864
LETUNIC ET AL., NUCLEIC ACIDS RES, vol. 30, 2002, pages 242 - 244
MULDER ET AL., NUCL. ACIDS. RES., vol. 31, 2003, pages 315 - 318
ALTMAN R., BRUTLAG D., KARP P., LATHROP R., SEARLS D.: "ISMB-94; Proceedings 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology", 1994, AAAI PRESS, article BUCHER; BAIROCH: "A generalized profile syntax for biomolecular sequences motifs and its function in automatic sequence interpretation", pages: 53 - 61, XP000886490
HULO ET AL., NUCL. ACIDS. RES., vol. 32, 2004, pages D134 - D137
BATEMAN ET AL., NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, vol. 30, no. 1, 2002, pages 276 - 280
GASTEIGER ET AL.: "ExPASy: the proteomics server for in-depth protein knowledge and analysis", NUCLEIC ACIDS RES., vol. 31, 2003, pages 3784 - 3788
NEEDLEMAN; WUNSCH, J MOL BIOL, vol. 48, 1970, pages 443 - 453
ALTSCHUL ET AL., J MOL BIOL, vol. 215, 1990, pages 403 - 10
CAMPANELLA ET AL., BMC BIOINFORMATICS, vol. 4, 10 July 2003 (2003-07-10), pages 29
SMITH TF; WATERMAN MS, J. MOL. BIOL, vol. 147, no. 1, 1981, pages 195 - 7
SCHENK ET AL., BIOSPEKTRUM, March 2006 (2006-03-01), pages 277 - 279
BUCHMAN; BERG, CELL BIOL., vol. 8, 1988, pages 4395 - 4405
CALLIS ET AL., GENES DEV, vol. 1, 1987, pages 1183 - 1200
FREELING AND WALBOT: "The Maize Handbook", 1994, SPRINGER, article "Chapter 116"
KRENS, F.A. ET AL., NATURE, vol. 296, 1982, pages 72 - 74
NEGRUTIU I ET AL., PLANT MOL BIOL, vol. 8, 1987, pages 363 - 373
SHILLITO R.D. ET AL., BIO/TECHNOL, vol. 3, 1985, pages 1099 - 1102
CROSSWAY A ET AL., MOL. GEN GENET, vol. 202, 1986, pages 179 - 185
KLEIN TM ET AL., NATURE, vol. 327, 1987, pages 70
CLOUGH; BENT, PLANT J., vol. 16, 1998, pages 735 - 743
ALDEMITA; HODGES, PLANTA, vol. 199, 1996, pages 612 - 617
CHAN ET AL., PLANT MOL BIOL, vol. 22, no. 3, 1993, pages 491 - 506
HIEI ET AL., PLANT J, vol. 6, no. 2, 1994, pages 271 - 282
ISHIDA ET AL., NAT. BIOTECHNOL, vol. 14, no. 6, 1996, pages 745 - 50
FRAME ET AL., PLANT PHYSIOL, vol. 129, no. 1, 2002, pages 13 - 22
S.D. KUNG AND R. WU: "Transgenic Plants, Vol. 1, Engineering and Utilization", vol. 1, 1993, ACADEMIC PRESS, article B. JENES ET AL.: "Techniques for Gene Transfer", pages: 128 - 143
POTRYKUS ANNU. REV. PLANT PHYSIOL. PLANT MOLEC. BIOL., vol. 42, 1991, pages 205 - 225
BEVAN ET AL., NUCL. ACIDS RES., vol. 12, 1984, pages 8711
HOFGEN, WILLMITZER IN NUCL. ACID RES., vol. 16, 1988, pages 9877
S.D. KUNG AND R. WU: "Transgenic Plants, Vol. 1, Engineering and Utilization", vol. 1, 1993, ACADEMIC PRESS, article F.F. WHITE: "Vectors for Gene Transfer in Higher Plants", pages: 15 - 38
FELDMAN, KA; MARKS MD, MOL GEN GENET, vol. 208, 1987, pages 274 - 289
FELDMANN K: "Methods in Arabidopsis Research", 1992, WORD SCIENTIFIC, pages: 274 - 289
CHANG, PLANT J., vol. 5, 1994, pages 551 - 558
KATAVIC, MOL GEN GENET, vol. 245, 1994, pages 363 - 370
BECHTHOLD, N, C R ACAD SCI PARIS LIFE SCI, vol. 316, 1993, pages 1194 - 1199
CLOUGH, SJ; BENT AF, THE PLANT J., vol. 16, 1998, pages 735 - 743
KLAUS ET AL., NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 22, no. 2, 2004, pages 225 - 229
BOCK: "Transgenic plastids in basic research and plant biotechnology", J MOL BIOL., vol. 312, no. 3, 21 September 2001 (2001-09-21), pages 425 - 38, XP002206098, DOI: doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.4960
MALIGA, P: "Progress towards commercialization of plastid transformation technology", TRENDS BIOTECHNOL, vol. 21, 2003, pages 20 - 28, XP004397633, DOI: doi:10.1016/S0167-7799(02)00007-0
FEHR: "Principals of Cultivar Development", 1993, MACMILLAN PUBLISHING COMPANY
PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 61, 2005, pages 246
PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 61, 2005, pages 258
PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 61, 2005, pages 277
PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 61, 2005, pages 269
PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 61, 2005, pages 286
PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 64, 2008, pages 326
PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 64, 2008, pages 332
WEED SCIENCE, vol. 57, 2009, pages 108
AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, vol. 58, 2007, pages 708
SCIENCE, vol. 316, 2007, pages 1185
GUERINEAU ET AL., MOL. GEN. GENET., vol. 262, 1991, pages 141 - 144
PROUDFOOT, CELL, vol. 64, 1991, pages 671 - 674
SANFACON ET AL., GENES DEV., vol. 5, 1991, pages 141 - 149
MOGEN ET AL., PLANT CELL, vol. 2, 1990, pages 1261 - 1272
MUNROE ET AL., GENE, vol. 91, 1990, pages 151 - 158
BALLAS, NUCLEIC ACIDS RES., vol. 17, 1989, pages 7891 - 7903
JOSHI ET AL., NUCLEIC ACID RES., vol. 15, 1987, pages 9627 - 9639
CAMPBELL; GOWRI, PLANT PHYSIOL., vol. 92, 1990, pages 1 - 11
MURRAY ET AL., NUCLEIC ACIDS RES., vol. 17, 1989, pages 477 - 498
CALLIS ET AL., GENES AND DEVELOPMENT, vol. 1, 1987, pages 1183 - 1200
GALLIE ET AL., NUCLEIC ACID RES., vol. 15, 1987, pages 8693 - 8711
SKUZESKI ET AL., PLANT MOL. BIOL., vol. 15, 1990, pages 65 - 79
GALLIE ET AL., PLANT PHYSIOL., vol. 106, 1994, pages 929 - 939
ELROY-STEIN ET AL., PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCL USA, vol. 86, 1989, pages 6126 - 6130
GALLIE ET AL., GENE, vol. 165, no. 2, 1995, pages 233 - 238
VIROLOGY, vol. 154, pages 9 - 20
MACEJAK ET AL., NATURE, vol. 353, 1991, pages 90 - 94
JOBLING ET AL., NATURE, vol. 325, 1987, pages 622 - 625
GALLIE ET AL.: "Molecular Biology of RNA", 1989, LISS, pages: 237 - 256
LOMMEL ET AL., VIROLOGY, vol. 81, 1991, pages 382 - 385
DELLA-CIOPPA ET AL., PLANT PHYSIOL., vol. 84, 1987, pages 965 - 968
ODELL ET AL., NATURE, vol. 313, 1985, pages 810 - 812
MCELROY ET AL., PLANT CELL, vol. 2, 1990, pages 163 - 171
CHRISTENSEN ET AL., PLANT MOL. BIOL., vol. 12, 1989, pages 619 - 632
CHRISTENSEN ET AL., PLANT MOL. BIOL., vol. 18, 1992, pages 675 - 689
LAST ET AL., THEOR. APPL. GENET., vol. 81, 1991, pages 581 - 588
VELTEN ET AL., EMBO J., vol. 3, 1984, pages 2723 - 2730
YAMAMOTO ET AL., PLANT J., vol. 12, no. 2, 1997, pages 255 - 265
KAWAMATA ET AL., PLANT CELL PHYSIOL., vol. 38, no. 7, 1997, pages 792 - 803
HANSEN ET AL., MOL. GEN GENET., vol. 254, no. 3, 1997, pages 337 - 343
RUSSELL ET AL., TRANSGENIC RES., vol. 6, no. 2, 1997, pages 157 - 168
RINEHART ET AL., PLANT PHYSIOL., vol. 112, no. 3, 1996, pages 1331 - 1341
VAN CAMP ET AL., PLANT PHYSIOL., vol. 112, no. 2, 1996, pages 525 - 535
CANEVASCINI ET AL., PLANT PHYSIOL., vol. 112, no. 2, 1996, pages 513 - 524
YAMAMOTO ET AL., PLANT CELL PHYSIOL., vol. 35, no. 5, 1994, pages 773 - 778
LAM, RESULTS PROBL. CELL DIFFER, vol. 20, 1994, pages 181 - 196
OROZCO ET AL., PLANT MOL BIOL., vol. 23, no. 6, 1993, pages 1129 - 1138
MATSUOKA, PROC NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA, vol. 90, no. 20, 1993, pages 9586 - 9590
GUEVARA-GARCIA ET AL., PLANT J., vol. 4, no. 3, 1993, pages 495 - 505
VON HEIJNE ET AL., PLANT MOL. BIOL. REP., vol. 9, 1991, pages 104 - 126
CLARK ET AL., J. BIOL. CHEM., vol. 264, 1989, pages 17544 - 17550
ROMER ET AL., BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. RES. COMMUN., vol. 196, 1993, pages 1414 - 1421
SHAH ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 233, 1986, pages 478 - 481
DE CASTRO SILVA FILHO ET AL., PLANT MOL. BIOL., vol. 30, 1996, pages 769 - 780
SCHNELL ET AL., J. BIOL. CHEM., vol. 266, no. 5, 1991, pages 3335 - 3342
ARCHER ET AL., J. BIOENERG. BIOMEMB., vol. 22, no. 6, 1990, pages 789 - 810
ZHAO ET AL., J. BIOL. CHEM., vol. 270, no. 11, 1995, pages 6081 - 6087
LAWRENCE ET AL., J. BIOL. CHEM., vol. 272, no. 33, 1997, pages 20357 - 20363
SCHMIDT ET AL., J. BIOL. CHEM., vol. 268, no. 36, 1993, pages 27447 - 27457
LAMPPA ET AL., J. BIOL. CHEM., vol. 263, 1988, pages 14996 - 14999
SVAB ET AL., PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCL USA, vol. 87, 1990, pages 8526 - 8530
SVAB; MALIGA, PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA, vol. 90, 1993, pages 913 - 917
SVAB; MALIGA, EMBO J., vol. 12, 1993, pages 601 - 606
MCBRIDE ET AL., PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA, vol. 91, 1994, pages 7301 - 7305
YARRANTON, CURR. OPIN. BIOTECH., vol. 3, 1992, pages 506 - 511
CHRISTOPHERS ET AL., PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCL USA, vol. 89, 1992, pages 6314 - 6318
YAO ET AL., CELL, vol. 71, 1992, pages 63 - 72
REZNIKOFF, MOL MICROBIOL, vol. 6, 1992, pages 2419 - 2422
BARKLEY ET AL., THE OPERON, 1980, pages 177 - 220
HU ET AL., CELL, vol. 48, 1987, pages 555 - 566
BROWN ET AL., CELL, vol. 49, 1987, pages 603 - 612
FIGGE ET AL., CELL, vol. 52, 1988, pages 713 - 722
DEUSCHLE ET AL., PROC. NATL ACAD. ACL USA, vol. 86, 1989, pages 5400 - 5404
FUERST ET AL., PROC. NATL ACAD. SCL USA, vol. 86, 1989, pages 2549 - 2553
DEUSCHLE ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 248, 1990, pages 480 - 483
GOSSEN: "Ph.D. Thesis", 1993, UNIVERSITY OF HEIDELBERG
REINES ET AL., PROC. NATL ACAD. SCL USA, vol. 90, 1993, pages 1917 - 1921
LABOW ET AL., MOL CELL BIOL, vol. 10, 1990, pages 3343 - 3356
ZAMBRETTI ET AL., PROC. NATL ACAD. SCL USA, vol. 89, 1992, pages 3952 - 3956
BAIRN ET AL., PROC. NATL ACAD. SCL USA, vol. 88, 1991, pages 5072 - 5076
WYBORSKI ET AL., NUCLEIC ACIDS RES., vol. 19, 1991, pages 4647 - 4653
HILLENAND-WISSMAN, TOPICS MOL STRUC. BIOL, vol. 10, 1989, pages 143 - 162
DEGENKOLB ET AL., ANTIMICROB. AGENTS CHEMOTHER., vol. 35, 1991, pages 1591 - 1595
KLEINSCHNIDT ET AL., BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 27, 1988, pages 1094 - 1104
BONIN: "Ph.D. Thesis", 1993, UNIVERSITY OF HEIDELBERG
GOSSEN ET AL., PROC. NATL ACAD. SCL USA, vol. 89, 1992, pages 5547 - 5551
OLIVA ET AL., ANTIMICROB. AGENTS CHEMOTHER., vol. 36, 1992, pages 913 - 919
HLAVKA ET AL.: "Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology", vol. 78, 1985, SPRINGER-VERLAG
GILL ET AL., NATURE, vol. 334, 1988, pages 721 - 724
FALCIATORE ET AL., MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 1, no. 3, 1999, pages 239 - 251
SAMBROOK ET AL.: "Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed.", 1989, COLD SPRING HARBOR LABORATORY PRESS
GARTLAND AND DAVEY: "Molecular Biology", vol. 44, 1995, HUMANA PRESS, article "Agrobacterium protocols"
KONCZ; SCHELL, MOL. GEN. GENET., vol. 204, 1986, pages 383 - 396
DEBLAERE ET AL., NUCL. ACIDS. RES., vol. 13, 1994, pages 4777 - 4788
GELVIN; STANTON B.; SCHILPEROORT; ROBERT A: "Plant Molecular Biology Manual, 2nd Ed.", 1995, KLUWER ACADEMIC, ISBN: 0-7923-2731-4
GLICK, BERNARD R.; THOMPSON, JOHN E.: "Methods in Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology", 1993, CRC PRESS, ISBN: 0-8493-5164-2, pages: 360
MOLONEY ET AL., PLANT CELL REPORT, vol. 8, 1989, pages 238 - 242
DE BLOCK ET AL., PLANT PHYSIOL., vol. 91, 1989, pages 694 - 701
MLYNAROVA ET AL., PLANT CELL REPORT, vol. 13, 1994, pages 282 - 285
FREELING; WALBOT: "The maize handbook", 1993, SPRINGER VERLAG, ISBN: 3-540-97826-7
COLE-STRAUSS ET AL., NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, vol. 27, no. 5, 1999, pages 1323 - 1330
KMIEC, GENE THERAPY AMERICAN SCIENTIST, vol. 87, no. 3, 1999, pages 240 - 247
THOMAS, K. R.; CAPECCHI, M. R., CELL, vol. 51, 1987, pages 503
STREPP ET AL., PNAS, vol. 95, no. 8, 1998, pages 4368 - 4373
FRANCK E. DAYAN; PANKAJ R. DAGA; STEPHEN O. DUKE; RYAN M. LEE; PATRICK J. TRANEL; ROBERT J. DOERKSEN: "Biochemical and structural consequences of a glycine deletion in the a-8 helix of protoporphyrinogen oxidase", BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA, vol. 1804, 2010, pages 1548 - 56, XP027057703, DOI: doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.04.004
N.J. JACOBS; J.M. JACOBS: "Assay for enzymatic protoporphyrinogen oxidation, a late step in heme synthesis", ENZYME, vol. 28, 1982, pages 206 - 219
SAMBROOK ET AL.: "Molecular cloning", 2001, COLD SPRING HARBOR LABORATORY PRESS
MURASHIGE; SKOOG, PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, vol. 15, 1962, pages 473 - 497
SIMINSZKY ET AL., PHYTOCHEM REV., vol. 5, 2006, pages 445 - 458
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BASF IP ASSOCIATION (BASF SE, G-FLP - C006, Ludwigshafen, 67056, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims:

1. A method for controlling undesired vegetation at a plant cultivation site, the method comprising the steps of:

a) providing, at said site, a plant that comprises at least one nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) polypeptide which is resistant or tolerant to a "PPO inhibiting herbicide";

b) applying to said site an effective amount of said herbicide,

wherein the PPO inhibiting herbicide is a phenylpyridine of formula (I)

wherein the variables have the following meanings:

R1 halogen, C1-C4-haloalkyl or S02CH3;

R2 H , CH3 or N H2;

R3 halogen;

R4 H or halogen;

R5 halogen or CN;

R6 H or CH3;

R7 C1-C6-alkoxy, C1-C6-haloalkoxy, C3-C6-alkenyloxy, C3-C6-alkynyloxy;

R8 OR9, SR9, NR10R11 , N R9S(O)R10, NR9S(O)2R1°, N R9S(O)N R 0R11 , or

N R9S(O)2NR10R1 1 ,

wherein

R9 is hydrogen, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C1-C6-haloalkyl, C3-C6- haloalkenyl, C3-C6-haloalkynyl, C1-C6-cyanoalkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1- C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, di(C1-C6-alkoxy)C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6- haloalkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkenyloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-haloalkenyloxy-C1- C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkenyloxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6- alkyl, C1-C6-alkylsulfinyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6- alkylcarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6- haloalkoxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkenyloxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, amino, (C1-C6-alkyl)amino, di(C1-C6-alkyl)amino, (C1-C6-alkylcarbonyl)amino, amino- C1-C6-alkyl, (C1-C6-alkyl)amino-C1-C6-alkyl, di(C1-C6-alkyl)amino-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, (C1-C6-alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, di(C1-C6- alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, -N=CR12R13, wherein R12 and R13 independently of one another are H, C1-C4- alkyl or phenyl;

C3-C6-cycloalkyl, C3-C6-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-heterocyclyl, C3-C6- heterocyclyl-C1-C6-alkyl, phenyl, phenyl-C1-C4-alkyl or a 5- or 6 membered heteroaryl,

wherein each phenyl or heteroaryl ring can be substituted by one to four substituents selected from R14 or a 3- to 7-membered carbocyclus,

which carbocyclus optionally has in addition to carbon atoms one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of -N(R12)- , -N=N-, -C(=O)-, -O- and -S-, and

which carbocyclus is optionally substituted with one to four substituents selected from R14;

wherein R14 is halogen, NO2, CN, C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C4- haloalkyl, C1-C4-alkoxy or C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl; R10, R11 independently of one another are R9, or together form a 3- to 7-membered carbocyclus,

which carbocyclus optionally has in addition to carbon atoms one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of -N(R12)-, -N=N-, - C(=O)-, -O- and -S-, and

which carbocyclus is optionally substituted with one to four substituents selected from R14;

X O or S; and

Y O or S; including their agriculturally acceptable salts, and wherein the effective amount of said herbicide does not kill or inhibit the growth of the herbicide-tolerant plant of a).

2. The method according to claim 1 , wherein the herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide comprises one or more of the following motifs 1 , 2, and/or 3:

a. Motif 1 : SQ[N/K/H]KRYI, wherein the Arg at position 5 within said motif is substituted by any other amino acid;

b. Motif 2: TLGTLFSS, wherein the Leu at position 2 within said motif is substituted by by any other amino acid;

c. Motif 3: [F/Y]TTF[V/I]GG, wherein the Phe at position 4 within said motif is substituted by by any other amino acid.

3. The method according to claim 1 , wherein the herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide comprises a variant of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55,

56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 11 , 112, 1 13, 114, 115, 1 16, 1 17, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, which variant comprises one or more of the following substitutions:

a. the amino acid corresponding to Arg128 of SEQ ID NO: 1 is substituted by by any other amino acid.

b. the amino acid corresponding to Leu397 of SEQ ID NO: 1 is substituted by by any other amino acid.

c. the amino acid corresponding to Phe420 of SEQ ID NO: 1 is substituted by by any other amino acid. 4. The method according to claim 1 , wherein the herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271 , 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 , 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291 , 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301 , 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 31 1 , 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321 , 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327328, 329, 330, 331 , 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341 , 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351 , 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361 , 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371 , 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381 , 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391 , 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401 , 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 41 1 , 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421 , 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431 , 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441 , 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451 , 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461 , 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471 , 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481 , 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491 , 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 , 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 51 1 , 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521 , 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531 , 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541 , 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551 , 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561 , 562, 563, 564, 565, or a variant thereof.

The method according to claim 1 , wherein the herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 240, 241 , 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251 , 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261 , or 262.

The method according to claims any of claims 1 to 5, wherein the plant comprises at least one additional heterologous nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a herbicide tolerance enzyme.

The method according to any of claims 1 to 6 wherein the phenylpyridine of formula (I) is applied in conjunction with one or more additional herbicides.

Description:
PLANTS HAVING INCREASED TOLERANCE TO HERBICIDES

FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates in general to methods for conferring on plants agricultural level tolerance to herbicides. Particularly, the invention refers to plants having an increased tolerance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides. More specifically, the present invention relates to methods and plants obtained by mutagenesis and cross-breeding and transformation that have an increased tolerance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Herbicides that inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase (hereinafter referred to as Protox or PPO; EC:1 .3.3.4), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX, have been used for selective weed control since the 1960s. PPO catalyzes the last common step in chlorophyll and heme biosynthesis which is the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. (Matringe et al. 1989. Biochem. 1 . 260: 231 ). PPO-inhibiting herbicides include many different structural classes of molecules (Duke et al. 1991 . Weed Sci. 39: 465; Nandihalli et al. 1992. Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 43: 193; Matringe et al. 1989. FEBS Lett. 245: 35; Yanase and Andoh. 1989. Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 35: 70). These herbicidal compounds include the diphenylethers {e.g. lactofen, (+-)-2-ethoxy-1 -methyl-2-oxoethyl 5- {2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy}-2-nitrobenzoate; acifluorfen, 5-{2-chloro-4- (trifluoromethyl)phenoxy}-2-nitrobenzoic acid; its methyl ester; or oxyfluorfen, 2-chloro-1 -(3- ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluorobenzene)}, oxidiazoles, (e.g. oxidiazon, 3-{2,4-dichloro-5- (1 -methylethoxy)phenyl}-5-(1 ,1 -dimethylethyl)-1 ,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one), cyclic imides (e.g. S-23142, N-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-5-propargyloxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydr ophthalimide; chlorophthalim, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalimide), phenyl pyrazoles (e.g. TNPP-ethyl, ethyl 2-{1 -(2,3,4-trichlorophenyl)-4-nitropyrazolyl-5-oxy}propionate; M&B 39279), pyridine derivatives (e.g. LS 82-556), and phenopylate and its O-phenylpyrrolidino- and piperidinocarbamate analogs. Many of these compounds competitively inhibit the normal reaction catalyzed by the enzyme, apparently acting as substrate analogs.

Application of PPO-inhibiting herbicides results in the accumulation of protoporphyrinogen IX in the chloroplast and mitochondria, which is believed to leak into the cytosol where it is oxidized by a peroxidase. When exposed to light, protoporphyrin IX causes formation of singlet oxygen in the cytosol and the formation of other reactive oxygen species, which can cause lipid peroxidation and membrane disruption leading to rapid cell death (Lee et al. 1993. Plant Physiol. 102: 881 ).

Not all PPO enzymes are sensitive to herbicides which inhibit plant PPO enzymes. Both the Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis PPO enzymes (Sasarmen et al. 1993. Can. J.

Microbiol. 39: 1 155; Dailey et al. 1994. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 813) are resistant to these herbicidal inhibitors. Mutants of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resistant to the phenylimide herbicide S-23142 have been reported (Kataoka et al. 1990. J. Pesticide Sci. 15: 449; Shibata et al. 1992. In Research in Photosynthesis, Vol. Ill, N. Murata, ed. Kluwer:Netherlands. pp. 567-70). At least one of these mutants appears to have an altered PPO activity that is resistant not only to the herbicidal inhibitor on which the mutant was selected, but also to other classes of protox inhibitors (Oshio et al. 1993. Z. Naturforsch. 48c: 339; Sato et al. 1994. In ACS Symposium on Porphyric Pesticides, S. Duke, ed. ACS Press: Washington, D.C.). A mutant tobacco cell line has also been reported that is resistant to the inhibitor S-21432 (Che et al. 1993. Z. Naturforsch. 48c: 350). Auxotrophic E. coli mutants have been used to confirm the herbicide resistance of cloned plant PPO- inhibting herbicides. Three main strategies are available for making plants tolerant to herbicides, i.e. (1 ) detoxifying the herbicide with an enzyme which transforms the herbicide, or its active metabolite, into non-toxic products, such as, for example, the enzymes for tolerance to bromoxynil or to basta (EP242236, EP337899); (2) mutating the target enzyme into a functional enzyme which is less sensitive to the herbicide, or to its active metabolite, such as, for example, the enzymes for tolerance to glyphosate (EP293356, Padgette S. R. et al., J.Biol. Chem., 266, 33, 1991 ); or (3) overexpressing the sensitive enzyme so as to produce quantities of the target enzyme in the plant which are sufficient in relation to the herbicide, in view of the kinetic constants of this enzyme, so as to have enough of the functional enzyme available despite the presence of its inhibitor. The third strategy was described for successfully obtaining plants which were tolerant to PPO inhibitors (see e.g. US5,767,373 or US5,939,602, and patent family members thereof.). In addition, US 2010/0100988 and WO 2007/024739 discloses nucleotide sequences encoding amino acid sequences having enzymatic activity such that the amino acid sequences are resistant to PPO inhibitor herbicidal chemicals, in particular 3-phenyluracil inhibitor specific PPO mutants.

WO 2012/080975 discloses plants the tolerance of which to a PPO-inhibiting herbicide named (1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl )-3,4-dihydro-2H- benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane-2,4-dione) had been increased by transforming said plants with nucleic acids encoding mutated PPO mutated enzymes. In particular, WO 2012/080975 discloses that the introduction of nucleic acids which code for a mutated PPO of an Amaranthus type II PPO in which the Arginine at position 128 had been replaced by a leucine, alanine, or valine, and the phenylalanine at position 420 had been replaced by a methionine, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, or threonine, confers increased

tolerance/resistance to a benzoxazinone-derivative herbicide. WO 2013/189984 discloses plants the tolerance of which to PPO inhibitors had been increased by transforming said plants with nucleic acids encoding mutated PPO enzymes, in which the Leucine

corresponding to position 397 of an Amaranthus type II PPO had been replaced, and the phenylalanine corresponding to position 420 of an Amaranthus type II PPO had been replaced. WO2015/022636 discloses plants the tolerance of which to PPO inhibitors had been increased by transforming said plants with nucleic acids encoding mutated PPO enzymes, in which the Arginine corresponding to position 128 of an Amaranthus type II PPO had been replaced, and the phenylalanine corresponding to position 420 of an Amaranthus type II PPO had been replaced, but the replacement occurred with amino acids, which are different from those disclosed in WO 2012/080975. WO2015/092706 describes PPO polypeptides from a plurality of organisms, which PPO polypeptides had been mutated to comprise the advantageous mutations employed for the Amaranthus type II PPO. WO2015/022640 discloses PPO polypeptides from Alopecurus myosuroides and mutants thereof, which confer tolerance to a broad spectrum of PPO inhibiting herbicides.

The inventors of the present invention have now surprisingly found that those types of mutants confer increased tolerance/resistance to a new class of PPO inhibitors, hereinafter described as phenylpyridines or phenylpyridine herbicides. Thus, to date, the prior art has not described phenylpyridine tolerant plants containing a mutated PPO nucleic acid according to the present invention, which are tolerant/resistant to a broad selection of phenylpyridines. Therefore, what is needed in the art are crop plants and crop plants having increased tolerance to phenylpyridines and containing at least one wildtype and/or mutated PPO nucleic acid according to the present invention. Also needed are methods for controlling weed growth in the vicinity of such crop plants or crop plants. These

compositions and methods would allow for the use of spray over techniques when applying herbicides to areas containing crop plants or crop plants. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The problem is solved by the present invention which refers to a method for controlling undesired vegetation at a plant cultivation site, the method comprising the steps of:

a) providing, at said site, a plant that comprises at least one nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) polypeptide which is resistant or tolerant to a "PPO inhibiting herbicide";

b) applying to said site an effective amount of said herbicide,

wherein the PPO inhibiting herbicide is a phenylpyridine of formula (I)

wherein the variables have the following meanings:

R 1 halogen, C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl or S0 2 CH 3 ;

R2 H, CH 3 or NH 2 ;

R 3 halogen;

R 4 H or halogen;

R 5 halogen or CN;

R 6 H or CH 3 ;

R 7 C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyloxy;

R 8 OR 9 , SR 9 , NR 10 R 11 , NR 9 S(O)R 1 °, NR 9 S(O) 2 R 1 °, NR 9 S(O)NR 10 R 11 , or

NR 9 S(O) 2 NR 10 R 11 ,

wherein

R 9 is hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkyl, C 3 - C 6 -haloalkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -haloalkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -cyanoalkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy)C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 - haloalkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 - C 6 -alkylthio-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfinyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfonyl- C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylcarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxycarbonyl-C 1 - C 6 -alkyl, amino, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino, (C 1 -C 6 - alkylcarbonyl)amino, amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 - alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl,

-N=CR 12 R 13 , wherein R 12 and R 13 independently of one another are H, C 1 -

C 4 -alkyl or phenyl;

C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl, C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -heterocyclyl, C 3 -C 6 - heterocyclyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, phenyl, phenyl-C 1 -C 4 -alkyl or a 5- or 6 membered heteroaryl,

wherein each phenyl or heteroaryl ring can be substituted by one to four substituents selected from R 14 or a 3- to 7-membered

carbocyclus,

which carbocyclus optionally has in addition to carbon atoms one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of -

N(R 12 )-, -N=N-, -C(=O)-, -O- and -S-, and which carbocyclus is optionally substituted with one to four substituents selected from R 14 ;

wherein R 14 is halogen, N0 2 , CN, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, C 1 -C 4 - haloalkyl, C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy or C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy- carbonyl; R 10 , R 11 independently of one another are R 9 , or together form a 3- to 7- membered carbocyclus,

which carbocyclus optionally has in addition to carbon atoms one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of -N(R 12 )-, - N=N-, -C(=O)-, -O- and -S-, and

which carbocyclus is optionally substituted with one to four substituents selected from R 14 ;

X O or S; and

Y O or S;

including their agriculturally acceptable salts, and wherein the effective amount of said herbicide does not kill or inhibit the growth of the herbicide-tolerant plant of a).

In one embodiment, the herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide comprises one or more of the following motifs 1 , 2, and/or 3:

a. Motif 1 : SQ[N/K/H]KRYI, wherein the Arg at position 5 within said motif is substituted by any other amino acid;

b. Motif 2: TLGTLFSS, wherein the Leu at position 2 within said motif is substituted by by any other amino acid;

c. Motif 3: [F/Y]TTF[V/I]GG, wherein the Phe at position 4 within said motif is substituted by by any other amino acid.

In another embodiment, the herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide comprises a variant of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 1 1 , 112, 1 13, 1 14, 1 15, 1 16, 1 17, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, which variant comprises one or more of the following substitutions:

a. the amino acid corresponding to Arg128 of SEQ ID NO: 1 is substituted by by any other amino acid.

b. the amino acid corresponding to Leu397 of SEQ ID NO: 1 is substituted by by any other amino acid.

c. the amino acid corresponding to Phe420 of SEQ ID NO: 1 is substituted by by any other amino acid.

In still another embodiment, the herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271 , 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 , 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291 , 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301 , 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 31 1 , 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321 , 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327328, 329 330, 331 , 332 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341 342, 343 344, 345, 346, 347 348, 349, 350 351 , 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359 360, 361 362, 363, 364, 365 366, 367, 368 369, 370, 371 , 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377 378, 379 380, 381 , 382, 383 384, 385, 386 387, 388, 389, 390, 391 , 392, 393, 394, 395 396, 397 398, 399, 400, 401 402, 403, 404 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 41 1 , 412, 413 414, 415 416, 417, 418, 419 420, 421 , 422 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431 432, 433 434, 435, 436, 437 438, 439, 440 441 , 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449 450, 451 452, 453, 454, 455 456, 457, 458 459, 460, 461 , 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467 468, 469 470, 471 , 472, 473 474, 475, 476 477, 478, 479, 480, 481 , 482, 483, 484, 485 486, 487 488, 489, 490, 491 492, 493, 494 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 , 502, 503 504, 505 506, 507, 508, 509 510, 51 1 , 512 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521 522, 523 524, 525, 526, 527 528, 529, 530 531 , 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539 540, 541 542, 543, 544, 545 546, 547, 548 549, 550, 551 , 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557 558, 559 560, 561 , 562, 563 564, 565, or a variant thereof.

In still another embodiment, the herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 240, 241 , 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251 , 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261 , or 262. Another object refers to a method of identifying a nucleotide sequence encoding a mutated PPO which is resistant or tolerant to a phenylpyridine herbicide, the method comprising: a) generating a library of mutated PPO-encoding nucleic acids,

b) screening a population of the resulting mutated PPO-encoding nucleic acids by

expressing each of said nucleic acids in a cell or plant and treating said cell or plant with a phenylpyridine,

c) comparing the phenylpyridine herbicide-tolerance levels provided by said population of mutated PPO encoding nucleic acids with the phenylpyridine -tolerance level provided by a control PPO-encoding nucleic acid,

d) selecting at least one mutated PPO-encoding nucleic acid that provides a significantly increased level of tolerance to a phenylpyridine as compared to that provided by the control PPO-encoding nucleic acid.

In a preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO-encoding nucleic acid selected in step d) provides at least 2-fold as much tolerance to a phenylpyridine as compared to that provided by the control PPO-encoding nucleic acid.

The resistance or tolerance can be determined by generating a transgenic plant comprising a nucleic acid sequence of the library of step a) and comparing said transgenic plant with a control plant.

Another object refers to a method of identifying a plant or algae containing a nucleic acid encoding a mutated PPO which is resistant or tolerant to a phenylpyridine, the method comprising:

a) identifying an effective amount of a phenylpyridine in a culture of plant cells or green algae.

b) treating said plant cells or green algae with a mutagenizing agent,

c) contacting said mutagenized cells population with an effective amount of

phenylpyridine herbicide, identified in a),

d) selecting at least one cell surviving these test conditions,

e) PCR-amplification and sequencing of PPO genes from cells selected in d) and

comparing such sequences to wild-type PPO gene sequences, respectively.

In a preferred embodiment, the mutagenizing agent is ethylmethanesulfonate.

In another embodiment, the invention refers to a plant cell transformed by and expressing a wild-type or a mutated PPO nucleic acid according to the present invention or a plant which has been mutated to obtain a plant expressing, preferably over-expressing a wild-type or a mutated PPO nucleic acid according to the present invention, wherein expression of said nucleic acid in the plant cell results in increased resistance or tolerance to a phenylpyridine as compared to a wild type variety of the plant cell. In another embodiment, the invention refers to a plant that expresses a mutagenized or recombinant mutated PPO polypeptide, and wherein said mutated PPO confers upon the plant increased phenylpyridine tolerance as compared to the corresponding wild-type variety of the plant when expressed therein. In another embodiment, the invention refers to a plant comprising a plant cell according to the present invention, wherein expression of the nucleic acid in the plant results in the plant's increased resistance to phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild type variety of the plant. The plants of the present invention can be transgenic or non-transgenic.

Preferably, the expression of the nucleic acid of the invention in the plant results in the plant's increased resistance to phenylpyridine herbicides as compared to a wild type variety of the plant.

In another embodiment, the invention refers to a method for growing the plant according to the present invention while controlling weeds in the vicinity of said plant, said method comprising the steps of:

a) growing said plant ; and

b) applying a herbicide composition comprising a phenylpyridine herbicide to the plant and weeds, wherein the herbicide normally inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase, at a level of the herbicide that would inhibit the growth of a corresponding wild-type plant. In another embodiment, the invention refers to a seed produced by a transgenic plant comprising a plant cell of the present invention, or to a seed produced by the non- transgenic plant that expresses a mutagenized PPO polypeptide, wherein the seed is true breeding for an increased resistance to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild type variety of the seed.

In another embodiment, the invention refers to a method of producing a transgenic plant cell with an increased resistance to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild type variety of the plant cell comprising, transforming the plant cell with an expression cassette comprising a wild-type or a mutated PPO nucleic acid.

In another embodiment, the invention refers to a method of producing a transgenic plant comprising, (a) transforming a plant cell with an expression cassette comprising a wild-type or a mutated PPO nucleic acid, and (b) generating a plant with an increased resistance to phenylpyridine herbicide from the plant cell.

Preferably, the expression cassette further comprises a transcription initiation regulatory region and a translation initiation regulatory region that are functional in the plant.

In another embodiment, the invention relates to using the mutated PPO of the invention as selectable marker. The invention provides a method of identifying or selecting a

transformed plant cell, plant tissue, plant or part thereof comprising a) providing a transformed plant cell, plant tissue, plant or part thereof, wherein said transformed plant cell, plant tissue, plant or part thereof comprises an isolated nucleic acid encoding a mutated PPO polypeptide of the invention as described hereinafter, wherein the polypeptide is used as a selection marker, and wherein said transformed plant cell, plant tissue, plant or part thereof may optionally comprise a further isolated nucleic acid of interest; b) contacting the transformed plant cell, plant tissue, plant or part thereof with at least one PPO-inhibiting inhibiting compound; c) determining whether the plant cell, plant tissue, plant or part thereof is affected by the inhibitor or inhibiting compound; and d) identifying or selecting the transformed plant cell, plant tissue, plant or part thereof.

The invention is also embodied in purified mutated PPO proteins that contain the mutations described herein, which are useful in molecular modeling studies to design further improvements to herbicide tolerance. Methods of protein purification are well known, and can be readily accomplished using commercially available products or specially designed methods, as set forth for example, in Protein Biotechnology, Walsh and Headon (Wiley, 1994).

In another embodiment, the invention relates to a combination useful for weed control, comprising (a) a polynucleotide encoding a mutated PPO polypeptide according to the present invention, which polynucleotide is capable of being expressed in a plant to thereby provide to that plant tolerance to a phenylpyridine herbicide; and (b) a phenylpyridine herbicide. In another embodiment, the invention relates to a process for preparing a combination useful for weed control comprising (a) providing a polynucleotide encoding a mutated PPO polypeptide according to the present invention, which polynucleotide is capable of being expressed in a plant to thereby provide to that plant tolerance to a phenylpyridine herbicide; and (b) providing a phenylpyridine herbicide.

In a preferred embodiment, said step of providing a polynucleotide comprises providing a plant containing the polynucleotide.

In another preferred embodiment, said step of providing a polynucleotide comprises providing a seed containing the polynucleotide.

In another preferred embodiment, said process further comprises a step of applying the phenylpyridine herbicide to the seed. In another embodiment, the invention relates to the use of a combination useful for weed control, comprising (a) a polynucleotide encoding a mutated PPO polypeptide according to the present invention, which polynucleotide is capable of being expressed in a plant to thereby provide to that plant tolerance to a phenylpyridine herbicide; and (b) a

phenylpyridine herbicide, to control weeds at a plant cultivation site.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Figure 1 shows transgenic T2 Arabidopsis plants, four weeks old, were sprayed in the greenhouse with the indicated amount of methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)- 2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate + 1 % (v/v) MSO. AMATU = Amaranthus tuberculatum; ALOMY = Alopecurus myosuroides

Figure 1A:

1 = wildtype (non-transgenic)

2= AMATU_PPO2_R128M_F420V

3= AMATU PP02 R128M F420I

4= AMATU_PPO2_R128M_F420L

5 = AMATU_PPO2_R128M_F420M

6 = ALOMY_PP02_F438V

7 = ALOMY_PP02_F438l

8 = ALOMY_PP02_F438M

9= ALOMY_PP02_R137L_F438V Figure 1 B

10= = ALOMY_ PP02_ R137L_ F438L

1 1 = ALOMY . _PP02_ _R137L_ _F438M

12 = AMATU . _PP02_ _L397E_ . F420V

13 = AMATU. _PP02_ _L397E_ . F420M

14 = AMATU . _PP02_ _L397Q . _F420V

15 = AMATU . _PP02_ _L397Q . _F420M

16 = AMATU . _PP02_ _L397C_ _F420M

17 = AMATU . _PP02_ _L397G . _F420M

Figure 1C

18 = AMATU. _PP02_ _R128L_ _F420L

19 = AMATU . _PP02_ _R128I_ F420V

20 = ALOMY . _PP02_ _L415A_ . F438M

21 = ALOMY . _PP02_ _L415C_ _F438M

22 = ALOMY . _PP02_ _L415G . _F438M

23 = ALOMY . _PP02_ _L415E_ . F438M

24 = ALOMY . _PP02_ _L415Q . _F438M

25 = hemG_tplAMATU_PP02

Figure 1 D

1 = wildtype (non-transgenic)

2 = AMATU_PPO2_R128A_F420V

3 = AMATU_PPO2_L397D_F420V

4 = Arabidopsis thaliana_PP01_ S305L_Y426M

Figure 2A:T2 soybean events were transformed with the indicated Amaranthus PP02 variant. Greenhouse grown plants at the V2 stage were sprayed with the indicated amount of herbicide methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro-phenoxy]-2- methoxy-acetate (herbicide 1 ) + 1 % v/v methylated seed oil. Images were taken 3 days after treatment and are representative of replicates.

Figure 2B: T2 soybean events were transformed with the indicated Amaranthus PP02 variant. Greenhouse grown plants at the V2 stage were sprayed with the indicated amount of herbicide prop-2-ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro-phenoxy]- 2-methoxy-acetate (herbicide 2) + 1 % v/v methylated seed oil. Images were taken 3 days after treatment and are representative of replicates. Figure 2C: T2 soybean events were transformed with the indicated Amaranthus PP02 variant. Greenhouse grown plants at the V2 stage were sprayed with the indicated amount of herbicide prop-2-ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro-phenoxy]- 2-methoxy-acetate (herbicide 2) + 1 % v/v methylated seed oil. Images were taken 3 days after treatment and are representative of replicates.

Figure 2D: T2 maize events were transformed with the Amaranthus PP02 variants: (1 ) R128A F420I; (2) R128A F420I; (3) L397E F420M; (4) L397D F420M; (5) Untransformed. Greenhouse grown plants at the V2 stage were sprayed with the indicated amount of herbicide methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro-phenoxy]-2- methoxy-acetate (herbicide 1) + 1 % v/v methylated seed oil. Images were taken 3 days after treatment

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The articles "a" and "an" are used herein to refer to one or more than one (i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article. By way of example, "an element" means one or more elements.

As used herein, the word "comprising," or variations such as "comprises" or "comprising," will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps, but not the exclusion of any other element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps.

The inventors of the present invention have found, that the tolerance or resistance of a plant to a phenylpyridine herbicide could be remarkably increased by overexpressing a nucleic acid encoding PPO polypeptides described hereinafter.

The present invention refers to a method for controlling undesired vegetation at a plant cultivation site, the method comprising the steps of:

a) providing, at said site, a plant that comprises at least one nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (mutated PPO) which is resistant or tolerant to a PPO-inhibiting herbicide,

b) applying to said site an effective amount of said herbicide,

wherein the PPO inhibiting herbicide is a phenylpyridine of formula (I)

wherein the variables have the following meanings:

R 1 halogen, C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl or S0 2 CH 3 ;

R 2 H, CH 3 or NH 2 ;

R 3 halogen;

R 4 H or halogen;

R 5 halogen or CN;

R 6 H or CH 3 ;

R 7 C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyloxy;

R 8 OR 9 , SR 9 , NR 10 R 11 , NR 9 S(O)R 10 , NR 9 S(O) 2 R 1 °, NR 9 S(O)NR 10 R 11 , or

NR 9 S(O) 2 NR 10 R 11 ,

wherein

R 9 is hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkyl, C 3 - C 6 -haloalkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -haloalkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -cyanoalkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy)C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 - haloalkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 - C 6 -alkylthio-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfinyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfonyl- C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylcarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxycarbonyl-C 1 - C 6 -alkyl, amino, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino, (C 1 -C-6- alkylcarbonyl)amino, amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 3 -C 6 - alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, -N=CR 12 R 13 , wherein R 12 and R 13 independently of one another are H, d- d-alkyl or phenyl;

C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl, C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -heterocyclyl, C 3 -C 6 - heterocyclyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, phenyl, phenyl-d-C 4 -alkyl or a 5- or 6 membered heteroaryl,

wherein each phenyl or heteroaryl ring can be substituted by one to four substituents selected from R 14 or a 3- to 7-membered

carbocyclus,

which carbocyclus optionally has in addition to carbon atoms one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of - N(R 12 )-, -N=N-, -C(=O)-, -O- and -S-, and which carbocyclus is optionally substituted with one to four substituents selected from R 14 ;

wherein R 14 is halogen, N0 2 , CN, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, C 1 -C 4 - haloalkyl, d-C 4 -alkoxy or d-d-alkoxy- carbonyl;

R 10 , R 11 independently of one another are R 9 , or together form a 3- to 7- membered carbocyclus, which carbocyclus optionally has in addition to carbon atoms one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of -N(R 12 )-, - N=N-, -C(=O)-, -O- and -S-, and

which carbocyclus is optionally substituted with one to four substituents selected from R 14 ;

X O or S; and

Y O or S;

including their agriculturally acceptable salts, and wherein the effective amount of said herbicide does not kill or inhibit the growth of the herbicide-tolerant plant of a).

The term "control of undesired vegetation" is to be understood as meaning the killing of weeds and/or otherwise retarding or inhibiting the normal growth of the weeds. Weeds, in the broadest sense, are understood as meaning all those plants which grow in locations where they are undesired, e.g. (crop) plant cultivation sites. The weeds of the present invention include, for example, dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds.

Dicotyledonous weeds include, but are not limited to, weeds of the genera: Sinapis, Lepidium, Galium, Stellaria, Matricaria, Anthemis, Galinsoga, Chenopodium, Urtica, Senecio, Amaranthus, Portulaca, Xanthium, Convolvulus, Ipomoea, Polygonum, Sesbania, Ambrosia, Cirsium, Carduus, Sonchus, Solanum, Rorippa, Rotala, Lindernia, Lamium, Veronica, Abutilon, Emex, Datura, Viola, Galeopsis, Papaver, Centaurea, Trifolium, Ranunculus, and Taraxacum. Monocotyledonous weeds include, but are not limited to, weeds of of the genera: Echinochloa, Setaria, Panicum, Digitaria, Phleum, Poa, Festuca, Eleusine, Brachiaria, Lolium, Bromus, Avena, Cyperus, Sorghum, Agropyron, Cynodon, Monochoria, Fimbristyslis, Sagittaria, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Paspalum, Ischaemum,

Sphenoclea, Dactyloctenium, Agrostis, Alopecurus, and Apera. In addition, the weeds of the present invention can include, for example, crop plants that are growing in an undesired location. For example, a volunteer maize plant that is in a field that predominantly comprises soybean plants can be considered a weed, if the maize plant is undesired in the field of soybean plants.

The term "plant" is used in its broadest sense as it pertains to organic material and is intended to encompass eukaryotic organisms that are members of the Kingdom Plantae, examples of which include but are not limited to vascular plants, vegetables, grains, flowers, trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, fungi and algae, etc, as well as clones, offsets, and parts of plants used for asexual propagation (e.g. cuttings, pipings, shoots, rhizomes, underground stems, clumps, crowns, bulbs, corms, tubers, rhizomes,

plants/tissues produced in tissue culture, etc.). The term "plant" further encompasses whole plants, ancestors and progeny of the plants and plant parts, including seeds, shoots, stems, leaves, roots (including tubers), flowers, florets, fruits, pedicles, peduncles, stamen, anther, stigma, style, ovary, petal, sepal, carpel, root tip, root cap, root hair, leaf hair, seed hair, pollen grain, microspore, cotyledon, hypocotyl, epicotyl, xylem, phloem, parenchyma, endosperm, a companion cell, a guard cell, and any other known organs, tissues, and cells of a plant, and tissues and organs, wherein each of the aforementioned comprise the gene/nucleic acid of interest. The term "plant" also encompasses plant cells, suspension cultures, callus tissue, embryos, meristematic regions, gametophytes, sporophytes, pollen and microspores, again wherein each of the aforementioned comprises the gene/nucleic acid of interest.

Plants that are particularly useful in the methods of the invention include all plants which belong to the superfamily Viridiplantae, in particular monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants including fodder or forage legumes, ornamental plants, food crops, trees or shrubs selected from the list comprising Acer spp., Actinidia spp., Abelmoschus spp., Agave sisalana, Agropyron spp., Agrostis stolonifera, Allium spp., Amaranthus spp., Ammophila arenaria, Ananas comosus, Annona spp., Apium graveolens, Arachis spp, Artocarpus spp., Asparagus officinalis, Avena spp. (e.g. Avena sativa, Avena fatua, Avena byzantina, Avena fatua var. sativa, Avena hybrida), Averrhoa carambola, Bambusa sp., Benincasa hispida, Bertholletia excelsea, Beta vulgaris, Brassica spp. (e.g. Brassica napus, Brassica rapa ssp. [canola, oilseed rape, turnip rape]), Cadaba farinosa, Camellia sinensis, Canna indica, Cannabis sativa, Capsicum spp., Carex elata, Carica papaya, Carissa macrocarpa, Carya spp., Carthamus tinctorius, Castanea spp., Ceiba pentandra, Cichorium endivia,

Cinnamomum spp., Citrullus lanatus, Citrus spp., Cocos spp., Coffea spp., Colocasia esculenta, Cola spp., Corchorus sp., Coriandrum sativum, Corylus spp., Crataegus spp., Crocus sativus, Cucurbita spp., Cucumis spp., Cynara spp., Daucus carota, Desmodium spp., Dimocarpus longan, Dioscorea spp., Diospyros spp., Echinochloa spp., Elaeis (e.g. Elaeis guineensis, Elaeis oleifera), Eleusine coracana, Eragrostis tef, Erianthus sp., Eriobotrya japonica, Eucalyptus sp., Eugenia uniflora, Fagopyrum spp., Fagus spp., Festuca arundinacea, Ficus carica, Fortunella spp., Fragaria spp., Ginkgo biloba, Glycine spp. (e.g. Glycine max, Soja hispida or Soja max), Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus spp. (e.g. Helianthus annuus), Hemerocallis fulva, Hibiscus spp., Hordeum spp. (e.g. Hordeum vulgare), Ipomoea batatas, Juglans spp., Lactuca sativa, Lathyrus spp., Lens culinaris, Linum usitatissimum, Litchi chinensis, Lotus spp., Luffa acutangula, Lupinus spp., Luzula sylvatica, Lycopersicon spp. (e.g. Lycopersicon esculentum, Lycopersicon lycopersicum, Lycopersicon pyriforme), Macrotyloma spp., Malus spp., Malpighia emarginata, Mammea americana, Mangifera indica, Manihot spp., Manilkara zapota, Medicago sativa, Melilotus spp., Mentha spp., Miscanthus sinensis, Momordica spp., Morus nigra, Musa spp.,

Nicotiana spp., Olea spp., Opuntia spp., Ornithopus spp., Oryza spp. (e.g. Oryza sativa, Oryza latifolia), Panicum miliaceum, Panicum virgatum, Passiflora edulis, Pastinaca sativa, Pennisetum sp., Persea spp., Petroselinum crispum, Phalaris arundinacea, Phaseolus spp., Phleum pratense, Phoenix spp., Phragmites australis, Physalis spp., Pinus spp., Pistacia vera, Pisum spp., Poa spp., Populus spp., Prosopis spp., Prunus spp., Psidium spp., Punica granatum, Pyrus communis, Quercus spp., Raphanus sativus, Rheum rhabarbarum, Ribes spp., Ricinus communis, Rubus spp., Saccharum spp., Salix sp., Sambucus spp., Secale cereale, Sesamum spp., Sinapis sp., Solanum spp. (e.g. Solanum tuberosum, Solanum integrifolium or Solanum lycopersicum), Sorghum bicolor, Spinacia spp., Syzygium spp., Tagetes spp., Tamarindus indica, Theobroma cacao, Trifolium spp., Tripsacum dactyloides, Triticosecaie rimpaui, Triticum spp. (e.g. Triticum aestivum, Triticum durum, Triticum turgidum, Triticum hybernum, Triticum macha, Triticum sativum, Triticum monococcum or Triticum vulgare), Tropaeolum minus, Tropaeolum majus, Vaccinium spp., Vicia spp., Vigna spp., Viola odorata, Vitis spp., Zea mays, Zizania palustris, Ziziphus spp., amaranth, artichoke, asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, canola, carrot, cauliflower, celery, collard greens, flax, kale, lentil, oilseed rape, okra, onion, potato, rice, soybean, strawberry, sugar beet, sugar cane, sunflower, tomato, squash, tea and algae, amongst others. According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the plant is a crop plant. Examples of crop plants include inter alia soybean, sunflower, canola, alfalfa, rapeseed, cotton, tomato, potato or tobacco. Further preferebly, the plant is a

monocotyledonous plant, such as sugarcane. Further preferably, the plant is a cereal, such as rice, maize, wheat, barley, millet, rye, sorghum or oats. In a preferred embodiment, the plant has been previously produced by a process comprising recombinantly preparing a plant by introducing and over-expressing a wild-type or mutated PPO transgene according to the present invention, as described in greater detail hereinfter. In another preferred embodiment, the plant has been previously produced by a process comprising in situ mutagenizing plant cells, to obtain plant cells which express a mutated PPO.

As disclosed herein, the nucleic acids of the invention find use in enhancing the herbicide tolerance of plants that comprise in their genomes a gene encoding a herbicide-tolerant wild-type or mutated PPO protein. Such a gene may be an endogenous gene or a transgene, as described hereinafter.

Therefore, in another embodiment the present invention refers to a method of increasing or enhancing the phenylpyridine herbicide tolerance or resistance of a plant, the method comprising overexpressing a nucleic acid encoding a PPO polypeptide which comprises one or more of the following motifs 1 , 2, and/or 3:

a. Motif 1 : SQ[N/K/H]KRYI, wherein the Arg at position 5 within said motif is substituted by any other amino acid;

b. Motif 2: TLGTLFSS, wherein the Leu at position 2 within said motif is substituted by by any other amino acid;

c. Motif 3: [F/Y]TTF[V/I]GG, wherein the Phe at position 4 within said motif is substituted by by any other amino acid. In another embodiment the present invention refers to a method of increasing or enhancing the phenylpyridine herbicide tolerance or resistance of a plant, the method comprising overexpressing a nucleic acid encoding a herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide which comprises a variant of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 1 1 1 , 1 12, 1 13, 1 14, 1 15, 1 16, 1 17, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, which variant comprises one or more of the following substitutions: a. the amino acid corresponding to Arg128 of SEQ ID NO: 1 is substituted by by any other amino acid.

b. the amino acid corresponding to Leu397 of SEQ ID NO: 1 is substituted by by any other amino acid.

c. the amino acid corresponding to Phe420 of SEQ ID NO: 1 is substituted by by any other amino acid.

In another embodiment the present invention refers to a method of increasing or enhancing the phenylpyridine herbicide tolerance or resistance of a plant, the method comprising overexpressing a nucleic acid encoding a herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270,

271 , 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 , 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288,

289, 290, 291 , 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301 , 302, 303, 304, 305, 306,

307, 308, 309, 310, 31 1 , 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321 , 322, 323, 324,

325, 326, 327328, 329, 330, 331 , 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341 , 342,

343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351 , 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360,

361 , 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371 , 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378,

379, 380, 381 , 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391 , 392, 393, 394, 395, 396,

397, 398, 399, 400, 401 , 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 41 1 , 412, 413, 414,

415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421 , 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431 , 432,

433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441 , 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450,

451 , 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461 , 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468,

469, 470, 471 , 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481 , 482, 483, 484, 485, 486,

487, 488, 489, 490, 491 , 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 , 502, 503, 504,

505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 51 1 , 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521 , 522,

523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531 , 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540,

541 , 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551 , 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558,

559, 560, 561 , 562, 563, 564, 565, or a variant thereof.

In another embodiment the present invention refers to a method of increasing or enhancing the phenylpyridine herbicide tolerance or resistance of a plant, the method comprising overexpressing a nucleic acid encoding a herbicide resistant or tolerant PPO polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 240, 241 , 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251 , 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261 , or 262. Additionally, in certain embodiments, the nucleic acids of the present invention can be stacked with any combination of polynucleotide sequences of interest in order to create plants with a desired phenotype. For example, the nucleic acids of the present invention may be stacked with any other polynucleotides encoding polypeptides having pesticidal and/or insecticidal activity, such as, for example, the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin proteins (described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,366,892; 5,747,450; 5,737,514; 5,723,756; 5,593,881 ; and Geiser et al (1986) Gene 48: 109), By way of example, polynucleotides that may be stacked with the nucleic acids of the present invention include nucleic acids encoding polypeptides conferring resistance to pests/pathogens such as viruses, nematodes, insects or fungi, and the like. Exemplary polynucleotides that may be stacked with nucleic acids of the invention include

polynucleotides encoding: polypeptides having pesticidal and/or insecticidal activity, such as other Bacillus thuringiensis toxic proteins (described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,366,892;

5,747,450; 5,737,514; 5,723,756; 5,593,881 ; and Geiser et al., (1986) Gene 48:109), lectins (Van Damme et al. (1994) Plant Mol. Biol. 24:825, pentin (described in U.S. Pat. No.

5,981 ,722), and the like; traits desirable for disease or herbicide resistance (e.g., fumonisin detoxification genes (U.S. Pat. No. 5,792,931 ); avirulence and disease resistance genes (Jones et al. (1994) Science 266:789; Martin et al., (1993) Science 262:1432; Mindrinos et al. (1994) Cell 78:1089); acetolactate synthase (ALS) mutants that lead to herbicide resistance such as the S4 and/or Hra mutations; glyphosate resistance (e.g., 5-enol- pyrovyl-shikimate-3-phosphate-synthase (EPSPS) gene, described in U.S. Pat. Nos.

4,940,935 and 5,188,642; or the glyphosate N-acetyltransferase (GAT) gene, described in Castle et al. (2004) Science, 304:1 151 -1 154; and in U.S. Patent App. Pub. Nos.

20070004912, 20050246798, and 20050060767)); glufosinate resistance (e.g,

phosphinothricin acetyl transferase genes PAT and BAR, described in U.S. Pat. Nos.

5,561 ,236 and 5,276,268); resistance to herbicides including sulfonyl urea, DHT (2,4D), and PPO herbicides (e.g., glyphosate acetyl transferase, aryloxy alkanoate dioxygenase, acetolactate synthase, and protoporphyrinogen oxidase); a cytochrome P450 or variant thereof that confers herbicide resistance or tolerance to, inter alia, HPPD herbicides (U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/156,247; U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,380,465; 6,121 ,512; 5,349, 127; 6,649,814; and 6,300,544; and PCT Patent App. Pub. No. WO2007000077); and traits desirable for processing or process products such as high oil (e.g., U.S. Pat. No.

6,232,529); modified oils (e.g., fatty acid desaturase genes (U.S. Pat. No. 5,952,544; WO 94/1 1516)); modified starches (e.g., ADPG pyrophosphorylases (AGPase), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), and starch debranching enzymes (SDBE)); and polymers or bioplastics (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,602,321 ; beta-ketothiolase, polyhydroxybutyrate synthase, and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (Schubert et al. (1988) J. Bacteriol. 170:5837-5847) facilitate expression of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs)); the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference. In a preferred embodiment, the plant comprises at least one additional heterologous nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a herbicide tolerance enzyme selected, for example, from the group consisting of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), Glyphosate acetyl transferase (GAT), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC 4.1.3.18, also known as acetolactate synthase or ALS), hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase

(HPPD), Phytoene desaturase (PD) and dicamba degrading enzymes as disclosed in WO 02/068607, or phenoxyaceticacid- and phenoxypropionicacid-derivative degrading enzymes as disclosed in WO 2008141 154 or WO 2005107437. The combinations generated can also include multiple copies of any one of the polynucleotides of interest.

Generally, the term "herbicide" is used herein to mean an active ingredient that kills, controls or otherwise adversely modifies the growth of plants. The preferred amount or concentration of the herbicide is an "effective amount" or "effective concentration." By "effective amount" and "effective concentration" is intended an amount and concentration, respectively, that is sufficient to kill or inhibit the growth of a similar, wild-type, plant, plant tissue, plant cell, or host cell, but that said amount does not kill or inhibit as severely the growth of the herbicide-resistant plants, plant tissues, plant cells, and host cells of the present invention. Typically, the effective amount of a herbicide is an amount that is routinely used in agricultural production systems to kill weeds of interest. Such an amount is known to those of ordinary skill in the art. Herbicidal activity is exhibited by herbicides useful for the the present invention when they are applied directly to the plant or to the locus of the plant at any stage of growth or before planting or emergence. The effect observed depends upon the plant species to be controlled, the stage of growth of the plant, the application parameters of dilution and spray drop size, the particle size of solid components, the environmental conditions at the time of use, the specific compound employed, the specific adjuvants and carriers employed, the soil type, and the like, as well as the amount of chemical applied. These and other factors can be adjusted as is known in the art to promote non-selective or selective herbicidal action. Generally, it is preferred to apply the herbicide postemergence to relatively immature undesirable vegetation to achieve the maximum control of weeds.

By a "herbicide-tolerant" or "herbicide-resistant" plant, it is intended that a plant that is tolerant or resistant to at least one herbicide at a level that would normally kill, or inhibit the growth of, a normal or wild-type plant. By "herbicide-tolerant wildtype or mutated PPO protein" or "herbicide -resistant wildtype or mutated PPO protein", it is intended that such a PPO protein displays higher PPO activity, relative to the PPO activity of a wild-type PPO protein, when in the presence of at least one herbicide that is known to interfere with PPO activity and at a concentration or level of the herbicide that is known to inhibit the PPO activity of the wild-type mutated PPO protein. Furthermore, the PPO activity of such a herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant mutated PPO protein may be referred to herein as "herbicide-tolerant" or "herbicide-resistant" PPO activity. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the herbicides useful for the present invention refer phenylpyridines of formula (I)

wherein the variables have the following meanings:

R 1 halogen, C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl or S0 2 CH 3 ;

R 2 H, CH 3 or NH 2 ;

R 3 halogen;

R 4 H or halogen;

R 5 halogen or CN;

R 6 H or CH 3 ;

R 7 C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyloxy, C 1 -C 6 -alkylthio, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkylthio, C 3 -C 6 -alkenylthio or C 3 -C 6 -alkynylthio;

preferably C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyloxy;

R 8 OR 9 , SR 9 , NR 10 R 1 1 , NR 9 S(O)R 1 °, NR 9 S(O) 2 R 1 °, NR 9 S(O)NR 10 R 11 , or

NR 9 S(O) 2 NR 10 R 11 ,

wherein

R 9 is hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkyl, C 3 -C 6 - haloalkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -haloalkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -cyanoalkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 - C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy)C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -halo- alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -haloalkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylthio-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 - C 6 -alkylsulfinyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylcarbonyl- C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, amino, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino, di(C 1 -C 6 - alkyl)amino, (C 1 -C 6 -alkylcarbonyl)amino, amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino- C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 - alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, -N=CR 12 R 13 , wherein R 12 and R 13 independently of one another are H, C 1 -C 4 - alkyl or phenyl;

C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl, C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -heterocyclyl, C 3 -C 6 - heterocyclyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, phenyl, phenyl-C 1 -C 4 -alkyl or a 5- or 6 membered heteroaryl, wherein each cycloalkyl, heterocyclyl, phenyl or heteroaryl ring can be substituted by one to four substituents selected from R 14 or a 3- to 7- membered carbocyclus,

which carbocyclus optionally has in addition to carbon atoms one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of -N(R 12 )-, - N=N-, -C(=O)-, -O- and -S-, and

which carbocyclus is optionally substituted with one to four substituents selected from R 14 ;

wherein R 14 is halogen, N0 2 , CN, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl,

C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy or C 1 -C 4 -alkoxycarbonyl;

R 10 , R 11 independently of one another are R 9 , or together form a 3- to 7-membered

carbocyclus,

which carbocyclus optionally has in addition to carbon atoms one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of -N(R 12 )-, -N=N-, -C(=O)-, -O- and

-S-, and

which carbocyclus is optionally substituted with one to four substituents selected from R 14 ;

X O or S; and

Y O or S; including their agriculturally acceptable salts.

If the phenylpyridines of formula (I), the herbicidal compounds B and/or the safeners C as described herein are capable of forming geometrical isomers, for example E/Z isomers, it is possible to use both, the pure isomers and mixtures thereof, in the compositions according to the invention.

If the phenylpyridines of formula (I), the herbicidal compounds B and/or the safeners C as described herein have one or more centres of chirality and, as a consequence, are present as enantiomers or diastereomers, it is possible to use both, the pure enantiomers and diastereomers and their mixtures, in the compositions according to the invention.

If the phenylpyridines of formula (I), the herbicidal compounds B and/or the safeners C as described herein have ionizable functional groups, they can also be employed in the form of their agriculturally acceptable salts. Suitable are, in general, the salts of those cations and the acid addition salts of those acids whose cations and anions, respectively, have no adverse effect on the activity of the active compounds.

Preferred cations are the ions of the alkali metals, preferably of lithium, sodium and potassium, of the alkaline earth metals, preferably of calcium and magnesium, and of the transition metals, preferably of manganese, copper, zinc and iron, further ammonium and substituted ammonium in which one to four hydrogen atoms are replaced by C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, hydroxy-C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, hydroxy-C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, phenyl or benzyl, preferably ammonium, methylammonium, isopropylammonium, dimethylammonium, diisopropylammonium, trimethylammonium, heptylammonium, dodecylammonium, tetradecylammonium, tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, tetrabutylammonium, 2-hydroxyethylammonium (olamine salt), 2-(2-hydroxyeth-1 -oxy)eth-1 -ylammonium

(diglycolamine salt), di(2-hydroxyeth-1 -yl)ammonium (diolamine salt), tris(2- hydroxyethyl)ammonium (trolamine salt), tris(2-hydroxypropyl)ammonium,

benzyltrimethylammonium, benzyltriethylammonium, Ν,Ν,Ν-trimethylethanolammonium (choline salt), furthermore phosphonium ions, sulfonium ions, preferably tri(C 1 -C 4 - alkyl)sulfonium, such as trimethylsulfonium, and sulfoxonium ions, preferably tri(C 1 -C 4 - alkyl)sulfoxonium, and finally the salts of polybasic amines such as N,N-bis-(3- aminopropyl)methylamine and diethylenetriamine.

Anions of useful acid addition salts are primarily chloride, bromide, fluoride, iodide, hydrogensulfate, methylsulfate, sulfate, dihydrogenphosphate, hydrogenphosphate, nitrate, bicarbonate, carbonate, hexafluorosilicate, hexafluorophosphate, benzoate and also the anions of C 1 -C 4 -alkanoic acids, preferably formate, acetate, propionate and butyrate.

Herbicidal compounds B and/or safeners C as described herein having a carboxyl group can be employed in the form of the acid, in the form of an agriculturally suitable salt as mentioned above or else in the form of an agriculturally acceptable derivative, for example as amides, such as mono- and di-C 1 -C 6 -alkylamides or arylamides, as esters, for example as allyl esters, propargyl esters, C 1 -C 10 -alkyl esters, alkoxyalkyl esters, tefuryl

((tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl) esters and also as thioesters, for example as C 1 -C 10 -alkylthio esters. Preferred mono- and di-C 1 -C 6 -alkylamides are the methyl and the dimethylamides. Preferred arylamides are, for example, the anilides and the 2-chloroanilides. Preferred alkyl esters are, for example, the methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, pentyl, mexyl (1 -methylhexyl), meptyl (1 -methylheptyl), heptyl, octyl or isooctyl (2-ethylhexyl) esters.

Preferred C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 4 -alkyl esters are the straight-chain or branched C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy ethyl esters, for example the 2-methoxyethyl, 2-ethoxyethyl, 2-butoxyethyl (butotyl), 2- butoxypropyl or 3-butoxypropyl ester. An example of a straight-chain or branched C 1 -C 10 - alkylthio ester is the ethylthio ester.

The organic moieties mentioned in the definition of the variables R 1 to R 14 , are - like the term halogen - collective terms for individual enumerations of the individual group members. The term halogen denotes in each case fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. All

hydrocarbon chains, e.g. all alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxy chains, can be straight-chain or branched, the prefix C n -C m denoting in each case the possible number of carbon atoms in the group.

Examples of such meanings are: C 1 -C 4 -alkyl and also the C 1 -C 4 -alkyl moieties of phenyl-C 1 -C 4 -alkyl: for example CH3, C2H5, n-propyl, CH(CH 3 ) 2 , n-butyl, CH(CH 3 )-C 2 H 5 , CH 2 -CH(CH 3 )2 and C(CH 3 ) 3 ;

C 1 -C 6 -alkyl and also the C 1 -C 6 -alkyl moieties of C 1 -C 6 -alkyoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 - alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy)C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -haloalkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 - alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylthio-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfinyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 - alkylsulfonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylcarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 - alkylcarbonyl)amino, amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 - alkyl)amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl: C 1 -C 4 -alkyl as mentioned above, and also, for example, n-pentyl, 1 -methylbutyl, 2-methylbutyl, 3- methylbutyl, 2,2-dimethylpropyl, 1 -ethylpropyl, n-hexyl, 1 ,1 -dimethylpropyl, 1 ,2- dimethylpropyl, 1 -methylpentyl, 2-methylpentyl, 3-methylpentyl, 4-methylpentyl, 1 ,1 -di- methylbutyl, 1 ,2-dimethylbutyl, 1 ,3-dimethylbutyl, 2,2-dimethylbutyl, 2,3-dimethylbutyl, 3,3- dimethylbutyl, 1 -ethylbutyl, 2-ethylbutyl, 1 ,1 ,2-trimethylpropyl, 1 ,2,2-trimethylpropyl, 1 -ethyl- 1 -methylpropyl or 1 -ethyl-2-methylpropyl, preferably methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, 1-methylethyl, n-butyl, 1 ,1-dimethylethyl, n-pentyl or n-hexyl;

C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl: C 1 -C 4 -alkyl as mentioned above which is partially or fully substituted by fluorine, chlorine, bromine and/or iodine, for example, chloromethyl, dichloromethyl, trichloromethyl, fluoromethyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, chlorofluoromethyl,

dichlorofluoromethyl, chlorodifluoromethyl, bromomethyl, iodomethyl, 2-fluoroethyl, 2- chloroethyl, 2-bromoethyl, 2-iodoethyl, 2,2-difluoroethyl, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, 2-chloro-2- fluoroethyl, 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethyl, 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl, 2,2,2-trichloroethyl, pentafluoroethyl, 2-fluoropropyl, 3-fluoropropyl, 2,2-difluoropropyl, 2,3-difluoropropyl, 2- chloropropyl, 3-chloropropyl, 2,3-dichloropropyl, 2-bromopropyl, 3-bromopropyl, 3,3,3- trifluoropropyl, 3,3,3-trichloropropyl, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl, heptafluoropropyl,

1 - (fluoromethyl)-2-fluoroethyl, 1 -(chloromethyl)-2-chloroethyl, l -(bromomethyl)-

2- bromoethyl, 4-fluorobutyl, 4-chlorobutyl, 4-bromobutyl, nonafluorobutyl, 1 ,1 ,2,2,- tetrafluoroethyl and 1 -trifluoromethyl-1 ,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl;

C 1 -C 6 -haloalkyl and also the C 1 -C 6 -haloalkyl moieties of C 1 -C 6 -haloalkylthio: C 1 -C 4 - haloalkyl as mentioned above, and also, for example, 5-fluoropentyl, 5-chloropentyl, 5- bromopentyl, 5-iodopentyl, undecafluoropentyl, 6-fluorohexyl, 6-chlorohexyl, 6-bromohexyl, 6-iodohexyl and dodecafluorohexyl;

- C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl and also the C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl moieties of C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy, C 3 -C 6 - alkenylthio, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 - alkenyloxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl: for example 1 -propenyl, 2-propenyl, 1 -methylethenyl, 1 - butenyl, 2-butenyl, 3-butenyl, 1 -methyl-1 -propenyl, 2-methyl-1-propenyl, 1 -methyl-2- propenyl, 2-methyl-2-propenyl, 1 -pentenyl, 2-pentenyl, 3-pentenyl, 4-pentenyl, 1 -methyl-1 - butenyl, 2-methyl-1 -butenyl, 3-methyl-1 -butenyl, 1 -methyl-2-butenyl, 2-methyl-2-butenyl, 3- methyl-2-butenyl, 1 -methyl-3-butenyl, 2-methyl-3-butenyl, 3-methyl-3-butenyl, 1 ,1 -dimethyl- 2-propenyl, 1 ,2-dimethyl-1 -propenyl, 1 ,2-dimethyl-2-propenyl, 1 -ethyl-1 -propenyl, 1 -ethyl-2- propenyl, 1 -hexenyl, 2-hexenyl, 3-hexenyl, 4-hexenyl, 5-hexenyl, 1 -methyl-1 -pentenyl, 2-methyl-1 -pentenyl, 3-methyl-1 -pentenyl, 4-methyl-1 -pentenyl, 1 -methyl-2-pentenyl, 2- methyl-2-pentenyl, 3-methyl-2-pentenyl, 4-methyl-2-pentenyl, 1 -methyl-3-pentenyl, 2- methyl-3-pentenyl, 3-methyl-3-pentenyl, 4-methyl-3-pentenyl, 1 -methyl-4-pentenyl, 2- methyl-4-pentenyl, 3-methyl-4-pentenyl, 4-methyl-4-pentenyl, 1 ,1 -dimethyl-2-butenyl, 1 ,1 - dimethyl-3-butenyl, 1 ,2-dimethyl-1 -butenyl, 1 ,2-dimethyl-2-butenyl, 1 ,2-dimethyl-3-butenyl, 1 ,3-dimethyl-1 -butenyl, 1 ,3-dimethyl-2-butenyl, 1 ,3-dimethyl-3-butenyl, 2,2-dimethyl-3- butenyl, 2, 3-dimethyl-1 -butenyl, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butenyl, 2,3-dimethyl-3-butenyl, 3,3- dimethyl-1 -butenyl, 3, 3-dimethyl-2-butenyl, 1 -ethyl-1 -butenyl, 1 -ethyl-2-butenyl, 1 -ethyl-3- butenyl, 2-ethyl-1 -butenyl, 2-ethyl-2-butenyl, 2-ethyl-3-butenyl, 1 ,1 ,2-trimethyl-2-propenyl, 1 - ethyl-1 -methyl-2-propenyl, 1 -ethyl-2-methyl-1 -propenyl and 1 -ethyl-2-methyl-2-propenyl;

C 3 -C 6 -haloalkenyl and also the C 3 -C 6 -haloalkenyl moieties of C 3 -C 6 -haloalkenyloxy- C 1 -C 6 -alkyl: a C 3 -Cs-alkenyl radical as mentioned above which is partially or fully substituted by fluorine, chlorine, bromine and/or iodine, for example 2-chloroprop-2-en-1 -yl, 3- chloroprop-2-en-1 -yl, 2,3-dichloroprop-2-en-1 -yl, 3,3-dichloroprop-2-en-1 -yl, 2,3,3-trichloro- 2-en-1 -yl, 2,3-dichlorobut-2-en-1 -yl, 2-bromoprop-2-en-1 -yl, 3-bromoprop-2-en-1 -yl, 2,3- dibromoprop-2-en-1 -yl, 3,3-dibromoprop-2-en-1 -yl, 2,3,3-tribromo-2-en-1 -yl or 2,3- dibromobut-2-en-1 -yl;

C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl and also the C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl moieties of C 3 -C 6 -alkynyloxy, C 3 -C 6 - alkynylthio: for example 1 -propynyl, 2-propynyl, 1 -butynyl, 2-butynyl, 3-butynyl, 1 -methyl-2- propynyl, 1 -pentynyl, 2-pentynyl, 3-pentynyl, 4-pentynyl, 1 -methyl-2-butynyl, 1 -methyl-3- butynyl, 2-methyl-3-butynyl, 3-methyl-1 -butynyl, 1 ,1 -dimethyl-2-propynyl, 1 -ethyl-2-propynyl,

1 - hexynyl, 2-hexynyl, 3-hexynyl, 4-hexynyl, 5-hexynyl, 1 -methyl-2-pentynyl, 1 -methyl-3- pentynyl, 1 -methyl-4-pentynyl, 2-methyl-3-pentynyl, 2-methyl-4-pentynyl, 3-methyl-1 - pentynyl, 3-methyl-4-pentynyl, 4-methyl-1 -pentynyl, 4-methyl-2-pentynyl, 1 ,1 -dimethyl-

2- butynyl, 1 ,1 -dimethyl-3-butynyl, 1 ,2-dimethyl-3-butynyl, 2,2-dimethyl-3-butynyl, 3,3- dimethyl-1 -butynyl, 1 -ethyl-2-butynyl, 1 -ethyl-3-butynyl, 2-ethyl-3-butynyl and 1 -ethyl-1 - methyl-2-propynyl;

C 3 -C 6 -haloalkynyl: a C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl radical as mentioned above which is partially or fully substituted by fluorine, chlorine, bromine and/or iodine, for example 1 ,1 -difluoroprop-2- yn-1 -yl, 3-chloroprop-2-yn-1 -yl, 3-bromoprop-2-yn-1 -yl, 3-iodoprop-2-yn-1 -yl, 4-fluorobut-2- yn-1 -yl, 4-chlorobut-2-yn-1 -yl, 1 ,1 -difluorobut-2-yn-1 -yl, 4-iodobut-3-yn-1 -yl, 5-fluoropent-3- yn-1 -yl, 5-iodopent-4-yn-1 -yl, 6-fluorohex-4-yn-1 -yl or 6-iodohex-5-yn-1 -yl;

C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy and also the C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy moieties of C 1 -C 6 -alkoxycarbonyl: for example methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, 1 -methylethoxy butoxy, 1 -methylpropoxy, 2-methylpropoxy and 1 ,1 -dimethylethoxy;

C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy and also the C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy moieties of C 1 -C 6 -alkyoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 - alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy)C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 - alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl: C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy as mentioned above, and also, for example, pentoxy, 1 -methylbutoxy, 2-methylbutoxy, 3-methoxyl butoxy, 1 ,1 - dimethylpropoxy, 1 ,2-dimethylpropoxy, 2,2-dimethylpropoxy, 1 -ethyl propoxy, hexoxy, 1 - methylpentoxy, 2-methylpentoxy, 3-methyl pentoxy, 4-methylpentoxy, 1 ,1 -dimethylbutoxy,

1.2- dimethylbutoxy, 1 ,3-dimethylbutoxy, 2,2-dimethylbutoxy, 2,3-dimethylbutoxy, 3,3- dimethylbutoxy, 1 -ethylbutoxy, 2-ethylbutoxy, 1 ,1 ,2-tri methyl propoxy, 1 ,2,2- tri methyl propoxy, 1 -ethyl-1 -methylpropoxy and 1 -ethyl-2-methylpropoxy.

- C 1 -C 4 -haloalkoxy: a C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy radical as mentioned above which is partially or fully substituted by fluorine, chlorine, bromine and/or iodine, i.e., for example, fluoromethoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, chlorodifluoromethoxy, bromodifluoromethoxy, 2- fluoroethoxy, 2-chloroethoxy, 2-bromomethoxy, 2-iodoethoxy, 2,2-difluoroethoxy, 2,2,2- trifluoroethoxy, 2-chloro-2-fluoroethoxy, 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethoxy, 2,2-dichloro-2- fluoroethoxy, 2,2,2-trichloroethoxy, pentafluoroethoxy, 2-fluoropropoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 2- chloropropoxy, 3-chloropropoxy, 2-bromopropoxy, 3-bromopropoxy, 2,2-difluoropropoxy,

2.3- difluoropropoxy, 2,3-dichloropropoxy, 3,3,3-trifluoropropoxy, 3,3,3-trichloropropoxy, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropoxy, heptafluoropropoxy, 1 -(fluoromethyl)-2-fluoroethoxy, 1 - (chloromethyl)-2-chloroethoxy, 1 -(bromomethyl)-2-bromoethoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 4- chlorobutoxy, 4-bromobutoxy and nonafluorobutoxy;

C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy and also the C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy moieties of C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl : a C 1 -C 4 -haloalkoxy as mentioned above, and also, for example, 5-fluoropentoxy, 5-chloropentoxy, 5-bromopentoxy, 5-iodopentoxy, undecafluoropentoxy, 6-fluorohexoxy, 6-chlorohexoxy, 6-bromohexoxy, 6-iodohexoxy and dodecafluorohexoxy;

C 1 -C 4 -alkylthio: for example methylthio, ethylthio, propylthio, 1 -methylethylthio, butylthio, 1 -methylpropylthio, 2-methylpropylthio and 1 ,1 -dimethylethylthio;

C 1 -C 6 -alkylthio and also the C 1 -C 6 -alkylthio moieties of C 1 -C 6 -alkylthio-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl: C 1 - C 4 -alkylthio as mentioned above, and also, for example, pentylthio, 1 -methylbutylthio, 2- methylbutylthio, 3-methylbutylthio, 2,2-dimethylpropylthio, 1 -ethylpropylthio, hexylthio, 1 ,1 - dimethylpropylthio, 1 ,2-dimethylpropylthio, 1 -methylpentylthio, 2-methylpentylthio, 3-methyl- pentylthio, 4-methylpentylthio, 1 ,1 -dimethylbutylthio, 1 ,2-dimethylbutylthio, 1 ,3- dimethylbutylthio, 2,2-dimethylbutylthio, 2,3-dimethylbutylthio, 3,3-dimethylbutylthio, 1 - ethylbutylthio, 2-ethylbutylthio, 1 ,1 ,2-trimethylpropylthio, 1 ,2,2-trimethylpropylthio, 1 -ethyl-1 - methylpropylthio and 1 - ethyl-2-methylpropylthio;

C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfinyl (C 1 -C 6 -Alkyl-S(=O)-) and also the C-i-C 6 -alkylsulfinyl moieties of C 1 - C 6 -alkylsulfinyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, : for example methylsulfinyl, ethylsulfinyl, propylsulfinyl, 1 -me- thylethylsulfinyl, butylsulfinyl, 1 -methylpropylsulfinyl, 2-methylpropylsulfinyl, 1 ,1 -di- methylethylsulfinyl, pentylsulfinyl, 1 -methylbutylsulfinyl, 2-methylbutylsulfinyl, 3- methylbutylsulfinyl, 2,2-dimethylpropylsulfinyl, 1 -ethylpropylsulfinyl, 1 ,1 -dimethyl- propylsulfinyl, 1 ,2-dimethylpropylsulfinyl, hexylsulfinyl, 1 -methylpentylsulfinyl, 2- methylpentylsulfinyl, 3-methylpentylsulfinyl, 4-methylpentyl-sulfinyl, 1 ,1 -dimethyl- butylsulfinyl, 1 ,2-dimethylbutylsulfinyl, 1 ,3-dimethylbutyl-sulfinyl, 2,2-dimethylbutylsulfinyl, 2,3-dimethylbutylsulfinyl, 3,3-dimethylbutyl-sulfinyl, 1 -ethylbutylsulfinyl, 2-ethylbutylsulfinyl, 1 ,1 ,2-trimethylpropylsulfinyl, 1 ,2,2-trimethylpropylsulfinyl, 1 -ethyl-1 -methylpropylsulfinyl and 1 -ethyl-2-methylpropylsulfinyl;

C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfonyl (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl-S(O)2-) and also the C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfonyl moieties of C 1 - C 6 -alkylsulfonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl,: for example methylsulfonyl, ethylsulfonyl, propylsulfonyl, 1 - methylethylsulfonyl, butylsulfonyl, 1 -methylpropylsulfonyl, 2-methyl-propylsulfonyl, 1 ,1 - dimethylethylsulfonyl, pentylsulfonyl, 1 -methylbutylsulfonyl, 2-methylbutylsulfonyl, 3- methylbutylsulfonyl, 1 ,1 -dimethylpropylsulfonyl, 1 ,2-dimethylpropylsulfonyl, 2,2- dimethylpropylsulfonyl, 1 -ethylpropylsulfonyl, hexylsulfonyl, 1 -methylpentylsulfonyl, 2- methylpentylsulfonyl, 3-methylpentylsulfonyl, 4-methylpentylsulfonyl, 1 ,1 - dimethylbutylsulfonyl, 1 ,2-dimethylbutylsulfonyl, 1 ,3-dimethylbutylsulfonyl, 2,2- dimethylbutylsulfonyl, 2,3-dimethylbutylsulfonyl, 3,3-dimethylbutylsulfonyl, 1 - ethylbutylsulfonyl, 2-ethylbutylsulfonyl, 1 ,1 ,2-trimethyl-propylsulfonyl, 1 ,2,2- trimethylpropylsulfonyl, 1 -ethyl-1 -methylpropylsulfonyl and 1 -ethyl-2-methylpropylsulfonyl;

(C 1 -C 4 -alkyl)amino: for example methylamino, ethylamino, propylamino, 1 -methylethyl- amino, butylamino, 1 -methylpropylamino, 2-methylpropylamino or 1 ,1 -dimethylethylamino;

(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino and also the (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino moieties of (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino-C 1 - C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl: (C 1 -C 4 -alkylamino) as mentioned above, and also, for example, pentylamino, 1 -methylbutylamino, 2-methylbutylamino, 3- methylbutylamino, 2,2-dimethylpropylamino, 1 -ethylpropylamino, hexylamino, 1 ,1 - dimethylpropylamino, 1 ,2-dimethylpropylamino, 1 -methylpentylamino, 2-methylpentylamino, 3-methylpentylamino, 4-methylpentylamino, 1 ,1 -dimethylbutylamino, 1 ,2- dimethylbutylamino, 1 ,3-dimethylbutylamino, 2,2-dimethylbutylamino, 2,3-dimethylbutyl- amino 3,3-dimethylbutylamino, 1 -ethylbutylamino, 2-ethylbutylamino, 1 ,1 ,2-trimethyl- propylamino, 1 ,2,2-trimethyl-propylamino, 1 -ethyl-1 -methylpropylamino or 1 -ethyl-2- methylpropylamino;

di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino and also the di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino moieties of di(C 1 -C 6 - alkyl)amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl: di(C 1 -C 4 -alkyl)amino as mentioned above, and also, for example, N-methyl-N-pentylamino, N-methyl-N-(1 - methylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(2-methylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(3-methylbutyl)amino, N- methyl-N-(2,2-dimethylpropyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(1 -ethylpropyl)amino, N-methyl-N- hexylamino, N-methyl-N-(1 ,1 -dimethylpropyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(1 ,2-dimethylpropyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(1 -methylpentyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(2-methylpentyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(3- methylpentyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(4-methylpentyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(1 ,1 - dimethylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(1 ,2-dimethylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(1 ,3- dimethylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(2,2-dimethylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(2,3- dimethylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N- (1 - ethylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(2-ethylbutyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(1 ,1 ,2-trimethylpropyl)amino, N-methyl-N- (1 ,2,2-trimethylpropyl)amino, N-methyl-N-(1 -ethyl-1 -methylpropyl)amino, N- methyl-N- (1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-pentylamino, N-ethyl-N-(1 - methylbutyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(2-methylbutyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(3-methylbutyl)amino, N- ethyl-N-(2,2-dimethylpropyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1-ethylpropyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-hexylamino, N-ethyl-N-(1 ,1 -dimethylpropyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1 ,2-dimethylpropyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1 - methylpentyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(2-methylpentyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(3-methylpentyl)amino, N- ethyl-N-(4-methylpentyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1 ,1 -dimethylbutyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1 ,2- dimethylbutyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1 ,3-dimethylbutyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(2,2-dimethyl- butyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)amino, N- ethyl-N-(1 -ethylbutyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(2-ethylbutyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1 , 1 ,2- trimethylpropyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1 ,2,2-trimethylpropyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1 -ethyl-1 - methylpropyl)amino, N-ethyl-N-(1 -ethyl-2-methylpropyl)amino, N-propyl-N-pentylamino, N- butyl-N-pentylamino, Ν,Ν-dipentylamino, N-propyl-N-hexylamino, N-butyl-N-hexylamino, N- pentyl-N-hexylamino or N,N-dihexylamino;

C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl and also the cycloalkyl moieties of C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl:

monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons having 3 to 6 ring members, such as cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl;

C 3 -C 6 -heterocyclyl: aliphatic heterocycle having 3 to 6 ring members which, in addition to carbon atoms, containsl to 4 nitrogen atoms, or 1 to 3 nitrogen atoms and an oxygen or sulphur atom, or an oxygen or a sulphur atom, for example

three- or four-membered heterocycles like 2-oxetanyl, 3-oxetanyl, 2-thietanyl, 3-thietanyl, 1 - azetidinyl, 2-azetidinyl, 1 -azetinyl, 2-azetinyl; five-membered saturated heterocycles like 2- tetrahydrofuranyl, 3-tetrahydrofuranyl, 2-tetrahydrothienyl, 3-tetrahydrothienyl, 1 - pyrrolidinyl,2-pyrrolidinyl, 3-pyrrolidinyl, 3-isoxazolidinyl, 4-isoxazolidinyl, 5-isoxazolidinyl, 2- isothiazolidinyl, 3-isothiazolidinyl, 4-isothiazolidinyl, 5-isothiazolidinyl, 1 -pyrazolidinyl, 3- pyrazolidinyl, 4-pyrazolidinyl, 5-pyrazolidinyl, 2-oxazolidinyl, 4-oxazolidinyl, 5-oxazolidinyl, 2-thiazolidinyl, 4-thiazolidinyl, 5-thiazolidinyl, 1 -imidazolidinyl, 2-imidazolidinyl, 4- imidazolidinyl, 3-oxazolidinyl, 1 ,2,4-oxadiazolidin-3-yl, 1 ,2,4-oxadiazolidin-5-yl, 3- thiazolidinyl, 1 ,2,4-thiadiazolidin-3-yl, 1 ,2,4-thiadiazolidin-5-yl, 1 ,2,4-triazolidin-3-yl, 1 ,2,4- oxadiazolidin-2-yl, 1 ,2,4-oxadiazolidin-4-yl, 1 ,3,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl, 1 ,2,4-thiadiazolidin-2-yl, 1 ,2,4-thiadiazolidin-4-yl, 1 ,3,4-thiadiazolidin-2-yl, 1 ,2,4-triazolidin-1 -yl, 1 ,3,4-triazolidin-2-yl; six-membered saturated heterocycles like 1 -piperidinyl, 2-piperidinyl, 3-piperidinyl, 4- piperidinyl, 1 ,3-dioxan-5-yl, 1 ,4-dioxanyl, 1 ,3-dithian-5-yl, 1 ,3-dithianyl, 1 ,3-oxathian-5-yl, 1 ,4-oxathianyl, 2-tetrahydropyranyl, 3-tetrahydopyranyl, 4-tetrahydropyranyl, 2- tetrahydrothiopyranyl, 3-tetrahydrothiopyranyl,4-tetrahydrothiopyranyl, 1 - hexahydropyridazinyl, 3-hexahydropyridazinyl, 4-hexahydropyridazinyl, 1 - hexahydropyrimidinyl, 2-hexahydropyrimidinyl, 4-hexahydropyrimidinyl, 5- hexahydropyrimidinyl, 1 -piperazinyl, 2-piperazinyl, 1 ,3,5-hexahydrotriazin-1 -yl, 1 ,3,5- hexahydrotriazin-2-yl, 1 ,2,4-hexahydrotriazin-1 -yl, 1 ,2,4-hexahydrotriazin-3-yl, tetrahydro- 1 ,3-oxazin-1 -yl, tetrahydro-1 ,3-oxazin-2-yl, tetrahydro-1 ,3-oxazin-6-yl, 1 -morpholinyl, 2- morpholinyl, 3-morpholinyl;

- 5- or 6 membered heteroaryl: aromatic heteroaryl having 5 or 6 ring members which, in addition to carbon atoms, contains 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms, or 1 to 3 nitrogen atoms and an oxygen or sulphur atom, or an oxygen or a sulphur atom, for example 5-membered aromatic rings like furyl (for example 2-furyl, 3-furyl), thienyl (for example 2-thienyl, 3- thienyl), pyrrolyl (for example pyrrol-2-yl, pyrrol-3-yl), pyrazolyl (for example pyrazol-3-yl, pyrazol-4-yl), isoxazolyl (for example isoxazol-3-yl, isoxazol-4-yl, isoxazol-5-yl), isothiazolyl (for example isothiazol-3-yl, isothiazol-4-yl, isothiazol-5-yl), imidazolyl (for example imidazole-2-yl, imidazole-4-yl), oxazolyl (for example oxazol-2-yl, oxazol-4-yl, oxazol-5-yl), thiazolyl (for example thiazol-2-yl, thiazol-4-yl, thiazol-5-yl), oxadiazolyl (for example 1 ,2,3- oxadiazol-4-yl, 1 ,2,3-oxadiazol-5-yl, 1 ,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl, 1 ,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl, 1 ,3,4- oxadiazol-2-yl), thiadiazolyl (for example 1 ,2,3-thiadiazol-4-yl, 1 ,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl, 1 ,2,4- thiadiazol-3-yl, 1 ,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, 1 ,3,4-thiadiazolyl-2-yl), triazolyl (for example 1 ,2,3- triazol-4-yl, 1 ,2,4-triazol-3-yl); 1 -tetrazolyl; 6-membered aromatic rings like pyridyl (for example pyridine-2-yl, pyridine-3-yl, pyridine-4-yl), pyrazinyl (for example pyridazin-3-yl, pyridazin-4-yl), pyrimidinyl (for example pyrimidin-2-yl, pyrimidin-4-yl, pyrimidin-5-yl), pyrazin-2-yl, triazinyl (for example 1 ,3,5-triazin-2-yl, 1 ,2,4— triazin-3-yl, 1 ,2,4-triazin-5-yl, 1 ,2,4-triazin-6-yl);

- 3- to 7-membered carbocyclus: a three- to seven-membered monocyclic, saturated, partial unsaturated or aromatic cycle having three to seven ring members which comprises apart from carbon atoms optionally one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of -N(R 12 )-, -N=N-, -C(=O)-, -O- and -S-.

The preferred embodiments of the invention mentioned herein below have to be understood as being preferred either independently from each other or in combination with one another.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention preference is given to those phenylpyridines of formula (I), wherein the variables, either independently of one another or in combination with one another, have the following meanings:

Preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I), wherein

R 1 is halogen or C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl;

particularly preferred CI, CF3 or CF2H;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl;

especially preferred CF3 or CF2H;

more preferred CF3. Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 2 is H or CH 3 ;

particularly preferred H;

also particularly preferred CH3. Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 3 is F, CI or Br;

preferably F or CI;

particularly preferred F;

also particularly preferred CI.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 4 is H, F or CI; particularly preferred H or F;

especially preferred H;

also particularly preferred H or CI;

especially preferred CI;

also particularly preferred F or CI;

especially preferred F.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 5 is F, CI, Br or CN;

particularly preferred F, CI or CN;

especially preferred CI or CN;

more preferred CI;

also more preferred CN;

also especially preferred F or CI;

more preferred F.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 6 is H;

also preferred CH3.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 7 is C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyloxy;

preferably C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy or C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy;

particularly preferred C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy or C 1 -C 4 -haloalkoxy;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy;

especially preferred C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy;

more preferred OCH3 or OC2H5;

most preferred is OCH3.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 8 is OR 9 , SR 9 , NR 10 R 11 , NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 NR 10 R 11 ;

particularly preferred OR 9 , NR 10 R 11 , NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 NR 10 R 11 ;

especially preferred OR 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 .

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 9 is hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkyl, C 3 -C 6 - haloalkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -haloalkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -cyanoalkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 - C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy)C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -halo- alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -haloalkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylthio-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C C 6 -alkylsulfinyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylsulfonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylcarbonyl C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C6 alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyloxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, amino, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino, di(C 1 -C 6 - alkyl)amino, (C 1 -C 6 -alkylcarbonyl)amino, amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino- C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)amino-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, (C 1 -C 6 - alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkyl)aminocarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, -N=CR 12 R 13 , wherein R 12 and R 13 independently of one another are H, C 1 -C 4 - alkyl or phenyl;

C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl, C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, Cs-C 6 -heterocyclyl, phenyl, phenyl-C 1 -C 4 -alkyl or a 5- or 6 membered heteroaryl,

wherein each cycloalkyl, heterocyclyl, phenyl or heteroaryl ring can be substituted by one to four substituents selected from R 14 or a 3- to 7- membered carbocyclus,

which carbocyclus optionally has in addition to carbon atoms one or two ring members selected from the group consisting of -N(R 12 )-, - N=N-, -C(=O)-, -O- and -S-, and

which carbocyclus is optionally substituted with one to four substituents selected from R 14 ;

wherein R 14 is halogen, N0 2 , CN, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl, C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy or C 1 -C 4 -alkoxycarbonyl; preferably hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy)C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylcarbonyl- C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl or C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl;

particularly preferred hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl or C 1 - C 6 -haloalkyl;

especially preferred hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, or C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl;

more preferred hydrogen, CH3, C2H5 or CH2C≡CH.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 10 is H orC 1 -C 6 -alkyl;

more preferred H;

also more preferred C 1 -C 6 -alkyl.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 11 is C 1 -C 6 -alkyl.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 12 is phenyl or CH 3 ;

particularly preferred phenyl;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 4 -alkyl.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein R 13 is phenyl or CH 3 ;

particularly preferred phenyl;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 4 -alkyl.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein R 14 is halogen or C 1 -C 6 -alkyl;

particularly preferred F, CI or CH 3 ;

also particularly preferred halogen;

especially preferred F or CI;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 6 -alkyl;

especially preferred CH3.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein X is O;

also preferred S.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein Y is O;

also preferred S.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein R 1 is halogen or C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl;

particularly preferred CI, CF 3 or CF 2 H;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl;

especially preferred CF3 or CF2H;

more preferred CF3;

R 2 is H or CH 3 ;

particularly preferred H;

also particularly preferred CH3;

R 3 is F or CI;

particularly preferred F;

also particularly preferred CI;

R 4 is H, F or CI;

particularly preferred H or F;

especially preferred H;

also particularly preferred H or CI;

especially preferred CI;

also particularly preferred F or CI;

especially preferred F;

R 5 is F, CI, Br or CN;

particularly preferred F, CI or CN;

especially preferred CI or CN; more preferred CI;

also more preferred CN;

also especially preferred F or CI;

more preferred F;

R 6 is H;

also preferred CH3;

R 7 is C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy or C 1 -C 6 -haloalkoxy;

particularly preferred C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy or C 1 -C 4 -haloalkoxy;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy;

especially preferred C 1 -C 4 -alkoxy;

more preferred OCH3 or OC2H5;

most preferred is OCH3;

R 8 is OR 9 , SR 9 , NR 10 R 11 , NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 NR 10 R 11 ;

particularly preferred OR 9 , NR 10 R 11 , NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 NR 10 R 11 ;

especially preferred OR 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 ;

R 9 is hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy-C 1 - C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy)C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 -alkylcarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 1 -C 6 - alkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl or C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl;

particularly preferred hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl or C 1 -C 6 - haloalkyl;

especially preferred hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, or C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl;

more preferred hydrogen, CH3, C 2 H5 or CH 2 C≡CH;

R 10 is H or C 1 -C 6 -alkyl;

more preferred H;

also more preferred C 1 -C 6 -alkyl;

R 11 is C 1 -C 6 -alkyl;

R 12 is phenyl or CH 3 ;

particularly preferred phenyl;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 4 -alkyl;

R 13 is phenyl or CH 3 ;

particularly preferred phenyl;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 4 -alkyl;

R 14 is halogen or C 1 -C 6 -alkyl;

particularly preferred F, CI or CH3;

also particularly preferred halogen;

especially preferred F or CI;

also particularly preferred C 1 -C 6 -alkyl;

especially preferred CH3;

X is O;

also preferred S; and

Y is O;

also preferred S. Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 1 is halogen or C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl;

R 2 is H;

R 3 is CI or F;

R 4 is H or F;

R 5 is CI or CN;

R 6 is H;

R 7 is C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy;

R 8 is OR 9 , NR 10 R 11 , NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 NR 10 R 11 , wherein

R 9 is hydrogen, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkenyl, C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl, C 1 -C 6 -haloalkyl, C 1 -C 6 - alkoxy-C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, di(C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy)C 1 -C 6 -alkyl, , C 1 -C 6 -alkoxycarbonyl-C 1 -C 6 - alkyl or C 3 -C 6 -cycloalkyl-C-i-C 6 -alkyl;

R 10 is H or C 1 -C 6 -alkyl; and

R 1 1 is C 1 -C 6 -alkyl.

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 1 is C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl;

R 2 and R 6 are H;

R 3 , R 4 and R 5 are halogen;

R 7 is C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy; and

R 8 is OR 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 , wherein R 9 is H, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl or C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl. Particularly preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 1 is CF 3 ;

R 2 and R 6 are H;

R 3 and R 5 are CI ;

R 4 is F;

R 7 is C 1 -C 6 -alkoxy; and

R 8 is OR 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 , wherein R 9 is H, C 1 -C 6 -alkyl or C 3 -C 6 -alkynyl.

Also particularly preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (I) wherein

R 1 is CF 3 ;

R 2 and R 6 are H;

R 3 and R 5 are CI ;

R 4 is F;

R 7 is OCH 3 ;

R 8 is OR 9 or NR 9 S(O) 2 R 9 , wherein R 9 is H, CH 3 , C 2 CH 5 , CH(CH 3 ) 2 or CH 2 C≡CH. Particular preference is given to phenylpyridines of formula (I. a) (corresponds to phenylpyridines of formula (I), wherein R 1 is CF3, R 2 is H, R 5 is CI, R 6 is H, X and Y are O),

wherein the variables R 3 , R 4 , R 7 and R 8 have the meanings, in particular the preferred meanings, as defined above.

Special preference is given to the compounds of the formulae l.a.1 to l.a.264 of Table (I), where the definitions of the variables R 3 , R 4 , R 7 and R 8 are of particular importance for the compounds according to the invention not only in combination with one another but in each case also on their own:

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (l.b), particularly preferred the phenylpyridines of formulae (l.b.1 ) to (l.b.264), which differ from the corresponding phenylpyridines of formulae (I. a) as well as (l.a.1 ) to (l.a.264) only in that R 5 is CN:

Also preferred are the phenylpyridines of formula (l.c), particularly preferred the phenylpyridines of formulae (l.c.1 ) to (l.c.264), which differ from the corresponding phenylpyridines of formulae (I. a) as well as (l.a.1 ) to (l.a.264) only in that R 5 is F:

To widen the spectrum of action and to achieve synergistic effects, the phenylpyridines of formula (I) may be mixed with a large number of representatives of other herbicidal or growth-regulating active ingredient groups and then applied concomitantly. Suitable components for mixtures are, for example, herbicides from the classes of the acetamides, amides, aryloxyphenoxypropionates, benzamides, benzofuran, benzoic acids,

benzothiadiazinones, bipyridylium, carbamates, chloroacetamides, chlorocarboxylic acids, cyclohexanediones, dinitroanilines, dinitrophenol, diphenyl ether, glycines, imidazolinones, isoxazoles, isoxazolidinones, nitriles, N-phenylphthalimides, oxadiazoles,

oxazolidinediones, oxyacetamides, phenoxycarboxylic acids, phenylcarbamates, phenylpyrazoles, phenylpyrazolines, phenylpyridazines, phosphinic acids,

phosphoroamidates, phosphorodithioates, phthalamates, pyrazoles, pyridazinones, pyridines, pyridinecarboxylic acids, pyridinecarboxamides, pyrimidinediones, pyrimidinyl(thio)benzoates, quinolinecarboxylic acids, semicarbazones,

sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinones, sulfonylureas, tetrazolinones, thiadiazoles,

thiocarbamates, triazines, triazinones, triazoles, triazolinones, triazolocarboxamides, triazolopyrimidines, triketones, uracils, ureas.

It may furthermore be beneficial to apply the phenylpyridines of formula (I) alone or in combination with other herbicides, or else in the form of a mixture with other crop protection agents, for example together with agents for controlling pests or phytopathogenic fungi or bacteria. Also of interest is the miscibility with mineral salt solutions, which are employed for treating nutritional and trace element deficiencies. Other additives such as non-phytotoxic oils and oil concentrates may also be added.

In one embodiment of the present invention the compositions disclosed herein comprise at least one phenylpyridine of formula (I) (compound A) and at least one further active compound selected from herbicides B, preferably herbicides B of class b1 ) to b15), and safeners C (compound C). In another embodiment of the present invention the compositions according to the present invention comprise at least one phenylpyridine of formula (I) and at least one further active compound B (herbicide B).

The further herbicidal compound B (component B) is preferably selected from the herbicides of class b1 ) to b15):

B) herbicides of class b1 ) to b15):

b1 ) lipid biosynthesis inhibitors;

b2) acetolactate synthase inhibitors (ALS inhibitors);

b3) photosynthesis inhibitors;

b4) protoporphyrinogen-IX oxidase inhibitors,

b5) bleacher herbicides;

b6) enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase inhibitors (EPSP inhibitors); b7) glutamine synthetase inhibitors;

b8) 7,8-dihydropteroate synthase inhibitors (DHP inhibitors);

b9) mitosis inhibitors;

b10) inhibitors of the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA inhibitors); b1 1 ) cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors;

b12) decoupler herbicides;

b13) auxinic herbicides;

b14) auxin transport inhibitors; and

b15) other herbicides selected from the group consisting of bromobutide, chlorflurenol, chlorflurenol-methyl, cinmethylin, cumyluron, dalapon, dazomet, difenzoquat, difenzoquat-metilsulfate, dimethipin, DSMA, dymron, endothal and its salts, etobenzanid, flamprop, flamprop-isopropyl, flamprop-methyl, flamprop-M-isopropyl, flamprop-M-methyl, flurenol, flurenol-butyl, flurprimidol, fosamine, fosamine-ammonium, indanofan, indaziflam, maleic hydrazide, mefluidide, metam, methiozolin (CAS 403640-27-7), methyl azide, methyl bromide, methyl-dymron, methyl iodide, MSMA, oleic acid, oxaziclomefone, pelargonic acid, pyributicarb, quinoclamine, triaziflam, tridiphane and 6-chloro- 3-(2-cyclopropyl-6-methylphenoxy)-4-pyridazinol (CAS 499223-49-3) and its salts and esters; including their agriculturally acceptable salts or derivatives.

Preference is given to those compositions according to the present invention comprising at least one herbicide B selected from herbicides of class b2, b3, b4, b5, b6, B7, b9 b10 and b13.

Specific preference is given to those compositions according to the present invention which comprise at least one herbicide B selected from the herbicides of class b4, b6, b7, b9, b10 and b13.

Particular preference is given to those compositions according to the present invention which comprise at least one herbicide B selected from the herbicides of class b4, b6, b10 and b13.

Examples of herbicides B which can be used in combination with the phenylpyridines of formula (I) according to the present invention are: b1 ) from the group of the lipid biosynthesis inhibitors:

ACC-herbicides such as alloxydim, alloxydim-sodium, butroxydim, clethodim, clodinafop, clodinafop-propargyl, cycloxydim, cyhalofop, cyhalofop-butyl, diclofop, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop, fenoxaprop-ethyl, fenoxaprop-P, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, fluazifop, fluazifop-butyl, fluazifop-P, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop, haloxyfop-methyl, haloxyfop-P, haloxyfop-P-methyl, metamifop, pinoxaden, profoxydim, propaquizafop, quizalofop, quizalofop-ethyl, quizalofop- tefuryl, quizalofop-P, quizalofop-P-ethyl, quizalofop-P-tefuryl, sethoxydim, tepraloxydim, tralkoxydim, 4-(4'-Chloro-4-cyclopropyl-2'-fluoro[1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-3-yl)-5-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethyl-2H-pyran-3(6H)-one (CAS 1312337-72-6); 4-(2',4'-Dichloro-4-cyclopropyl[1 ,1 '- biphenyl]-3-yl)-5-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-2H-pyran-3(6H) -one (CAS 1312337-45-3); 4- (4'-Chloro-4-ethyl-2'-fluoro[1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-3-yl)-5-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-2H-pyran- 3(6H)-one (CAS 1033757-93-5); 4-(2',4'-Dichloro-4-ethyl[1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-3-yl)-2,2,6,6- tetramethyl-2H-pyran-3,5(4H,6H)-dione (CAS 1312340-84-3); 5-(Acetyloxy)-4-(4'-chloro-4- cyclopropyl-2'-fluoro[1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-3-yl)-3,6-dihydro-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-2H-pyran-3 -one (CAS 1312337-48-6); 5-(Acetyloxy)-4-(2 ' ,4'-dichloro-4-cyclopropyl- [1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-3-yl)-3,6- dihydro-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-2H-pyran-3-one; 5-(Acetyloxy)-4-(4'-chloro-4-ethyl-2'-fluoro[1 ,1 '- biphenyl]-3-yl)-3,6-dihydro-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-2H-pyran-3-o ne (CAS 1312340-82-1 ); 5- (Acetyloxy)-4-(2',4'-dichloro-4-ethyl[1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-3-yl)-3,6-dihydro-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-2H- pyran-3-one (CAS 1033760-55-2); 4-(4 , -Chloro-4-cyclopropyl-2 , -fluoro[1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-3-yl)- 5,6-dihydro-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-5-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl carbonic acid methyl ester (CAS 1312337-51 -1 ); 4-(2 ' ,4'-Dichloro -4-cyclopropyl- [1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-3-yl)-5,6-dihydro-2,2,6,6- tetramethyl-5-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl carbonic acid methyl ester; 4-(4'-Chloro-4-ethyl-2'- fluoro[1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-3-yl)-5,6-dihydro-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-5-oxo-2H-p yran-3-yl carbonic acid methyl ester (CAS 1312340-83-2); 4-(2 , ,4 , -Dichloro-4-ethyl[1 ,1 , -biphenyl]-3-yl)-5,6-dihydro- 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-5-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl carbonic acid methyl ester (CAS 1033760-58-5); and non ACC herbicides such as benfuresate, butylate, cycloate, dalapon, dimepiperate, EPTC, esprocarb, ethofumesate, flupropanate, molinate, orbencarb, pebulate, prosulfocarb, TCA, thiobencarb, tiocarbazil, triallate and vernolate; b2) from the group of the ALS inhibitors:

sulfonylureas such as amidosulfuron, azimsulfuron, bensulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, chlorimuron, chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorsulfuron, cinosulfuron, cyclosulfamuron,

ethametsulfuron, ethametsulfuron-methyl, ethoxysulfuron, flazasulfuron, flucetosulfuron, flupyrsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, foramsulfuron, halosulfuron, halosulfuron- methyl, imazosulfuron, iodosulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, iofensulfuron,

iofensulfuron-sodium, mesosulfuron, metazosulfuron, metsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, orthosulfamuron, oxasulfuron, primisulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl,

propyrisulfuron, prosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, rimsulfuron,

sulfometuron, sulfometuron-methyl, sulfosulfuron, thifensulfuron, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, tribenuron, tribenuron-methyl, trifloxysulfuron, triflusulfuron, thflusulfuron-methyl and tritosulfuron,

imidazolinones such as imazamethabenz, imazamethabenz-methyl, imazamox, imazapic, imazapyr, imazaquin and imazethapyr, triazolopyrimidine herbicides and sulfonamides such as cloransulam, cloransulam-methyl, diclosulam, flumetsulam, florasulam, metosulam, penoxsulam, pyrimisulfan and pyroxsulam,

pyrimidinylbenzoates such as bispyribac, bispyribac-sodium, pyribenzoxim, pyriftalid, pyriminobac, pyriminobac-methyl, pyrithiobac, pyrithiobac-sodium, 4-[[[2-[(4,6-dimethoxy-2- pyrimidinyl)oxy]phenyl]methyl]amino]-benzoic acid-1 -methylethyl ester (CAS 420138-41 -6),

4-[[[2-[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)oxy]phenyl]methyl]am ino]-benzoic acid propyl ester

(CAS 420138-40-5), N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-[(4,6-dimethoxy-2- pyrimidinyl)oxy]benzenemethanamine (CAS 420138-01 -8),

sulfonylaminocarbonyl-triazolinone herbicides such as flucarbazone, flucarbazone-sodium, propoxycarbazone, propoxycarbazone-sodium, thiencarbazone and thiencarbazone-methyl; and triafamone; among these, a preferred embodiment of the invention relates to those compositions comprising at least one imidazolinone herbicide; b3) from the group of the photosynthesis inhibitors:

amicarbazone, inhibitors of the photosystem II, e.g. triazine herbicides, including of chlorotriazine, triazinones, triazindiones, methylthiotriazines and pyridazinones such as ametryn, atrazine, chloridazone, cyanazine, desmetryn, dimethametryn,hexazinone, metribuzin, prometon, prometryn, propazine, simazine, simetryn, terbumeton, terbuthylazin, terbutryn and trietazin, aryl urea such as chlorobromuron, chlorotoluron, chloroxuron, dimefuron, diuron, fluometuron, isoproturon, isouron, linuron, metamitron,

methabenzthiazuron, metobenzuron, metoxuron, monolinuron, neburon, siduron, tebuthiuron and thiadiazuron, phenyl carbamates such as desmedipham, karbutilat, phenmedipham, phenmedipham-ethyl, nitrile herbicides such as bromofenoxim, bromoxynil and its salts and esters, ioxynil and its salts and esters, uraciles such as bromacil, lenacil and terbacil, and bentazon and bentazon-sodium, pyridate, pyridafol, pentanochlor and propanil and inhibitors of the photosystem I such as diquat, diquat-dibromide, paraquat, paraquat-dichloride and paraquat-dimetilsulfate. Among these, a preferred embodiment of the invention relates to those compositions comprising at least one aryl urea herbicide. Among these, likewise a preferred embodiment of the invention relates to those

compositions comprising at least one triazine herbicide. Among these, likewise a preferred embodiment of the invention relates to those compositions comprising at least one nitrile herbicide; b4) from the group of the protoporphyrinogen-IX oxidase inhibitors:

acifluorfen, acifluorfen-sodium, azafenidin, bencarbazone, benzfendizone, bifenox, butafenacil, carfentrazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, chlomethoxyfen, cinidon-ethyl, fluazolate, flufenpyr, flufenpyr-ethyl, flumiclorac, flumiclorac-pentyl, flumioxazin, fluoroglycofen, fluoroglycofen-ethyl, fluthiacet, fluthiacet-methyl, fomesafen, halosafen, lactofen, oxadiargyl, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen, pentoxazone, profluazol, pyraclonil, pyraflufen, pyraflufen-ethyl, saflufenacil, sulfentrazone, thidiazimin, tiafenacil, ethyl [3-[2-chloro-4-fluoro-5-(1 -methyl-6- trifluoromethyl-2,4-dioxo-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-3-yl)phenoxy]-2-pyridyloxy]acetat e (CAS 353292-31 -6; S-3100), N-ethyl-3-(2,6-dichloro-4-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-5-methyl- 1 H-pyrazole-1 -carboxamide (CAS 452098-92-9), N-tetrahydrofurfuryl-3-(2,6-dichloro-4- trifluoromethylphenoxy)-5-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1 -carboxamide (CAS 915396-43-9), N-ethyl- 3-(2-chloro-6-fluoro-4-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-5-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1 -carboxamide (CAS 452099-05-7), N-tetrahydrofurfuryl-3-(2-chloro-6-fluoro-4-trifluoromethylp henoxy)-5-methyl- 1 H-pyrazole-1 -carboxamide (CAS 452100-03-7), 3-[7-fluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3,4- dihydro-2H-benzo[1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl]-1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-[1 ,3,5]triazinan-2,4-dione, 1 ,5- dimethyl-6-thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3 ,4-dihydro-2H- benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), 2-(2,2,7-Trifluoro- 3-oxo-4-prop-2-ynyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-isoindole-1 ,3- dione, 1 -Methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-prop-2- ynyl-3,4-dihydro-2H- benzo[1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 H-pyrimidine-2,4-dione, methyl (E)-4-[2-chloro-5-[4-chloro-5- (difluoromethoxy)-1 H-methyl-pyrazol-3-yl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-3-rnethoxy-but-2-en oate [CAS 948893-00-3], and 3-[7-Chloro-5-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1 H-benzimidazol-4-yl]-1 -methyl- 6-(trifluoromethyl)-1 H-py midine-2,4-dione (CAS 212754-02-4); b5) from the group of the bleacher herbicides:

PDS inhibitors: beflubutamid, diflufenican, fluridone, flurochloridone, flurtamone, norflurazon, picolinafen, and 4-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)- pyrimidine (CAS 180608-33-7), HPPD inhibitors: benzobicyclon, benzofenap, clomazone, fenquintrione, isoxaflutole, mesot ione, pyrasulfotole, pyrazolynate, pyrazoxyfen, sulcotrione, tefuryltrione, tembotrione, topramezone and bicyclopyrone, bleacher, unknown target: aclonifen, amitrole and flumeturon; b6) from the group of the EPSP synthase inhibitors:

glyphosate, glyphosate-isopropylammonium, glyposate-potassium and glyphosate- trimesium (sulfosate); b7) from the group of the glutamine synthase inhibitors:

bilanaphos (bialaphos), bilanaphos-sodium, glufosinate, glufosinate-P and glufosinate- ammonium; b8) from the group of the DHP synthase inhibitors:

asulam; b9) from the group of the mitosis inhibitors:

compounds of group K1 : dinitroanilines such as benfluralin, butralin, dinitramine, ethalfluralin, fluchloralin, oryzalin, pendimethalin, prodiamine and trifluralin,

phosphoramidates such as amiprophos, amiprophos-methyl, and butamiphos, benzoic acid herbicides such as chlorthal, chlorthal-dimethyl, pyridines such as dithiopyr and thiazopyr, benzamides such as propyzamide and tebutam; compounds of group K2: chlorpropham, propham and carbetamide, among these, compounds of group K1 , in particular

dinitroanilines are preferred; b10) from the group of the VLCFA inhibitors:

chloroacetamides such as acetochlor, alachlor, butachlor, dimethachlor, dimethenamid, dimethenamid-P, metazachlor, metolachlor, metolachlor-S, pethoxamid, pretilachlor, propachlor, propisochlor and thenylchlor, oxyacetanilides such as flufenacet and mefenacet, acetanilides such as diphenamid, naproanilide, napropamide and napropamide- M, tetrazolinones such fentrazamide, and other herbicides such as anilofos, cafenstrole, fenoxasulfone, ipfencarbazone, piperophos, pyroxasulfone and isoxazoline compounds of the formulae II.1 , II.2, II.3, II.4, II.5, II.6, II.7, II.8 and II.9

the isoxazoline compounds of the formula (1)1 are known in the art, e.g. from WO 2006/024820, WO 2006/037945, WO 2007/071900 and WO 2007/096576; among the VLCFA inhibitors, preference is given to chloroacetamides and oxyacetamides; b1 1 ) from the group of the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors:

chlorthiamid, dichlobenil, flupoxam, isoxaben and 1 -Cyclohexyl-5-pentafluorphenyloxy-1 4 - [1 ,2,4,6]thiatriazin-3-ylamine; b12) from the group of the decoupler herbicides:

dinoseb, dinoterb and DNOC and its salts; b13) from the group of the auxinic herbicides:

2,4-D and its salts and esters such as clacyfos, 2,4-DB and its salts and esters, aminocyciopyrachior and its salts and esters, aminopyralid and its salts such as aminopyralid-dimethylammonium, aminopyralid-tris(2-hydroxypropyl)ammonium and its esters, benazolin, benazolin-ethyl, chloramben and its salts and esters, clomeprop, clopyralid and its salts and esters, dicamba and its salts and esters, dichlorprop and its salts and esters, dichlorprop-P and its salts and esters, fluroxypyr, fluroxypyr-butometyl, fluroxypyr-meptyl, halauxifen and its salts and esters (CAS 943832-60-8); MCPA and its salts and esters, MCPA-thioethyl, MCPB and its salts and esters, mecoprop and its salts and esters, mecoprop-P and its salts and esters, picloram and its salts and esters, quinclorac, quinmerac, TBA (2,3,6) and its salts and esters and triclopyr and its salts and esters; b14) from the group of the auxin transport inhibitors: diflufenzopyr, diflufenzopyr-sodium, naptalam and naptalam-sodium; b15) from the group of the other herbicides: bromobutide, chlorflurenol, chlorflurenol-methyl, cinmethylin, cumyluron, cyclopyrimorate (CAS 499223-49-3) and its salts and esters, dalapon, dazomet, difenzoquat, difenzoquat-metilsulfate, dimethipin, DSMA, dymron, endothal and its salts, etobenzanid, flamprop, flamprop-isopropyl, flamprop-methyl, flamprop-M-isopropyl, flamprop-M-methyl, flurenol, flurenol-butyl, flurprimidol, fosamine, fosamine-ammonium, indanofan, indaziflam, maleic hydrazide, mefluidide, metam, methiozolin (CAS 403640-27-7), methyl azide, methyl bromide, methyl-dymron, methyl iodide, MSMA, oleic acid, oxaziclomefone, pelargonic acid, pyributicarb, quinoclamine, triaziflam and tridiphane.

Active compounds B and C having a carboxyl group can be employed in the form of the acid, in the form of an agriculturally suitable salt as mentioned above or else in the form of an agriculturally acceptable derivative in the compositions according to the invention.

In the case of dicamba, suitable salts include those, where the counterion is an agriculturally acceptable cation. For example, suitable salts of dicamba are dicamba-sodium, dicamba-potassium, dicamba-methylammonium, dicamba-dimethylammonium, dicamba- isopropylammonium, dicamba-diglycolamine, dicamba-olamine, dicamba-diolamine, dicamba-trolamine, dicamba-N,N-bis-(3-aminopropyl)methylamine and dicamba- diethylenetriamine. Examples of a suitable ester are dicamba-methyl and dicamba-butotyl. Suitable salts of glyphosate are for example glyphosate-ammonium, glyphosate- diammonium, glyphoste-dimethylammonium, glyphosate-isopropylammonium, glyphosate- potassium, glyphosate-sodium, glyphosate-trimesium as well as the ethanolamine and diethanolamine salts, preferably glyphosate-diammonium, glyphosate-isopropylammonium and glyphosate-trimesium (sulfosate).

A suitable salt of glufosinate is for example glufosinate-ammonium.

A suitable salt of glufosinate-P is for example glufosinate-P-ammonium. Particulariy preferred herbicides B are the herbicides B as defined above; in particular the herbicides B.1 - B.189 listed below in table B:

Moreover, it may be useful to apply the phenylpyridines of formula (I) in

combination with safeners. Safeners are chemical compounds which prevent or reduce damage on useful plants without having a major impact on the herbicidal action of the phenylpyridines of the formula (I) towards unwanted plants. They can be applied either before sowings (e.g. on seed treatments, shoots or seedlings) or in the pre-emergence application or post-emergence application of the useful plant.

The safeners and the phenylpyridines of formula (I) and optionally the herbicides B can be applied simultaneously or in succession.

In another embodiment of the present invention the compositions according to the present invention comprise at least one phenylpyridine of formula (I) and at least one safener C (component C).

Suitable safeners are e.g. (quinolin-8-oxy)acetic acids, 1 -phenyl-5-haloalkyl-1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3-carboxylic acids, 1 -phenyl-4,5-dihydro-5-alkyl-1 H-pyrazol-3,5- dicarboxylic acids, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diaryl-3-isoxazol carboxylic acids,

dichloroacetamides, alpha-oximinophenylacetonitriles, acetophenonoximes, 4,6- dihalo-2-phenylpyrimidines, N-[[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]sulfonyl]-2-benzoic amides, 1 ,8-naphthalic anhydride, 2-halo-4-(haloalkyl)-5-thiazol carboxylic acids, phosphorthiolates and N-alkyl-O-phenylcarbamates and their agriculturally acceptable salts and their agriculturally acceptable derivatives such amides, esters, and thioesters, provided they have an acid group.

Examples of preferred safeners C are benoxacor, cloquintocet, cyometrinil, cyprosulfamide, dichlormid, dicyclonon, dietholate, fenchlorazole, fenclorim, flurazole, fluxofenim, furilazole, isoxadifen, mefenpyr, mephenate, naphthalic anhydride, oxabetrinil, 4-(dichloroacetyl)-1 -oxa-4-azaspiro[4.5]decane (MON4660, CAS 71526-07-3), 2,2,5-trimethyl-3-(dichloroacetyl)-1 ,3-oxazolidine (R-29148, CAS 52836-31 -4) and N-(2-Methoxybenzoyl)-4-

[(methylaminocarbonyl)amino]benzenesulfonamide (CAS 129531 -12-0). Particularly preferred safeners C, which, as component C, are constituent of the composition according to the invention are the safeners C as defined above; in particular the safeners C.1 - C.17 listed below in table C:

Table C

The active compounds B of groups b1 ) to b15) and the active compounds C are known herbicides and safeners, see, for example, The Compendium of Pesticide Common Names (http://www.alanwood.net/pesticides/); Farm Chemicals

Handbook 2000 volume 86, Meister Publishing Company, 2000; B. Hock, C.

Fedtke, R. R. Schmidt, Herbizide [Herbicides], Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 1995; W. H. Ahrens, Herbicide Handbook, 7th edition, Weed Science Society of America, 1994; and K. K. Hatzios, Herbicide Handbook, Supplement for the 7th edition, Weed Science Society of America, 1998. 2,2,5-Trimethyl-3-(dichloroacetyl)- 1 ,3-oxazolidine [CAS No. 52836-31 -4] is also referred to as R-29148. 4- (Dichloroacetyl)-1 -oxa-4-azaspiro[4.5]decane [CAS No. 71526-07-3] is also referred to as AD-67 and MON 4660. The assignment of the active compounds to the respective mechanisms of action is based on current knowledge. If several mechanisms of action apply to one active compound, this substance was only assigned to one mechanism of action. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as herbicidal active compound B or component B at least one, preferably exactly one herbicide B.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as herbicidal active compounds B or component B at least two, preferably exactly two herbicides B different from each other. According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as herbicidal active compounds B or component B at least three, preferably exactly three herbicides B different from each other.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as herbicidal active compounds B or component B at least four, preferably exactly four herbicides B different from each other.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as safening component C or component C at least one, preferably exactly one safener C.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as component B at least one, preferably exactly one herbicide B, and as component C at least one, preferably exactly one, safener C.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises at least two, preferably exactly two, herbicides B different from each other, and as component C at least one, preferably exactly one, safener C. According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises at least three, preferably exactly three, herbicides B different from each other, and as component C at least one, preferably exactly one, safener C.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as component A at least one, preferably exactly one compound of formula (I), preferably of formula (I. a), especially preferred the compound (I. a.200), and as component B at least one, preferably exactly one, herbicide B.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as component A at least one, preferably exactly one compound of formula (I), preferably of formula (I. a), especially preferred the compound (I. a.200), and at least two, preferably exactly two, herbicides B different from each other.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as component A at least one, preferably exactly one compound of formula (I), preferably of formula (I. a), especially preferred the compound (I. a.200), and at least three, preferably exactly three, herbicides B different from each other.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as component A at least one, preferably exactly one compound of formula (I), preferably of formula (I. a), especially preferred the compound (I. a.200), and at least four, preferably exactly four, herbicides B different from each other.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as component A at least one, preferably exactly one one compound of formula (I), preferably of formula (I. a), especially preferred the compound (I. a.200), and as component C at least one, preferably exactly one, safener C.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as component A at least one, preferably exactly one compound of formula (I), preferably of formula (I. a), especially preferred the compound (I. a.200), as component B at least one, preferably exactly one, herbicide B, and as component C at least one, preferably exactly one safener C. According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as component A at least one, preferably exactly one compound of formula (I), preferably of formula (I. a), especially preferred the compound (I. a.200), at least two, preferably exactly two herbicides B different from each other, and as component C at least one, preferably exactly one, safener C.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises as component A at least one, preferably exactly one compound of formula (I), preferably of formula (I. a), especially preferred the compound (I. a.200), at least three, preferably exactly three herbicides B different from each other, and as component C at least one, preferably exactly one, safener C.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises, in addition to a phenylpyridine of formula (I), especially an active compound from the group consisting of (I. a.200), (I. a.207), (I. a.214), (I. a.228) and (I. a.234), at least one and especially exactly one herbicidally active compound from group b4), in particular selected from the group consisting of flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, saflufenacil, sulfentrazone, ethyl [3-[2-chloro-4-fluoro-5-(1 -methyl-6- trifluoromethyl-2,4-dioxo-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-3-yl)phenoxy]-2- pyridyloxy]acetate (CAS 353292-31 -6; S-3100 , 3-[7-fluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)- 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl]-1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-[1 ,3,5]triazinan-2,4- dione, 1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl )-3,4-dihydro-2H- benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), 2-(2,2,7- Trifluoro-3-oxo-4-prop-2-ynyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-4, 5,6,7- tetrahydro-isoindole-1 ,3-dione and 1 -methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3- oxo-4-prop-2-ynyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 H-pyrimidine-2,4-dione.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises, in addition to a phenylpyridine of formula (I), especially an active compound from the group consisting of (l.a.200), (I. a.207), (l.a.214), (l.a.228) and (I. a.234), at least one and especially exactly one herbicidally active compound from group b6), in particular selected from the group consisting of glyphosate, glyphosate-isopropylammonium and glyphosate-trimesium (sulfosate). According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises, in addition to a phenylpyridine of formula (I), especially an active compound from the group consisting of (I. a.200), (I. a.207), (I. a.214), (l.a.228) and (I. a.234), at least one and especially exactly one herbicidally active compound from group b7), in particular selected from the group consisting of glufosinate, glufosinate-P and glufosinate-ammonium.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises, in addition to a phenylpyridine of formula (I), especially an active compound from the group consisting of (l.a.200), (I. a.207), (l.a.214), (l.a.228) and (I. a.234), at least one and especially exactly one herbicidally active compound from group b10), in particular selected from the group consisting of acetochlor, cafenstrole, dimethenamid-P, fentrazamide, flufenacet, mefenacet, metazachlor, metolachlor, S-metolachlor, fenoxasulfone and pyroxasulfone. Likewise, preference is given to compositions comprising in addition to a phenylpyridine of formula (I), especially an active compound from the group consisting of (l.a.200), (I. a.207), (l.a.214), (l.a.228) and (I. a.234), at least one and especially exactly one herbicidally active compound from group b10), in particular selected from the group consisting of isoxazoline compounds of the formulae II.1 , II.2, II.3, II.4, II.5, II.6, II.7, II.8 and II.9, as defined above. According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition comprises, in addition to a phenylpyridine of formula (I), especially an active compound from the group consisting of (I. a.200), (I. a.207), (I. a.214), (I. a.228) and (I. a.234), at least one and especially exactly one herbicidally active compound from group b13), in particular selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D and its salts and esters, aminocyclopyrachlor and its salts and esters, aminopyralid and its salts such as aminopyralid-dimethylammonium, aminopyralid-tris(2- hydroxypropyl)ammonium and its esters, clopyralid and its salts and esters, dicamba and its salts and esters, fluroxypyr-meptyl, quinclorac and quinmerac.

Here and below, the term "binary compositions" includes compositions comprising one or more, for example 1 , 2 or 3, active compounds of the formula (I) and either one or more, for example 1 , 2 or 3, herbicides B or one or more safeners C.

Correspondingly, the term "ternary compositions" includes compositions comprising one or more, for example 1 , 2 or 3, active compounds of the formula (I), one or more, for example 1 , 2 or 3, herbicides B and one or more, for example 1 , 2 or 3, safeners C.

In binary compositions comprising at least one compound of the formula (I) as component A and at least one herbicide B, the weight ratio of the active

compounds A:B is generally in the range of from 1 :1000 to 1000: 1 , preferably in the range of from 1 :500 to 500:1 , in particular in the range of from 1 :250 to 250:1 and particularly preferably in the range of from 1 :75 to 75:1 .

In binary compositions comprising at least one compound of the formula (I) as component A and at least one safener C, the weight ratio of the active compounds A:C is generally in the range of from 1 :1000 to 1000:1 , preferably in the range of from 1 :500 to 500:1 , in particular in the range of from 1 :250 to 250:1 and particularly preferably in the range of from 1 :75 to 75:1 .

In ternary compositions comprising at least one phenylpyridine of formula (I) as component A, at least one herbicide B and at least one safener C, the relative proportions by weight of the components A:B are generally in the range of from 1 :1000 to 1000:1 , preferably in the range of from 1 :500 to 500:1 , in particular in the range of from 1 :250 to 250:1 and particularly preferably in the range of from 1 :75 to 75:1 , the weight ratio of the components A:C is generally in the range of from 1 :1000 to 1000:1 , preferably in the range of from 1 :500 to 500:1 , in particular in the range of from 1 :250 to 250:1 and particularly preferably in the range of from 1 :75 to 75:1 , and the weight ratio of the components B:C is generally in the range of from 1 :1000 to 1000:1 , preferably in the range of from 1 :500 to 500:1 , in particular in the range of from 1 :250 to 250:1 and particularly preferably in the range of from 1 :75 to 75:1. The weight ratio of components A + B to component C is preferably in the range of from 1 :500 to 500:1 , in particular in the range of from 1 :250 to 250:1 and particularly preferably in the range of from 1 :75 to 75:1 .

The weight ratios of the individual components in the preferred mixtures mentioned below are within the limits given herein, in particular within the preferred limits.

Particularly preferred are the compositions mentioned below comprising the phenylpyridines of formula (I) as defined and the substance(s) as defined in the respective row of table 1 ;

especially preferred comprising as only herbicidal active compounds the phenylpyridines of formula (I) as defined and the substance(s) as defined in the respective row of table 1 ;

most preferably comprising as only active compounds the phenylpyridines of formula (I) as defined and the substance(s) as defined in the respective row of table 1.

Particularly preferred are compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419, comprising the

phenylpyridine of formula (I. a.200) and the substance(s) as defined in the respective row of table 1 :

The specific number for each single composition is deductible as follows:

Composition 1.777 for example comprises the phenylpyhdine of formula (I. a.200), cloransulam-methyl (B.21 ) and cyprosulfamide (C.4) (see table 1, entry 1.777; as well as table B, entry B.21 and table C, entry C.4).

Composition 2.777 for example comprises the phenylpy dine of formula (I. a.207) (see the definition for compositions 2.1 to 2.3419 below), cloransulam-methyl (B.21 ) and

cyprosulfamide (C.4) (see table 1, entry 1.777; as well as table B, entry B.21 and table C, entry C.4).

Composition 7.777 for example comprises saflufenacil (B.92) (see the definition for compositions 7. 1 to 7.3383 below), and the compound (l.a.200), cloransulam-methyl (B.21 ) and cyprosulfamide (C.4) (see table 1, entry 1.777; as well as table B, entry B.21 and table C, entry C.4).

Also especially preferred are compositions 2.1. to 2.3419 which differ from the

corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they comprise as the active compound A (l.a.207).

Also especially preferred are compositions 3.1. to 3.3419 which differ from the

corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they comprise as the active compound A (I. a.214).

Also especially preferred are compositions 4.1. to 4.3419 which differ from the

corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they comprise as the active compound A (l.a.228). Also especially preferred are compositions 5.1. to 5.3419 which differ from the

corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they comprise as the active compound A (l.a.234).

Also especially preferred are compositions 6.1. to 6.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.88 as further herbicide B.

Also especially preferred are compositions 7.1. to 7.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.92 as further herbicide B. Also especially preferred are compositions 8.1 . to 8.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1 .3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.95 as further herbicide B. Also especially preferred are compositions 9.1 . to 9.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1 .3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.1 16 as further herbicide B.

Also especially preferred are compositions 10.1 . to 10.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.125 as further herbicide B.

Also especially preferred are compositions 1 1 .1 . to 1 1.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.151 as further herbicide B.

Also especially preferred are compositions 12. I . to 12.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1 .3419 only in :hat they additionally comprise B.88 and B.1 16 as further herbicides B.

Also especially preferred are compositions 13. I . to 13.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1 .3419 only in hat they additionally comprise B.92 and B.1 16 as further herbicides B.

Also especially preferred are compositions 14. I . to 14.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1 .3419 only in hat they additionally comprise B.95 and B.1 16 as further herbicides B. Also especially preferred are compositions 15. I . to 15.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in hat they additionally comprise B.1 16 and B.125 as further herbicides B.

Also especially preferred are compositions 16. I . to 16.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in hat they additionally comprise B.1 16 and B.151 as further herbicides B.

Also especially preferred are compositions 17.1 . to 17.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1 .3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.88 , B.92 and B.1 16 as further herbicides B. Also especially preferred are compositions 18.1 . to 18.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.95, B.92 and B.1 16 as further herbicides B. Also especially preferred are compositions 19.1 . to 19.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.92, B.1 16 and B.125 as further herbicides B.

Also especially preferred are compositions 20.1 . to 20.3419 which differ from the corresponding compositions 1 .1 to 1.3419 only in that they additionally comprise B.92, B.1 16 and B.151 as further herbicides B.

It is generally preferred to use the compounds of the invention in combination with herbicides that are selective for the crop being treated and which complement the spectrum of weeds controlled by these compounds at the application rate employed. It is further generally preferred to apply the compounds of the invention and other complementary herbicides at the same time, either as a combination formulation or as a tank mix. It is recognized that the polynucleotide molecules and polypeptides of the invention encompass polypeptides comprising an amino acid sequence that is sufficiently identical to the amino acid sequences set forth in SEQ ID Nos: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 1 1 , 1 12, 113, 1 14, 1 15, 116, 1 17, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271 , 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 , 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291 , 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301 , 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 31 1 , 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321 , 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327328, 329, 330, 331 , 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341 , 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351 , 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361 , 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371 , 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381 , 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391 , 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401 , 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 41 1 , 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421 , 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431 , 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441 , 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451 , 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461 , 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471 , 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481 , 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491 , 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 , 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511 , 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521 , 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531 , 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541 , 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551 , 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561 , 562, 563, 564, or 565,. The term "sufficiently identical" is used herein to refer to a first amino acid or nucleotide sequence that contains a sufficient or minimum number of identical or equivalent (e.g., with a similar side chain) amino acid residues or nucleotides to a second amino acid or nucleotide sequence such that the first and second amino acid or nucleotide sequences have a common structural domain and/or common functional activity.

Generally, "sequence identity" refers to the extent to which two optimally aligned DNA or amino acid sequences are invariant throughout a window of alignment of components, e.g., nucleotides or amino acids. An "identity fraction" for aligned segments of a test sequence and a reference sequence is the number of identical components that are shared by the two aligned sequences divided by the total number of components in reference sequence segment, i.e., the entire reference sequence or a smaller defined part of the reference sequence. "Percent identity" is the identity fraction times 100. Optimal alignment of sequences for aligning a comparison window are well known to those skilled in the art and may be conducted by tools such as the local homology algorithm of Smith and Waterman, the homology alignment algorithm of Needleman and Wunsch, the search for similarity method of Pearson and Lipman, and preferably by computerized implementations of these algorithms such as GAP, BESTFIT, FASTA, and TFASTA available as part of the GCG. Wisconsin Package. (Accelrys Inc. Burlington, Mass.)

Polynucleotides and Oligonucleotides

By an "isolated polynucleotide", including DNA, RNA, or a combination of these, single or double stranded, in the sense or antisense orientation or a combination of both, dsRNA or otherwise, we mean a polynucleotide which is at least partially separated from the polynucleotide sequences with which it is associated or linked in its native state. That means other nucleic acid molecules are present in an amount less than 5% based on weight of the amount of the desired nucleic acid, preferably less than 2% by weight, more preferably less than 1 % by weight, most preferably less than 0.5% by weight. Preferably, an "isolated" nucleic acid is free of some of the sequences that naturally flank the nucleic acid (i.e., sequences located at the 5' and 3' ends of the nucleic acid) in the genomic DNA of the organism from which the nucleic acid is derived. For example, in various embodiments, the isolated herbicide resistance and/or tolerance related protein encoding nucleic acid molecule can contain less than about 5 kb, 4 kb, 3 kb, 2 kb, 1 kb, 0.5 kb or 0.1 kb of nucleotide sequences which naturally flank the nucleic acid molecule in genomic DNA of the cell from which the nucleic acid is derived. Moreover, an "isolated" nucleic acid molecule, such as a cDNA molecule, can be free from some of the other cellular material with which it is naturally associated, or culture medium when produced by recombinant techniques, or chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized.

Preferably, the isolated polynucleotide is at least 60% free, preferably at least 75% free, and most preferably at least 90% free from other components with which they are naturally associated. As the skilled addressee would be aware, an isolated polynucleotide can be an exogenous polynucleotide present in, for example, a transgenic organism which does not naturally comprise the polynucleotide. Furthermore, the terms "polynucleotide(s)", "nucleic acid sequence(s)", "nucleotide sequence(s)", "nucleic acid(s)", "nucleic acid molecule" are used interchangeably herein and refer to nucleotides, either ribonucleotides or

deoxyribonucleotides or a combination of both, in a polymeric unbranched form of any length.

The term "mutated PPO nucleic acid" refers to a PPO nucleic acid having a sequence that is mutated from a wild-type PPO nucleic acid, such as e.g. SEQ ID NO: 1 18, 1 19, 120, 121 , 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 624, or 626, or homologues, paralogues and and orthologues thereof; and that confers increased phenylpyridine herbicide tolerance to a plant in which it is expressed. Furthermore, the term "mutated protoporphyrinogen oxidase (mutated PPO)" refers to the replacement of an amino acid of the wild-type primary sequences SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 11 , 112, 1 13, 1 14, 115, 1 16, 1 17, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, or a variant, a derivative, a homologue, an orthologue, or paralogue thereof, with another amino acid. The expression "mutated amino acid" will be used below to designate the amino acid which is replaced by another amino acid, thereby designating the site of the mutation in the primary sequence of the protein.

In a preferred embodiment, the PPO nucleotide sequence encoding a mutated PPO comprises the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 18, 119, 120, 121 , 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 624, or 626, or a variant or derivative thereof.

Furthermore, it will be understood by the person skilled in the art that the PPO nucleotide sequences encompasse homologues, paralogues and and orthologues of SEQ ID NO: 1 18, 1 19, 120, 121 , 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 624, or 626, as defined hereinafter. The term "variant" with respect to a sequence (e.g., a polypeptide or nucleic acid sequence such as - for example - a transcription regulating nucleotide sequence of the invention) is intended to mean substantially similar sequences. For nucleotide sequences comprising an open reading frame, variants include those sequences that, because of the degeneracy of the genetic code, encode the identical amino acid sequence of the native protein. Naturally occurring allelic variants such as these can be identified with the use of well-known molecular biology techniques, as, for example, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization techniques. Variant nucleotide sequences also include synthetically derived nucleotide sequences, such as those generated, for example, by using site-directed mutagenesis and for open reading frames, encode the native protein, as well as those that encode a polypeptide having amino acid substitutions relative to the native protein, e.g. the mutated PPO according to the present invention as disclosed herein.

Generally, nucleotide sequence variants of the invention will have at least 30, 40, 50, 60, to 70%, e.g., preferably 71 %, 72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, to 79%, generally at least 80%, e.g., 81 %-84%, at least 85%, e.g., 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91 %, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, to 98% and 99% nucleotide "sequence identity" to the nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 1 1 , 1 12, 113, 1 14, 1 15, 1 16, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, 627, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271 , 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 , 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291 , 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301 , 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 31 1 , 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321 , 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327328, 329, 330, 331 , 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341 , 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351 , 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361 , 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371 , 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381 , 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391 , 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401 , 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 41 1 , 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421 , 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431 , 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441 , 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451 , 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461 , 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471 , 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481 , 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491 , 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 , 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 51 1 , 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521 , 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531 , 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541 , 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551 , 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561 , 562, 563, 564, or 565. The % identity of a polynucleotide is determined by GAP (Needleman and Wunsch, 1970) analysis (GCG program) with a gap creation penalty=5, and a gap extension penalty=0.3. Unless stated otherwise, the query sequence is at least 45 nucleotides in length, and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 45 nucleotides. Preferably, the query sequence is at least 150 nucleotides in length, and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 150 nucleotides. More preferably, the query sequence is at least 300 nucleotides in length and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 300 nucleotides. Even more preferably, the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over their entire length. Polypeptides

By "substantially purified polypeptide" or "purified" a polypeptide is meant that has been separated from one or more lipids, nucleic acids, other polypeptides, or other contaminating molecules with which it is associated in its native state. It is preferred that the substantially purified polypeptide is at least 60% free, more preferably at least 75% free, and more preferably at least 90% free from other components with which it is naturally associated. As the skilled addressee will appreciate, the purified polypeptide can be a recombinantly produced polypeptide. The terms "polypeptide" and "protein" are generally used

interchangeably and refer to a single polypeptide chain which may or may not be modified by addition of non-amino acid groups. It would be understood that such polypeptide chains may associate with other polypeptides or proteins or other molecules such as co-factors. The terms "proteins" and "polypeptides" as used herein also include variants, mutants, modifications, analogous and/or derivatives of the polypeptides of the invention as described herein.

The % identity of a polypeptide is determined by GAP (Needleman and Wunsch, 1970) analysis (GCG program) with a gap creation penalty=5, and a gap extension penalty=0.3. The query sequence is at least 25 amino acids in length, and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 25 amino acids. More preferably, the query sequence is at least 50 amino acids in length, and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 50 amino acids. More preferably, the query sequence is at least 100 amino acids in length and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 100 amino acids. Even more preferably, the query sequence is at least 250 amino acids in length and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 250 amino acids. Even more preferably, the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over their entire length. With regard to a defined polypeptide, it will be appreciated that % identity figures higher than those provided above will encompass preferred embodiments. Thus, where applicable, in light of the minimum % identity figures, it is preferred that the PPO polypeptide of the invention comprises an amino acid sequence which is at least 40%, more preferably at least 45%, more preferably at least 50%, more preferably at least 55%, more preferably at least 60%, more preferably at least 65%, more preferably at least 70%, more preferably at least 75%, more preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91 %, more preferably at least 92%, more preferably at least 93%, more preferably at least 94%, more preferably at least 95%, more preferably at least 96%, more preferably at least 97%, more preferably at least 98%, more preferably at least 99%, more preferably at least 99.1 %, more preferably at least 99.2%, more preferably at least 99.3%, more preferably at least 99.4%, more preferably at least 99.5%, more preferably at least 99.6%, more preferably at least 99.7%, more preferably at least 99.8%, and even more preferably at least 99.9% identical to SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, 627, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 , 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291 , 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441 , 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451 , 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491 , 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 , 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561 , 562, 563, 564, or 565.

By "variant" polypeptide is intended a polypeptide derived from the protein of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, 627, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 , 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291 , 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351 , 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361 , 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371 , 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381 , 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391 , 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401 , 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431 , 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441 , 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451 , 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461 , 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471 , 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481 , 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491 , 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 , 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 51 1 , 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521 , 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531 , 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541 , 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551 , 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561 , 562, 563, 564, or 565, by deletion (so-called truncation) or addition of one or more amino acids to the N-terminal and/or C-terminal end of the native protein; deletion or addition of one or more amino acids at one or more sites in the native protein; or substitution of one or more amino acids at one or more sites in the native protein. Such variants may result from, for example, genetic polymorphism or from human manipulation. Methods for such manipulations are generally known in the art.

"Derivatives" of a protein encompass peptides, oligopeptides, polypeptides, proteins and enzymes having amino acid substitutions, deletions and/or insertions relative to the unmodified protein in question and having similar biological and functional activity as the unmodified protein from which they are derived.

"Homologues" of a protein encompass peptides, oligopeptides, polypeptides, proteins and enzymes having amino acid substitutions, deletions and/or insertions relative to the unmodified protein in question and having similar biological and functional activity as the unmodified protein from which they are derived.

A deletion refers to removal of one or more amino acids from a protein. An insertion refers to one or more amino acid residues being introduced into a

predetermined site in a protein. Insertions may comprise N-terminal and/or C-terminal fusions as well as intra-sequence insertions of single or multiple amino acids. Generally, insertions within the amino acid sequence will be smaller than N- or C-terminal fusions, of the order of about 1 to 10 residues. Examples of N- or C-terminal fusion proteins or peptides include the binding domain or activation domain of a transcriptional activator as used in the yeast two-hybrid system, phage coat proteins, (histidine)-6-tag, glutathione S- transferase-tag, protein A, maltose-binding protein, dihydrofolate reductase, Tag*100 epitope, c-myc epitope, FLAG ® -epitope, lacZ, CMP (calmodulin-binding peptide), HA epitope, protein C epitope and VSV epitope.

A substitution refers to replacement of amino acids of the protein with other amino acids having similar properties (such as similar hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, antigenicity, propensity to form or break a-helical structures or β-sheet structures). Amino acid substitutions are typically of single residues, but may be clustered depending upon functional constraints placed upon the polypeptide and may range from 1 to 10 amino acids; insertions will usually be of the order of about 1 to 10 amino acid residues. The amino acid substitutions are preferably conservative amino acid substitutions. Conservative substitution tables are well known in the art (see for example Creighton (1984) Proteins. W.H. Freeman and Company (Eds).

Table 1 : Examples of conserved amino acid substitutions

Amino acid substitutions, deletions and/or insertions may readily be made using peptide synthetic techniques well known in the art, such as solid phase peptide synthesis and the like, or by recombinant DNA manipulation. Methods for the manipulation of DNA sequences to produce substitution, insertion or deletion variants of a protein are well known in the art. For example, techniques for making substitution mutations at predetermined sites in DNA are well known to those skilled in the art and include M 13 mutagenesis, T7-Gen in vitro mutagenesis (USB, Cleveland, OH), QuickChange Site Directed mutagenesis (Stratagene, San Diego, CA), PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis or other site-directed

mutagenesis protocols.

"Derivatives" further include peptides, oligopeptides, polypeptides which may, compared to the amino acid sequence of the naturally-occurring form of the protein, such as the protein of interest, comprise substitutions of amino acids with non-naturally occurring amino acid residues, or additions of non-naturally occurring amino acid residues. "Derivatives" of a protein also encompass peptides, oligopeptides, polypeptides which comprise naturally occurring altered (glycosylated, acylated, prenylated, phosphorylated, myristoylated, sulphated etc.) or non-naturally altered amino acid residues compared to the amino acid sequence of a naturally-occurring form of the polypeptide. A derivative may also comprise one or more non-amino acid substituents or additions compared to the amino acid sequence from which it is derived, for example a reporter molecule or other ligand, covalently or non-covalently bound to the amino acid sequence, such as a reporter molecule which is bound to facilitate its detection, and non-naturally occurring amino acid residues relative to the amino acid sequence of a naturally-occurring protein. Furthermore, "derivatives" also include fusions of the naturally-occurring form of the protein with tagging peptides such as FLAG, HIS6 or thioredoxin (for a review of tagging peptides, see Terpe, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 60, 523-533, 2003).

"Orthologues" and "paralogues" encompass evolutionary concepts used to describe the ancestral relationships of genes. Paralogues are genes within the same species that have originated through duplication of an ancestral gene; orthologues are genes from different organisms that have originated through speciation, and are also derived from a common ancestral gene.

It is well-known in the art that paralogues and orthologues may share distinct domains harboring suitable amino acid residues at given sites, such as binding pockets for particular substrates or binding motifs for interaction with other proteins.

The term "domain" refers to a set of amino acids conserved at specific positions along an alignment of sequences of evolutionarily related proteins. While amino acids at other positions can vary between homologues, amino acids that are highly conserved at specific positions indicate amino acids that are likely essential in the structure, stability or function of a protein. Identified by their high degree of conservation in aligned sequences of a family of protein homologues, they can be used as identifiers to determine if any polypeptide in question belongs to a previously identified polypeptide family.

The term "motif or "consensus sequence" refers to a short conserved region in the sequence of evolutionarily related proteins. Motifs are frequently highly conserved parts of domains, but may also include only part of the domain, or be located outside of conserved domain (if all of the amino acids of the motif fall outside of a defined domain). Preferred motifs which are contained in the sequences of the PPO polypeptides according to the present invention are SQ[N/K/H]KRYI, TLGTLFSS, [F/Y]TTF[V/I]GG.

Specialist databases exist for the identification of domains, for example, SMART (Schultz et al. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864; Letunic et al. (2002) Nucleic Acids Res 30, 242-244), InterPro (Mulder et al., (2003) Nucl. Acids. Res. 31 , 315-318), Prosite

(Bucher and Bairoch (1994), A generalized profile syntax for biomoiecular sequences motifs and its function in automatic sequence interpretation. (In) ISMB-94; Proceedings 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology. Altman R., Brutlag D., Karp P., Lathrop R., Searls D., Eds., pp53-61 , AAAI Press, Menlo Park; Hulo et al., Nucl. Acids. Res. 32:D134-D137, (2004)), or Pfam (Bateman et al., Nucleic Acids Research 30(1 ): 276-280 (2002)). A set of tools for in silico analysis of protein sequences is available on the ExPASy proteomics server (Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (Gasteiger et al., ExPASy: the proteomics server for in-depth protein knowledge and analysis, Nucleic Acids Res. 31 :3784-3788(2003)). Domains or motifs may also be identified using routine techniques, such as by sequence alignment.

Methods for the alignment of sequences for comparison are well known in the art, such methods include GAP, BESTFIT, BLAST, FASTA and TFASTA. GAP uses the algorithm of Needleman and Wunsch ((1970) J Mol Biol 48: 443-453) to find the global (i.e. spanning the complete sequences) alignment of two sequences that maximizes the number of matches and minimizes the number of gaps. The BLAST algorithm (Altschul et al. (1990) J Mol Biol 215: 403-10) calculates percent sequence identity and performs a statistical analysis of the similarity between the two sequences. The software for performing BLAST analysis is publicly available through the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).

Homologues may readily be identified using, for example, the ClustalW multiple sequence alignment algorithm (version 1.83), with the default pairwise alignment parameters, and a scoring method in percentage. Global percentages of similarity and identity may also be determined using one of the methods available in the MatGAT software package

(Campanella et al., BMC Bioinformatics. 2003 Jul 10;4:29. MatGAT: an application that generates similarity/identity matrices using protein or DNA sequences.). Minor manual editing may be performed to optimise alignment between conserved motifs, as would be apparent to a person skilled in the art. Furthermore, instead of using full-length sequences for the identification of homologues, specific domains may also be used. The sequence identity values may be determined over the entire nucleic acid or amino acid sequence or over selected domains or conserved motif(s), using the programs mentioned above using the default parameters. For local alignments, the Smith-Waterman algorithm is particularly useful (Smith TF, Waterman MS (1981 ) J. Mol. Biol 147(1 );195-7).

The inventors of the present invention have found that by substituting one or more of the key amino acid residues, employing e.g. one of the above described methods to mutate the encoding nucleic acids, the phenylpyridine herbicide tolerance or resistance could be remarkably increased as compared to the activity of the wild type PPO enzymes with SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 11 , 112, 1 13, 1 14, 115, 1 16, or 117, . Preferred substitutions of mutated PPO are those that increase the herbicide tolerance of the plant, but leave the biological activitiy of the oxidase activity substantially unaffected. Accordingly, in another object of the present invention the key amino acid residues of a

PPO enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 11 , 112, 1 13, 1 14, 115, 1 16, or 117, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, is substituted by any other amino acid. In one embodiment, the key amino acid residues of a PPO enzyme, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, is substituted by a conserved amino acid as depicted in Table 1.

It will be understood by the person skilled in the art that amino acids located in a close proximity to the positions of amino acids mentioned below may also be substituted. Thus, in another embodiment the variant of SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 1 1 , 1 12, 113, 1 14, 1 15, 1 16, 1 17, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof comprises a mutated PPO, wherein an amino acid ±3, ±2 or ±1 amino acid positions from a key amino acid is substituted by any other amino acid.

Based on techniques well-known in the art, a highly characteristic sequence pattern can be developed, by means of which further of mutated PPO candidates with the desired activity may be searched.

Searching for further mutated PPO candidates by applying a suitable sequence pattern would also be encompassed by the present invention. It will be understood by a skilled reader that the present sequence pattern is not limited by the exact distances between two adjacent amino acid residues of said pattern. Each of the distances between two neighbours in the above patterns may, for example, vary independently of each other by up to ±10, ± 5, ±3, ±2 or ±1 amino acid positions without substantially affecting the desired activity.

Furthermore, by applying the method of site directed mutagenesis, in particular saturation mutagenes (see e.g. Schenk et al., Biospektrum 03/2006, pages 277-279), the inventors of the present invention have identified and generated specific amino acid subsitutions and combinations thereof, which - when introduced into a plant by transforming and expressing the respective mutated PPO encoding nucleic acid - confer increased herbicide resistance or tolerance to a phenylpyridine herbicide to said plant.

Thus, in a particularly preferred embodiment, the variant or derivative of the mutated PPO refers to a polypeptide comprsining SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, or 117, , comprising a single amino acid substitution at positions depicted in the following Table 2a.. Table 2a: Single amino acid substitutions within SEQ ID NO: 1,2,3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, or 117

In a further particularly preferred embodiment, the variant or derivative of the mutated PPO refers to SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 11 , 112, 1 13, 1 14, 1 15, 1 16, or 117, comprising a single amino acid substitutions at the positions depicted in the following Table 2b.

It should be noted that Mutated site 1 of Table 2a) corresponds to Pos 1 of Table 2b); Mutated site 2 of Table 2a) corresponds to Pos 16 of Table 2b); Mutated site 3 of Table 2a) corresponds to Pos 17 of Table 2b); Mutated site 4 of Table 2a) corresponds to Pos 38 of Table 2b); Mutated site 5 of Table 2a) corresponds to Pos 42 of Table 2b).

Assays to test for the functionality of such mutants are readily available in the art, and respectively, described in the Example section of the present invention.

In a preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO refers to a polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, or117, in which the amino acid sequence differs at Mutated site 1 (which corresponds to Arg128 of SEQ ID NO: 1) according to Table 2a, and/or at Mutated site 5 (which corresponds to Phe420 of SEQ ID NO: 1) according to Table 2a.

Examples of differences at these amino acid positions include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following:

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is other than Arginine (orTryosine, or Cysteine; as the case may be according to Table 2a);

the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is other than Phenylalanine (or Methionine, or Tyrosine, or Leucine, as the case may be according to Table 2a),

In particularly preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,

27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50,

51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98,

99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 (which corresponds to Arg128 of SEQ ID NO: 1) is Leu, Ala, Val, lie, Met, Tyr, Gly, Asn, Cys, Phe, Ser, Thr, Gin, or His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 (which corresponds to Phe420 of SEQ ID NO: 1) is Ala, Leu, Val, He, or Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,

28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51,

52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,

100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 ,

613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Leu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Leu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Leu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Leu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is He.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Leu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 3 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 4 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 5 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is He.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is He.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 3 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 4 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 5 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is He.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 1 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO refers to a polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, or 117, in which the amino acid sequence differs at Mutated site 4 (which corresponds to Leu397 of SEQ ID NO: 1) according to Table 2a, and/or at Mutated site 5 (which

corresponds to Phe420 of SEQ ID NO: 1) according to Table 2a. Examples of differences at these amino acid positions include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following:

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is other than Leucine (or Alanine, or Serine, or

Phenylalanine, as the case may be according to Table 2a);

the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is other than Phenylalanine (or Methionine, or Tyrosine, or Leucine, as the case may be according to Table 2a),

In particularly preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,

27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74,

75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98,

99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 (which corresponds to Leu397 of SEQ ID NO: 1) is Ala, Arg, Val, lie, Met, His, Lys, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr, Asn, Gin, Cys, Gly, Pro, Phe, Tyr, orTrp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 (which corresponds to Phe420 of SEQ ID NO: 1) is Ala, Leu, Val, lie, Met, His, Lys, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr, Asn, Gin, Cys, Gly, Pro, Arg, Tyr, orTrp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,

28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,

100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ala, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 8 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 9 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Arg, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 8 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 9 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Val, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 6 9, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is lie, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Met, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which : the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is His, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Lys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is He.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Glu, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 6 9, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Ser, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 6 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 7 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Thr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is He. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Asn, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 6 9, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gin, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is He.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Cys, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Gly, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Pro, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is He.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Phe, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 6 9, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Tyr, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ala.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Leu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Val.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is lie.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Met.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is His. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Lys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asp. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Glu.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Ser.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Thr. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Asn.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gin.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Cys.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Gly. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Pro.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Arg.

In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 611 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Tyr. In another preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO comprises a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 577, 579, 581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, or 627, a variant, derivative, orthologue, paralogue or homologue thereof, in which :

the amino acid at Mutated site 4 is Trp, and the amino acid at Mutated site 5 is Trp.

It will be within the knowledge of the skilled artisan to identify conserved regions and motifs shared between the homologues, orthologues and paralogues of PPO polypeptides comprising SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 1 1 , 1 12, 1 13, 1 14, 115, 1 16, or 117. Having identified such conserved regions that may represent suitable binding motifs, amino acids corresponding to the amino acids listed in Table 2a and 2b can be chosen to be subsituted by any other amino acid, preferably by the amino acids listed under mutated sites 1 , 2, 3, 4, or 5.

Accordingly, preferred motifs shared between the homologues, orthologues and paralogues of PPO polypeptides described above are Motif 1 : SQ[N/K/H]KRYI, wherein the Arg at position 5 within said motif is substituted by Leu, Ala, Val, lie, Met, Tyr, Gly, Asn, Cys, Phe, Ser, Thr, Gin, or His; Motif 2: TLGTLFSS, wherein the Leu at position 2 within said motif is substituted by Ala, Arg, Val, lie, Met, His, Lys, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr, Asn, Gin, Cys, Gly, Pro, Phe, Tyr, or Trp; Motif 3: [F/Y]TTF[V/I]GG, wherein the Phe at position 4 within said motif is substituted by Ala, Leu, Val, He, Met, His, Lys, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr, Asn, Gin, Cys, Gly, Pro, Arg, Tyr, or Trp. Further examples of such homologues, orthologues and paralogues are PPO polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627. In addition, the present invention refers to a method for identifying a phenylpyridine herbicide by using a herbicide tolerant PPO polypeptide as defined SUPRA.

Said method comprises the steps of:

a) generating a transgenic cell or plant comprising a nucleic acid encoding a mutated PPO, wherein the mutated PPO is expressed;

b) applying a phenylpyridine herbicide to the transgenic cell or plant of a) and to a control cell or plant of the same variety;

c) determining the growth or the viability of the transgenic cell or plant and the control cell or plant after application of said phenylpyridine herbicide, and

d) selecting "phenylpyridine herbicides" which confer reduced growth to the control cell or plant as compared to the growth of the transgenic cell or plant. By "control cell" or "similar, wild-type, plant, plant tissue, plant cell or host cell" is intended a plant, plant tissue, plant cell, or host cell, respectively, that lacks the herbicide-resistance characteristics and/or particular polynucleotide of the invention that are disclosed herein. The use of the term "wild-type" is not, therefore, intended to imply that a plant, plant tissue, plant cell, or other host cell lacks recombinant DNA in its genome, and/or does not possess herbicide-resistant characteristics that are different from those disclosed herein.

Another object refers to a method of identifying a nucleotide sequence encoding a mutated PPO which is resistant or tolerant to a phenylpyridine herbicide, the method comprising: a) generating a library of mutated PPO-encoding nucleic acids,

b) screening a population of the resulting mutated PPO-encoding nucleic acids by

expressing each of said nucleic acids in a cell or plant and treating said cell or plant with a phenylpyridine herbicide,

c) comparing the phenylpyridine herbicide-tolerance levels provided by said population of mutated PPO encoding nucleic acids with the phenylpyridine herbicide-tolerance level provided by a control PPO-encoding nucleic acid,

d) selecting at least one mutated PPO-encoding nucleic acid that provides a significantly increased level of tolerance to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to that provided by the control PPO-encoding nucleic acid.

In a preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO-encoding nucleic acid selected in step d) provides at least 2-fold as much resistance or tolerance of a cell or plant to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to that provided by the control PPO-encoding nucleic acid. In a further preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO-encoding nucleic acid selected in step d) provides at least 2-fold, at least 5-fold, at least 10-fold, at least 20-fold, at least 50-fold, at least 100-fold, at least 500-fold, as much resistance or tolerance of a cell or plant to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to that provided by the control PPO-encoding nucleic acid.

The resistance or tolerance can be determined by generating a transgenic plant or host cell, preferably a plant cell, comprising a nucleic acid sequence of the library of step a) and comparing said transgenic plant with a control plant or host cell, preferably a plant cell. Another object refers to a method of identifying a plant or algae containing a nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a wild-type or mutated PPO which is resistant or tolerant to a phenylpyridine herbicide, the method comprising:

a) identifying an effective amount of a phenylpyridine herbicide in a culture of plant cells or green algae that leads to death of said cells.

b) treating said plant cells or green algae with a mutagenizing agent,

c) contacting said mutagenized cells population with an effective amount of

phenylpyridine herbicide, identified in a), d) selecting at least one cell surviving these test conditions,

e) PCR-amplification and sequencing of PPO genes from cells selected in d) and

comparing such sequences to wild-type PPO gene sequences, respectively. In a preferred embodiment, said mutagenizing agent is ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS). Many methods well known to the skilled artisan are available for obtaining suitable candidate nucleic acids for identifying a nucleotide sequence encoding a mutated PPO from a variety of different potential source organisms including microbes, plants, fungi, algae, mixed cultures etc. as well as environmental sources of DNA such as soil. These methods include inter alia the preparation of cDNA or genomic DNA libraries, the use of suitably degenerate oligonucleotide primers, the use of probes based upon known sequences or complementation assays (for example, for growth upon tyrosine) as well as the use of mutagenesis and shuffling in order to provide recombined or shuffled mutated PPO- encoding sequences.

Nucleic acids comprising candidate and control PPO encoding sequences can be expressed in yeast, in a bacterial host strain, in an alga or in a higher plant such as tobacco or Arabidopsis and the relative levels of inherent tolerance of the PPO encoding sequences screened according to a visible indicator phenotype of the transformed strain or plant in the presence of different concentrations of the selected phenylpyridine herbicide. Dose responses and relative shifts in dose responses associated with these indicator phenotypes (formation of brown color, growth inhibition, herbicidal effect etc) are conveniently expressed in terms, for example, of GR50 (concentration for 50% reduction of growth) or MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values where increases in values correspond to increases in inherent tolerance of the expressed PPO. For example, in a relatively rapid assay system based upon transformation of a bacterium such as E. coli, each mutated PPO encoding sequence may be expressed, for example, as a DNA sequence under expression control of a controllable promoter such as the lacZ promoter and taking suitable account, for example by the use of synthetic DNA, of such issues as codon usage in order to obtain as comparable a level of expression as possible of different PPO sequences. Such strains expressing nucleic acids comprising alternative candidate PPO sequences may be plated out on different concentrations of the selected phenylpyridine herbicide in, optionally, a tyrosine supplemented medium and the relative levels of inherent tolerance of the expressed PPO enzymes estimated on the basis of the extent and MIC for inhibition of the formation of the brown, ochronotic pigment.

In another embodiment, candidate nucleic acids are transformed into plant material to generate a transgenic plant, regenerated into morphologically normal fertile plants which are then measured for differential tolerance to selected phenylpyridine herbicides as described in the Example section hereinafter. Many suitable methods for transformation using suitable selection markers such as kanamycin, binary vectors such as from

Agrobacterium and plant regeneration as, for example, from tobacco leaf discs are well known in the art. Optionally, a control population of plants is likewise transformed with a nucleic acid expressing the control PPO. Alternatively, an untransformed dicot plant such as Arabidopsis or Tobacco can be used as a control since this, in any case, expresses its own endogenous PPO. The average, and distribution, of herbicide tolerance levels of a range of primary plant transformation events or their progeny to phenylpyridine herbicides described supra are evaluated in the normal manner based upon plant damage, meristematic bleaching symptoms etc. at a range of different concentrations of herbicides. These data can be expressed in terms of, for example, GR50 values derived from dose/response curves having "dose" plotted on the x-axis and "percentage kill", "herbicidal effect",

"numbers of emerging green plants" etc. plotted on the y-axis where increased GR50 values correspond to increased levels of inherent tolerance of the expressed PPO.

Herbicides can suitably be applied pre-emergence or post-emergence.

In another embodiment, the invention refers to a plant cell transformed by a nucleic acid encoding a herbicide tolerant PPO polypeptide disclosed herein or to a plant cell which has been mutated to obtain a plant expressing a nucleic acid encoding a mutated PPO polypeptide according to the present invention, wherein expression of the nucleic acid in the plant cell results in increased resistance or tolerance to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild type variety of the plant cell.

The term "expression/expressing" or "gene expression" means the transcription of a specific gene or specific genes or specific genetic construct. The term "expression" or "gene expression" in particular means the transcription of a gene or genes or genetic construct into structural RNA (rRNA, tRNA) or mRNA with or without subsequent translation of the latter into a protein. The process includes transcription of DNA and processing of the resulting mRNA product.

To obtain the desired effect, i.e. plants that are tolerant or resistant to the phenylpyridine herbicide derivative herbicide of the present invention, it will be understood that the at least one nucleic acid is "over-expressed" by methods and means known to the person skilled in the art.

The term "increased expression" or "overexpression" as used herein means any form of expression that is additional to the original wild-type expression level. Methods for increasing expression of genes or gene products are well documented in the art and include, for example, overexpression driven by appropriate promoters, the use of transcription enhancers or translation enhancers. Isolated nucleic acids which serve as promoter or enhancer elements may be introduced in an appropriate position (typically upstream) of a non-heterologous form of a polynucleotide so as to upregulate expression of a nucleic acid encoding the polypeptide of interest. For example, endogenous promoters may be altered in vivo by mutation, deletion, and/or substitution (see, Kmiec, US 5,565,350; Zarling et al., W09322443), or isolated promoters may be introduced into a plant cell in the proper orientation and distance from a gene of the present invention so as to control the expression of the gene.

If polypeptide expression is desired, it is generally desirable to include a polyadenylation region at the 3'-end of a polynucleotide coding region. The polyadenylation region can be derived from the natural gene, from a variety of other plant genes, or from T-DNA. The 3' end sequence to be added may be derived from, for example, the nopaline synthase or octopine synthase genes, or alternatively from another plant gene, or less preferably from any other eukaryotic gene.

An intron sequence may also be added to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) or the coding sequence of the partial coding sequence to increase the amount of the mature message that accumulates in the cytosol. Inclusion of a spliceable intron in the transcription unit in both plant and animal expression constructs has been shown to increase gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels up to 1000-fold (Buchman and Berg (1988) Mol. Cell biol. 8: 4395-4405; Callis et al. (1987) Genes Dev 1 :1 183-1200). Such intron enhancement of gene expression is typically greatest when placed near the 5' end of the transcription unit. Use of the maize introns Adh1 -S intron 1 , 2, and 6, the Bronze-1 intron are known in the art. For general information see: The Maize Handbook, Chapter 1 16, Freeling and Walbot, Eds., Springer, N.Y. (1994)

The term "introduction" or "transformation" as referred to herein encompasses the transfer of an exogenous polynucleotide into a host cell, irrespective of the method used for transfer. Plant tissue capable of subsequent clonal propagation, whether by organogenesis or embryogenesis, may be transformed with a genetic construct of the present invention and a whole plant regenerated there from. The particular tissue chosen will vary depending on the clonal propagation systems available for, and best suited to, the particular species being transformed. Exemplary tissue targets include leaf disks, pollen, embryos, cotyledons, hypocotyls, megagametophytes, callus tissue, existing meristematic tissue (e.g., apical meristem, axillary buds, and root meristems), and induced meristem tissue (e.g., cotyledon meristem and hypocotyl meristem). The polynucleotide may be transiently or stably introduced into a host cell and may be maintained non-integrated, for example, as a plasmid. Alternatively, it may be integrated into the host genome. The resulting transformed plant cell may then be used to regenerate a transformed plant in a manner known to persons skilled in the art.

The transfer of foreign genes into the genome of a plant is called transformation.

Transformation of plant species is now a fairly routine technique. Advantageously, any of several transformation methods may be used to introduce the gene of interest into a suitable ancestor cell. The methods described for the transformation and regeneration of plants from plant tissues or plant cells may be utilized for transient or for stable

transformation. Transformation methods include the use of liposomes, electroporation, chemicals that increase free DNA uptake, injection of the DNA directly into the plant, particle gun bombardment, transforrmation using viruses or pollen and microprojection. Methods may be selected from the calcium/polyethylene glycol method for protoplasts (Krens, F.A. et al., (1982) Nature 296, 72-74; Negrutiu I et al. (1987) Plant Mol Biol 8: 363- 373); electroporation of protoplasts (Shillito R.D. et al. (1985) Bio/Technol 3, 1099-1 102); microinjection into plant material (Crossway A et al., (1986) Mol. Gen Genet 202: 179-185); DNA or RNA-coated particle bombardment (Klein TM et al., (1987) Nature 327: 70) infection with (non-integrative) viruses and the like. Transgenic plants, including transgenic crop plants, are preferably produced via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. An

advantageous transformation method is the transformation in planta. To this end, it is possible, for example, to allow the agrobacteria to act on plant seeds or to inoculate the plant meristem with agrobacteria. It has proved particularly expedient in accordance with the invention to allow a suspension of transformed agrobacteria to act on the intact plant or at least on the flower primordia. The plant is subsequently grown on until the seeds of the treated plant are obtained (Clough and Bent, Plant J. (1998) 16, 735-743). Methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice include well known methods for rice transformation, such as those described in any of the following: European patent application EP 1 198985 A1 , Aldemita and Hodges (Planta 199: 612-617, 1996); Chan et al. (Plant Mol Biol 22 (3): 491 -506, 1993), Hiei et al. (Plant J 6 (2): 271 -282, 1994), which disclosures are incorporated by reference herein as if fully set forth. In the case of corn transformation, the preferred method is as described in either Ishida et al. (Nat. Biotechnol 14(6): 745-50, 1996) or Frame et al. (Plant Physiol 129(1 ): 13-22, 2002), which disclosures are incorporated by reference herein as if fully set forth. Said methods are further described by way of example in B. Jenes et al., Techniques for Gene Transfer, in: Transgenic Plants, Vol. 1 , Engineering and Utilization, eds. S.D. Kung and R. Wu, Academic Press (1993) 128-143 and in Potrykus Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Molec. Biol. 42 (1991) 205-225). The nucleic acids or the construct to be expressed is preferably cloned into a vector, which is suitable for transforming Agrobacterium tumefaciens, for example pBin19 (Bevan et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 12 (1984) 871 1 ). Agrobacteria transformed by such a vector can then be used in known manner for the transformation of plants, such as plants used as a model, like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana is within the scope of the present invention not considered as a crop plant), or crop plants such as, by way of example, tobacco plants, for example by immersing bruised leaves or chopped leaves in an agrobacterial solution and then culturing them in suitable media. The transformation of plants by means of

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is described, for example, by Hofgen and Willmitzer in Nucl. Acid Res. (1988) 16, 9877 or is known inter alia from F.F. White, Vectors for Gene Transfer in Higher Plants; in Transgenic Plants, Vol. 1 , Engineering and Utilization, eds. S.D. Kung and R. Wu, Academic Press, 1993, pp. 15-38. In addition to the transformation of somatic cells, which then have to be regenerated into intact plants, it is also possible to transform the cells of plant meristems and in particular those cells which develop into gametes. In this case, the transformed gametes follow the natural plant development, giving rise to transgenic plants. Thus, for example, seeds of Arabidopsis are treated with agrobacteria and seeds are obtained from the developing plants of which a certain proportion is transformed and thus transgenic [Feldman, KA and Marks MD (1987). Mol Gen Genet 208:274-289; Feldmann K (1992). In: C Koncz, N-H Chua and J Shell, eds, Methods in Arabidopsis Research. Word Scientific, Singapore, pp. 274-289]. Alternative methods are based on the repeated removal of the inflorescences and incubation of the excision site in the center of the rosette with transformed agrobacteria, whereby transformed seeds can likewise be obtained at a later point in time (Chang (1994). Plant J. 5: 551 -558; Katavic (1994). Mol Gen Genet, 245: 363-370). However, an especially effective method is the vacuum infiltration method with its modifications such as the "floral dip" method. In the case of vacuum infiltration of Arabidopsis, intact plants under reduced pressure are treated with an agrobacterial suspension [Bechthold, N (1993). C R Acad Sci Paris Life Sci, 316: 1 194-1 199], while in the case of the "floral dip" method the developing floral tissue is incubated briefly with a surfactant-treated agrobacterial suspension [Clough, SJ and Bent AF (1998) The Plant J. 16, 735-743]. A certain proportion of transgenic seeds are harvested in both cases, and these seeds can be distinguished from non-transgenic seeds by growing under the above-described selective conditions. In addition the stable transformation of plastids is of advantages because plastids are inherited maternally is most crops reducing or eliminating the risk of transgene flow through pollen. The transformation of the chloroplast genome is generally achieved by a process which has been schematically displayed in Klaus et al., 2004 [Nature Biotechnology 22 (2), 225-229]. Briefly the sequences to be transformed are cloned together with a selectable marker gene between flanking sequences homologous to the chloroplast genome. These homologous flanking sequences direct site specific integration into the plastome. Plastidal transformation has been described for many different plant species and an overview is given in Bock (2001 )

Transgenic plastids in basic research and plant biotechnology. J Mol Biol. 2001 Sep 21 ; 312 (3):425-38 or Maliga, P (2003) Progress towards commercialization of plastid

transformation technology. Trends Biotechnol. 21 , 20-28. Further biotechnological progress has recently been reported in form of marker free plastid transformants, which can be produced by a transient co-integrated maker gene (Klaus et al., 2004, Nature Biotechnology 22(2), 225-229). The genetically modified plant cells can be regenerated via all methods with which the skilled worker is familiar. Suitable methods can be found in the

abovementioned publications by S.D. Kung and R. Wu, Potrykus or Hofgen and Willmitzer. Generally after transformation, plant cells or cell groupings are selected for the presence of one or more markers which are encoded by plant-expressible genes co-transferred with the gene of interest, following which the transformed material is regenerated into a whole plant. To select transformed plants, the plant material obtained in the transformation is, as a rule, subjected to selective conditions so that transformed plants can be distinguished from untransformed plants. For example, the seeds obtained in the above-described manner can be planted and, after an initial growing period, subjected to a suitable selection by spraying. A further possibility consists in growing the seeds, if appropriate after sterilization, on agar plates using a suitable selection agent so that only the transformed seeds can grow into plants. Alternatively, the transformed plants are screened for the presence of a selectable marker such as the ones described above. Following DNA transfer and regeneration, putatively transformed plants may also be evaluated, for instance using Southern analysis, for the presence of the gene of interest, copy number and/or genomic organisation. Alternatively or additionally, expression levels of the newly introduced DNA may be monitored using Northern and/or Western analysis, both techniques being well known to persons having ordinary skill in the art.

The generated transformed plants may be propagated by a variety of means, such as by clonal propagation or classical breeding techniques. For example, a first generation (or T1 ) transformed plant may be selfed and homozygous second-generation (or T2) transformants selected, and the T2 plants may then further be propagated through classical breeding techniques. The generated transformed organisms may take a variety of forms. For example, they may be chimeras of transformed cells and non -transformed cells; clonal transformants (e.g., all cells transformed to contain the expression cassette); grafts of transformed and untransformed tissues (e.g., in plants, a transformed rootstock grafted to an untransformed scion).

Preferably, the wild-type or mutated PPO nucleic acid comprises a polynucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of : a) a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide as shown in SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 1 1 , 1 12, 1 13, 1 14, 1 15, 1 16, 1 17, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627,or a variant or derivative thereof; b) a polynucleotide comprising at least 60 consecutive nucleotides of any of a); and c) a polynucleotide complementary to the polynucleotide of any of a) through b).

Preferably, the expression of the nucleic acid in the plant results in the plant's increased resistance to phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild type variety of the plant.

In another embodiment, the invention refers to a plant, preferably a transgenic plant, comprising a plant cell according to the present invention, wherein expression of the nucleic acid in the plant results in the plant's increased resistance to phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild type variety of the plant.

The plants described herein can be either transgenic crop plants or non-transgenic plants. For the purposes of the invention, "transgenic", "transgene" or "recombinant" means with regard to, for example, a nucleic acid sequence, an expression cassette, gene construct or a vector comprising the nucleic acid sequence or an organism transformed with the nucleic acid sequences, expression cassettes or vectors according to the invention, all those constructions brought about by recombinant methods in which either

(a) the nucleic acid sequences encoding proteins useful in the methods of the invention, or

(b) genetic control sequence(s) which is operably linked with the nucleic acid sequence according to the invention, for example a promoter, or

(c) a) and b)

are not located in their natural genetic environment or have been modified by recombinant methods, it being possible for the modification to take the form of, for example, a substitution, addition, deletion, inversion or insertion of one or more nucleotide residues in order to allow for the expression of the mutated PPO of the present invention. The natural genetic environment is understood as meaning the natural genomic or chromosomal locus in the original plant or the presence in a genomic library. In the case of a genomic library, the natural genetic environment of the nucleic acid sequence is preferably retained, at least in part. The environment flanks the nucleic acid sequence at least on one side and has a sequence length of at least 50 bp, preferably at least 500 bp, especially preferably at least 1000 bp, most preferably at least 5000 bp. A naturally occurring expression cassette - for example the naturally occurring combination of the natural promoter of the nucleic acid sequences with the corresponding nucleic acid sequence encoding a polypeptide useful in the methods of the present invention, as defined above - becomes a transgenic expression cassette when this expression cassette is modified by non-natural, synthetic ("artificial") methods such as, for example, mutagenic treatment. Suitable methods are described, for example, in US 5,565,350 or WO 00/15815.

A transgenic plant for the purposes of the invention is thus understood as meaning, as above, that the nucleic acids of the invention are not at their natural locus in the genome of said plant, it being possible for the nucleic acids to be expressed homologously or heterologously. However, as mentioned, transgenic also means that, while the nucleic acids according to the invention or used in the inventive method are at their natural position in the genome of a plant, the sequence has been modified with regard to the natural sequence, and/or that the regulatory sequences of the natural sequences have been modified.

Transgenic is preferably understood as meaning the expression of the nucleic acids according to the invention at an unnatural locus in the genome, i.e. homologous or, preferably, heterologous expression of the nucleic acids takes place. Preferred transgenic plants are mentioned herein. Furthermore, the term "transgenic" refers to any plant, plant cell, callus, plant tissue, or plant part, that contains all or part of at least one recombinant polynucleotide. In many cases, all or part of the recombinant polynucleotide is stably integrated into a chromosome or stable extra-chromosomal element, so that it is passed on to successive generations. For the purposes of the invention, the term "recombinant polynucleotide" refers to a polynucleotide that has been altered, rearranged, or modified by genetic engineering. Examples include any cloned polynucleotide, or polynucleotides, that are linked or joined to heterologous sequences. The term "recombinant" does not refer to alterations of polynucleotides that result from naturally occurring events, such as

spontaneous mutations, or from non-spontaneous mutagenesis followed by selective breeding.

Plants containing mutations arising due to non-spontaneous mutagenesis and selective breeding are referred to herein as non-transgenic plants and are included in the present invention. In embodiments wherein the plant is transgenic and comprises multiple mutated PPO nucleic acids, the nucleic acids can be derived from different genomes or from the same genome. Alternatively, in embodiments wherein the plant is non-transgenic and comprises multiple mutated PPO nucleic acids, the nucleic acids are located on different genomes or on the same genome. As used herein, "mutagenized" refers to an organism or DNA thereof having alteration(s) in the biomolecular sequence of its native genetic material as compared to the sequence of the genetic material of a corresponding wild-type organism or DNA, wherein the alteration(s) in genetic material were induce and/or selected by human action. Methods of inducing mutations can induce mutations in random positions in the genetic material or can induce mutations in specific locations in the genetic material (i.e., can be directed mutagenesis techniques), such as by use of a genoplasty technique.

In certain embodiments, the present invention involves herbidicide-resistant plants that are produced by mutation breeding. Such plants comprise a polynucleotide encoding a mutated PPO and are tolerant to one or more phenylpyridine herbicides. Such methods can involve, for example, exposing the plants or seeds to a mutagen, particularly a chemical mutagen such as, for example, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and selecting for plants that have enhanced tolerance to at least one or more phenylpyridine herbicide.

However, the present invention is not limited to herbicide-tolerant plants that are produced by a mutagenesis method involving the chemical mutagen EMS. Any mutagenesis method known in the art may be used to produce the herbicide-resistant plants of the present invention. Such mutagenesis methods can involve, for example, the use of any one or more of the following mutagens: radiation, such as X-rays, Gamma rays (e.g., cobalt 60 or cesium 137), neutrons, (e.g., product of nuclear fission by uranium 235 in an atomic reactor), Beta radiation (e.g., emitted from radioisotopes such as phosphorus 32 or carbon 14), and ultraviolet radiation (preferably from 2500 to 2900 nm), and chemical mutagens such as base analogues (e.g., 5-bromo-uracil), related compounds (e.g., 8-ethoxy caffeine), antibiotics (e.g., streptonigrin), alkylating agents (e.g., sulfur mustards, nitrogen mustards, epoxides, ethylenamines, sulfates, sulfonates, sulfones, lactones), azide, hydroxylamine, nitrous acid, or acridines. Herbicide-resistant plants can also be produced by using tissue culture methods to select for plant cells comprising herbicide-resistance mutations and then regenerating herbicide-resistant plants therefrom. See, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 5,773,702 and 5,859,348, both of which are herein incorporated in their entirety by reference. Further details of mutation breeding can be found in "Principals of Cultivar Development" Fehr, 1993 Macmillan Publishing Company the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference

In addition to the definition above, the term "plant" is intended to encompass crop plants at any stage of maturity or development, as well as any tissues or organs (plant parts) taken or derived from any such plant unless otherwise clearly indicated by context. Plant parts include, but are not limited to, stems, roots, flowers, ovules, stamens, leaves, embryos, meristematic regions, callus tissue, anther cultures, gametophytes, sporophytes, pollen, microspores, protoplasts, and the like.

The plant of the present invention comprises at least one mutated PPO nucleic acid or over- expressed wild-type PPO nucleic acid, and has increased tolerance to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild-type variety of the plant. It is possible for the plants of the present invention to have multiple wild-type or mutated PPO nucleic acids from different genomes since these plants can contain more than one genome. For example, a plant contains two genomes, usually referred to as the A and B genomes. Because PPO is a required metabolic enzyme, it is assumed that each genome has at least one gene coding for the PPO enzyme (i.e. at least one PPO gene). As used herein, the term "PPO gene locus" refers to the position of an PPO gene on a genome, and the terms "PPO gene" and "PPO nucleic acid" refer to a nucleic acid encoding the PPO enzyme. The PPO nucleic acid on each genome differs in its nucleotide sequence from an PPO nucleic acid on another genome. One of skill in the art can determine the genome of origin of each PPO nucleic acid through genetic crossing and/or either sequencing methods or exonuclease digestion methods known to those of skill in the art.

The present invention includes plants comprising one, two, three, or more mutated PPO alleles, wherein the plant has increased tolerance to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild-type variety of the plant. The mutated PPO alleles can comprise a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide as defined in SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 11 , 112, 1 13, 1 14, 115, 1 16, 1 17, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271 , 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 , 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291 , 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301 , 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 31 1 , 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321 , 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327328, 329, 330, 331 , 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341 , 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351 , 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361 , 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371 , 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381 , 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391 , 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401 , 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 41 1 , 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421 , 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431 , 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441 , 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451 , 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461 , 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471 , 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481 , 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491 , 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 , 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 51 1 , 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521 , 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531 , 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541 , 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551 , 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561 , 562, 563, 564, 565, or a variant or derivative, homologue, orthologue, paralogue thereof, a polynucleotide comprising at least 60 consecutive nucleotides of any of the aforementioned polynucleotides; and a polynucleotide complementary to any of the aforementioned polynucleotides.

"Alleles" or "allelic variants" are alternative forms of a given gene, located at the same chromosomal position. Allelic variants encompass Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as Small Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms (INDELs). The size of INDELs is usually less than 100 bp. SNPs and INDELs form the largest set of sequence variants in naturally occurring polymorphic strains of most organisms

The term "variety" refers to a group of plants within a species defined by the sharing of a common set of characteristics or traits accepted by those skilled in the art as sufficient to distinguish one cultivar or variety from another cultivar or variety. There is no implication in either term that all plants of any given cultivar or variety will be genetically identical at either the whole gene or molecular level or that any given plant will be homozygous at all loci. A cultivar or variety is considered "true breeding" for a particular trait if, when the true- breeding cultivar or variety is self-pollinated, all of the progeny contain the trait. The terms "breeding line" or "line" refer to a group of plants within a cultivar defined by the sharing of a common set of characteristics or traits accepted by those skilled in the art as sufficient to distinguish one breeding line or line from another breeding line or line. There is no implication in either term that all plants of any given breeding line or line will be genetically identical at either the whole gene or molecular level or that any given plant will be homozygous at all loci. A breeding line or line is considered "true breeding" for a particular trait if, when the true-breeding line or breeding line is self-pollinated, all of the progeny contain the trait. In the present invention, the trait arises from a mutation in a PPO gene of the plant or seed.

In some embodiments, traditional plant breeding is employed whereby the phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant trait is introduced in the progeny plant resulting therefrom. In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method for producing a phenylpyndine herbicides-tolerant progeny plant, the method comprising: crossing a parent plant with a phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plant to introduce the phenylpyndine herbicides-tolerance characteristics of the phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plant into the germplasm of the progeny plant, wherein the progeny plant has increased tolerance to the phenylpyridine herbicides relative to the parent plant. In other embodiments, the method further comprises the step of introgressing the phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerance characteristics through traditional plant breeding techniques to obtain a descendent plant having the phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerance characteristics.

The herbicide-resistant plants of the invention that comprise polynucleotides encoding mutated PPO polypeptides also find use in methods for increasing the herbicide-resistance of a plant through conventional plant breeding involving sexual reproduction. The methods comprise crossing a first plant that is a herbicide-resistant plant of the invention to a second plant that may or may not be resistant to the same herbicide or herbicides as the first plant or may be resistant to different herbicide or herbicides than the first plant. The second plant can be any plant that is capable of producing viable progeny plants (i.e., seeds) when crossed with the first plant. Typically, but not necessarily, the first and second plants are of the same species. The methods can optionally involve selecting for progeny plants that comprise the mutated PPO polypeptides of the first plant and the herbicide resistance characteristics of the second plant. The progeny plants produced by this method of the present invention have increased resistance to a herbicide when compared to either the first or second plant or both. When the first and second plants are resistant to different herbicides, the progeny plants will have the combined herbicide tolerance characteristics of the first and second plants. The methods of the invention can further involve one or more generations of backcrossing the progeny plants of the first cross to a plant of the same line or genotype as either the first or second plant. Alternatively, the progeny of the first cross or any subsequent cross can be crossed to a third plant that is of a different line or genotype than either the first or second plant. The present invention also provides plants, plant organs, plant tissues, plant cells, seeds, and non-human host cells that are transformed with the at least one polynucleotide molecule, expression cassette, or transformation vector of the invention. Such transformed plants, plant organs, plant tissues, plant cells, seeds, and non-human host cells have enhanced tolerance or resistance to at least one herbicide, at levels of the herbicide that kill or inhibit the growth of an untransformed plant, plant tissue, plant cell, or non-human host cell, respectively. Preferably, the transformed plants, plant tissues, plant cells, and seeds of the invention are Arabidopsis thaliana and crop plants.

In other aspects, plants of the invention include those plants which, in addition to being tolerant to phenylpyridine herbicides, have been subjected to further genetic modifications by breeding, mutagenesis or genetic engineering, e.g. have been rendered tolerant to applications of specific other classes of herbicides, such as AHAS inhibitors; auxinic herbicides; bleaching herbicides such as hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors or phytoene desaturase (PDS) inhibitors; EPSPS inhibitors such as glyphosate; glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitors such as glufosinate; lipid biosynthesis inhibitors such as acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors; or oxynil {i.e. bromoxynil or ioxynil) herbicides as a result of conventional methods of breeding or genetic engineering, Thus, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants of the invention can be made resistant to multiple classes of herbicides through multiple genetic modifications, such as resistance to both glyphosate and glufosinate or to both glyphosate and a herbicide from another class such as HPPD inhibitors, AHAS inhibitors, or ACCase inhibitors. These herbicide resistance technologies are, for example, described in Pest Management Science (at volume, year, page): 61 , 2005, 246; 61 , 2005, 258; 61 , 2005, 277; 61 , 2005, 269; 61 , 2005, 286; 64, 2008, 326; 64, 2008, 332; Weed Science 57, 2009, 108; Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58, 2007, 708; Science 316, 2007, 1 185; and references quoted therein. For example, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants of the invention, in some embodiments, may be tolerant to ACCase inhibitors, such as "dims" {e.g., cycloxydim, sethoxydim, clethodim, or tepraloxydim), "fops" {e.g. , clodinafop, diclofop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, or quizalofop), and "dens" (such as pinoxaden); to auxinic herbicides, such as dicamba; to EPSPS inhibitors, such as glyphosate; to other PPO inhibitors; and to GS inhibitors, such as glufosinate.

In addition to these classes of inhibitors, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants of the invention may also be tolerant to herbicides having other modes of action, for example, chlorophyll/carotenoid pigment inhibitors, cell membrane disrupters, photosynthesis inhibitors, cell division inhibitors, root inhibitors, shoot inhibitors, and combinations thereof.

Such tolerance traits may be expressed, e.g. : as mutant or wildtype PPO proteins, as mutant AHASL proteins, mutant ACCase proteins, mutant EPSPS proteins, or mutant glutamine synthetase proteins; or as mutant native, inbred, or transgenic aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase (AAD or DHT), haloarylnitrilase (BXN), 2,2-dichloropropionic acid

dehalogenase (DEH), glyphosate-N- acetyltransferase (GAT), glyphosate decarboxylase (GDC), glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST),

phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT or bar), or CYP450s proteins having an herbicide- degrading activity. phenylpyridine herbicides- tolerant plants hereof can also be stacked with other traits including, but not limited to, pesticidal traits such as Bt Cry and other proteins having pesticidal activity toward coleopteran, lepidopteran, nematode, or other pests; nutrition or nutraceutical traits such as modified oil content or oil profile traits, high protein or high amino acid concentration traits, and other trait types known in the art.

Furthermore, in other embodiments, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants are also covered which are, by the use of recombinant DNA techniques and/or by breeding and/or otherwise selected for such characteristics, rendered able to synthesize one or more insecticidal proteins, especially those known from the bacterial genus Bacillus, particularly from Bacillus thuringiensis, such as [delta]-endotoxins, e.g. CrylA(b), CrylA(c), CrylF, CrylF(a2), CryllA(b), CrylllA, CrylllB(bl) or Cry9c; vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP), e.g. VIP1 , VIP2, VIP3 or VIP3A; insecticidal proteins of bacteria colonizing nematodes, e.g. Photorhabdus spp. or Xenorhabdus spp.; toxins produced by animals, such as scorpion toxins, arachnid toxins, wasp toxins, or other insect-specific neurotoxins; toxins produced by fungi, such streptomycete toxins; plant lectins, such as pea or barley lectins; agglutinins; proteinase inhibitors, such as trypsin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, patatin, cystatin or papain inhibitors; ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP), such as ricin, maize-RIP, abrin, luffin, saporin or bryodin; steroid metabolism enzymes, such as 3-hydroxy-steroid oxidase, ecdysteroid-IDP-glycosyl-transferase, cholesterol oxidases, ecdysone inhibitors or HMG- CoA-reductase; ion channel blockers, such as blockers of sodium or calcium channels; juvenile hormone esterase; diuretic hormone receptors (helicokinin receptors); stilben synthase, bibenzyl synthase, chitinases or glucanases. In the context of the present invention these insecticidal proteins or toxins are to be understood expressly also as pre- toxins, hybrid proteins, truncated or otherwise modified proteins. Hybrid proteins are characterized by a new combination of protein domains, (see, e.g. WO 02/015701 ). Further examples of such toxins or genetically modified plants capable of synthesizing such toxins are disclosed, e.g., in EP-A 374 753, WO 93/007278, WO 95/34656, EP-A 427 529, EP-A 451 878, WO 03/18810 und WO 03/52073. The methods for producing such genetically modified plants are generally known to the person skilled in the art and are described, e.g. in the publications mentioned above. These insecticidal proteins contained in the genetically modified plants impart to the plants producing these proteins tolerance to harmful pests from all taxonomic groups of arthropods, especially to beetles (Coeloptera), two-winged insects (Diptera), and moths (Lepidoptera) and to nematodes (Nematoda).

In some embodiments, expression of one or more protein toxins (e.g., insecticidal proteins) in the phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants is effective for controlling organisms that include, for example, members of the classes and orders: Coleoptera such as the American bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus; the leaf beetle Agelastica alni; click beetles

(Agriotes lineatus, Agriotes obscurus, Agriotes bicolor); the grain beetle Ahasverus advena; the summer schafer Amphimallon solstitialis; the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum; Anthonomus spp. (weevils); the Pygmy mangold beetle Atomaria linearis; carpet beetles (Anthrenus spp., Attagenus spp.); the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculates; the fried fruit beetle Carpophilus hemipterus; the cabbage seedpod weevil Ceutorhynchus assimilis; the rape winter stem weevil Ceutorhynchus picitarsis; the wireworms Conoderus vespertinus and Conoderus falli; the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus; the New Zealand grass grub Costelytra zealandica; the June beetle Cotinis nitida; the sunflower stem weevil Cylindrocopturus adspersus; the larder beetle Dermestes lardarius; the corn rootworms Diabrotica virgifera, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and Diabrotica barberi; the Mexican bean beetle Epilachna varivestis; the old house borer Hylotropes bajulus; the lucerne weevil Hypera postica; the shiny spider beetle Gibbium psylloides; the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne; the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata;

Lyctus beetles {Lyctus spp. , the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus; the common cockshafer Melolontha melolontha; the American spider beetle Mezium americanum; the golden spider beetle Niptus hololeuc s; the grain beetles Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Oryzaephilus Mercator; the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus; the mustard beetle Phaedon cochleariae, the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae; the striped flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata; the cabbage steam flea beetle Psylliodes chrysocephala; Ptinus spp. (spider beetles); the lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica; the pea and been weevil Sitona lineatus; the rice and granary beetles Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus granaries; the red sunflower seed weevil Smicronyx fulvus; the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum; the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, the flour beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum; warehouse and cabinet beetles {Trogoderma spp.); the sunflower beetle Zygogramma exclamationis; Dermaptera (earwigs) such as the European earwig Forficula auricularia and the striped earwig Labidura riparia; Dictyoptera such as the oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis; the greenhouse millipede Oxidus gracilis; the beet fly Pegomyia betae; the frit fly Oscinella frit; fruitflies (Dacus spp., Drosophila spp.); Isoptera (termites) including species from the familes Hodotermitidae, Kalotermitidae, Mastotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae, Termitidae, Termopsidae; the tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris; the black bean aphid Aphis fabae; the cotton or melon aphid Aphis gossypii; the green apple aphid Aphis pomi; the citrus spiny whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus; the sweet potato whitefly Bemesia tabaci; the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae; the pear psylla Cacopsylla pyricola; the currant aphid Cryptomyzus ribis; the grape phylloxera

Daktulosphaira vitifoliae; the citrus psylla Diaphorina citri; the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae; the bean leafhopper Empoasca Solana; the vine leafhopper Empoasca vitis; the woolly aphid Eriosoma lanigerum; the European fruit scale Eulecanium corni; the mealy plum aphid Hyalopterus arundinis; the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus; the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae; the green peach aphid Myzus persicae; the green rice leafhopper Nephotettix cinticeps; the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens; the hop aphid Phorodon humuli; the bird-cherry aphid Rhopalosiphum padi; the grain aphid Sitobion avenae; Lepidoptera such as Adoxophyes orana (summer fruit tortrix moth); Archips podana (fruit tree tortrix moth); Bucculatrix pyrivorella (pear leafminer); Bucculatrix thurberiella (cotton leaf perforator); Bupalus piniarius (pine looper); Carpocapsa pomonella (codling moth); Chilo suppressalis (striped rice borer); Choristoneura fumiferana (eastern spruce budworm); Cochylis hospes (banded sunflower moth); Diatraea grandiosella

(southwestern corn borer); Eupoecilia ambiguella (European grape berry moth);

Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); Helicoverpa zea (cotton bollworm); Heliothis vires cens (tobacco budworm), Homeosoma electellum (sunflower moth); Homona magnanima (oriental tea tree tortrix moth); Lithocolletis blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer);

Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth); Malacosoma neustria (tent caterpillar); Mamestra brassicae (cabbage armyworm); Mamestra configurata (Bertha armyworm); Operophtera brumata (winter moth); Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer), Panolis flammea (pine beauty moth), Phyllocnistis citrella (citrus leafminer); Pieris brassicae (cabbage white butterfly); Rachiplusia ni (soybean looper); Spodoptera exigua (beet armywonn); Spodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm); Sylepta derogata (cotton leaf roller); Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper); Orthoptera such as the common cricket Acheta domesticus, tree locusts (Anacridium spp.), the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, the twostriped grasshopper Melanoplus bivittatus, the differential grasshopper Melanoplus differ entialis, the redlegged grasshopper

Melanoplus femurrubrum, the migratory grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes, the northern mole cricket Neocurtilla hexadectyla, the red locust Nomadacris septemfasciata, the shortwinged mole cricket Scapteriscus abbreviatus, the southern mole cricket Scapteriscus borellii, the tawny mole cricket Scapteriscus vicinus, and the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria; Symphyla such as the garden symphylan Scutigerella immaculata; Thysanoptera such as the tobacco thrips Frankliniella fusca, the flower thrips Frankliniella intonsa, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalism the cotton bud thrips Frankliniella schultzei, the banded greenhouse thrips Hercinothrips femoralis, the soybean thrips Neohydatothrips variabilis, Kelly's citrus thrips Pezothrips kellyanus, the avocado thrips Scirtothrips perseae, the melon thrips Thrips palmi, and the onion thrips Thrips tabaci; and the like, and combinations comprising one or more of the foregoing organisms.

In some embodiments, expression of one or more protein toxins (e.g., insecticidal proteins) in the phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants is effective for controlling flea beetles, i.e. members of the flea beetle tribe of family Chrysomelidae, preferably against Phyllotreta spp., such as Phyllotreta cruciferae and/or Phyllotreta triolata. In other embodiments, expression of one or more protein toxins {e.g., insecticidal proteins) in the phenylpyridine herbicides- tolerant plants is effective for controlling cabbage seedpod weevil, the Bertha armyworm, Lygus bugs, or the diamondback moth.

Furthermore, in one embodiment, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants are also covered which are, e.g. by the use of recombinant DNA techniques and/or by breeding and/or otherwise selected for such traits, rendered able to synthesize one or more proteins to increase the resistance or tolerance of those plants to bacterial, viral or fungal pathogens. The methods for producing such genetically modified plants are generally known to the person skilled in the art.

Furthermore, in another embodiment, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants are also covered which are, e.g. by the use of recombinant DNA techniques and/or by breeding and/or otherwise selected for such traits, rendered able to synthesize one or more proteins to increase the productivity (e.g. oil content), tolerance to drought, salinity or other growth- limiting environmental factors or tolerance to pests and fungal, bacterial or viral pathogens of those plants.

Furthermore, in other embodiments, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants are also covered which are, e.g. by the use of recombinant DNA techniques and/or by breeding and/or otherwise selected for such traits, altered to contain a modified amount of one or more substances or new substances, for example, to improve human or animal nutrition, e.g. oil crops that produce health-promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or unsaturated omega-9 fatty acids (e.g. Nexera(R) rape, Dow Agro Sciences, Canada).

Furthermore, in some embodiments, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants are also covered which are, e.g. by the use of recombinant DNA techniques and/or by breeding and/or otherwise selected for such traits, altered to contain increased amounts of vitamins and/or minerals, and/or improved profiles of nutraceutical compounds.

In one embodiment, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants of the present invention, relative to a wild-type plant, comprise an increased amount of, or an improved profile of, a compound selected from the group consisting of: glucosinolates (e.g., glucoraphanin (4- methylsulfinylbutyl-glucosinolate), sulforaphane, 3-indolylmethyl- glucosinolate(glucobrassicin), I -methoxy-3-indolylmethyl-glucosinolate

(neoglucobrassicin)); phenolics (e.g., flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, kaempferol),

hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives (e.g., 1 ,2,2'- trisinapoylgentiobiose, 1 ,2- diferuloylgentiobiose, 1 ,2'-disinapoyl-2-feruloylgentiobiose, 3-0- caffeoyl-quinic

(neochlorogenic acid)); and vitamins and minerals (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, carotene, folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, selenium, and zinc). In another embodiment, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants of the present invention, relative to a wild-type plant, comprise an increased amount of, or an improved profile of, a compound selected from the group consisting of: progoitrin; isothiocyanates; indoles (products of glucosinolate hydrolysis); glutathione; carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lycopene, and the xanthophyll carotenoids such as lutein and zeaxanthin; phenolics comprising the flavonoids such as the flavonols (e.g. quercetin, rutin), the flavans/tannins (such as the procyanidins comprising coumarin, proanthocyanidins, catechins, and anthocyanins); flavones; phytoestrogens such as coumestans, lignans, resveratrol, isoflavones e.g. genistein, daidzein, and glycitein; resorcyclic acid lactones; organosulphur compounds; phytosterols; terpenoids such as carnosol, rosmarinic acid, glycyrrhizin and saponins; chlorophyll; chlorphyllin, sugars, anthocyanins, and vanilla. In other

embodiments, phenylpyridine herbicides-tolerant plants of the present invention, relative to a wild-type plant, comprise an increased amount of, or an improved profile of, a compound selected from the group consisting of: vincristine, vinblastine, taxanes (e.g., taxol

(paclitaxel), baccatin III, 10-desacetylbaccatin III, 10-desacetyl taxol, xylosyl taxol, 7- epitaxol, 7-epibaccatin III, 10-desacetylcephalomannine, 7-epicephalomannine, taxotere, cephalomannine, xylosyl cephalomannine, taxagifine, 8-benxoyloxy taxagifine, 9-acetyloxy taxusin, 9-hydroxy taxusin, taiwanxam, taxane la, taxane lb, taxane lc, taxane Id, GMP paclitaxel, 9-dihydro 13-acetyl baccatin III, 10-desacetyl-7-epitaxol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), genistein, diadzein, codeine, morphine, quinine, shikonin, ajmalacine, serpentine, and the like.

It is to be understood that the plant of the present invention can comprise a wild type PPO nucleic acid in addition to a mutated PPO nucleic acid. It is contemplated that the phenylpyridine herbicide tolerant lines may contain a mutation in only one of multiple PPO isoenzymes. Therefore, the present invention includes a plant comprising one or more mutated PPO nucleic acids in addition to one or more wild type PPO nucleic acids. In another embodiment, the invention refers to a seed produced by a transgenic plant comprising a plant cell of the present invention, wherein the seed is true breeding for an increased resistance to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild type variety of the seed. In another embodiment, the invention refers to a method of producing a transgenic plant cell with an increased resistance to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild type variety of the plant cell comprising, transforming the plant cell with an expression cassette comprising a mutated PPO nucleic acid. In another embodiment, the invention refers to a method of producing a transgenic plant comprising, (a) transforming a plant cell with an expression cassette comprising a mutated PPO nucleic acid, and (b) generating a plant with an increased resistance to phenylpyridine herbicide from the plant cell. Consequently, mutated PPO nucleic acids of the invention are provided in expression cassettes for expression in the plant of interest. The cassette will include regulatory sequences operably linked to a mutated PPO nucleic acid sequence of the invention. The term "regulatory element" as used herein refers to a polynucleotide that is capable of regulating the transcription of an operably linked polynucleotide. It includes, but not limited to, promoters, enhancers, introns, 5' UTRs, and 3' UTRs. By "operably linked" is intended a functional linkage between a promoter and a second sequence, wherein the promoter sequence initiates and mediates transcription of the DNA sequence corresponding to the second sequence. Generally, operably linked means that the nucleic acid sequences being linked are contiguous and, where necessary to join two protein coding regions, contiguous and in the same reading frame. The cassette may additionally contain at least one additional gene to be cotransformed into the organism. Alternatively, the additional gene(s) can be provided on multiple expression cassettes.

In a preferred embodiment, the expression cassette comprises the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 240, 241 , 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251 , 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261 , or 262.

Such an expression cassette is provided with a plurality of restriction sites for insertion of the mutated PPO nucleic acid sequence to be under the transcriptional regulation of the regulatory regions. The expression cassette may additionally contain selectable marker genes. The expression cassette of the present invention will include in the 5'-3' direction of transcription, a transcriptional and translational initiation region (i.e., a promoter), a mutated PPO encoding nucleic acid sequence of the invention, and a transcriptional and

translational termination region (i.e., termination region) functional in plants. The promoter may be native or analogous, or foreign or heterologous, to the plant host and/or to the mutated PPO nucleic acid sequence of the invention. Additionally, the promoter may be the natural sequence or alternatively a synthetic sequence. Where the promoter is "foreign" or "heterologous" to the plant host, it is intended that the promoter is not found in the native plant into which the promoter is introduced. Where the promoter is "foreign" or

"heterologous" to the mutated PPO nucleic acid sequence of the invention, it is intended that the promoter is not the native or naturally occurring promoter for the operably linked mutated PPO nucleic acid sequence of the invention. As used herein, a chimeric gene comprises a coding sequence operably linked to a transcription initiation region that is heterologous to the coding sequence.

While it may be preferable to express the mutated PPO nucleic acids of the invention using heterologous promoters, the native promoter sequences may be used. Such constructs would change expression levels of the mutated PPO protein in the plant or plant cell. Thus, the phenotype of the plant or plant cell is altered.

The termination region may be native with the transcriptional initiation region, may be native with the operably linked mutated PPO sequence of interest, may be native with the plant host, or may be derived from another source (i.e., foreign or heterologous to the promoter, the mutated PPO nucleic acid sequence of interest, the plant host, or any combination thereof). Convenient termination regions are available from the Ti-plasmid of A.

tumefaciens, such as the octopine synthase and nopaline synthase termination regions. See also Guerineau et al. (1991 ) Mol. Gen. Genet. 262: 141 -144; Proudfoot (1991 ) Cell 64:671-674; Sanfacon et al. (1991 ) Genes Dev. 5: 141 -149; Mogen et al. (1990) Plant Cell 2: 1261 -1272; Munroe et al. (1990) Gene 91 : 151 -158; Ballas t al. (1989) Nucleic Acids Res. 17:7891 -7903; and Joshi et al. (1987) Nucleic Acid Res. 15:9627-9639. Where appropriate, the gene(s) may be optimized for increased expression in the transformed plant. That is, the genes can be synthesized using plant-preferred codons for improved expression. See, for example, Campbell and Gowri (1990) Plant Physiol. 92: 1 -1 1 for a discussion of host-preferred codon usage. Methods are available in the art for synthesizing plant-preferred genes. See, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 5,380,831 , and 5,436,391 , and Murray et al. (1989) Nucleic Acids Res. 17:477-498, herein incorporated by reference.

Additional sequence modifications are known to enhance gene expression in a cellular host. These include elimination of sequences encoding spurious polyadenylation signals, exon- intron splice site signals, transposon-like repeats, and other such well-characterized sequences that may be deleterious to gene expression. The G-C content of the sequence may be adjusted to levels average for a given cellular host, as calculated by reference to known genes expressed in the host cell. When possible, the sequence is modified to avoid predicted hairpin secondary mRNA structures. Nucleotide sequences for enhancing gene expression can also be used in the plant expression vectors. These include the introns of the maize Adhl, intronl gene (Callis et al. Genes and Development 1 : 1 183-1200, 1987), and leader sequences, (W- sequence) from the Tobacco Mosaic virus (TMV), Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (Gallie et al. Nucleic Acid Res. 15:8693- 871 1 , 1987 and Skuzeski et al. Plant Mol. Biol. 15:65-79, 1990). The first intron from the shrunken- 1 locus of maize, has been shown to increase expression of genes in chimeric gene constructs. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,424,412 and 5,593,874 disclose the use of specific introns in gene expression constructs, and Gallie et al. (Plant Physiol. 106:929-939, 1994) also have shown that introns are useful for regulating gene expression on a tissue specific basis. To further enhance or to optimize mutated PPO gene expression, the plant expression vectors of the invention may also contain DNA sequences containing matrix attachment regions (MARs). Plant cells transformed with such modified expression systems, then, may exhibit overexpression or constitutive expression of a nucleotide sequence of the invention.

The expression cassettes of the present invention may additionally contain 5' leader sequences in the expression cassette construct. Such leader sequences can act to enhance translation. Translation leaders are known in the art and include: picornavirus leaders, for example, EMCV leader (Encephalomyocarditis 5' noncoding region) (Elroy- Stein et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. ScL USA 86:6126-6130); potyvirus leaders, for example, TEV leader (Tobacco Etch Virus) (Gallie et al. (1995) Gene 165(2):233-238), MDMV leader (Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus) (Virology 154:9-20), and human immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BiP) (Macejak et al. (1991 ) Nature 353:90-94); untranslated leader from the coat protein mRNA of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV RNA 4) (Jobling et al. (1987) Nature 325:622-625); tobacco mosaic virus leader (TMV) (Gallie et al. (1989) in Molecular Biology of RNA, ed. Cech (Liss, New York), pp. 237-256); and maize chlorotic mottle virus leader (MCMV) (Lommel et al. (1991 ) Virology 81 :382-385). See also, Della- Cioppa et al. (1987) Plant Physiol. 84:965-968. Other methods known to enhance translation can also be utilized, for example, introns, and the like.

In preparing the expression cassette, the various DNA fragments may be manipulated, so as to provide for the DNA sequences in the proper orientation and, as appropriate, in the proper reading frame. Toward this end, adapters or linkers may be employed to join the DNA fragments or other manipulations may be involved to provide for convenient restriction sites, removal of superfluous DNA, removal of restriction sites, or the like. For this purpose, in vitro mutagenesis, primer repair, restriction, annealing, resubstitutions, e.g., transitions and trans versions, may be involved.

A number of promoters can be used in the practice of the invention. The promoters can be selected based on the desired outcome. The nucleic acids can be combined with constitutive, tissue -preferred, or other promoters for expression in plants. Such constitutive promoters include, for example, the core promoter of the Rsyn7 promoter and other constitutive promoters disclosed in WO 99/43838 and U.S. Patent No. 6,072,050; the core CaMV 35S promoter (Odell et al. (1985) Nature 313:810-812); rice actin (McElroy et al. (1990) Plant Cell 2: 163-171 ); ubiquitin (Christensen et al. (1989) Plant Mol. Biol. 12:619- 632 and Christensen et al. (1992) Plant Mol. Biol. 18:675-689); pEMU (Last et al. (1991 ) Theor. Appl. Genet. 81 :581 - 588); MAS (Velten et al. (1984) EMBO J. 3:2723-2730); ALS promoter (U.S. Patent No. 5,659,026), and the like. Other constitutive promoters include, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 5,608,149; 5,608,144; 5,604,121 ; 5,569,597; 5,466,785;

5,399,680; 5,268,463; 5,608,142; and 6, 177,61 1.

Tissue-preferred promoters can be utilized to target enhanced mutated PPO expression within a particular plant tissue. Such tissue-preferred promoters include, but are not limited to, leaf -preferred promoters, root-preferred promoters, seed- preferred promoters, and stem-preferred promoters. Tissue-preferred promoters include Yamamoto et al. (1997) Plant J. 12(2):255-265; Kawamata et al. (1997) Plant Cell Physiol. 38(7):792-803; Hansen et al. (1997) Mol. Gen Genet. 254(3):337-343; Russell et al. (1997) Transgenic Res. 6(2): 157-168; Rinehart et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 1 12(3): 1331 -1341 ; Van Camp et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 112(2):525-535; Canevascini et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 1 12(2):513-524; Yamamoto et al. (1994) Plant Cell Physiol. 35(5):773-778; Lam (1994) Results Probl. Cell Differ. 20: 181 - 196; Orozco et al. (1993) Plant Mol Biol. 23(6): 1 129-1 138; Matsuoka el [alpha]/. (1993) Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90(20):9586-9590; and Guevara-Garcia et al. (1993) Plant J. 4(3):495-505. Such promoters can be modified, if necessary, for weak expression. In one embodiment, the nucleic acids of interest are targeted to the chloroplast for expression. In this manner, where the nucleic acid of interest is not directly inserted into the chloroplast, the expression cassette will additionally contain a chloroplast-targeting sequence comprising a nucleotide sequence that encodes a chloroplast transit peptide to direct the gene product of interest to the chloroplasts. Such transit peptides are known in the art. With respect to chloroplast-targeting sequences, "operably linked" means that the nucleic acid sequence encoding a transit peptide (i.e., the chloroplast-targeting sequence) is linked to the mutated PPO nucleic acid of the invention such that the two sequences are contiguous and in the same reading frame. See, for example, Von Heijne et al. (1991 ) Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 9: 104-126; Clark et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:17544-17550; Della- Cioppa et al. (1987) Plant Physiol. 84:965-968; Romer et al. (1993) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196: 1414-1421 ; and Shah et al. (1986) Science 233:478-481. While the mutated PPO proteins of the invention include a native chloroplast transit peptide, any chloroplast transit peptide known in the art can be fused to the amino acid sequence of a mature mutated PPO protein of the invention by operably linking a choloroplast-targeting sequence to the 5'-end of a nucleotide sequence encoding a mature mutated PPO protein of the invention. Chloroplast targeting sequences are known in the art and include the chloroplast small subunit of ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) (de Castro Silva Filho et al. (1996) Plant Mol. Biol. 30:769-780; Schnell et al. (1991 ) J. Biol. Chem. 266(5):3335- 3342); 5 -(enolpyruvyl)shikimate-3 -phosphate synthase (EPSPS) (Archer et al. (1990) J. Bioenerg. Biomemb. 22(6):789-810); tryptophan synthase (Zhao et al. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270(1 1):6081 -6087); plastocyanin(Lawrence et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272(33):20357- 20363); chorismate synthase (Schmidt et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268(36):27447-27457); and the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein (LHBP) (Lamppa et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263: 14996-14999). See also Von Heijne et al. (1991 ) Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 9: 104- 126; Clark et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:17544-17550; Della-Cioppa et al. (1987) Plant Physiol. 84:965-968; Romer et al. (1993) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196: 1414- 1421 ; and Shah et al. (1986) Science 233:478-481 .

In a preferred embodiment, the transit peptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 129, 130, 131 , 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141 , 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151 , 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161 , 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171 , 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181 , 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191 , 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201 , 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 21 1 , 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221 , 222, 223, 224, 225, 226.

Preferred expression cassettes comprise a transit peptide from Amaranthus PPO-2 fused to PPO or PPO like polypeptides, such as chimeric expression cassettes having the SEQ ID NO: 240, 241 , 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251 , 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261 , or 262

Methods for transformation of chloroplasts are known in the art. See, for example, Svab et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. ScL USA 87:8526-8530; Svab and Maliga (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:913-917; Svab and Maliga (1993) EMBO J. 12:601 -606. The method relies on particle gun delivery of DNA containing a selectable marker and targeting of the DNA to the plastid genome through homologous recombination. Additionally, plastid transformation can be accomplished by transactivation of a silent plastid-borne transgene by tissue-preferred expression of a nuclear-encoded and plastid-directed RNA polymerase. Such a system has been reported in McBride et al. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 :7301 -7305. The nucleic acids of interest to be targeted to the chloroplast may be optimized for expression in the chloroplast to account for differences in codon usage between the plant nucleus and this organelle. In this manner, the nucleic acids of interest may be synthesized using chloroplast-preferred codons. See, for example, U.S. Patent No. 5,380,831 , herein incorporated by reference.

In a preferred embodiment, the mutated PPO nucleic acid comprises a polynucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of: a) a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide as shown in SEQ ID NO: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 , 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 1 10, 1 1 1 , 1 12, 1 13, 1 14, 1 15, 1 16, 1 17, 577, 579, 581 , 583, 585, 587, 589, 591 , 593, 595, 597, 599, 601 , 603, 605, 607, 609, 61 1 , 613, 615, 617, 619, 621 , 623, 625, or 627, or a variant or derivative thereof; b) a polynucleotide comprising at least 60 consecutive nucleotides of any of a); and c) a polynucleotide complementary to the polynucleotide of any of a) through b)

Preferably, the expression cassette of the present invention further comprises a

transcription initiation regulatory region and a translation initiation regulatory region that are functional in the plant.

While the polynucleotides of the invention find use as selectable marker genes for plant transformation, the expression cassettes of the invention can include another selectable marker gene for the selection of transformed cells. Selectable marker genes, including those of the present invention, are utilized for the selection of transformed cells or tissues. Marker genes include, but are not limited to, genes encoding antibiotic resistance, such as those encoding neomycin phosphotransferase II (NEO) and hygromycin

phosphotransferase (HPT), as well as genes conferring resistance to herbicidal

compounds, such as glufosinate ammonium, bromoxynil, imidazolinones, and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D). See generally, Yarranton (1992) Curr. Opin. Biotech. 3

:506-51 1 ; Christophers on et al (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. ScL USA 89:6314-6318; Yao et al. (1992) Cell 71 :63-72; Reznikoff (1992) Mol Microbiol 6:2419-2422; Barkley et al (1980) in The Operon, pp. 177-220; Hu et al (1987) Cell 48:555-566; Brown et al (1987) Cell 49:603- 612; Figge et al (1988) Cell 52:713-722; Deuschle et al (1989) Proc. Natl Acad. AcL USA 86:5400-5404; Fuerst et al (1989) Proc. Natl Acad. ScL USA 86:2549-2553; Deuschle et al

(1990) Science 248:480-483; Gossen (1993) Ph.D. Thesis, University of Heidelberg; Reines et al (1993) Proc. Natl Acad. ScL USA 90: 1917-1921 ; Labow et al (1990) Mol Cell Biol 10:3343-3356; Zambretti et al (1992) Proc. Natl Acad. ScL USA 89:3952-3956; Bairn et al

(1991 ) Proc. Natl Acad. ScL USA 88:5072-5076; Wyborski et al (1991 ) Nucleic Acids Res. 19:4647-4653; Hillenand-Wissman (1989) Topics Mol Struc. Biol 10: 143- 162; Degenkolb et al (1991 ) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 1591 -1595; Kleinschnidt et al (1988) Biochemistry 27: 1094-1 104; Bonin (1993) Ph.D. Thesis, University of Heidelberg; Gossen et al (1992) Proc. Natl Acad. ScL USA 89:5547- 5551 ; Oliva et al (1992) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:913-919; Hlavka et al (1985) Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 78 ( Springer- Verlag, Berlin); Gill et al (1988) Nature 334:721 -724. Such disclosures are herein incorporated by reference. The above list of selectable marker genes is not meant to be limiting. Any selectable marker gene can be used in the present invention.

The invention further provides an isolated recombinant expression vector comprising the expression cassette containing a mutated PPO nucleic acid as described above, wherein expression of the vector in a host cell results in increased tolerance to a phenylpyridine herbicide as compared to a wild type variety of the host cell. As used herein, the term "vector" refers to a nucleic acid molecule capable of transporting another nucleic acid to which it has been linked. One type of vector is a "plasmid," which refers to a circular double stranded DNA loop into which additional DNA segments can be ligated. Another type of vector is a viral vector, wherein additional DNA segments can be ligated into the viral genome. Certain vectors are capable of autonomous replication in a host cell into which they are introduced (e.g., bacterial vectors having a bacterial origin of replication and episomal mammalian vectors). Other vectors (e.g., non-episomal mammalian vectors) are integrated into the genome of a host cell upon introduction into the host cell, and thereby are replicated along with the host genome. Moreover, certain vectors are capable of directing the expression of genes to which they are operatively linked. Such vectors are referred to herein as "expression vectors." In general, expression vectors of utility in recombinant DNA techniques are often in the form of plasmids. In the present specification, "plasmid" and "vector" can be used interchangeably as the plasmid is the most commonly used form of vector. However, the invention is intended to include such other forms of expression vectors, such as viral vectors (e.g., replication defective retroviruses, adenoviruses, and adeno-associated viruses), which serve equivalent functions.

The recombinant expression vectors of the invention comprise a nucleic acid of the invention in a form suitable for expression of the nucleic acid in a host cell, which means that the recombinant expression vectors include one or more regulatory sequences, selected on the basis of the host cells to be used for expression, which is operably linked to the nucleic acid sequence to be expressed. Regulatory sequences include those that direct constitutive expression of a nucleotide sequence in many types of host cells and those that direct expression of the nucleotide sequence only in certain host cells or under certain conditions. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the design of the expression vector can depend on such factors as the choice of the host cell to be transformed, the level of expression of polypeptide desired, etc. The expression vectors of the invention can be introduced into host cells to thereby produce polypeptides or peptides, including fusion polypeptides or peptides, encoded by nucleic acids as described herein (e.g., mutated PPO polypeptides, fusion polypeptides, etc.).

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the mutated PPO polypeptides are expressed in plants and plants cells such as unicellular plant cells (such as algae) (See Falciatore et al., 1999, Marine Biotechnology 1 (3):239-251 and references therein) and plant cells from higher plants (e.g., the spermatophytes, such as crop plants). A mutated PPO polynucleotide may be "introduced" into a plant cell by any means, including transfection, transformation or transduction, electroporation, particle bombardment, agroinfection, biolistics, and the like. Suitable methods for transforming or transfecting host cells including plant cells can be found in Sambrook et al. (Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2nd, ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1989) and other laboratory manuals such as Methods in Molecular Biology, 1995, Vol. 44, Agrobacterium protocols, ed: Gartland and Davey, Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey. As increased tolerance to phenylpyridine herbicides is a general trait wished to be inherited into a wide variety of plants like maize, wheat, rye, oat, triticale, rice, barley, soybean, peanut, cotton, rapeseed and canola, manihot, pepper, sunflower and tagetes, solanaceous plants like potato, tobacco, eggplant, and tomato, Vicia species, pea, alfalfa, bushy plants (coffee, cacao, tea), Salix species, trees (oil palm, coconut), perennial grasses, and forage crops, these crop plants are also preferred target plants for a genetic engineering as one further embodiment of the present invention. In a preferred embodiment, the plant is a crop plant. Forage crops include, but are not limited to, Wheatgrass, Canarygrass, Bromegrass, Wildrye Grass, Bluegrass, Orchardgrass, Alfalfa, Salfoin, Birdsfoot Trefoil, Alsike Clover, Red Clover, and Sweet Clover.

In one embodiment of the present invention, transfection of a mutated PPO polynucleotide into a plant is achieved by Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. One transformation method known to those of skill in the art is the dipping of a flowering plant into an

Agrobacteria solution, wherein the Agrobacteria contains the mutated PPO nucleic acid, followed by breeding of the transformed gametes. Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation can be performed using for example the GV3101 (pMP90) (Koncz and Schell, 1986, Mol. Gen. Genet. 204:383-396) or LBA4404 (Clontech) Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain. Transformation can be performed by standard transformation and regeneration techniques (Deblaere et al., 1994, Nucl. Acids. Res. 13:4777-4788; Gelvin, Stanton B. and Schilperoort, Robert A, Plant Molecular Biology Manual, 2nd Ed. - Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publ., 1995. - in Sect., Ringbuc Zentrale Signatur: BT1 1 -P ISBN 0-7923- 2731 -4; Glick, Bernard R. and Thompson, John E., Methods in Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Boca Raton : CRC Press, 1993 360 S., ISBN 0-8493-5164-2). For example, rapeseed can be transformed via cotyledon or hypocotyl transformation (Moloney et al., 1989, Plant Cell Report 8:238-242; De Block et al., 1989, Plant Physiol. 91 :694-701 ). Use of antibiotics for Agrobacterium and plant selection depends on the binary vector and the Agrobacterium strain used for transformation. Rapeseed selection is normally performed using kanamycin as selectable plant marker. Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer to flax can be performed using, for example, a technique described by Mlynarova et al., 1994, Plant Cell Report 13:282-285. Additionally, transformation of soybean can be performed using for example a technique described in European Patent No. 0424 047, U.S. Patent No. 5,322,783, European Patent No. 0397 687, U.S. Patent No. 5,376,543, or U.S. Patent No. 5,169,770. Transformation of maize can be achieved by particle bombardment,

polyethylene glycol mediated DNA uptake, or via the silicon carbide fiber technique. (See, for example, Freeling and Walbot "The maize handbook" Springer Verlag: New York (1993) ISBN 3-540-97826-7). A specific example of maize transformation is found in U.S. Patent No. 5,990,387, and a specific example of wheat transformation can be found in PCT Application No. WO 93/07256. According to the present invention, the introduced mutated PPO polynucleotide may be maintained in the plant cell stably if it is incorporated into a non-chromosomal autonomous replicon or integrated into the plant chromosomes. Alternatively, the introduced mutated PPO polynucleotide may be present on an extra-chromosomal non-replicating vector and be transiently expressed or transiently active. In one embodiment, a homologous recombinant microorganism can be created wherein the mutated PPO polynucleotide is integrated into a chromosome, a vector is prepared which contains at least a portion of an PPO gene into which a deletion, addition, or substitution has been introduced to thereby alter, e.g., functionally disrupt, the endogenous PPO gene and to create a mutated PPO gene. To create a point mutation via homologous recombination, DNA-RNA hybrids can be used in a technique known as chimeraplasty (Cole-Strauss et al., 1999, Nucleic Acids Research 27(5):1323-1330 and Kmiec, 1999, Gene therapy American Scientist 87(3):240- 247). Other homologous recombination procedures in Triticum species are also well known in the art and are contemplated for use herein.

In the homologous recombination vector, the mutated PPO gene can be flanked at its 5' and 3' ends by an additional nucleic acid molecule of the PPO gene to allow for homologous recombination to occur between the exogenous mutated PPO gene carried by the vector and an endogenous PPO gene, in a microorganism or plant. The additional flanking PPO nucleic acid molecule is of sufficient length for successful homologous recombination with the endogenous gene. Typically, several hundreds of base pairs up to kilobases of flanking DNA (both at the 5' and 3' ends) are included in the vector (see e.g., Thomas, K. R., and Capecchi, M. R., 1987, Cell 51 :503 for a description of homologous recombination vectors or Strepp et al., 1998, PNAS, 95(8):4368-4373 for cDNA based recombination in Physcomitrella patens). However, since the mutated PPO gene normally differs from the PPO gene at very few amino acids, a flanking sequence is not always necessary. The homologous recombination vector is introduced into a microorganism or plant cell (e.g., via polyethylene glycol mediated DNA), and cells in which the introduced mutated PPO gene has homologously recombined with the endogenous PPO gene are selected using art-known techniques.

In another embodiment, recombinant microorganisms can be produced that contain selected systems that allow for regulated expression of the introduced gene. For example, inclusion of a mutated PPO gene on a vector placing it under control of the lac operon permits expression of the mutated PPO gene only in the presence of IPTG. Such regulatory systems are well known in the art.

Another aspect of the invention pertains to host cells into which a recombinant expression vector of the invention has been introduced. The terms "host cell" and "recombinant host cell" are used interchangeably herein. It is understood that such terms refer not only to the particular subject cell but they also apply to the progeny or potential progeny of such a cell. Because certain modifications may occur in succeeding generations due to either mutation or environmental influences, such progeny may not, in fact, be identical to the parent cell, but are still included within the scope of the term as used herein. A host cell can be any prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell. For example, a mutated PPO polynucleotide can be expressed in bacterial cells such as C. glutamicum, insect cells, fungal cells, or mammalian cells (such as Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) or COS cells), algae, ciliates, plant cells, fungi or other microorganisms like C. glutamicum. Other suitable host cells are known to those skilled in the art.

A host cell of the invention, such as a prokaryotic or eukaryotic host cell in culture, can be used to produce (i.e., express) a mutated PPO polynucleotide. Accordingly, the invention further provides methods for producing mutated PPO polypeptides using the host cells of the invention. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing the host cell of invention (into which a recombinant expression vector encoding a mutated PPO polypeptide has been introduced, or into which genome has been introduced a gene encoding a wild-type or mutated PPO polypeptide) in a suitable medium until mutated PPO polypeptide is produced. In another embodiment, the method further comprises isolating mutated PPO polypeptides from the medium or the host cell. Another aspect of the invention pertains to isolated mutated PPO polypeptides, and biologically active portions thereof. An "isolated" or "purified" polypeptide or biologically active portion thereof is free of some of the cellular material when produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized. The language "substantially free of cellular material" includes preparations of mutated PPO polypeptide in which the polypeptide is separated from some of the cellular components of the cells in which it is naturally or recombinantly produced. In one embodiment, the language "substantially free of cellular material" includes preparations of a mutated PPO polypeptide having less than about 30% (by dry weight) of non-mutated PPO material (also referred to herein as a "contaminating polypeptide"), more preferably less than about 20% of non-mutated PPO material, still more preferably less than about 10% of non-mutated PPO material, and most preferably less than about 5% non-mutated PPO material.

When the mutated PPO polypeptide, or biologically active portion thereof, is recombinantly produced, it is also preferably substantially free of culture medium, i.e., culture medium represents less than about 20%, more preferably less than about 10%, and most preferably less than about 5% of the volume of the polypeptide preparation. The language

"substantially free of chemical precursors or other chemicals" includes preparations of mutated PPO polypeptide in which the polypeptide is separated from chemical precursors or other chemicals that are involved in the synthesis of the polypeptide. In one embodiment, the language "substantially free of chemical precursors or other chemicals" includes preparations of a mutated PPO polypeptide having less than about 30% (by dry weight) of chemical precursors or non-mutated PPO chemicals, more preferably less than about 20% chemical precursors or non-mutated PPO chemicals, still more preferably less than about 10% chemical precursors or non-mutated PPO chemicals, and most preferably less than about 5% chemical precursors or non-mutated PPO chemicals. In preferred embodiments, isolated polypeptides, or biologically active portions thereof, lack contaminating

polypeptides from the same organism from which the mutated PPO polypeptide is derived. Typically, such polypeptides are produced by recombinant expression of, for example, a mutated PPO polypeptide in plants other than, or in microorganisms such as C.

glutamicum, ciliates, algae, or fungi.

In other aspects, a method for treating a plant of the present invention is provided. In some embodiments, the method comprises contacting the plant with an agronomically acceptable composition.

In another aspect, the present invention provides a method for preparing a descendent seed. The method comprises planting a seed of or capable of producing a plant of the present invention. In one embodiment, the method further comprises growing a descendent plant from the seed; and harvesting a descendant seed from the descendent plant. In other embodiments, the method further comprises applying a phenylpyhdine herbicides herbicidal composition to the descendent plant. In another embodiment, the invention refers to harvestabie parts of the transgenic plant according to the present invention. Preferably, the harvestabie parts comprise the PPO nucleic acid or PPO protein of the present invention. The harvestabie parts may be seeds, roots, leaves and/or flowers comprising the PPO nucleic acid or PPO protein or parts thereof. Preferred parts of soy plants are soy beans comprising the PPO nucleic acid or PPO protein.

In another embodiment, the invention refers to products derived from a plant according to the present invention, parts thereof or harvestabie parts thereof. A preferred plant product is fodder, seed meal, oil, or seed-treatment-coated seeds. Preferably, the meal and/or oil comprises the mutated PPO nucleic acids or PPO proteins of the present invention.

In another embodiment, the invention refers to a method for the production of a product, which method comprises

a) growing the plants of the invention or obtainable by the methods of invention and b) producing said product from or by the plants of the invention and/or parts, e.g. seeds, of these plants.

In a further embodiment the method comprises the steps

a) growing the plants of the invention,

b) removing the harvestabie parts as defined above from the plants and

c) producing said product from or by the harvestabie parts of the invention. The product may be produced at the site where the plant has been grown, the plants and/or parts thereof may be removed from the site where the plants have been grown to produce the product. Typically, the plant is grown, the desired harvestabie parts are removed from the plant, if feasible in repeated cycles, and the product made from the harvestabie parts of the plant. The step of growing the plant may be performed only once each time the methods of the invention is performed, while allowing repeated times the steps of product production e.g. by repeated removal of harvestabie parts of the plants of the invention and if necessary further processing of these parts to arrive at the product. It is also possible that the step of growing the plants of the invention is repeated and plants or harvestabie parts are stored until the production of the product is then performed once for the accumulated plants or plant parts. Also, the steps of growing the plants and producing the product may be performed with an overlap in time, even simultaneously to a large extend or sequentially. Generally the plants are grown for some time before the product is produced. In one embodiment the products produced by said methods of the invention are plant products such as, but not limited to, a foodstuff, feedstuff, a food supplement, feed supplement, fiber, cosmetic and/or pharmaceutical. Foodstuffs are regarded as

compositions used for nutrition and/or for supplementing nutrition. Animal feedstuffs and animal feed supplements, in particular, are regarded as foodstuffs.

In another embodiment the inventive methods for the production are used to make agricultural products such as, but not limited to, plant extracts, proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, oils, polymers, vitamins, and the like. It is possible that a plant product consists of one or more agricultural products to a large extent.

As described above, the present invention teaches compositions and methods for increasing the PPO-inhibiting tolerance of a crop plant or seed as compared to a wild-type variety of the plant or seed. In a preferred embodiment, the PPO-inhibiting tolerance of a crop plant or seed is increased such that the plant or seed can withstand a phenylpyridine herbicide application of preferably approximately 1-1000 g ai ha -1 , more preferably 1 -200 g ai ha -1 , even more preferably 5-150 g ai ha -1 , and most preferably 10-100 g ai ha -1 . As used herein, to "withstand" a phenylpyridine herbicide application means that the plant is either not killed or only moderately injured by such application. It will be understood by the person skilled in the art that the application rates may vary, depending on the environmental conditions such as temperature or humidity, and depending on the chosen kind of herbicide (active ingredient ai). Furthermore, the present invention provides methods that involve the use of at least one phenylpyridine herbicide, optionally in combination with one or more herbicidal compounds B, and, optionally, a safener C, as described in detail supra. In these methods, the phenylpyridine herbicide can be applied by any method known in the art including, but not limited to, seed treatment, soil treatment, and foliar treatment. Prior to application, the phenylpyridine herbicide can be converted into the customary formulations, for example solutions, emulsions, suspensions, dusts, powders, pastes and granules. The use form depends on the particular intended purpose; in each case, it should ensure a fine and even distribution of the compound according to the invention.

By providing plants having increased tolerance to phenylpyridine herbicide, a wide variety of formulations can be employed for protecting plants from weeds, so as to enhance plant growth and reduce competition for nutrients. A phenylpyridine herbicide can be used by itself for pre-emergence, post-emergence, pre-planting, and at-planting control of weeds in areas surrounding the crop plants described herein, or a phenylpyridine herbicide formulation can be used that contains other additives. The phenylpyridine herbicide can also be used as a seed treatment. Additives found in a phenylpyridine herbicide formulation include other herbicides, detergents, adjuvants, spreading agents, sticking agents, stabilizing agents, or the like. The phenylpyridine herbicide formulation can be a wet or dry preparation and can include, but is not limited to, flowable powders, emulsifiable

concentrates, and liquid concentrates. The phenylpyridine herbicide and herbicide formulations can be applied in accordance with conventional methods, for example, by spraying, irrigation, dusting, or the like.

Suitable formulations are described in detail in PCT/EP2009/063387 and

PCT/EP2009/063386, which are incorporated herein by reference.

It should also be understood that the foregoing relates to preferred embodiments of the present invention and that numerous changes may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention. The invention is further illustrated by the following examples, which are not to be construed in any way as imposing limitations upon the scope thereof. On the contrary, it is to be clearly understood that resort may be had to various other embodiments, modifications, and equivalents thereof, which, after reading the description herein, may suggest themselves to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present invention and/or the scope of the appended claims. EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1 : Site-directed mutagenesis PPO

All nucleic acid coding sequence and all single and double mutants encoding a herbicide tolerant PPO polypeptides are synthesized and cloned by Geneart (Geneart AG, Regensburg, Germany). Rational design mutants are synthesized by Geneart. Random PPO gene libraries are synthesized by Geneart. Plasmids are isolated from E. coli TOP10 by performing a plasmid minpreparation and confirmed by DNA sequencing. EXAMPLE 2: Expression and purification of recombinant wildtype and mutant PPO

(Taken from: Franck E. Dayan, Pankaj R. Daga, Stephen O. Duke, Ryan M. Lee, Patrick J. Tranel, Robert J. Doerksen. Biochemical and structural consequences of a glycine deletion in the a-8 helix of protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1804 (2010), 1548- 56) Clones in pRSET vector are transformed into BL21 (DE3)-pLysS strain of E. coli. Cells are grown in 250 mL of LB with 100 pgmL-1 of carbenicillin, shaking overnight at 37 °C. Cultures are diluted in 1 L of LB with antibiotic and grown at 37 °C shaking for 2 h, induced with 1 mM IPTG and grown at 25 °C shaking for 5 more hours. The cells are harvested by centrifugation at 1600*g, washed with 0.09% NaCI, and stored at -80 °C. Cells are lysed using a French press at 140 MPa in 50 mM sodium phosphate pH 7.5, 1 M NaCI, 5 mM imidazole, 5% glycerol, and 1 pg mL-1 leupeptin. Following lysis, 0.5 U of benzonase (Novagen, EMD Chemicals, Inc., Gibbstown, NJ) and PMSF (final concentration of 1 mM) are added. Cell debris is removed by centrifugation at 3000*g. His-tagged PPO proteins are purified on a nickel activated Hitrap Chelating HP column (GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences Corp., Piscataway, NJ) equilibrated with 20 mM sodium phosphate pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCI, 5 mM imidazole, 5 mM MgCI2, 0.1 mM EDTA, and 17% glycerol. PPO is eluted with 250 mM imidazole. The active protein is desalted on a PD-10 column (GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences Corp., Piscataway, NJ) equilibrated with a 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, 5 mM MgCI2, 1 mM EDTA and 17% glycerol. Each litre of culture provided approximately 10 mg of pure PPO, which is stored at -20 °C until being used in assays.

EXAMPLE 3: PPO Enzyme Assay (non-recombinant)

PPO protein (EC 1.3.3.4) is extracted from coleoptiles or shoots (150 g fresh weight) of dark- grown corn, black nightshade, morning glory, and velvetleaf seedlings as described previously (Grossmann et al. 2010). Before harvesting, the seedlings are allowed to green for 2 hours in the light in order to achieve the highest specific enzyme activities in the thylakoid fractions at low chlorophyll concentrations. At high chlorophyll concentrations significant quenching of fluorescence occurs, which limits the amount of green thylakoids that can be used in the test. Plant materials are homogenized in the cold with a Braun blender using a fresh-weight-to- volume ratio of 1 :4. Homogenization buffer consisted of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-HCI (50 mM; pH 7.3), sucrose (0.5 M), magnesium chloride (1 mM),

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (1 mM) and bovine serum albumin (2 g L 1 ). After filtration through four layers of Miracloth, crude plastid preparations are obtained after centrifugation at 10 000 x g for 5 min and resuspension in homogenization buffer before centrifugation at 150 x g for 2 min to remove crude cell debris. The supernatant is centrifuged at 4000 x g for 15 min and the pellet fraction is resuspended in 1 ml of a buffer containing Tris- HCI (50 mM; pH 7.3), EDTA (2 mM), leupeptin (2 μΜ), pepstatin (2 μΜ) and glycerol (200 ml L" 1 ) and stored at -80°C until use. Protein is determined in the enzyme extract with bovine serum albumin as a standard. PPO activity is assayed fluorometrically by monitoring the rate of Proto formation from chemically reduced protoporphyrinogen IX under initial velocity conditions. The assay mixture consisted of Tris-HCI (100 mM; pH 7.3), EDTA (1 mM), dithiothreitol (5 mM), Tween 80 (0.085%), protoporphyrinogen IX (2 μΜ), and 40 μg extracted protein in a total volume of 200 μΙ. The reaction is initiated by addition of substrate protoporphyrinogen IX at 22°C. saflufenacil, 1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl )-3,4-dihydro-2H- benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control are prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution (0.1 mM concentration of DMSO in the assay) and added to the assay mixture in concentrations of 0.005 pM to 5 μΜ before incubation. Fluorescence is monitored directly from the assay mixture using a

POLARstar Optima / Galaxy (BMG) with excitation at 405 nm and emission monitored at 630 nm. Non-enzymatic activity in the presence of heat-inactivated extract is negligible. Inhibition of enzyme activity induced by the herbicide is expressed as percentage inhibition relative to untreated controls. Molar concentrations of compound required for 50% enzyme inhibition (IC50 values) are calculated by fitting the values to the dose-response equation using non-linear regression analysis. EXAMPLE 4: PPO Enzyme Assay (recombinant)

Proto is purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Milwaukee,WI). Protogen is prepared according to Jacobs and Jacobs (N .J. Jacobs, J.M. Jacobs, Assay for enzymatic protoporphyrinogen oxidation, a late step in heme synthesis, Enzyme 28 (1982) 206-219) . Assays are conducted in 100 mM sodium phosphate pH 7.4 with 0.1 mM EDTA, 0.1 % Tween 20, 5 μΜ FAD, and 500mM imidazole. Dose-response curves with the PPO inhibitors saflufenacil, 1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-3- (2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[ b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane- 2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control, and MC-15608 are obtained in the presence of 150 μΜ Protogen. The excitation and emission bandwidths are set at 1 .5 and 30 nm, respectively. All assays are made in duplicates or triplicates and measured using a POLARstar Optima / Galaxy (BMG) with excitation at 405 nm and emission monitored at 630 nm. Molar concentrations of compound required for 50% enzyme inhibition (IC50 values) are calculated by fitting the values to the dose-response equation using non-linear regression analysis. The results are shown in Table x.

EXAMPLE 5: Engineering PPO-derivative herbicide tolerant plants having wildtype or mutated PPO sequences.

PPO-derivative herbicide tolerant soybean (Glyceine max), plants are produced by a method as described by Olhoft et al. (US patent 2009/0049567). For transformation of soybean or

Arabidopsis thaliana, Wildtype or Mutated PPO sequences encoding herbicide tolerant PPO polypeptides are cloned with standard cloning techniques as described in Sambrook et al.

(Molecular cloning (2001 ) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press) in a binary vector containing resistance marker gene cassette (AHAS) and mutated PPO sequence (marked as GOI) in between ubiquitin promoter (PcUbi) and nopaline synthase terminator (NOS) sequence. For corn transformation, Wildtype or Mutated PPO sequences are cloned with standard cloning techniques as described in Sambrook et al. (Molecular cloning (2001 ) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press) in a binary vector containing resistance marker gene cassette (AHAS) and mutated PPO sequence (marked as GOI) in between corn ubiquitin promoter (ZmUbi) and nopaline synthase terminator (NOS) sequence. Binary plasmids are introduced to Agrobacterium tumefaciens for plant transformation. Plasmid constructs are introduced into soybean's axillary meristem cells at the primary node of seedling explants via Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. After inoculation and co-cultivation with Agrobacteria, the explants are transferred to shoot introduction media without selection for one week. The explants are subsequently transferred to a shoot induction medium with 1-3 μΜ imazapyr (Arsenal) for 3 weeks to select for transformed cells. Explants with healthy callus/shoot pads at the primary node are then transferred to shoot elongation medium containing 1 -3 μΜ imazapyr until a shoot elongated or the explant died. Transgenic plantlets are rooted, subjected to TaqMan analysis for the presence of the transgene, transferred to soil and grown to maturity in greenhouse. Plant transformation vector constructs containing mutated PPO sequences are introduced into maize immature embryos via Agrobacfer/um-mediated transformation according to the procedure outlined in Peng ef a/.( WO2006/136596). . Transformed cells are selected in selection media supplemented with 0.5-1 .5 μΜ imazethapyr for 3-4 weeks. Transgenic plantlets are regenerated on plant regeneration media and rooted afterwards. Transgenic plantlets are subjected to TaqMan analysis for the presence of the transgene before being transplanted to potting mixture and grown to maturity in greenhouse. Arabidopsis thaliana are transformed with wildtype or mutated PPO sequences by floral dip method as decribed by McElver and Singh (WO 2008/124495). Transgenic Arabidopsis plants are subjected to TaqMan analysis for analysis of the number of integration loci. Transformation of Oryza sativa (rice) are done by protoplast transformation as decribed by Peng et al. (US 6653529) TO or T1 transgenic plants of soybean, corn, and rice containing mutated PPO sequences are tested for improved tolerance to PPO-derived herbicides in greenhouse studies and mini-plot studies with the following PPO-inhibiting herbicides: saflufenacil, 1 ,5-dimethyl-6- thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3,4-dihydro- 2H-benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5- triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro- phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, ethyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro- phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, prop-2-ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4- fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control.

EXAMPLE 6: Tissue Culture Conditions.

An in vitro tissue culture mutagenesis assay has been developed to isolate and characterize plant tissue (e.g., maize, rice tissue) that is tolerant to protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibiting herbicides, e.g. methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro-phenoxy]-2- methoxy-acetate, ethyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro-phenoxy]-2- methoxy-acetate, prop-2-ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro- phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, or (saflufenacil, 1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4- (prop-2-ynyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS

1258836-72-4), flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control). The assay utilizes the somaclonal variation that is found in in vitro tissue culture. Spontaneous mutations derived from somaclonal variation can be enhanced by chemical mutagenesis and subsequent selection in a stepwise manner, on increasing concentrations of herbicide. The present invention provides tissue culture conditions for encouraging growth of friable, embryogenic maize or rice callus that is regenerable. Calli are initiated from 4 different maize or rice cultivars encompassing Zea mays and Japonica (Taipei 309, Nipponbare, Koshihikari) and Indica (Indica 1) varieties, respectively. Seeds are surface sterilized in 70% ethanol for approximately 1 min followed by 20% commercial Clorox bleach for 20 minutes. Seeds are rinsed with sterile water and plated on callus induction media. Various callus induction media are tested. The ingredient lists for the media tested are presented in Table y.

Table y

R001 M callus induction media is selected after testing numerous variations. Cultures are kept in the dark at 30°C. Embryogenic callus is subcultured to fresh media after 10-14 days. EXAMPLE 7: Selection of Herbicide-tolerant Calli.

Once tissue culture conditions are determined, further establishment of selection conditions are established through the analysis of tissue survival in kill curves with saflufenacil, 1 ,5-dimethyl-6- thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3,4-dihydro- 2H-benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5- triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control. Careful consideration of accumulation of the herbicide in the tissue, as well as its persistence and stability in the cells and the culture media is performed. Through these experiments, a sublethal dose has been established for the initial selection of mutated material. After the establishment of the starting dose of methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]- 4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, ethyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]- 4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, prop-2-ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2- pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, saflufenacil, 1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-3-(2,2,7- trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane-2,4- dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox,

sulfentrazone, and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control in selection media, the tissues are selected in a step-wise fashion by increasing the concentration of the PPO inhibitor with each transfer until cells are recovered that grew vigorously in the presence of toxic doses. The resulting calli are further subcultured every 3-4 weeks to R001 M with selective agent. Over 26,000 calli are subjected to selection for 4-5 subcultures until the selective pressure is above toxic levels as determined by kill curves and observations of continued culture. Alternatively, liquid cultures initiated from calli in MS71 1 R with slow shaking and weekly subcultures. Once liquid cultures are established, selection agent is added directly to the flask at each subculture. Following 2-4 rounds of liquid selection, cultures are transferred to filters on solid R001 M media for further growth.

EXAMPLE 8: Regeneration of Plants.

Tolerant tissue is regenerated and characterized molecularly for PPO gene sequence mutations and/or biochemically for altered PPO activity in the presence of the selective agent. In addition, genes involved directly and/or indirectly in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and/or metabolism pathways are also sequenced to characterize mutations. Finally, enzymes that change the fate (e.g. metabolism, translocation, transportation) are also sequence to characterized mutations. Following herbicide selection, calli are regenerated using a media regime of R025M for 10 - 14 days, R026M for ca. 2 weeks, R327M until well formed shoots are developed, and R008S until shoots are well rooted for transfer to the greenhouse. Regeneration is carried out in the light. No selection agent is included during regeneration. Once strong roots are established, MO regenerants are transplant to the greenhouse in square or round pots. Transplants are maintained under a clear plastic cup until they are adapted to greenhouse conditions. The greenhouse is set to a day/night cycle of 27°C/21 °C (80°F/70°F) with 600W high pressure sodium lights supplementing light to maintain a 14 hour day length. Plants are watered according to need, depending in the weather and fertilized daily.

EXAMPLE 9: Sequence Analysis.

Leaf tissue is collected from clonal plants separated for transplanting and analyzed as individuals. Genomic DNA is extracted using a Wizard® 96 Magnetic DNA Plant System kit (Promega, US Patent Nos. 6,027,945 & 6,368,800) as directed by the manufacturer. Isolated DNA is PCR amplified using the appropriate forward and reverse primer.

PCR amplification is performed using Hotstar Taq DNA Polymerase (Qiagen) using touchdown thermocycling program as follows: 96°C for 15 min, followed by 35 cycles (96°C, 30 sec; 58°C - 0.2 °C per cycle, 30 sec; 72°C, 3 min and 30 sec), 10 min at 72°C. PCR products are verified for concentration and fragment size via agarose gel electrophoresis. Dephosphorylated PCR products are analyzed by direct sequence using the PCR primers (DNA Landmarks, or

Entelechon). Chromatogram trace files (.scf) are analyzed for mutation relative to the wild-type gene using Vector NTI Advance 10™ (Invitrogen). Based on sequence information, mutations are identified in several individuals. Sequence analysis is performed on the representative chromatograms and corresponding AlignX alignment with default settings and edited to call secondary peaks. EXAMPLE 10: Demonstration of Herbicide-tolerance.

TO or T1 transgenic plant of soybean, corn, Canola varieties and rice containing PP01 and or PP02 sequences are tested for improved tolerance to herbicides in greenhouse studies and mini-plot studies with the following herbicides: methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)- 2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, ethyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)- 2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, prop-2-ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-

(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy- acetate, saflufenacil, 1 ,5-dimethyl-6- thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3,4-dihydro- 2H-benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5- triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control. For the pre- emergence treatment, the herbicides are applied directly after sowing by means of finely distributing nozzles. The containers are irrigated gently to promote germination and growth and subsequently covered with transparent plastic hoods until the plants have rooted. This cover causes uniform germination of the test plants, unless this has been impaired by the herbicides. For post emergence treatment, the test plants are first grown to a height of 3 to 15 cm, depending on the plant habit, and only then treated with the herbicides. For this purpose, the test plants are either sown directly, and grown in the same containers or they are first grown separately and transplanted into the test containers a few days prior to treatment. For testing of TO plants, cuttings can be used. In the case of soybean plants, an optimal shoot for cutting is about 7.5 to 10 cm tall, with at least two nodes present. Each cutting is taken from the original transformant (mother plant) and dipped into rooting hormone powder (indole-3- butyric acid, IBA). The cutting is then placed in oasis wedges inside a bio-dome. Wild type cuttings are also taken simultaneously to serve as controls. The cuttings are kept in the bio- dome for 5-7 days and then transplanted to pots and then acclimated in the growth chamber for two more days. Subsequently, the cuttings are transferred to the greenhouse, acclimated for approximately 4 days, and then subjected to spray tests as indicated. Depending on the species, the plants are kept at 10-25°C or 20-35°C. The test period extends over 3 weeks. During this time, the plants are tended and their response to the individual treatments is evaluated. Herbicide injury evaluations are taken at 2 and 3 weeks after treatment. Plant injury is rated on a scale of 0% to 100%, 0% being no injury and 100% being complete death.

Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants are assayed for improved tolerance to methyl 2-[2- chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-p henoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, ethyl 2-[2- chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-p henoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, prop-2- ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, saflufenacil, 1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl )-3,4-dihydro-2H- benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control, in 48-well plates. Therefore, T2 seeds are surface sterilized by stirring for 5 min in ethanol + water (70+30 by volume), rinsing one time with ethanol + water (70+30 by volume) and two times with sterile, deionized water. The seeds are resuspended in 0.1 % agar dissolved in water (w/v) Four to five seeds per well are plated on solid nutrient medium consisting of half-strength murashige skoog nutrient solution, pH 5.8 (Murashige and Skoog (1962) Physiologia Plantarum 15: 473-497). Compounds are dissolved in dimethylsulfoxid (DMSO) and added to the medium prior solidification (final DMSO concentration 0.1 %). Multi well plates are incubated in a growth chamber at 22°C, 75% relative humidity and 1 10 pmol Phot * nr 2 * s _1 with 14 : 10 h light : dark photoperiod. Growth inhibition is evaluated seven to ten days after seeding in comparison to wild type plants.

Additionally, transgenic T2 Arabidopsis plants are tested for improved tolerance to herbicides in greenhouse studies with the following herbicides: methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5- (trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-ace tate, and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control. Results are shown in table A and Figure 1.

Table A: Transgenic T2 Arabidopsis plants, four weeks old, were sprayed in the greenhouse with the indicated amount of compound + 1 % (v/v) MSO. Herbicide injury was evaluated 14 days after treatment with a 0 to 100% phytotox rating scale where 0 is no injury relative to an unsprayed wild type check and 100% is completely dead.

EXAMPLE 1 1 : Herbicide Selection Using Tissue Culture.

Media is selected for use and kill curves developed as specified above. For selection, different techniques are utilized. Either a step wise selection is applied, or an immediate lethal level of herbicide is applied. In either case, all of the calli are transferred for each new round of selection. Selection is 4-5 cycles of culture with 3-5 weeks for each cycle. Cali are placed onto nylon membranes to facilitate transfer (200 micron pore sheets, Biodesign, Saco, Maine). Membranes are cut to fit 100x20 mm Petri dishes and are autoclaved prior to use 25-35 calli (average weight/calli being 22mg) are utilized in every plate. In addition, one set of calli are subjected to selection in liquid culture media with weekly subcultures followed by further selection on semi-solid media. Mutant lines are selected using methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5- (trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-ace tate, ethyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5- (trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-ace tate, prop-2-ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3- chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-me thoxy-acetate, saflufenacil, 1 ,5- dimethyl-6-thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3 ,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6- yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4), flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control.

Efficiencies of obtaining mutants is high either based on a percentage of calli that gave rise to a regenerable, mutant line or the number of lines as determined by the gram of tissue utilized.

EXAMPLE 12: Maize whole plant transformation and PPO inhibitor tolerance testing.

Immature embryos are transformed according to the procedure outlined in Peng et al.

(WO2006/136596). Plants are tested for the presence of the T-DNA by Taqman analysis with the target being the nos terminator which is present in all constructs. Healthy looking plants are sent to the greenhouse for hardening and subsequent spray testing. The plants are individually transplanted into MetroMix 360 soil in 4" pots. Once in the greenhouse (day/night cycle of 27oC /21 oC with 14 hour day length supported by 600W high pressure sodium lights), they are allowed to grow for 14 days. TO or T1 plants are sprayed with a treatment of 25 to 200 g ai/ha saflufenacil + 1.0% v/v methylated seed oil (MSO) and / or 25 - 200 g ai/ha 1 ,5-dimethyl-6- thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3,4-dihydro- 2H-benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5- triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4) plus 1 % MSO. Other PPO inhibiting herbicides are also tested in a similar fashion for confirming cross resistance: flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, methyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2- pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, ethyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2- pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, prop-2-ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5- (trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-ace tate and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control. Herbicide injury evaluations are taken at 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment. Herbicide injury evaluations are taken 2, 7, 14 and 21 days post-spray to look for injury to new growth points and overall plant health. The top survivors are transplanted into gallon pots filled with MetroMix 360 for seed production. Table B: Segregating and non-segregating T2 events expressing the indicated Amaranthus PP02 variant transgene. 4 individuals per line were treated with the indicated amount of herbicide at the V2 stage and evaluated for injury on a 0-9 point scale (0= no injury; 9=death) 3 da s after treatment.

EXAMPLE 13: Soybean transformation and PPO Inhibitor tolerance testing.

Soybean cv Jake is transformed as previously described by Siminszky et al., Phytochem Rev. 5:445-458 (2006). After regeneration, transformants are transplanted to soil in small pots, placed in growth chambers (16 hr day/ 8 hr night; 25°C day/ 23°C night; 65% relative humidity; 130-150 microE m-2 s-1) and subsequently tested for the presence of the T-DNA via Taqman analysis. After a few weeks, healthy, transgenic positive, single copy events are transplanted to larger pots and allowed to grow in the growth chamber. An optimal shoot for cutting is about 3-4 inches tall, with at least two nodes present. Each cutting is taken from the original transformant (mother plant) and dipped into rooting hormone powder (indole-3-butyric acid, IBA). The cutting is then placed in oasis wedges inside a bio-dome. The mother plant is taken to maturity in the greenhouse and harvested for seed. Wild type cuttings are also taken simultaneously to serve as negative controls. The cuttings are kept in the bio-dome for 5-7 days and then transplanted to 3 inch pots and then acclimated in the growth chamber for two more days. Subsequently, the cuttings are transferred to the greenhouse, acclimated for approximately 4 days prior to spray. TO or 2 -week old T1 plants are sprayed with a treatment of 0 - 200 g ai/ha saflufenacil plus 1 % MSO and / or 25 - 200 g ai/ha 1 ,5-dimethyl-6-thioxo-3-(2,2,7-trifluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl )-3,4- dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1 ,4]oxazin-6-yl)-1 ,3,5-triazinane-2,4-dione (CAS 1258836-72-4) plus 1 % MSO. Other PPO inhibiting herbicides are also tested in a similar fashion for confirming cross resistance: flumioxazin, butafenacil, acifluorfen, lactofen, bifenox, sulfentrazone, methyl 2-[2- chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-p henoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, ethyl 2-[2- chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-fluoro-p henoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate, prop-2- ynyl 2-[2-chloro-5-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-flu oro-phenoxy]-2-methoxy-acetate and photosynthesis inhibitor diuron as negative control. Herbicide injury evaluations are taken at 2, 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment. Results are shown in the following table.

Table C: Segregating and non-segregating T2 events expressing the indicated Amaranthus PP02 variant transgene (SEQ ID NO:1 ). 4 individuals per line were treated with the indicated amount of herbicide at the V2 stage and evaluated for injury on a 0-9 point scale (0= no injury; 9=death) 3 days after treatment.

The following gives a definition of the injury scores measured above:

Score Description of injury

0 No Injury

1 Minimal injury, only a few patches of leaf injury or chlorosis.

2 Minimal injury with slightly stronger chlorosis. Overall growth points remain undamaged.

3 Slightly stronger injury on secondary leaf tissue, but primary leaf and growth points are still undamaged.

4 Overall plant morphology is slightly different, some chlorosis and necrosis in secondary growth points and leaf tissue. Stems are intact. Regrowth is highly probable within 1 week.

5 Overall plant morphology is clearly different, some chlorosis and necrosis on a few leaves and growth points, but primary growth point is intact. Stem tissue is still green. Regrowth is highly probably within 1 week.

6 Strong injury can be seen on the new leaflet growth. Plant has a high probability to survive only through regrowth at different growth points. Most of the leaves are chlorotic/ necrotic but stem tissue is still green. May have regrowth but with noticeable injured appearance.

7 Most of the active growth points are necrotic. There may be a single growth point that could survive and may be partially chlorotic or green and partially necrotic. Two leaves may still be chlorotic with some green; the rest of the plant including stem is necrotic.

8 Plant will likely die, and all growth points are necrotic. One leaf may still be chlorotic with some green. The remainder of the plant is necrotic. 9 Plant is dead.