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Title:
POLYMER-CARBOHYDRATE CONJUGATES FOR DRUG DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/085173
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention comprises compounds, methods of making, and methods of using. The compounds may have a linear or cylic backbone and three or four appended functional groups: one or two lipohilic compounds including sterols or "fat soluble" vitamins, one or two hydrophilic polymer, and one or two carbohydrate. A group of polymer-carbohydrate conjugates having a central backbone and three appended functional groups are disclosed whereinone lipophilic compound is void of both steroid acids. The conjugate may have fatty acids as the primary lipophilic carrier, one hydrophilic polymer, and one carbohydrate. Specific functional groups may be selected for specific applications in formulating pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutriceuticals, and the like. Typical coupling reaction of the conjugates may involve one or more or combinations or in series of alkylation including N-alkylation or O-alkylation, etherification, esterification and amidation chemical processes. A variety of linkers between the backbone and functional groups may also be selected to modify the carriers or center backbones for the coupling reactions and optimize performance of the conjugates.

Inventors:
WU, Nian (103 Sassafras Court, North Brunswick, NJ, 08902, US)
Application Number:
US2014/068798
Publication Date:
June 11, 2015
Filing Date:
December 05, 2014
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
WU, Nian (103 Sassafras Court, North Brunswick, NJ, 08902, US)
International Classes:
A61K47/30; C07H15/00; C08G81/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010141069A22010-12-09
Foreign References:
US20120202979A12012-08-09
Other References:
See also references of EP 3077006A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WITTERS, Steve (930 Woodland Ridge Circle, Lagrange, KY, 40013, US)
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Claims:
CLAIMS :

1. A chemical compound carrier for improving the biocompatibility of a therapeutic agent and for increasing the solubility of a hydrophobic or lipophilic agent in water, said carrier comprising a molecular structure re resented by the formula:

H is a lipophilic carrier void of steroid acids and fatty acids, and being selected from a goup consisting of cholesterol, sterols having a single hydroxyl group including, stanols, Vitmin D, cholecalciferols, ergocalciferol, Vitamin A, retinoids, carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols;

Sugar is a carbohydrate comprises saccharide;

PEG is a polymer of polyethylene glycols;

D is a secondary sterol or lipophilic vitamin or PEG or carbohydrate;

Backbone is a molecule having three or four available binding positions and being void of a drug moiety, said Backbone comprising at least one of glycerol, glycerol-like analogues having three binding positions, diamines, triamines, tetraamines, diaminoalcohols, aminoalcohols, aminodiols, aminotriols, amino acids, triols, tetraols, triacids, tetracids, halogen-containing diols, halogen-containing amines, carboxyl-containing diols and polyamines; and

L is a coupler comprising at least one of glycerol or glycerol-like analogues having three avaible binding positions, diamines, triamines, diaminoalcohols, aminoalcohols, aminodiols, aminotriols, and amino acids having three available binding positions.

2. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein:

said Backbone comprises at least three available binding positions or sites for the conjugation of a first carrier, a second carrier, and a third carrier, each said available binding position or site comprising an expendable amino, hydroxyl, or carboxylic group;

said first carrier comprising said lipophilic molecule and an expendable amino, hydroxyl, or carboxylic group;

said second carrier comprising said polymer and an expendable amino, hydroxyl, or carboxylic group; and

said third carrier comprising said carbohydrate and an expendable amino, hydroxyl, or carboxylic group.

3. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein:

said Backbone comprises at least four available binding positions or sites for the conjugation of a first carrier, a second carrier, a third carrier, and a fourth carrier, each said available binding position or site comprising an expendable amino, hydroxyl, or carboxylic group.

4. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein said Backbone comprises three available binding positions or sites for the conjugation of a first carrier, a second carrier, and a third carrier, each said available binding position or site comprising an expendable amino, hydroxyl, or carboxylic group, wherein:

said first carrier has said lipophilic molecule bound thereto;

said second carrier has said polymer bound thereto;

said polymer comprising a terminal (R) group; and

said third carrier has said carbohydrate bound thereto.

5. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein said Backbone is one of a) through d):

a) selected from the group consisting of glycerol or glycerol-like analogues, polyamines, diamines, triamines, tetraamines, aminodiols, aminotriols, aminoalcohols, amino acids having three available binding positions or sites, triols, tetraols, erythritol, triacids, tetracid, tetraacetic acid and tartaric acid;

b) selected from the group consisting of ethanediamine, propanediamine, butanediamine, pentanediamine, hexanediamine, diethylenetriamine, diethylenetriamine, bis(3- aminopropyl)-amine, bis(3-aminopropyl)- 1 ,3 -propanediamine or N,A '-bis(3-aminopropyl)-l ,3- propanediamine, triethylenetetramine, l,2-bis(3-aminopropylamino)ethane, spermine, tris(2- aminoethyl)amine, spermidine, norspermidine, bis(hexamethylene)triamine, tris(hydroxymethyl)- aminomethane, diaminobenzidine, triazacyclononane, tetraazacyclododecane, threitol, meso- erythritol, dithio-threitol, trimethylcyclohexane-l ,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, 1,3,5-cyclohexane- tricarboxylic acid, trimethylbis(hexa-methylene)triamine, arginine, oxylyldiaminopropionic acid having three or four available binding positions or sites, triols, triacids, glucoheptonic acid, and tartaric acid; c) selected from the group consisting of 3-amino-l ,2-propanediol, 3-bromo-l ,2- propanediol, 3-chloro-l ,2-propanediol, 3-fluoro-l,2-propanediol, DL-glyceric acid, diamino- propionic acid, tartaric acid, glucoheptonic acid, 2,4-butanetriol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid, l ,3-diamino-2-propanol and 2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethanol, and 3-((3-aminopropyl)- amino)propanol; and

d) selected from the group consisting of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, lysine, ornithine, serine, and threonine.

6. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein two said accessable binding positions or sites are selected from the group consisting of aminoalcohols, diamines, ethylenediamine, diaminopropane, ethanolamine, aminopropanol, aminobutanol, aminopentanol, amino- 1-hexanol; and said chemical compound being chemically extended and modified to provide said third or a fourth available binding position or site.

7. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein three said available binding positions or sites are selected from the group consisting of glycerol or glycerol-like analogues, diamines, triamines, triols, triacids, amino acids; and

said chemical compound being chemically extended and modified to provide a fourth available binding position or site.

8. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein said PEG comprises a single PEG chain having between 5 and 45 subunits or a branched PEG having 2 or more subchains, wherein each said subchain has between 5 and 45 subunits, and a terminal group (R) comprising methoxy, hydroxyl or biotin.

9. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein said lipophilic carrier is selected from the group consisting of cholesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, hopanoids, phytosterol, sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol, avenasterol adosterol, stands, retinols, retinoids, retinal, retinoic acid, tretinoin, carotenoids, β-carotene, tocopherols, tocotrienols, cholecalciferol, and ergocalciferol.

10. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein said carbohydrate is selected from the group consisting of monosaccharide, disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, fructooligo- saccharide, galacto-oligosaccharides, mannanoligosaccharides, polysaccharides, carbohydrate analogues or derivatives. 11 The chemical compound of claim 11 wherein the carbohydrate analogues or derivatives comprise at least one of ascorbic acid, cellobiose, galactose, galacturonic acid, gentiobiose, gentiobiulose, glucaric acid, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, glucoheptonic acid, glycyrrhizin, inulin, isomalt, isomaltose, isomaltotriose, kestose, kojibiose, lactitol, lactulose, lactose, lactobionic acid, laminaribiose, maltitol, maltose, maltotriose, maltotriitol, maltotetraitol, maltotriulose, maltulose, melibiose, melibiulose, melezitose, mannobiose, mogrosides, nigerose, nigerotriose, osladin, palatinose, raffinose, rutinose, rutinulose, sophorose, steviol glycoside ( ebaudioside A), sucrose, sucralose, trehalose, trehalose, turanose, and xylobiose.

12. The chemical compound of claim 1 wherein D comprises a fatty acid consisting of 5 to 22 carbons in presence of choleterol as the primary lipophilic carrier.

13. The chemical compound of claim 1 being selected from the group consisting of cholesterypropanediamineisomaltotriose-mPEG, N£-lactobionyl-Na-cholesterol-mPEG-lysinate cholesterypropanediaminelactobionate-mPEG, a-tocopheroltriethylenetetramine-bismono- methoxyl-PEG-ether-lactobionate, cholesterytriethylenetetraminelactobionatedimPEG, cholestery- propanediaminelaminaribiose-mPEG, cholesterypropanediaminegluconate-mPEG, cholestery- propanediamineascorbate-mPEG, tocopherylpropanediaminelactobionate-mPEG, tocopheryl- propanediamineisomaltotriose-mPEG, retinoylpropanediaminelactobionate-mPEG, retinoyl- diethylenetriamineisomaltotriose-mPEG, cholecalciferoldiethylenetriamineisom-altotriose-mPEG, cholesteryldiethylenetriaminemonomethoxyPEG-ether-lactobionate, chole-sterylpropanediamine- monomethoxyPEG-lactobionate, cholesterylpropanediaminemonomethoxy-PEG-ether-gluconate, lactobionoylcholesterylmonomethoxyPEG-ether-lysinate, cholesteryl-diethylenetriaminemono- methoxylpolyethylene-glycol-ether-glucuronate, tocopheryldiethylenetri-aminemonomethoxyl- polyethylene-glycol-ether-lactobionate, tocopherylethylenediaminemono-methoxylpolyethylene- glycol-ether-ascorbate, ascorboyltocopherylethylenediaminemono-methoxypolyethylene-glycol- ether-aminosalicylate, cholecalciferolascorboyldiethylenetriamine-monomethoxyPEG-ether- lactobionate, cholecalciferoldiethylenetriamine-monomethoxyPEG-ether-lactobionate, cholesteryl- diethylenetriaminetryptophanylpolyethylene-glycol-ether-lactobio-nate, cholesterol-mPEG- propanediaminolactobionate, cholesterol-mPEG-propanediamino-ascorbate, cholesterol-aspartate- mPEG-lactobionate, cholesteryloleoyldiethylenetriamine-mPEG-lactobionate, cholesteryl-retinoyl- diethylenetriamine-mPEG-lactobionate, cholesteroltriethylenetetraminebismonomethoxy-PEG- ether-lactobionate, lactobionoyltocopherolmonomethoxyPEG-ether-lysinate, cholesterol- triethylenetetraminebismonomethoxyPEG-ether-lactobionate, cholesterolascorboyldiethylene- triaminemonomethoxyPEG-etherlactobionate, N-bis-monomethoxy-PEG-ether-serinol-7V- cholesterol-N'-lactobionoyl-propanediamine, N,N- 1 ,3-bislactobionoyldiamino-2-propanol- cholesterolmonomethoxy-PEG-ether-propanediamine and cholecalciferoldiemylenetriamine- isomaltotriose-mPEG.

14. A method for treating a disease in a mammal with the chemical compound of claim 1 , the method comprising the steps of:

1) providing an aqueous solution or mixture;

2) adding the chemical compound of claim 1 as a solubility or bioavailability enhancer to the aqueous solution or mixture; and

3) adding a pharmaceutical active ingredient (API) to the aqueous solution or mixture; and treating the mammal with the prepared composition.

Description:
TITLE OF INVENTION

POLYMER-CARBOHYDRATE CONJUGATES FOR DRUG DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY

[001] This application claims priority to the provisional patent application serial number: 61/912,228, entitled "Polymer-Carbohydrate Conjugates for Drug Delivery Technology" filed in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office on December 5, 2013, by Nian Wu and nonpro visional patent application serial number: 14/561 , 219, entitled "Polymer-Carbohydrate Conjugates for Drug Delivery Technology" filed in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office on December 5, 2014, by Nian Wu

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[002] The present invention relates to polymer-carbohydrate conjugates, detailed and specific disclosures are given for synthetic polyethyleneglycol (PEG) -carbohydrate conjugates with sterols or so called "fat solable" vitamins ("lipo-vitamin") as the lipophilic carriers excluding both steroid acids and fatty acids as the primary lipophilic component in the conjugates and preferably having substantially monodisperse PEG chains if used for intravenous drug administration. More particularly, the present invention relates to novel polymer-carbohydrate conjugates having sterols or steroid alcohols or lipophilic vitamin componenet to increase lipophilic charaticters in the hydrophobic portion or polymer-carbohydrate conjugates and their use for drug delivery, cosmetics and other purposes.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

[003] In the design of safe and biocompatible delivery systems, several important factors may be taken into account including high solubilization properties and retaining power of the carrier and appropriate surface characteristics to permit interactions with potential targeting tissue sites or cell membrane permeations.

[004] The important role of sugars in many specific interactions in living systems is well recognized. Large molecular weight carriers such as proteins or liposomes may be modified with sugars for specific drug delivery (Monsigny M, Roche AC, Midoux P and Mayer R., Adv Drug Delivery Rev., 14 (1994): l-24; Palomino E. Adv Drug Delivery Rev., 13 (1994)31 1-323]. Lipid- sugar particles have been used for drug delivery to the brain for providing prolonged duration local anesthesia when injected at the sciatic nerve in rats [Kohane DS, Lipp M, Kinney R., Lotan N, Langer R., Pharm. Res. 17 (2000) 1243-1249]. Since sugar-lipids are composed of materials that occur naturally in the human body suggests potential advantages over some other polymer-based controlled-release terms of biocompatibility [Kohane DS, Lipp M, Kinney R, Anthony D, Lotan N, Langer R., J Biomed. Mat. Res. 59 (2002) 450-459; Menei P, Daniel V, Montero-Menei C, Brouillard M, Pouplard-Barthelaix A, Benoit JP., Biomaterials, 14 (1993) 470-478], Lipid-sugars have a good biocompatibility as shown by the results of the in vitro and in vivo studies [Kohane DS, Lipp M, Kinney R, Anthony D, Lotan N, Langer R., J Biomed. Mat. Res. 59 (2002) 450-459].

[005] Sterol is classified as a lipid in one of the eight lipid categories [Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Brown HA, et al. (2005). "A comprehensive classification system for lipids". J Lipid Res. 46 (5): 839-61]. The lipid classification scheme is chemically based and driven by the distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements that compose the lipid. Sterols and related compounds play essential roles in the physiology of eukaryotic organisms are a subgroup of the steroids. They occur naturally in plants, animals, and fungi, the most familiar type of animal sterol is cholesterol. Cholesterol is vital to animal cell membrane structure and function and forms part of the cellular membrane in animals, where it affects the cell membrane's fluidity and serves as secondary messenger in developmental signaling [Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, and Walter P (2002). Molecular biology of the cell. 4 th Edition, New York: Garland Science, p. 1874]. For the distinction and clarity, sterols or steroid alcohols ultilized in the present invention, as showed in General Formula 1 , are not water soluble and different chemical compounds from those of steroid acids such as cholic acid or other bile acids.

[006] General Formula 1 : basic structure of sterols in the invention

[007] The present invention compromises one of the three carrier groups consisting of a sterol or sterol-like or "fat soluble" vitamin component including but not limited to choleterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, hopanoids, phytosterol, sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol, avenasterol adosterol, and stanols (saturated steroid alcohols or hydrogenated sterols). Sterols are biological importance as a highly compitable vehicle for drug delivery, for instance cholesterol makes up about 10-50 percent of the total lipid in natural cell membranes, the conjugates containing sterols or fat soluble vitamins may increase the drug peameation for cell targeted deliverying.

[008] The human body has a natural tendency to maintain homeostasis, and may be elaborated from substances present in the diet, sometimes exclusively, for vitamins, minerals, essential amino-acids and essential fatty acids including polyunsaturated fatty acids which play a significant role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in human. Vitamin E is the general term for all tocopherols and tocotrienols, of which alpha-tocopherol is the natural and biologically most active form. The antioxidant function of vitamin E is considered to be critical for the prevention of oxidation of tissue. While these molecules are essential for the human body, they may be ultilized as safer ingredients to design for an ideal carbohydrate-lipid conjugate.

[009] The present invention compromises one of the three carrier groups consisting of a sterol or fat soluble vitamin. Another carrier group is a carbohydrate molecule or water soluble vitamin such as ascorbic acid or thiamine or biotin. The third carrier is a water soluble polymer such as polyethylene glycol. The three carrier groups are attached covalently to a central backbone where at least three bonding positions or sites available. The conjugation may be achieved via one or more types of reactions or combination of alkylation including N-alkylation or O-alkylation, etherification, esterification and amidation.

[0010] The solubility of organic molecules is often summarized by the phrase, "like dissolves like." This means that molecules with many polar groups are more soluble in polar solvents, and molecules with few or no polar groups (i.e., nonpolar molecules) are more soluble in nonpolar solvents (R. Casiday and R. Frey, "Maintaining the Body's Chemistry: Dialysis in the Kidneys," http://www.chemistrv.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/Dialysis /Kidnevs.html, Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, accessed on December 3, 2013).

[0011] Vitamins are either water-soluble or fat- soluble (soluble in lipids and nonpolar compounds), depending on their molecular structures. Water-soluble vitamins have many polar groups and are hence soluble in polar solvents such as water. In contrast fat-soluble vitamins are predominantly nonpolar and hence are soluble in nonpolar solvents such as the fatty (nonpolar) tissue of the body. Solubility is a complex phenomenon that depends on the change in free energy (AG) of the process. For a process, i.e., a vitamin dissolving in a solvent, to be spontaneous, the change in free energy may be negative (i.e., AG<0) [M. Traverso, "Vitamin Solubility," http://www.chemistrv.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/CourseTu torials/Tutorials/Vitamins/molec ularbasis.htm, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, accessed on December 3, 2013].

[0012] Unlike steroid acids, a sterol-like chemical structures have negligible solubility in water, but soluble in nonpolar solvents such as hexane. Sterols containing a double bond are slightly more polar than those of stanols for two reasons: the pi bond electrons are more polarizable, thus contributing to instantaneous dipole moments, and the vinylic bond tends to be slightly polar, contributing to the permanent dipole moment. In a symmetrical trans disubstituted double donds, the sum of the dipole moments is zero. In the analogous cis double bonds, the vector sum of the two dipoles is directed perpendicular to the double bond. This results in a non-zero molecular dipole. The permanent dipole results in an increased boiling temperature and lower melting points. Lipophilic vitamins have a general structure of conjugated double bonds which increase non-polar interactions with hydrophobic molecules.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0013] The present invention comprises compounds having a Backbone and three or four appended functional groups as showed in Figure 1 : one or two lipophilic vitamins or sterols or alike, one or two hydrophilic polymers, one or two carbohydrates which may be substituted by a water soluble vitamin. Specific functional groups may be selected for specific applications in formulating pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutriceuticals, and the like. A variety of linkers between the backbone and functional groups may also be selected to optimize performance. The coupling reaction is one or combination or series of alkylation, esterification, etherification and amidation chemical process.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0014] Figure 1 shows a representation of the conjugates of the present invention.

[0015] Figure 2 shows pharmacokinetic profiles of Docetaxel formulations with (a) a commercial product and (b) Docetaxel solution consisting of 2% of a PEG-carbohydrate-sterol conjugate.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0016] Embodiments of the present invention are described herein in the context of varying polymer-carbohydrtae conjugates for drug delivery. Those of ordinary skill in the art will realize that the following detailed description of the present invention is illustrative only and is not intended to be in any way limiting. Other embodiments of the present invention will readily suggest themselves to such skilled persons having the benefit of this disclosure. Reference will now be made in detail to implementation of the present invention.

[0017] In the interest of clarity, not all of the routine features of the implementations herein are described. It will be appreciated that in the development of such actual implementation, numerous implementation-specific details may need to be made in order to achieve the developer's specific goals, and that these specific goals may vary. [0018] United States Patent Publications 2012/202,979 and 2012/202,890, which are hereby incorporated by references, teach the aqueous formulations of poor water soluble agents by employing certain polymer-carbohydrate-lipid (PCL) conjugates. The patents described how to prepare the polymer-carbohydrate-lipid conjugates and its applications by simply adding the conjugate to an aqueous solution. It has been demonstrated that PCLs are useful for solubilizing hydrophobic drugs without the formation of liposomes or microemulsions.

[0019] Differentiating from the previous inventions published in US2012/202,979 and US2012/202,890, the present invention comprises the lipophilic portion of the polymer- carbohydrate conjugates excluding steroid acids or fatty acis while those conjugates remains a basic structiure having a backbone and three or four appended functional groups: one or two lipophilic vitamins or sterols, one or two hydrophilic polymers, and one or two carbohydrates which may be substituted by a water soluble vitamin. By combining these functionalities all into one compound, it is possible to achieve improved formulations of many active agents. The general structure of the family of compounds is shown as Figure 1 or the three-demential Chemical Structure 1 , where B indicates the backbone, P indicates the polymer, H indicates lipophilic vitamin or sterol or alike, and S indicates the carbohydrate. In aqueous solutions, the new conjugates act as a solubility enhancer of poor water soluble agents resulting in either a true solution or a very stable emulsified suspension with those of active agents. In certain cases, the carbohydrate may be substituted by a water soluble vitamin such as ascorbic acid, which is also classified as aldonic acids, the sugar acid.

[0020] In another aspect, the invention comprises compounds having a backbone and three or appended functional groups with four carriers: one or two sterols, one or two hydrophilic polymers, and one or two carbohydrates which may be substituted by a water soluble vitamin. By doubling one of these three functionalities all into one compound, it is possible to achieve more enhanced formulations of many poor water soluble or poor permeable active agents. The general structure of the family of compounds is also shown in Figure 1, where B indicates the backbone, P indicates the polymer, H indicates the lipophilic vitamin or sterol or alike, S indicates the carbohydrate, and D as duplicates one of the three carriers or a water soluble vitamin.

[0021] Another differentiation from our previous inventions published in US2012/202,979 and US2012/202,890, the present invention comprises sterols or sterol-like compounds to significantly reduce potential hemolytic activity induced by fatty acids [Mimura, T. "Fatty acids and sterols of the tunicate, Salpa thompsoni, from the Antarctic Ocean: chemical composition and hemolytic activity". Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin, 34 (1986) 4562]. Combination of sterols and fatty acids may also reduce the hemolytic effects of fatty acids alone, thus it may be possible to include a fatty acid as the fourth carrier group when necessary. Unlike sterols, water soluble steroid acids (bile acids) are more likely inducing hemolytic anemia [Hani, A. "The pH dependence of the hemolytic potency of bile salts". Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1027 (1990) 199]. For this particular reason, no steroid acid or fatty acids will be selected as the primary lipophilic carrier in the current invention. In case there are two lipophilic carriers, one may be cholesterol or a nonhemolytic sterol or "fat soluble" vitamin.

[0022] In one aspect of the present invention, the present invention comprises nonfatty acid and nonsteroid acid lipophilic component including sterols or sterol-like compounds to signifitly reduce potential hemolytic activity as compared to commercial available PEG-lipids including polyethylene glycol sorbites, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor) and mono/diglycerides of caprylic/capric acid in glycerol (Capmul®) polyglycolized glycerides (Labrafac®), PEG-6 glyceryl monoleate or PEG-6 glyceryl linoleate (Labrafil®), PEG-8 glyceryl caprylate/caprate (Labrasol®). While these fatty acid based lipid-polymers may increase poor water soluble agents, hemolysis is induced at higher lipid-drug ratios [G.D. Noudeh, P. hazaeli and P. Rahmani. "Study of the Effects of Polyethylene Glycol Sorbitan Esters Surfactants Group on Biological Membranes." International Journal of Pharmacology, 4 (2008) 27-33; A.O. Nornooa, D.W. Osborneb, D.S.L. Chow "Cremophor-free intravenous microemulsions for paclitaxel: I: Formulation, cytotoxicity and hemolysis." International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 349 (2008) 108-1 16].

[0023] Further differentiation from our previous inventions published in US2012/202,979 and US2012/202,890, the present invention comprises sterols or tocopherol carriers which are a rigid component in the conjugate construction, not having the same freedom of movement that the fatty acid tails of the conjugates possess. Adjacent carrier groups, i.e., polymers may be partially restricted in their freedom of movement throughout the length of their polymer chains that are abutting, e.g., the sterol molecules. However, since the sterol or tocopherol components have certain effect of creating spaces in the uniform hydrophobic morphology of the bilayer, the portion of the polymer chains below the abutted regions are increased in their freedom of movement. There is a neglect steric hindrance for carrier groups apart from the cyclic ring portion.

[0024] Another differentiation from our previous inventions published in US2012/202,979 and US2012/202,890, the present invention comprises sterols or "fat soluble" vitamin carriers are more lipophilic. Based on the same center backbone, polymer, carbohydrate, and the linker between the center backbone and the lipophilic group, the oil/water phase partition (LogP) or distribution coefficients (Log D) are largely difference between the sterols or "fat soluble" vitamins untilized in present invention and those of steroid acids or fatty acids used in previous inventions as indicated in the Tale 1 , where the Log Ps and Log Ds were calculated with a computer program of Marvin Sketch (ChemAxon Kft, Budapest, Hungary). A positive value indicates more oil soluble and a negative value indicates more water soluble. Thus the water solubility or lipophilicity is solely based on the inherited character of the hydrocarbon carrier groups, which showed a magnitude difference between PEG-carbohydrate-sterol conjugates and PEG-carbohydrate-steroid acid conjugates or between sterols and steroic acids. The further chemistry difference between steroid acids and sterols is that sterols contain only have a single hydroxyl group and steroid acis contain a carbolytic and multiple hydroxyl groups which are more water soluble or hemolytic. While the difference in the LogP values is smaller between fatty acids and sterols, they are different molecules in the chemical structures and hemolytic sensivity.

[0025] Table 1. Solubility comparision between different type carrier groups based idential structural design:

[0026] As showed in Table 1 , while the oil/water phase partition (LogP) coefficient of the sterol is significantly different from the steroid acids from same structural configuration of a conjugate, the LogP may be altered with longer polyethylene glycol chains. However an extensive PEG chain is required for a sterol based PEG-carbohydrate conjugate to match those LogP vales of steroid acide based conjugates. For example, a LogP of - 4.79 is calculated for a PEG-Carbohydrate- Cholesterol with a PEG chain of approximate 107 subunites, in comparison, a LopP of -4.98 is obtained for a PEG-Carbohydrate-Cholate with a PEG chain approximately 10 times shorter, only 11 subunites. This demonstrates the significant differencesw in chemical and physical properties between sterols and steroid acids.

[0027] In one aspect of the present invention, the hydrophobic interaction may be increased significantly by incorporating a cyclic lipophilic group such as sterols into the polymer- carbohydrate conjugates. The water solubility is enhanced for those hydrophobes where the encapsulation of the lipophilic molecules into the sterol-polymer conjugates is improved. Differentiated from previous described fatty acid-carbohydrate-polymer conjugates, the current invention presents a sterol-like cyclic structural carrier having stronger hydrophobic interactions with lipophilic solutes. The same hydrophobic interaction may not be achieved with steroid acids due to large interferences from the hydroxyl groups of steroid acids. As showed in the General Formula 1 , sterol such as cholesterol does not have any free hydroxyl group after bonding to the central backbone.

[0028] In one aspect of the present invention comprises sterol or sterol-like molecules with single hydroxy group available for the conjugation to reduce potential interferences caused by free hydroxyl(s) to hydrophobic interactions between the lipophilic carriers and hydrophobic solutes.

[0029] In watery- aqueous environment, the interior of polymer-carbohydrates is largely non-polar and the principle to use when determining hydrocarbon solubility is "like dissolves like." Most poor water soluble compounds contain at least one cyclic ring such as phenyl groups; thus the hydrophobic steroyl or tocopheryl head of a conjugate and lipophic solute are clumped together "like dissolves like." On the outside of the polymer-carbohydrates are largely polar groups which are able to interact with the polar water molecule, thus the entire polymer-carbohydrate incorporating lipophilic solutes is then water soluble.

[0030] In the novel polymer-carbohydrate conjugates, the central backbones have two sites with polar groups attached and another site with nonpolar groups are good solubility enhancers. They may aid in the formation of stable solution or emulsions or blends of water and lipophilic agents. These polymer conjugates reduce the interfacial tension between hydrophobic molecules and water by adsorbing the energy at the liquid-liquid interface.

[0031] In one aspect of the present invention, sterols or tocopherols or alike with double bonds are the preferable component of the polymer-carbohydrate conjugates. When two molecules come together, the variations in charge may create a situation where one end of a molecule might be slightly negative and the other end of that molecule could be slightly positive. This would add more attraction of the two molecules. As chemical properties are considered, ring structured and linear compounds differ greatly. The ring structures with double bonds may be considered as a "molecular handle" with increased intermolecular forces that hold molecules together in a liquid or solution phase. The amount of difference in intermolecular forces between a cyclic compound and a linear molecule is based on the polarizability of a particular molecule.

[0032] The hydrophobic interaction is defined as an entropic effect generating from the disruption of highly dynamic hydrogen bonds between molecules of liquid water by the hydrophobic solute [T.P. Silverstein, "The Real Reason Why Oil and Water Don't Mix". Journal of Chemical Education. 75(1998) 116-346]. When a hydrophobic solute is mixed in an aqueous medium, hydrogen bonds between water molecules will be broken to make room for the hydrophobic solute; since water molecules do not react with the hydrophobic solute. Such hydrophobic effect may be quantified by measuring the partition coefficients of non-polar molecules between water and non- polar solvents. The partition coefficients may be transformed to free energy (AG) of transfer which includes enthalpic (AH) and entropic (AS) components. The hydrophobic effect has been found to be entropy (/)S)-driven at room temperature because of the reduced mobility of water molecules in solvation shell of the non-polar solute. The change in enthalpy (AH) of the system may be zero, negative or positive because the formation of the new hydrogen bonds may partially, completely, or over compensate for the hydrogen bonds broken by the entrance of the hydrophobic solute. The change in enthalpy, however, is insignificant in determining the spontaneity of mixing hydrophobic molecules and water because the change in entropy (AS) is very large. According to the Gibbs free energy Equation, AG = AH - T AS, with a small unknown value of AH and a large negative value of AS, the value of AG will turn out to be positive. A positive AG indicates that the mixing of the hydrophobe and water molecules is not spontaneous which results in a phase separation or precipitation.

[0033] In another aspect of the current invention, the hydrophilic-lipophilic interaction is well balanced with the polymer-carbohydrate-sterol conjugates [Griffin WC. "Calculation of HLB Values of Non-Ionic Surfactants," Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists. 5 (1954) 259]. For example, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number remains greater than 12 due to the large polymer portion in the conjugates to form translucent microemulsions spontaneously. Unlike microemulsions formed by a mixture of surfactants or lipid polymers, co- surfactants and/or co- solvents which a surfactant or lipid polymer concentration is several times higher that significantly exceeds the concentration of the dispersed phase or mechanically produced translucent microemulsions which specialized equipment is required, the polymer-carbohydrate- sterol/lipophilic vitamin conjugates in the present invention are able to form transparent solution or nanoemulsions spontaneously by a single polymer-carbohydrate-sterol or polymer-carbohydrate- tocopherol polymer-carbohydrate-retinol and typically without co-solvent and external high energy required [Mason TG, Wilking J , Meleson K, Chang CB, Graves SM. "Nanoemulsions: formation, structure, and physical properties", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, IS (2006) R635-R666].

[0034] In one aspect of the current invention, a stable aqueous solution or emulsion may be formed with minimal amounts of the polymer-carbohydrate conjugates, this is superior over convertional surfactants or other lipid-polymers since many undesirable side effects caused by surfactants or lipid-polymers, higher concentrations of surfactants are disadvantageous or prohibitive in many applications. In addition, the stability of a microemulsion or mechanically formed nanoemulsion is often easily compromised by dilution, by heating, or by changing pH levels.

[0035] Though it is possible to use a variety of hydrophilic polymers in practicing the invention, polyethyleneglycol (PEG) is preferred because of its long history of effectiveness and its status of being generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Incorporating PEG, the General Structure 1 of the new polymer-carbohydrate-sterol conjugate is:

[0036] General Structure 1

[0037] In General Structure 1 , the backbone may be selected from a compound comprises at least three available binding positions or sites for the conjugation of a first carrier, a second carrier and a third carrier, each available binding position or site comprising an expendable amino, hydroxyl, or carboxylic group. The backbone may be selected from the group consisting of glycerol or glycerol-like analogues, polyamines, diamines, triamines, tetraamines, aminodiol, aminotriols, aminoalcohols and amino acids having three available binding positions or sites, triols, tetraols, erythritol, triacids, tetracid, tetraacetic acid, glucoheptonic acid, and tartaric acid, including but not limited to ethylenediamine (1 ,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane (propane- 1 ,3 -diamine), 4- amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid, ,V-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine, 4-amino-2-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-hydroxy-4-aminobutylic acid, l-B-homoserine, 1-threonine, N-B-aminoethyl-glycine, putrescine (butane- 1 ,4-diamine), cadaverine (pentane-l,5-diamine), hexamethylenediamine (hexane-l ,6-diamine), 1 ,2-diaminopropane, diphenylethylenediamine, diaminocyclohexane. diethylenetriamine, bis(3-aminopropyl)amine, triethylenetetramine, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, spermine, spermidine, norspermidine, bis(3-aminopropyl)-l,3-propanediamine, l,2-bis(3- aminopropylamino)ethane, jV,jV'-bis(3-aminopropyl)-l ,3-propanediamine, tris(hydroxymethyl)- aminomethane, diaminobenzidine, N-ethyl- V , -(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, meso- erythritol, triazacyclononane, tetraazacyclododecane, threitol, dithiothreitol, trimethylcyclo- hexane- l ,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, trimethylbis(hexamethylene)triamine, bis(hexamethylene)- triamine, arginine, oxylyldiamino-propionic acid, 3-amino-l ,2-propanediol, 3-bromo- l ,2- propanediol, 3-chloro-l ,2-propanediol, 3-fluoro-l,2-propanediol, DL-glyceric acid, diaminopropionic acid, glucoheptonic acid and, 1 ,2,4-butanetriol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid, l ,3-diamino-2-propanol and 2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethanol, and 3-((3-aminopropyl)- amino)propanol; aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, lysine, ornithine, serine, and threonine or benzyl triols or aminohvdroxybenzoic acids or benzenetriol, dihydroxybenzoic acid, diaminobenzoic acid, diaminophenol, diaminobenzoic acid, aminohvdroxybenzoic acid, aminosalicylic acid, hydroxyanthranilic acid, hydroxyisophthalic acid, aminoisophthalic acid, 4- (hydroxymethyl)cyclopentane-l,3-diol, deoxyfuconojirimycin, deoxynojirimycin, prostaglandins, hydroxylmethylpiperidinol, dihydroxy(hydroxymethyl)aminocyclopentane, diaminophenol, benzenetetracarboxylic acid, benzenetricarboxylic acid, aminobenzenediol, dihydroxybenzoic acid, aminohydroxybenzoic acid, trihydroxyaniline, benzenetriol, dimethoxybenzenediamine, trihydroxyphenol, (diaminophenoxy)benzenediamine and aminobromophenol. The carbohydrate is a sugar including monosaccharides or disaccharides or oligosaccharides or amino sugar or sugar acids. The H is a lipophilic compound or their diesters including but not limited to sterol or sterol- like compound or lipo-vitamin, X 1? X 2 and X3 are the same or different linkers of carbon-nitrogen bond, ester or ether or amide between carrier groups and center backbones. Each linker may be as simple as oxygen or nitrogen or other single atom to form an ester or ether or amide bond between the carrier and center backbone. Alternatively, each linker may be single or replicate linkers selected from Table 1 or Table 2. In some cases, the linker may be co-extensive with or a part of the backbone or functional group component used to synthesize the conjugates.

[0038] Typical coupling reaction of the conjugates involves with one or more or combination or in series of alkylation including jV-alkylation or O-alkylation, etherification, esterification and amidation chemical processes. The general structure is meant to include all racemers or structural isomers of the structure, as they may be functionally equivalent. The PEG chain preferably consists of between about 5 and 45 subunits, and is preferably substantially monodisperse. R is the terminal group on the PEG chain may be selected from a wide variety of chemical moieties. Hydroxy or methoxy is commonly selected as the terminal groups. R preferably has a molecular weight of less than about 650. Commercially available PEG-lipid monoesters may be used to formulate many compounds by directly linking new moieties to the available positions on the central backbone.

[0039] In one aspect of the present invention, no drug or peptide or biomolecule will be selected as the center backbone. Unlike prodrugs modified from bioactive agents, one of major applications of the present invention is for drug delivery, therefore the conjugates themselves as a delivery vecihle are chemically stable and preferablely having less or no toxic to the body.

[0040] The terminal group on the PEG chain may be selected from a wide variety of chemical moieties. Such moieties preferably have a molecular weight of less than 650. Such moieties include -OH, -OCH 3 , -NH 2 , -COOH, -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 2 OH, -COCH=CH 2 , -OCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 , -OS0 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 C 6 H 6 , -OCH 2 COCH 2 CH 2 COONC 4 H 4 0 2 , -CH 2 CH 2 =CH 2 , Ci 0 Hi 6 N 2 O 3 S and - OC 6 Hg. The terminal group may be a functional group that facilitates linking therapeutic or targeting agents to the surface of lipid vesicle aggregates. Amino acids, amino alkyl esters, biotins, maleimide, diglycidyl ether, maleinimido propionate, methylcarbamate, tosylhydrazone salts, azide, propargyl-amine, propargyl alcohol, succinimidyl (NHS) esters (e.g., propargyl NHS ester, NHS-biotin, sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin, or NHS carbonate), hydrazide, succinimidyl ester, succinimidyl tartrate, succinimidyl succinate, and toluenesulfonate salt are useful for such linking. Tinked therapeutic and targeting agents may include Fab fragments, cell surface binding agents, and the like. Additionally, the terminal group may include functional cell-targeting ligands such as folate, transferrin and molecules such as monoclonal antibodies, ligands for cellular receptors or specific peptide sequences may be attached to the liposomal surface to provide specific binding sites. The terminal group may be neutral or include either negatively or positively charged head- groups such as decanolamine, octadecylolamine, octanolamine, butanolamine, dodecanolamine, hexanolamine, tetradecanolamine, hexadecanolamine, oleylamine, decanoltrimethylaminium, octadecyloltrimethylaminium, octanoltrimethylaminium, butanoltrimethylaminium, dodecanol- trimethylaminium, hexanoltrimethylaminium, tetradecanoltrimethylaminium, hexadecanol- trimethylaminium, oleyltrimethylaminium, for example. Other useful R groups include fatty acids or alkyl groups such as alkoxy moieties, amino acids, and sugars including monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides containing 1 , 2, 3, and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Additionally, targeting moieties such as antibody fragments and vitamins may also be used as R groups. The molecular weight of the R group is preferably less than about 650, and for most applications the R group is preferably easily polarized, in order to increase the binding and interaction with proteins at the targeted sites. However, well balanced ionic R groups are advantageously employed for certain modes of administrations such as topical gels and oral solutions targeting the mouth and throat.

[0041] The present invention includes linking chemical groups that may be selected to optimize and improve PEG-carbohydrate-lipophic group based formulations. Selecting an appropriate linker between lipo-portion or PEG or carbohydrate and backbone may be important for several reasons, as described below.

[0042] It is well understood that a drug or compound as a xenobiotic, the normal human body doesn't need it. Ideally, a drug should reach the site of action intact, cure the disease, and leave the body after it completes its mission. However, drug developers often face the dilemma that 70 to 90% of drugs under development have water solubility or permeability problem [Thayer, AM. Chemical & Engineering News. 88 (2010) 13 - 18], so that the drug may not reach its site of action and achieve its therapeutic effect, or too slow, so that it stays in the body for a long time causing side effects. An object of this invention is to develop the polymer-carbohydrate-lipids with unique linkers to help drugs to achieve therapeutic goals.

[0043] Xenobiotics follow metabolic processes to be removed from the body. This process most commonly involves cytochrome P450 enzymes. These enzymes are a super family of proteins found in all living organisms. In humans, as well as all other mammalian species, this enzyme system is found principally in the liver but exists in all other organs and tissues. These enzymes catalyze the following reactions: aromatic hydroxylation; aliphatic hydroxylation; N-, 0-, and S- dealkylation; N-hydroxylation; N-oxidation; sulfoxidation and deamination. Of particular importance to the present invention are the breakdown processes that the vesicles formed from news lipids, and the new lipids themselves, are expected to undergo. Methoxyl and methylamine groups are expected to undergo demethylation. Amines are expected to undergo N-oxidation or deamination. Sulfur bonds are expected to undergo S-oxidation. Esters and amides are expected to undergo hydrolysis. Since different organs and tissues have differing abilities to perform these different reactions, it is a further objective of the present invention to provide linkers with optimal degradation properties.

[0044] Similarly different microenvironments within the body favor different breakdown processes. For example, acidic gastric fluids favors breakdown of thiol linkages. Therefore, it is still another object of this invention to provide new molecules for improving the biocompabilitv of a therapeutic agent and for designing drug delivery formulations for diverse physiological microenvironments. [0045] Of the three linked PEG, carbohydrate and lipophilic components, carbohydrate and sterol or lipo-vitamins are digestible by humans while PEG is not. Breaking the linkage among the three components may result in increased clearance for all. It is therefore an object of the invention to use varying biodegradable linkers for optimizing clearance rates of lipid vesicles and lipids used for drug delivery.

[0046] When attached to a polymer, any inherit property of the molecules may be inactive. It is therefore an object of the invention to use less biodegradable linkers for stabilizing the bond between the central backbone and the carrier groups, especially when a portion of the conjugates alone may be relatively toxic.

[0047] In one aspect of the present invention involves coupling reactions of the conjugates with one or more or combination or in series of alkylation including N-alkylation or O-alkylation, etherification, esterification and amidation chemical processes. For practical and economic reasons, it is preferable making those conjugates from simple processes wheneve possible at low costs.

[0048] Retaining power of lipids may be important in drug formulations and preventing drug precipitation from dilution or cyclation in the body fluids. The present invention provides the means of enhancing retaining power by inclusion more hydrophobic carrier groups into polymer- carbohydrate conjugates. In addition, with increased retaining power of the conjugates, the use of preservative may be eliminated for parenteral products since the sterile filtration is possible with a relative low concentration of the polymer conjugates in the dosage forms which typically form a true solution product.

[0049] The sugar groups in the conjugates of the invention have larger surface polarity than polymer chains or lipophilic carriers. For instance, those PEG-carbohydrate conjugates provide a better drug dispersion for their applications in nano- suspension or nanoparticles, especially for some amphiphatic drugs or other compounds; this provides a better equilibrium for the drug or other compounds to partition into the lipophilic bilayers of the vesicles.

[0050] When using existing PEG-lipids such as Capmul®, Centrophase®, Cremophor®, Labrafac®, Labrafil®, Labrasol® and Myverol® for oral liquid formulations, a taste masking agent may be used which may have additional issues for manufacturing processes and costs. PEG- carbohydrate conjugates generally taste better than other types of PEG-lipids conjugates, and elimination of the need for taste making agents is possible.

[0051] PEG-carbohydrate conjugates in the present invention may be formulated into injectable preparations free from sugars which are commonly used to stabilize lyophilized proteins and peptides for injectables. Injectables prepared with PEG-carbohydrate conjugates are very stable even under high temperature or high humidity conditions. Reducing or eliminating the use of sugars in pharmaceutical preparation is especially beneficial for patients with diabetes mellitus.

[0052] The polymer chains in the conjugates of the present invention are preferably monodisperse PEG. Materials and methods for synthesizing such monodisperse PEG chains are disclosed in United States patent application 12/802,197, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Preferably more than 30% of the PEG chains in a particular conjugate have the same molecular weight. More preferably, more than 50% have the same molecular weight. Most preferably, more than 80% have the same molecular weight.

[0053] Generally, the present invention includes compositions and methods for synthesizing PEG- carbohydrate- sterol/(or lipophilic vitamin) conjugates comprising a central backbone with one PEG chain and one carbohydrate group and one lipophilic group bonded to the backbone. The conjugation undergoes alkylation including N-alkylation or O-alkylation, etherification, esterification and amidation chemical processes. Selected linkers may be used to form ester or ether or amide bonds between the backbone and the PEG chain or the carbohydrate or the lipophilic group or prior to the conjugation to the center backbones. The backbone comprises glycerol or glycerol-liking having three avaible binding positions or diamines, triamines, tetraamine and polyamines or diaminoalcohol or amino acids having three available binding positions and the lipophilc carrier group comprises cholesterol or cholesterol-like having a single hydroxyl group or tocopherol or tocotrienol or cholecalciferol or retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid.

[0054] Variations of the invention include a variety of compounds as for the central backbone with at least three available binding positions. Molecules having two available binding positions, such as diamines, aminoalcohols or amino acids may be chemically extended to three binding sites.

[0055] While positional isomers may be produced during synthesis of the polymer-carbohydrate- lipid conjugates, such isomers may be functionally equivalent. However, the choice of isomer may have implications in a variety of delivery process such as intracellular transport of lipophilic molecules as well as their use as vehicles in pharmaceutical applications. For example, isomers may differ in the ability to stabilize a compound during solubilizing and storage.

[0056] Though it is possible to use a variety of central backbone for the preparation of a polymer- carbohydrate conjugates, incorporating linear or cyclic central backbones in practicing the invention is demonstrated to be very powerful, because of a sterol or tocopherol or cholecalciferol may largely increase handling ability of "like dissolves like." In General Structure 1 , the backbone may be selected from glycerol or glycerol-like analogues, polyamines (di- or tri-or tetra- or penta- amines), amino acids having three available binding sites, and triols and triacids such as glucoheptonic acid and tartaric acid. The lipophilic component may be selected from a group of compounds including but not limited to cholesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, hopanoids, phytosterol, sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol, avenasterol adosterol, and stanols (saturated steroid alcohols or hydrogenated sterols), retinoids, , retinals, retinoic acid, tretinoin, carotenoids, β-carotene, a-tocopherol, tocotrienols, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, astaxanthin, auroxanthin, capsanthin, capsorubin, chrysanthemaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, rubixanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin. The carbohydrate is a sugar including monosaccharides or disaccharides or oligosaccharides or animo sugars or sugar acids. Xi, X 2 and X 3 are the same or different linkers of carbon-nitrogen bond, ester or ether or amide between carrier groups and center backbones. Each linker may be as simple as oxygen or other single atom. Alternatively, each linker may be single or replicate linkers of amino acids or molecules with linear carbon chains. In some cases, the linker may be co-extensive with or a part of the backbone or functional group component used to synthesize the conjugate. Though not shown, the invention also includes compounds in which the carbohydrate is in the center position of the backbone. However, it is more practical to have carbohydrates at the terminus instead of the center of the backbones due to the routes of synthetic chemistry. The general structure is meant to include all racemers or structural isomers of the structure, as they may be functionally equivalent. The PEG chain preferably consists of between about 5 and 45 subunits, and is preferably substantially monodisperse. R is the terminal group on the PEG chain may be selected from a wide variety of chemical moieties. R preferably has a molecular weight of less than about 650.

[0057] Preferable amino acid linkers are proline, glycine, alanine, lysine, cysteine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine, selenocysteine, and arginine, more preferable are proline, glycine, alanine, lysine, cysteine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, most preferable are proline, glycine, and alanine.

[0058] In this aspect of the invention, in the general structure 1, X may comprise one or more carbon atoms in addition to the linker forming an N-alkylation or O-alkylation, ester or ether or amide bond between the carriers and center backbone. Whenever suitable, a simple and low cost coupling process should be chosen to void multiple linkers such as forming a peptide and the linker is preferably oriented so that the backbone is readily coupling to the carrier groups.

[0059] The present invention may be practiced using a variety of central backbones void drug moieties. Preferable backbones have at least three available or two expandable positions for carbohydrate or lipid or PEG attachments through alkylation, esterification, etherification or amidation. For those suitable molecules may be used as the backbone including but not limited to the group consisting of ethanediamine, propanediamine, butanediamine, pentanediamine, ethylenediamine, 1 ,3-diaminopropane (propane- 1 ,3 -diamine), putrescine (butane- 1,4-diamine), cadaverine (pentane-l ,5-diamine), hexamethylenediamine (hexane-l ,6-diamine), ethylene- diamine, 1 ,3-diaminopropane, 1,2-diaminopropane, 1,4-diaminobutane, diphenylethylenediamine, diaminocyclohexane, 3-amino-l,2-propanediol, 3-bromo-l ,2-propanediol, 3-chloro-l ,2- propanediol, 3-fluoro-l ,2-propanediol, DL-glyceric acid, diaminopropionic acid, tartaric acid, glucoheptonic acid and, 1 ,2,4-butanetriol, 2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid, l ,3-diamino-2- propanol and 2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethanol, 3-((3-aminopropyl)amino)propanol, diethylene- triamine, spermidine, triethylenetetramine, spermine, norspermidine, bis(3-aminopropyl)-l ,3- propanediamine, and bis(hexamethylene)triamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, ornithine, serine and threonine, benzyl triols or aminohydroxybenzoic acids or phenollike analogues, phenyl diols with a carboxy group or amine, and diamines with a hydroxyl or carboxy group, diaminobenzoic acid, aminohydroxybenzoic acid, aminosalicylic acid, hydroxyanthranilic acid, hydroxyisophthalic acid, aminoisophthalic acid. For example, a suitable center backbone may be selected from 4-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentane-l ,3-diol, deoxyfuconojirimycin, deoxynojirimycin, prostaglandins, hydroxymethylpiperidinol, dihydroxy- (hydroxymethyl)aminocyclopentane, diaminophenol, benzene-tetracarboxylic acid, benzene- tricarboxylic acid, aminobenzenediol, dihydroxybenzoic acid, aminohydroxybenzoic acid, trihydroxyaniline, benzenetriol, dimethoxybenzenediamine, trihydroxyphenol, (diaminophenoxy)- benzenediamine or aminobromophenol.

[0060] In the present invention, suitable carbohydrates for the polymer-carbohydrate conjugates include mono-saccharides or disaccharides or oligosaccharides as listed in Table 2. In addition to carbohydrates listed in Table 2, their analogues or derivatives are also suitable for making the conjugates including but not limited to sugar alcohol, sugar acids (saccharides with a carboxyl group), ascorbic acid, steviol glycoside (Rebaudioside A), sucralose, lactitol, maltitol, isomalt, maltotriitol, maltotetraitol, mogrosides, glycyrrhizin, inulin, glucoheptonic acid and osladin.

[0061] Table 2. Carbohydrates for use in the Invention trioses ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone) aldotriose (glyceraldehyde) tetroses ketotetrose (erythrulose) aldotetroses (erythrose, threose) ketopentose (ribulose, xylulose), aldopentose (ribose, pentoses

arabinose, xylose, lyxose), deoxy carbohydrate (deoxyribose)

Monosaccharide ketohexose (psicose, fructose, sorbose, tagatose), aldohexose hexoses

(allose, altrose, glucose, mannose, gulose, idose, galactose, talose), deoxy carbohydrate (fucose, fuculose, rhamnose) others heptose (sedoheptulose), octose, nonose (neuraminic acid) disaccharides sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose , turanose, cellobiose trisaccharides raffinose, melezitose , maltotriose

Multiple tetrasaccharides acarbose , stachyose

Fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharides, mannan- other oligosaccharides

oligosaccharides

polysaccharides polyglycitol, ft-acetylglucosamine, chitin,

[0062] The polymer-carbohydrate conjugates of the present invention may be used for many applications. Formulation and delivery of pharmaceutical and cosmetic agents have been described. Additionally, the polymer-carbohydrate conjugates of the present invention may be used in other contexts where water soluble lipids are advantages, for example industrial and food processes

[0063] The terminal group on the PEG chain may be selected from a wide variety of chemical moieties. Such moieties preferably have a molecular weight of less than 650. Such moieties include -NH 2 , -COOH, -OCH 2 CH 3 , -OCH 2 CH 2 OH, -COCH=CH 2 , -OCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 , -OS0 2 CH 3 , - OCH 2 C 6 H 6 , -OCH 2 COCH 2 CH 2 COONC 4 H 4 0 2 , -CH 2 CH 2 =CH 2 , C 10 Hi 6 N 2 O 3 S and -OC 6 H 6 . The terminal group may be a functional group that facilitates linking therapeutic or targeting agents to the surface of micro vesicle aggregates. Amino acids, amino alkyl esters, biotins, maleimide, diglycidyl ether, maleinimido propionate, methylcarbamate, tosylhydrazone salts, azide, propargyl- amine, propargyl alcohol, succinimidyl (NHS) esters (e.g., propargyl NHS ester, NHS-biotin, sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin, or NHS carbonate), hydrazide, succinimidyl ester, succinimidyl tartrate, succinimidyl succinate, and toluenesulfonate salt are useful for such linking. Linked therapeutic and targeting agents may include Fab fragments, cell surface binding agents, and the like. Additionally, the terminal group may include functional cell-targeting ligands such as folate, transferrin and molecules such as monoclonal antibodies, ligands for cellular receptors or specific peptide sequences may be attached to the liposomal surface to provide specific binding sites. The terminal group may be neutral or include either negatively or positively charged head-groups such as decanolamine, octadecylolamine, octanolamine, butanolamine, dodecanolamine, hexanolamine, tetradecanolamine, hexadecanolamine, oleylamine, decanoltrimethylaminium, octadecyloltri- methylaminium, octanoltrimethylaminium, butanoltrimethylaminium, dodecanoltrimethyl- aminium, hexanoltrimethylaminium, tetradecanoltrimethylaminium, hexadecanoltrimethyl- aminium, oleyltrimethylaminium, for example. Other useful R groups include alkyl groups such as alkoxy moieties, amino acids, and sugars including monosaccharides, ascorbic acid, gluconic acid, glucaric acid, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, disaccharides, trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides containing 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Additionally, targeting moieties such as antibody fragments and vitamins may also be used as R groups. Generally, the R group is highly soluble in water. The molecular weight of the R group is preferably less than about 650, and for most applications the R group is preferably easily polarized, in order to increase the binding and interaction with proteins at the targeted sites. However, well balanced ionic R groups are advantageously employed for certain modes of administrations such as topical gels and oral solutions targeting the mouth and throat.

[0064] In another aspect the invention includes a PEG-carbohydrate conjugate with three carriers having the General Structures:

[0065] General Structure 2

[0066] where the backbone is selected from glycerol or glycerol-like analogues or linear amines (di- or tri-or tetra-amines) or amino acids having three available binding sites including and not limited to selected from the group consisting of diethylenetriamine, bis(3-aminopropyl)amine or bis(3-aminopropyl)- 1 ,3-propanediamine or A/,jV'-bis(3-aminopropyl)- 1 ,3-propanediamine, triethyl- enetetramine or l ,2-bis(3-aminopropylamino)ethane, spermine, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, spermidine, norspermidine, bis(hexamethylene)triamine, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, diaminobenzidine, triazacyclononane, tetraazacyclododecane, threitol, meso-erythritol, dithiothreitol, trimethylcyclohexane-l ,3,5-tricarboxylic acid or 1 ,3,5-cyclohexanetricarboxylic acid, trimethylbis(hexa-methylene)triamine, arginine, oxylyldiaminopropionic acid having three or four available binding positions or sites, triols, triacids, glucoheptonic acid, and tartaric acid; where the H (Hi or ¾ may be the same or different lipophilic group) is sterol or fat soluble vitamin or alike selected from a group of lipophilic compounds or their dieasters including and not limited to cholesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, hopanoids, phytosterol, sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol, avenasterol adosterol, and stanols (saturated steroid alcohols or hydrogenated sterols), retinoids, retinals, retinoic acid, tretinoin, carotenoids, β-carotene, tocopherols, tocotrienols, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, astaxanthin, auroxanthin, capsanthin, capsorubin, chrysanthemaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, rubixanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin; the Sugar is a carbohydrate including monosaccharides ascorbic acid, gluconic acid, glucaric acid, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid or disaccharides or oligosaccharides; where the three substitutable groups are covalently bond to the backbone through a etherification or esterification or amidification or similar substitution reactions. The General Structure is meant to include all racemers or structural isomers of the structure, as they may be functionally equivalent. Where the PEG (PEGi or PEG 2 or PEG3 may be the same of different polymer) chain may consist of between about 5 and 45 subunits. More preferably the PEG chain consists of between about 4 and 25 subunits. Where R (or R is the terminal group on the PEG chain may be selected from a wide variety of chemical moieties. R preferably has a molecular weight of less than about 650. The PEG-carbohydrate-sterol conjugates are useful for applications other than liposomes, e.g., as a solubility enhancer in water solution. Even though no linker group is presented in the General Structures, modifications of carrier groups or center backbones may be necessary prior to the coupling reactions, those chemical modifications may be required for alkylation, etherification, esterification or amidation chemical processes between the carrier groups and the center backbone. Ideally selected carriers or center backbones may be used for the coupling reactions directly without a modification. Where X (X 1? X 2 or X3 may be the same or different linkers) is one or more linkers selected from the Table 2 or 3 or groups consisting of oxy, amino acids, amino, succinylamino, acetamido, aminopentanamido, aminoacetyl, thiopropanoayl, A T -(mercaptomethyl)- propionamido, mercaptopropylthio)propanoyl, (1 ,2-dihydroxy-3-mercaptopropythio)propanoyl, succinyl, acetyl, oxopentanoyl, carbamoyl, aminoalkyl, glutaramido, aminoethanethiol, mercaptopropanol, (hydroxypropylthio)propanoayl, 3-((2-propionamidoethyl)disulfanyl)- propanoayl, (((acetamidoethyl)disulfanyl)propanoyloxy)glutaramido, aminoethanethioate, and 2- hydroxyacetic proprionic anhydride.

[0067] In another aspect the invention includes a molecule comprising a compound represented by the following General Structure 8: [0068] General Structure 8

[0069] Where the backbone is selected from glycerol or glycerol-like analogues or linear amines (di- or tri-or tetra-amines) or amino acids having three available binding sites selected from a goup of molecules including but not limited to glycerol or glycerol-like analogues, polyamines, triamines, tetraamines, aminodiol, aminotriols, aminoalcohols and amino acids having three available binding positions or sites, triols, tetraols, erythritol, triacids, tetracid, tetraacetic acid, glucoheptonic acid, and tartaric acid, including but not limited to propanediamine, butanediamine, pentanediamine, hexanediamine, diethylenetriamine ethylenediamine, 1 ,2-diaminoethane, 1 ,3- diaminopropane (propane-l ,3-diamine), 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)- ethylenediamine, 4-amino-2-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-hydroxy-4-aminobutylic acid, l-B-homoserine, 1-threonine, iV-B-aminoethylglycine, putrescine (butane- 1,4-diamine), cadaverine (pentane-1 ,5- diamine), hexamethylenediamine (hexane-l ,6-diamine), ethylenediamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 1 ,2-diaminopropane, 1 ,4-diaminobutane, diphenylethylenediamine, diaminocyclohexane. diethylenetriamine, bis(3-aminopropyl)amine, triethylenetetramine, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, spermine, spermidine, norspermidine, bis(3-aminopropyl)-l,3-propanediamine, l,2-bis(3- aminopropylamino)ethane, N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)-l,3-propanediamine, 3-amino-l ,2-propane- diol, aminoalcohols, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, diaminobenzidine, N-ethyl-N'-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, mesoerythritol, triazacyclononane, tetraazacyclododecane, threitol, dithiothreitol, trimethylcyclohexane-l ,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, trimethylbis(hexa- methylene)triamine, bis(hexam-ethylene)triamine, arginine, oxylyldiaminopropionic acid, 3- bromo-l,2-propanediol, 3-chloro-l,2-propanediol, 3-fluoro-l,2-propanediol, DL-glyceric acid, diaminopropionic acid, glucoheptonic acid and, 1 ,2,4-butanetriol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid, l,3-diamino-2-propanol and 2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethanol, and 3-((3-aminopropyl)- amino)propanol; aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, lysine, ornithine, serine, and threonine or benzyl triols or aminohvdroxybenzoic acids or benzenetriol, dihydroxybenzoic acid, diaminobenzoic acid, diaminophenol, diaminobenzoic acid, aminohvdroxybenzoic acid, aminosalicylic acid, hydroxyanthranilic acid, hydroxyisophthalic acid, aminoisophthalic acid, 4- (hydroxymethyl)cyclopentane-l,3-diol, deoxyfuconojirimycin, deoxynojirimycin, prostaglandins, hydroxylmethylpiperidinol, dihydroxy(hydroxymethyl)aminocyclopentane, diaminophenol, benzenetetracarboxylic acid, benzenetricarboxylic acid, aminobenzenediol, dihydroxybenzoic acid, aminohydroxybenzoic acid, trihydroxyaniline, benzenetriol, dimethoxybenzenediamine, trihydroxyphenol, (diaminophenoxy)benzenediamine and aminobromophenol; where the H is selected from a group of lipophilic compounds or their diesters including and not limited to cholesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, hopanoids, phytosterol, sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol, avenasterol adosterol, and stands (saturated steroid alcohols or hydrogenated sterols), retinoids, retinoic acid, tretinoin, carotenoids, β-carotene, a-tocopherol, tocotrienols, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, astaxanthin, auroxanthin, capsanthin, capsorubin, chrysanthemaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, rubixanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin;; Sugar is a carbohydrate including monosaccharides or disaccharides or oligosaccharides or amino sugars or sugar acids including but not limited to ascorbic acid, gluconic acid, glucaric acid, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid; where the three substitutable groups are covalently bond to the backbone through a etherification or esterification or amidification or similar substitution reactions. The General Structure is meant to include all racemers or structural isomers of the structure, as they may be functionally equivalent. Where the bPEG is a branched PEG with 2 or more PEG chains and each PEG chain may consist of between about 5 and 45 subunits. For example, a branched PEG contains two linear methoxy PEG chain attached to a central core is so called "Y-shaped" PEG. While a 2-branched PEG is more common, 3-branched and 4-branched are also commercially available. Where ¾ is the terminal group on each PEG chain which may be the same or different and that may be selected from a wide variety of chemical moieties. Ri preferably has a molecular weight of less than about 650. The PEG-carbohydrate conjugates are useful for applications other than liposomes, e.g., as a solubility enhancer of poor water soluble agents in aqueous solutions.

[0070] In another aspect the invention includes a PEG-carbohydrate conjugate with four carriers having the following General Structures:

Formula Structure

\ l=> E≡C3— F¾

General Structure 9

General Structure 10

S uga r-. ^ EG— Ft

^Backbon e X

General Structure 1 1

General Structure 12

Sugar,- X 3 y S uga r 2

General Structure 13 ^Packbone— 3

H X r P EG- R

General Structure 14

[0071] General Structures 9 -14

[0072] where H (Hi and ¾ may be the same or different lipophilic carrier) is sterols or "fat soluble" vitamins or alike selected from a group of lipophilic compounds or their diesters including and not limited to cholesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, hopanoids, phytosterol, sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol, avenasterol adosterol, and stanols (saturated steroid alcohols or hydrogenated sterols), retinoids, , retinalS, retinoic acid, tretinoin, carotenoids, β-carotene, tocopherols, tocotrienols, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, astaxanthin, auroxanthin, capsanthin, capsorubin, chrysanthemaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, rubixanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin; if Hi and ¾ are dufferent carriers other than sterols or fat soluble vitamins, one (the fourth carrier) of the two may be selected from fatty acids saturated or unsaturated lipidor polyunsaturated fatty acids as or polyunsaturated fatty alcohols including native polyunsaturated alcohols such as farneol, solanesol and dodecaprenol, however fatty acids may only be selected as the secondary lipophilic carrier in the presence of a sterol as the primary lipophilic carrier and restrically avoided to be utilized as the primary lipophilic carrier due to their potential hemolytic property; where the backbone is selected from diamines, triamines, tetramines or polyamines or compounds having four available binding sites; where the fourth carrier is selected from diesters including and not limited to sterol-acylglycerols or disterolglycerols; Sugar is a carbohydrate including monosaccharides, ascorbic acid, gluconic acid, glucaric acid, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid or disaccharides or oligosaccharides or amino sugars and sugar acids; where the three substitutable groups are covalently bond to the backbone through a etherification or esterification or amidification or similar substitution reactions. The General Structure is meant to include all racemers or structural isomers of the structure, as they may be functionally equivalent. Where the PEG chain ((PEGi, PEG2 and PEG3 chain may be the same or different in length) may consist of between about 5 and 45 subunits. Where R (Ri and R 2 may be the same of different) is the terminal group on the PEG chain may be selected from a wide variety of chemical moieties. R preferably has a molecular weight of less than about 650. The PEG- carbohydrate conjugates are useful for applications other than liposomes, e.g., as a solubility enhancer in water solutions.

[0073] Similar to the three carrier conjugates, synthesis of the new conjugates may be controlled so that there is a single linker in each PEG-carbohydrate conjugate. In some situations, however, it may be useful to have multiple copies of the same linker, or combinations of different linkers in a single molecule in the following General Structures, where Xi and X2 are the same or different linkers that consist of one or more linkers or the group of oxy, amino, succinylamino, acetamido, aminopentanamido, aminoacetyl, thiopropanoayl, acryloyl, N-(mercaptomethyl)propionamido, mercaptopropylthiopropanoyl, (1 ,2-dihydroxy-3-mercapto-propylthio)propanoyl, succinyl, acetyl, oxopentanoyl, carbamoyl, aminoalkyl, glutaramido, aminoethanethiol, mercaptopropanol, (hydroxypropylthio)propanoayl, 3-((2-propionamidoethyl)disulfanyl)propanoayl, (((acetamido- ethyl)disulfanyl)propanoyloxy)glutaramido, aminoethanethioate, and 2-hydroxyacetic proprionic anhydride. More preferably R (Ri and R2 may be the same or different) has a molecular weight of less than about 650. Hi and ¾ are the same or different. The secondary H may be selected from the group consisting of saturated fatty acid) or unsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty alcohols including native polyunsaturated alcohols such as farnesol, solanesol and dodecaprenol. However no fatty acid may be selected as the first or primary lipophilic acrrier. Sugar may preferably be selected from Table 2, the group consisting of aldose, ketose, pyranose, furanose, trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose, turanose, cellobiose, raffinose, melezitose, maltotriose, acarbose, stachyose and sugar acids. The PEG chain may consist of between about 6 and 45 subunits. More preferably the PEG chain consists of between about 8 and 25 subunits. Still more preferably the Still more preferably the PEG chain consists of between about 12 and 25 subunits.

[0074] In another aspect the invention includes a molecule comprising a compound represented by the following General Structure 1 :

Sugar

[0075] General Structure 15

[0076] where Hi and ¾ may be the same or different selected from a group of lipophilic compounds including and not limited to cholesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, hopanoids, phytosterol, sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol, avenasterol adosterol, and stanols (saturated steroid alcohols or hydrogenated sterols), , retinals, retinoids, retinoic acid, tretinoin, carotenoids, β-carotene, tocopherols, tocotrienols, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, astaxanthin, auroxanthin, capsanthin, capsorubin, chrysanthemaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, rubixanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin; if Hi and ¾ are different, the fourth carrier group may be selected from other hydrocarbons of fatty acids or polyunsaturated or cyclic compounds or their diesters including and not limited to saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty alcohols including native polyunsaturated alcohols such as farnesol, solanesol and dodecaprenol; where the backbone is selected from polyamine or compounds having four available binding sites; sugar is a carbohydrate including monosaccharides or disaccharides or oligosaccharides or amino sugar or sugar acids including but not limited to ascorbic acid, gluconic acid, glucaric acid, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid; where the four substitutable groups are covalently bond to the backbone through a etherification or esterification or amidification or similar substitution reactions. The General Structure is meant to include all racemers or structural isomers of the structure, as they may be functionally equivalent. Where the bPEG is a branched PEG with 2 or more PEG chains and each PEG chain may consist of between about 5 and 45 subunits. Where R is the terminal group and may be selected from a wide variety of chemical moieties. R preferably has a molecular weight of less than about 650. The PEG-carbohydrate conjugates are useful for applications other than liposomes, e.g., as a solubility enhancer in water solutions.

[0077] In one aspect of the current invention, coupling reactions of alkylation, etherification, esterification or amidation between the carriers and center backbone may be achieved with or without added-on linker groups depending on particular center backbones and carrier groups of the conjugates as summarized in the General Structure 16

[0078] General Structure 16

[0079] Where H is a lipophilic carrier carrier void of either steroid acids or fatty acids. H may be selected from a goup comprises cholesterol or sterols having a single hydroxyl group or tocopherols or cholecalciferols or retinols; Sugar is a carbohydrate comprises saccharide; PEG is a polymer of polyethylene glycols, D is a secondary sterol or lipophilic vitamin carbohydrate or PEG or carbohydrate or a fatty acid. Backbone is a molecule void of a drug moiety comprises glycerol or glycerol-liking having three avaible binding positions or diamines, triamines, tetraamine or diaminoalcohol or aminoalcohols or aminodiol or aminotriols or amino acids having three available binding positions and polyamines having at least three available binding sites or positions.

[0080] A further aspect of the invention, the third and fourth carriers of the carbohydrate- polymers may be formed through a linked conjugation as presented in the General Structure 17.

Sugar Bac [0081] General Structure 17 where D is a secondary sterol or lipophilic vitamin carbohydrate or PEG or carbohydrate or a fatty acid; L is a coupler selected from a group of molecules included but not limited to glycerol or glycerol-liking having three avaible binding positions or diamines, triamines, tetraamine or diaminoalcohol or aminoalcohols or aminodiol or aminotriols or amino acids having three available binding positions. As showed in Chemical Structure 1 , N- bis- monomethoxy-PEG-ether - serinol-N-cholesterol- N ' -lactobionoyl-propanediamine, the coupler is 3-Amino-l ,2-propanediol (serinol) and the "D' is a secondary mPEG.

[0082] Chemical Structure 1

[0083] Another aspect of the invention includes a method of delivering a compound, where the method comprises preparing a PEG-carbohydrate conjugate based formulation of the compound, where the formulation comprises a PEG-carbohydrate conjugates having an amino acid linker and possible secondary linker(s) selected from the group consisting of amino, succinylamino, acetamido, aminopentanamido, aminoacetyl, acryloyl, thiopropanoayl, N-(mercapto- methyl)propionamido, mercaptopropylthiopropanoyl, (1 ,2-dihydroxy-3-mercaptopropylthio)- propanoyl, succinyl, acetyl, oxopentanoyl, carbamoyl, aminoalkyl, glutaramido, aminoethanethiol, mercaptopropanol, (hydroxypropylthio)propanoayl, 3-((2-propionamidoethyl)disulfanyl)- propanoayl, (((acetamidoethyl)disulfanyl)propanoyloxy)glutaramido, aminoethanethioate, and 2- hydroxyacetic proprionic anhydride; and providing a release agent, where the release agent causes the linker to degrade. The release agent may be an acid, light, hypoxia, or a catalyst.

[0084] In one aspect, the invention is a method of linking the central backbone to any of the three carrier groups via an amino acid linkage (alkylation or amidation process). The hydroxyl in the carrier groups may be activated by reacting it with disucccimidylcarbonate (DCS) or mesylate or tosylate or strong base (etherification or esterification).

[0085] Example of the synthesis of the PEG-carbohydrate conjugates from amino acids is shown below in Reaction Scheme 1. The reaction scheme is applicable to carrier groups having all kinds of hydrocarbon groups and amino acids with three available binding positions as demonstrated in the in Reaction Scheme 2 where the center backbone is serine.

[0086] The cholesteryl chloroformate is commercially available which may be directly reacted with an amino acid (AA) having a hydroxy group to produce a conjugate having an ester linkage. The carboxyl group of amnio acid from Sterol-AA may react with the terminal hydroxy group of mPEG and then the protection group on the primary amine is removed and reacted with the activated carbohydrate to form the PEG-carbohydrate-sterol conjugates, where the sterol may be cholesterol. This reaction scheme is suitable for carrier groups with all kinds of lipophilic compounds or PEG chains. The general structures shown in the application are meant to include all

[0087] Reaction Scheme 1 [0088] Example of the synthesis of the PEG-carbohydrate-setrol conjugates from glycerol glycerol-like central backbones is shown below in Reaction Scheme 2. This reaction scheme suitable for carrier groups with all kinds of lipophilic compounds or PEG chains.

[0089] Reaction Scheme 2

[0090] Example of the synthesis of the PEG-carbohydrate-sterol conjugates from linear multiamine central backbones is shown below in Reaction Scheme 3

[0091] Reaction Scheme 3

[0092] Similarly other commercially available carbohydrate derivaties may be used in the synthesis of the polymer-carbohydrate delivery vehicles or self-prepared accordingly [Jian Guo and Xin-Shan Ye, "Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: Influence on Stereoselectivity of Glycosylations." Molecules. 15 (2010) 7235-7265]. Using a custom-made trisaccharine allyl derivative (also commercially available) as the sugar carrier for the conjugates is suitable for carbohydrates or sugar carrier groups with all kinds of lipophilic compounds or PEG chains or backbones.

[0093] In another aspect, the invention includes PEG- carbohydrate conjugates comprised of three carrier groups and a central backbone having at three positions available for the conjugation, and one or more linker(s) between one of the carrier groups and the central backbone. Such PEG- carbohydrate conjugates are represented by the General Structures 1 to 15, where X may comprise a linker selected from a group consisting of amino, succinylamino, acetamido, aminopentanamido, aminoacetyl, acryloyl, thiopropanoayl, N-(mercaptomethyl)propionamido, mercaptopropylthio)- propanoyl, (l ,2-dihydroxy-3-mercap-topropyl-thio)propanoyl, succinyl, acetyl, oxopentanoyl, carbamoyl, aminoalkyl, glutaramido, aminoethanethiol, mercaptopropanol, (hydroxyl- propylthio)propanoayl, 3-((2-propionamidoethyl)disulfanyl)propanoayl, (((acetamido- ethyl)disulfanyl)propanoyloxy)glutaramido, amino-ethanethioate, and 2-hydroxyacetic proprionic anhydride. The Table 3 shows certain samples of the PEG-carbohydrate-sterol conjugates and in the event of variations of chemical names, the structures shown are meant to be controlling.

[0094] Table 3 : Sample of PEG-Carbohydrate- Sterol Conjugates

Name Chemical Structure

CDL-mPEG: Cholesteryldiethylene- triaminemonomexyl-PEG lactobionate;

n = 6 to 45. Conjugation via: alkylation,

esterification, etherification and amidation

[0095] In Table 2 the types of coupling reaction between the carriers and the center backbone as well as any chemical modification of a carrier or center backbone prior to the conjuation are alkylation including N-alkylation or O-alkylation, esterification, etherification and amidation. For example, a monomethoxyl polyethylene glycol may be modified with acryloyl chloride then reacted with center backbone, thus two types of reaction may be involved; esterification and N- alkylation as below (Reaction Scheme 4): mPEG— OH +

[0096] Reaction Scheme 4 (R is a center backbone)

[0097] Embodiments of the present invention are described herein in the context of preparation of pharmaceutical compositions including polymer-carbohydrate conjugates or polymer- carbohydrate-lipid conjugates for increasing the solubility and enhancing the delivery of active agents. The approximate preferable compositions for formulated drug products are generally described herein, though different drugs typically have differing optimal formulations.

[0098] For IV solutions, the preferable concentration of drug is 0.1% to 30%. More preferable is 0.5 to 10%). Most preferable is 0.5 to 5%. The preferable weight ratio of PEG-carbohydrate conjugate (PC) to the drug (PC/drug) in the final drug solution for the injection is 1 to 30, w/v (weight/volume). More preferable is 1 (drug) to 25 (PC). Most preferable is 1 to 10.

[0099] It is preferable PEG-carbohydrate conjugates having marrow-disperse PEG chains for intravenous administration of pharmaceutical agents. The monodisperse PEG chains may consist of one or more PEG oligomers where the total oligomer purity from individual oligomers may be as high as 80%). For instance, a monodisperse PEG chain may contain 40%> of PEG- 12 and 40% of PEG-15. It is preferable to have a monodisperse PEG chain containing a few numbers of oligomers. The preferable number of oligomers is 1 to 20, more preferable is 1 to 10. Most preferable is 1 to 5.

[00100] For oral solutions, the preferable concentration of drug is 1%> to 40%. More preferable is 2.5 to 30%). Most preferable is 5 to 30%>. The preferable ratio of PEG-carbohydrate conjugates to the drug (PC/drug) is 0.5 to 25, w/v. More preferable is 1 (drug) to 20 (PC). Most preferable is 1 to 10.

[00101] For ophthalmic preparations, the preferable concentration of drug is 0.01 to 5%. More preferable is 0.05 to 2%. Most preferable is 0.1 to 2%. The preferable ratio of PEG-carbohydrate to the drug (PC/drug) is 1 to 30, w/w (weight/ weight). More preferable is 3 (drug) to 20 (PC).

[00102] For topical solutions, the preferable concentration of drug is 0.05 to 5%. More preferable is 0.1 to 5%. Most preferable is 0.1 to 2%. The preferable ratio of PEG-carbohydrate conjugates to the drug (PC/drug) is 1 to 30, w/v. More preferable is 3 (drug) to 20 (PC). Most preferable is 3 to 10.

[00103] For oral capsules, the preferable capsule content of drug is 2 mg to 500 mg. More preferable is 2 mg to 200 mg. Most preferable is 2 mg to 100 mg. The preferable ratio of PEG- carbohydrate conjugates to the drug (PC/drug) is 1 to 50, w/w. More preferable is 1 (drug) to 15 (PC). Most preferable is 1 to 5.

[00104] For topical preparations, the preferable concentration of active is 0.5 to 5%>, more preferable is 0.5 to 2%, and most preferable is 1 to 2%. The preferable ratio of PEG-carbohydrate conjugates to the drug (PC/drug) is 1 to 30, w/w, more preferable is 1 (drug) to 20 (PC), most preferable is 3 to 10. EXAMPLES

[00105] Chemicals and Reagents: N, N'-dicyclohexylurea, N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbo-diimide (DCC), ascorbic acid, lactobionic acid, cholecalciferol, cholesteryl choloformate, cholesterol, glucuronic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG), retinoic acid, a-tocopherol and other chemicals were obtained from Sigma- Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA) or Alfa Aesar (Ward Hill, MA, USA). Activated PEG or biotinylated PEG were obtained from Quanta BioDesign (Powell, Ohio, USA) or Thermo Fisher Scientific (Rockford, IL).

[00106] Example 1. Preparation of tert-Butyl Carbamates (Boc)-Protected Amino Groups

[00107] A high yield and effective synthetic method under a catalyst-free and room temperature was reported previously [Chankeshwara, SV and Chakraborti, AK. Org. Lett. , (2006); 8, 3259] and used with slightly modification. To a solution of starting compound containing amino benzoate in MeOH, di-i-butyl dicarbonate was added as one to one molar ratio. The resulting mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. When the reaction was done, solvent was removed under vacuum; the residue was dissolved into EtOAc and washed with saturated NH 4 C1 aqueous solution once, then dried over Na 2 S0 4 and condensed to yield the expected product (> 90%). Example of this reaction is demonstrated in Reaction Schemes 5, where R is a main structure of the central backbone. This method gives N-i-Boc derivatives chemoselectively without any side products (such as isocyanate, urea, N,N-di-f-Boc).

H

0

[00108] Reaction Scheme 5

[00109] Example 2. Deprotection of Boc-Protected Amino Groups

[00110] Effective reagents for the deprotection of tert-b\Ay\ carbamates or fert-butyl esters include phosphoric acid and trifluoroacetic acid. The reactions give high yields and very convenient [Li, B. Berliner, M. etc, J. Org. Chem. , 2006; 71, 9045] . Equal volumes of trifluoroacetic acid were added to a solution of Boc-carbamate (10% of crude product) in CH 2 C1 2 . The resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for overnight and the solvent was evaporated and the residue was re-dissolved into CH 2 C1 2 , then washed with saturated aHC0 3 and dried over MgS0 4 . Solvent was evaporated and was used in next step without further purification. [00111] Example 3. Preparation of N-Boc-cholesterylserinate

[00112] 0.03 moles of Λ-Boc-serine was constantly stirred under nitrogen in 100 mL of chloroform. 0.03 mole of cholesteryl choloformate was dissolved with 100 mL of chloroform and added to this heterogeneous mixture of N-tert-butyloxycarbonylserine and followed by adding 10 mL of anhydrous pyridine. The reaction for 30 minutes under constantly stirring at room temperature, the mixture turned to homogeneous and the reaction was completed when no detectable cholesteryl chloroformate was in the mixture. The bulk solvent was removed under vacuum and the crude product was used to next step without further purification. The resulting product (% of yields 70-80 is showed in Chemical Structure 2.

[00113] Chemical Structure 2

[00114] Example 4. Preparation of N-Boc-cholesterylmonomethoxyldodecaethylene glycol ether serinate

[00115] 0.01 moles of monomethoxyldod caetliylene glycol ether was dissolved with 50 mL of anhydrous CH2CI2, 0.01 mole of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and cholesterylserinate were added. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 hours, then allowed to warm up to room temperature and stirred for additional 48 hours. When the reaction was complete, the white precipitate was filtered off over celite. The residue was rinsed with small amount of CH2CI2 twice and washed with sutured NH4CI, then dried over MgSC Solvent was evaporated to afford pale yellowish oil as showed in Chemical Structure 3. The crude product's purity was determined by 1H NMR and UPLC-MS, ESI-MS (>70%).

[00116] Chemical Structure 3

[00117] Example 5. Preparation of cholesterylserinylmonomethoxyldodecaethyienegiycoliacto- bionate

[00118] The protection group of fert-butylcarbonyl on the amino group was removed according to the method described in Example 2. 0.01 moles of N-Boc-cholesterylserinylmonomethoxyl- dodecaethylene glycol ether (0.01 mmol) from Example 4 was dissolved with 50 mL of anhydrous N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 0.01 moles of Lactobionolactone was added. The resulting mixture was stirred at 50-60 °C for overnight, and allowed to cool to the room temperature. The reaction solution was precipitated into isopropyl alcohol (IP A) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to maximize the isolated yield of precipitate. The crude product was washed well with 50/50 (v/v) IPA/MTBE and dried under vacuum at 30-40° C. The purity (> 90%) of the final product (Chemical Structure 4 was determined by 1H NMR and UPLC-MS.

[00119] Chemical Structure 4

[00120] Example 6. Preparation of lactobionyldiethylenetriamine

[00121] Diethylenetriamine (0.01 mol) was dissolved in 50 mL of dry (molecular sieve) N- methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and lactobionolactone (0.005 mol) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred for 6 hours at 50-60 °C and allowed to cool to the room temperature when the reaction was completed. The reaction solution was precipitated into isopropyl alcohol (IP A) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to maximize the isolated yield of precipitate. The cake was washed well with 50/50 (v/v) IPA/MTBE and dried under vacuum at 30-40 ° C. The crude product was used in next step without further purification.

[00122] Example 7. Preparation of Lactobionylcholesteryldiethylenetriamine-mPEG

[00123] 0.01 mole of the starting material from Example 6, lactobionyldiethylenetriamine, was dissolved in 20 mL of dimethylformamide (DMF) at 20 to 30 ° C. The slightly excess active oleic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (0.011 mol) was dissolved in 20 mL of tetrahydrofuran (THF), then mixed with lactobionyldiethylenetriamine and adding triethylamine (TEA, 3%, v/v) as a base, stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. An assay was performed to verify the yield and moves to next step without purification. The active mPEG 24 -NHS (0.01 mol) was dissolved in DMF, and then mixed with the above reactants, stirred for overnight at room temperature. After the completion of the reaction, solvents were removed by vacuo and 50 mL of acetone was added to the crude product and filtered and washed with 30 mL of acetone three times. The reaction solution was precipitated into isopropyl alcohol (IP A) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to maximize the isolated yield of precipitate. The crude product was washed well with 50/50 (v/v) IPA/MTBE and dried under vacuum at 30-40 ° C. The purity (> 95%) of the final product (Chemical Structure 5) was determined by 1H NM and UPLC-MS.

Chemical structure [00125] Example 8. Preparation of lactobionyltriethylenetetramine

[00126] Triethylenetetramine (0.01 mol) was dissolved in 50 niL of dry (molecular sieve) N,N- Dimethylformamide (DMF) and lactobionic acid (0.01 mol) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred for 6 hours at 50-60 °C and allowed to cool to the room temperature when the reaction was completed. The reaction solution was precipitated into isopropyl alcohol (IP A) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to maximize the isolated yield of precipitate. The cake was washed well with acetone, then 50/50 (v/v) IPA/MTBE and dried under vacuum at 30-40° C. The crude product was used in next step without further purification.

[00127] Example 9. Preparation of Lactobionylcholesteryltriethylenetetramine

[00128] 0.01 mole of lactobionyltrethylenetetramine (0.012 mmol) from Example 8 was dissolved with 50 mL of anhydrous N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 0.01 moles of cholesteryl chloroformate was added. The resulting mixture was stirred at 45-50 °C for overnight, and allowed to cool to the room temperature. The reaction solution was precipitated into isopropyl alcohol (IP A) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to maximize the isolated yield of precipitate. The crude product was washed well with 50/50 (v/v) IPA/MTBE and dried under vacuum at 30-40 ° C. The purity (> 80%) of the resulting product was determined by 1H NMR and UPLC-MS.

[00129] Example 10. Preparation of Lactobionylretinoyltriethylenetetramine-mPEG

[00130] 0.01 mole of the starting material from Example 9, lactobionylcholesteryl- triethylenetetramine, was dissolved in 20 mL of dimethylformamide (DMF) at 20 to 30 ° C, a slightly excess of the active mPEG24-NHS (0.021 mol in 10 mL DMF) was added, stirred for overnight at room temperature. 300 mL of acetone was added at the end of the reaction and solvents were removed by vacuo. The crude product washed with acetone and filtered. The wet produc 60-65%o) was further lyophilized to a wax as showed in Chemical Structure 6.

and/or

001311 Chemical Structure 6

[00132] Example 1 1 Preparation of cholesteryl ethylylene glycol ether

[ΘΘ133] Cholesteryl tosylate (0.1 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (100 mL) was mixed with ethylene glycol (1 mol) a round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanic stirrer and heating mantle. The reaction mixture was stirred under reflux for 12 hours under protection of nitrogen and solvent was removed in vacuo, the residule ws redissolved in 200 mL of methylene chloride and washed with 200 mL of water three times. The crude product in methylene chloride was dried in vacuo to yield a solid (>90%).

[00134] Example 12. Preparation of cholesteryl ethylylene glycol acetic acid

[00135] Product of cholesteryl ethylylene glycol ether from Example 11 (0.02 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (100 mL) was placed into a round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanic stirrer and a heating mantle. The solution was sparged with nitrogen (50-100 psi). Sodium strip (0.05g) is added slowly at ambient room temperature. After the addition was completed, the reaction mixture was heated up gradually to 60 °C under constant stirring for 6 hours and sodium chloroacetate (0.03 mol) and Nal (0.005 mol) was added into the reaction flask and the reaction mixture was allowed to continue at 55-60 °C under constant stirring overnight. The reaction was quenched with sodium hydroxide solution (100 mL of 5%, w/v) and concentrated by remove tetrahydrofuran under vacuo, then extracted with methylene chloride (50 mL). The aqueous layer was acidified with HCl (36%) to pH 3-4. The aqueous phase was extracted with methylene chloride (25 mL) twice. The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate for 1 hour. The salt was removed by paper filtration and the solvent was removed in vacuo to yield an oil products(45- 73%).

[00136] Example 13. Preparation of lactobionyldiaminepropane

[00137] 1,3-diaminepropane (0.01 mol) was dissolved in 50 mL of dry (molecular sieve) N- methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and lactobionolactone (0.005 mol) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred for 6 hours at 50-60 °C and allowed to cool to the room temperature when the reaction was completed. The reaction solution was precipitated into isopropyl alcohol (IP A) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to maximize the isolated yield of precipitate. The cake was washed well with 50/50 (v/v) IPA/MTBE and dried under vacuum at 30-40 ° C. The crude product was used in next step without further purification.

[00138] Example 14. Preparation of Lactobionyldiaminepropanyl-mPEG

[00139] 0.01 mole of the starting material from Example 14, lactobionyldiaminepropane, was dissolved in 20 mL of dimethylformamide (DMF) at 20 to 30 ° C. The active mPEG 24 -NHS (0.01 mol) was dissolved in DMF, and then mixed with the above reactants, stirred for overnight at room temperature. After the completion of the reaction, solvents were removed by vacuo and 50 mL of acetone was added to the crude product and filtered and washed with 30 mL of acetone three times. The wet product (60-70%) was used in next step without further purification

[00140] Example 15. Preparation of Lactobionylcholesteryldiaminepropyl-mPEG

[00141] 0.01 moles of lactobionyldiethylenetriamine-mPEG (0.01 mmol) from Example 14 was dissolved with 50 mL of anhydrous N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, cholesteryl ethylylene glycol acetic acid (0.01 mole) from Example 13 in tetrahydrofuran (50 mL) and slightly excess active N- hydroxysuccinimide ester (0.011 mol) dissolved in 20 mL of tetrahydrofuran (THF) were mixed with of lactobionyldiethylenetriamine-mPEG and adding triethylamine (TEA, 3%, v/v) as a base, stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Assays were performed to verify the yield periodily. The resulting mixture was stirred at 45-50 °C for overnight, and allowed to cool to the room temperature. The reaction solution was precipitated into isopropyl alcohol (IP A) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to maximize the isolated yield of precipitate. The crude product was washed well with 50/50 (v/v) IPA/MTBE and dried under vacuum at 30-40 ° C. The purity (> 93%) of the final product (Chemical Structure 7) was determined by 1H NM and UPLC-MS.

[Θ0142] Chemical structure 7

Example 16. Preparation of Ν ε - tert-butyloxycarbonyl(Boc)-lysine-cholesterol Ν ε - tert-butyloxycarbonyl(Boc)-lysine (0.2 mol) in 150mL of methylene chloride was transferred to a round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Triethylamine (0.4 mol) is added to the flask and the reaction mixture is cooled down to 0 and 10 °C in an ice- water bath under constant stirring. Cholesteryl chloride (0.18 mol) in 100 mL of methylene chloride was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was allowed to continue under constant stirring for 2 hours after the addition of Cholesteryl chloride was completed. The solution was concentrated to give the crude product of Ν ε - tert-butyloxycarbonyl(Boc)-N a -cholesterol lysine(yield ~ 60%), which was used directly for the next step

[00144] Example 17. Preparation of N £ -Boc-lysine-cholesterol-mPEG

[00145] Equivalent amount of monomethoxyPEG was mixed with N £ -Boc-N a -cholesterol-lysine (from Example 21) in 200 mL THF/DCM (1/1. v/v) and the reaction was started with adding equal amounts of DCC as the catalyst at room temperature under constantly stirring for overnight. The completion of the reaction was monitored by TLC or HPLC. The solid was filtered out and the solution was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography with silica gel (eluent: hexanes/ethyl acetate) with a yield of 50% or higher which was used directly for the next step.

[00146] Example 18. Preparation of N £ -lysine-N a -cholesterol-mPEG

[00147] Trifluoroacetic acid (10 equivalents) was added to the DCM solution of N £ -Boc-lysine- cholesterol-mPEG intermediate (from Example 22) and the mixture was stirred for 2 hours. The mixture was carefully quenched by adding sodium bicarbonate solution and the organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated after removed the salt to quantitavely yield the intermediate N £ -lysine-cholesterol-mPEG, which was used directly at the next step.

[00148] Example 19. Preparation N £ -lactobionyl-N a -cholesterol-mPEG-lysinate

[00149] Lactobionic acid was converted into intramolecular ester by removing water in toluene and mixed with equal molar quantity of N £ -lysine-N a -cholesterol-mPEG reacted at room temperature in methanol to obtain N £ -lactobionyl-N a -cholesterol-mPEG-lysinate (Chemical structure 8), The reaction mixture was loaded on a layer of silica gel and air dried. A silica gel column was prepared in a frit filter funnel to give a column volume of about 1 L. The predried reaction mixture was placed on the top of the column and the column was eluted with acetone/hexanes 200 mL of acetone/ Isopropyl alcohol (1/5) and 500 mL of 100% acetone. The eluents containing compound was concentrated in vacuo to Ν ε - tert-butyloxycarbonyl(Boc)-N a - cholesterol lysine (yield -80%).

[00150] Chemical structure 8

[00151] Similar synthetic methods from the Examples 1 to 24 may be utilized for the preparations of other PEG-carbohydrate-lipid conjugates; It also further demonstrated that selected molecules may be chemically extended and modified to provide said third or fourth available binding position or site, appropriate molecules include and not limited to aminoalcohols and diamines consisting of ethylenediamine, diaminopropane, ethanolamine, and aminopropanol, aminobutanol, aminopentanol, aminohexanol. Some of these PEG-carbohydrate conjugates are shown in Table 8..

[00152] In another aspect, the polymer chain may be replaced by other polymer(s) such as polymethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol or a mixture of the repeating units of methylene glycol, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Hydrophilic polymers useful in forming the polymer-lipid conjugates of the invention include polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and other polyalkene oxide polymers, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyvinylpyrrolidone, Poly(allylamine), Poly(l - glycerol methacrylate), Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline), Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methacrylic acid)/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), Poly(2-vinylpyridine), Poly(acrylamide/acrylic acid), Poly(acrylic acid), Poly(butadiene/maleic acid), Poly(ethyl acrylate/acrylic acid) , Poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide), Poly(ethylene/ acrylic acid), Poly(methacrylic acid) , Poly(maleic acid), Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate), Poly(styrenesulfonic acid), Poly(styrenesulfonic acid/maleic acid), Polyvinyl acetate), Polyvinyl phosphoric acid), Poly(vinylamine), Polyacrylamide, Polyacrylic Acid, Polyaniline, Polyethylenimine, Pullulan, Polymethacryl-amide. Copolymers and block copolymers based on the list above may also be used. The free polymers are water-soluble at room temperature, as well as non-toxic. They do not elicit an appreciable immunogenic response in mammals. Hydrophilic polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions are preferable. Because of already existing acceptance in the pharmaceutical business, PEG is the preferred hydrophilic polymer.

[00153] Example 20: Injection Solution Compositions

[00154] All product contact equipment may be clean and sanitized. Pre-dissolved PEG- carbohydrate conjugate (at 1/4 of the total volume) was added to a vessel equipped with a mixer propeller. The solid drug substance was pre-dissolved in a small amount of diluted acid or base (this step is eliminated for liquid drugs) and then charged to the vessel with constant mixing. Mixing continued until the solution was visually homogenous. Pre-dissolved excipients were slowly added to the vessel with adequate mixing. Mixing continued until fully a homogenous solution was achieved. Stainless steel cover for premix vessel to help maintain nitrogen overlay, at least two jacketed, pressurizable, stainless steel tanks equipped with agitation and capable of nitrogen overlay were needed. The mixture in the tank with a nitrogen overlay and agitation was held for 1 hour to reduce dissolved oxygen content in the product. The tank impeller mixing speed was approximately 45-50 RPM and compressed air supply pressure to the mixer was between 10- 13 psig. Mixing rates may be adjusted as required to prevent foaming of product. Using aseptic technique, a 5 mL sample as taken for pH measurement. If necessary, 10% sodium hydroxide solution or 6N hydrochloric acid was used to adjust the pH of the product to 6.0 - 8.0. Filled the product in a sterile-filtered nitrogen environment into washed and sterilized 5-mL Type 1 glass vials and each vial was sealed with a sterilized 13 -mm pharma grade rubber solution stopper and crimped with a sanitized 13-mm pharma grade flip-off aluminum seal. A final autoclave process could be used if necessary. A sample formulation is described in Table 4.

[00155] Table 4

[00156] The PEG-carbohydrate conjugate may be any of PEG-carbohydrate conjugates described in the invention with a PEG chain consisting of between about 10 and 45 subunits. Sodium hydroxide is used to prepare a 10% w/w solution in purified water. The targeted pH is in a range of 4.0 to 7.5. NaOH is used to adjust pH if necessary. The drug may be modafinil or nifedapine or esomeprazole or rapamycin or a fungicide or antitumor agent or anesthetic agent or another active agent.

[00157] Example 21. Preparation of Docetaxel Solution for Injection

[00158] A docetaxel solution suitable for intravenous delivery is prepared as follows. 4% (w/v) of CDL-mPEGi 7 (see table 8) in Saline was added to a vessel equipped with a mixer propeller and 1.5% (w/v) of docetaxel was pre-dissolved in ethanol (1% of total volume, v/v) and charged into the vessel with constant mixing at ambient room temperature. Mixing was continued until the solution was visually homogeneous. Equal volume of Saline was added to the vessel with adequate mixing. Mixing continued for another 30 minutes or until a homogenous solution was achieved. A sample formulation is described in Table 5.

[00159] Table 5

[00160] The PEG-carbohydrate conjugate may be any of PEG-carbohydrate conjugates described in the invention with a PEG chain consisting of between about 10 and 45 subunits. Sodium hydroxide is used to prepare a 10% w/w solution in purified water. The targeted pH is in a range of 4.0 to 7.5. Diluted NaOH or HQ may be used to adjust pH if necessary.

[00161] Example 22: Pharmacokinetic Profile of Docetaxel Formulations

[00162] Groups of three male mice (B6D2F1), 4 weeks old and weights of 25 to 32 grams were used for the studies. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were performed on heparinized mouse plasma samples obtained typically at after the bolus IV injection at 5, 15, 45 min and 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours for Docetaxel. Samples were analyzed using a HPLC-MS method. To determine the level of the drug, the drug was first isolated from plasma with a sample pre-treatment. Acetonitrile were used to remove proteins in samples. An isocratic HPLC-MS/MS method was then used to separate the drugs from any potential interference. Drug levels were measured by MS detection with a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. PK data was analyzed using the WinNonlin program (ver. 6.3, Pharsight) noncompartmental models of analysis. [00163] Figure 2 shows mouse PK profiles of Docetaxel formulations with (a) 0.74 mg/mL Docetaxel in a a commercial product consisting of 2.5% Polysorbate 80 and 1.5% ethanol in saline) and (b) 0.74 mg/mL Docetaxel in a formulation consisting of 2% of CDL-mPEGn and 1% ethanol in saline solution. The drug was administered intravenously and the dosing strength was 10 mg/kg. From the non-compartmental calculations, the AUC were 1707.5 ng•min/mL with a half-life of 9.8 hours for the commercial docetaxel solution (a) and 1739.4 ng•min/mL with a half- life of 14.3 hours for the docetaxel in CDL-mPEGn solution (b), respectively.

[00164] The PEG-lipid may be any of PEG-carbohydrate conjugates described in the invention with a PEG chain consisting of between about 10 and 45 subunits. Sodium hydroxide is used to prepare a 10% w/w solution in purified water. The targeted pH is in a range of 4.0 to 7.5. Diluted NaOH or HC1 may be used to adjust pH if necessary.

[00165] Example 23. Solubility of the PEG-carbohydrate Conjugates

[00166] The water solubility of the PEG-carbohydrate conjugates may be estimated by the LogP calculations. The overall hydrophilic-lipophilic balance is dependant on the each of the carrier groups. The samples of the conjugates are listed in Table 6. While the solubility is increased with trisaccaride as the sugar carrier but the cost production is much higher, the solubility of the conjugates is lower with monsasscharide carrier. Thus a disaccharide is well balanced as a water solubility enhancer and most suitable from scale-up productions and economic considerations.

[00167] Table 6

Monosaccharide Unit Conjugate LogP

3 Cholesterypropane-diamineisomaltotriose -mPEGi -0.69

2 Cholesterypropane-diaminelactobionate-mPEG u 0.44

2 Cholesterj'triethylene-tetramine-lactobionate-di-mPEGu -1.94

2 Cholesterypropane-diaminelaminaribiose-mPEGi 1.82

2 Oleoylpropanediaminelactobionate-mPEGii -0.03

1 Cholesterypropane-diaminegluconate-mPEGn 2.27

1 Cholesterypropanediamineascorbate-mPEGii 2.86

2 Tocopherylpropanediaminelactobionate-mPEGn 3.39

3 Tocopherylpropanediamineisomaltotriose -mPEGn 2.57

2 Retinoyl propanediaminelactobionate-mPEG ! { -1.80

3 Retinoyl di ethyl ene-triamineisomaltotriose-mPEGn -3.71

3 Cholecalciferol-diethylene-triamineisomaltotriose-mPEGn -0.73 [00168] As demonstrated in Reach Schemes 1 to 3 and Examples 1 to 19, monosaccharides, disaccharides included but not limited to sucrose, lactulose, galactose, lactose, galactose, maltose, trehalose, cellobiose, kojibiose, nigerose, isomaltose, trehalose, sophorose, laminaribiose, gentiobiose, turanose, maltulose, palatinose, gentiobiulose, mannobiose, melibiose, melibiulose, rutinose, rutinulose and xylobiose, trisaccharides included but limited to isomaltotriose, nigerotriose, maltotriose, melezitose, maltotriulose, raffinose and kestose, are all suitable to make a polymer-carbohydrate conjugate. Due to a weaker solubility enhancement of monosaccharides as showed in the Example 23 and signifimaytly higher costs of production with trisaccharides, disaccaharides such as lactobionic acid is most suitable for chemical development strategies, developing a robust synthetic route that yields appropriate physical/chemical properties and clinically suitable in drug formulations.

[00169] Example 24: Solubility Study of Propofol

[00170] 1% (w/v) of propofol was used to prepare a saline based solution with different PEG- lipids. Table 7 listed the minimum concentration of the lipids required to solublize propofol as a solubility test referencec. While tocopherylpropanediaminelactobionate-mPEGn demonstrated the lowest molar concentration for solublizing propofol, much high lipid concentration was required for cholesterypropanediaminegluconate-mPEGn and an emulsion was formed with stearylpropane- diaminelactobionate-mPEGn regardless the lipid concentration.

[00171] Table 7

[00172] In another aspect, the invention comprises a method of solubilizing a water-insoluble agent, i.e., a drug compound that, because of low solubility in water, typically requires formulation with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier for effective delivery to an intended site of action. Such delivery may be intravenous, oral, topical, subdermal, sublingual, or any other mode of drug delivery. The invention also includes compositions for such delivery. Both the methods and the compositions related to delivery of water-insoluble agents employ the PEG-carbohydrate conjugates of the present invention and the methods and materials described above.

[00173] Example 25: Solubility Study of Voriconazole

[00174] 1% (w/v) of voricazole was prepared in a saline based solution with different PEG- carbohydrate conjugates. Table 8 listed the minimum concentrations of the conjugates required to solublize voricazole as a solubility test referencec. While it demonstrated that the lowest polymer to drug concentration ratio was 7V,,V,N-cholesterol-lactobionoyl-mPEG(12)-propanediamine for solubilizating vorimayazole, much high concentration of N,N,N-oleoyl-lactobionoyl-mPEG(12)- propanediamine was required for the sample solution with the same voriconazole content. This is largely due to a relative stronger hydrophobic interactions of cholesterol to the solute than those of oleic acid, The example further demonstrated the signifimayt difference between sterols (with a ring structure) and fatty acids (linear compounds) as the lipophic carriers for solubilizating hydrophobic compounds, even though the conjugates with fatty acids have more negative values of LogP, and thus a small difference in HLB values may have a large impact in the solubilization of lipophilic compounds..

[00175] Table 8

Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance.

[00176] In another aspect, the invention comprises a method of solubilizing a water-insoluble agent, i.e., a drug compound that, because of low solubility in water, typically requires formulation with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier for effective delivery to an intended site of action. Such delivery may be intravenous, oral, topical, subdermal, sublingual, or any other mode of drug delivery. The invention also includes compositions for such delivery. Both the methods and the compositions related to delivery of water-insoluble agents employ the PEG-carbohydrate conjugates of the present invention and the methods and materials described above. [00177] Unlike nature occurring lipids such as phospholipids, the conjugates of the present invention do not have a critical micellar concentration (CMC). Micelles only form when the concentration of surfactant is greater than the CMC, and the temperature of the system is greater than the critical micelle temperature. The present polymer-carbohydrate-sterol conjugates may form aggregates spontaneously at any given concentration.

[00178] The present invention discloses a novel polymer-carbohydrate conjugate system having at least one of carbohydrate moiety that may be used as a safe and biocompatible vehicle for drug or molecule delivery. A therapeutic, diagnostic or cosmetic agent may be solubilized or encapsulated in those polymer-carbohydrate conjugates to form a solution or micro-suspension.

[00179] Generally, the invention includes compositions and methods for synthesizing polymer- carbohydrate conjugates comprising a glycerol backbone or a multiamine or amino acid with a polymer (PEG) chain, a sugar (carbohydrate) and a sterol or lipo-vitamin or alike group bonded to the backbone. Spacer or linker groups including amino acids may be included between the backbone and the PEG chains, carbohydrates or lipophilic groups. Furthermore, the terminal end of PEG chain may be a charged or polar moiety.

[00180] The compounds of the present invention are effective to formulate compositions of active agents, such gemcitabin or platinum drugs, whereby side effects and toxicities associated with therapeutic treatments are reduced.

[00181] In the present invention, the permeation enhancement properties of PEG- carbohydrate conjugates may increase the in vivo targeted delivery of drugs, reduce toxicity and improve oral bioavailability of various drugs.

[00182] Solutions comprising conjugates of the present invention with solubilized active agents that may incorporate many active agents, including but not limited to propofol, cisplatin, docetaxel, voriconizole and alfaxalone. .

[00183] One feature or aspect of an embodiment is believed at the time of the filing of this patent application to possibly reside broadly in a chemical compound or a method of making a compound represented by the formula:

[00184] Another feature or aspect of an embodiment is demonstrated at the time of the filing of this patent application to possibly reside broadly in a chemical compound or a method of making a compound wherein the therapeutic agent is agent is an anesthetic or CNS (central nervous system) agent; and where the weight ratio of the PEG-carbohydrate conjugate to the drug compound is between about 1 and about 20. [00185] Still another feature or aspect of an embodiment is demonstrated at the time of the filing of this patent application to possibly reside broadly in a method of delivering a compound, the method comprising preparing a polymer-carbohydrate conjugate(s) in which the chemical compound may be synthesized from Backbones having two said accessable binding positions or sites and selected from the group consisting of aminoalcohols, diamines, ethylenediamine, diaminopropane, ethanolamine, aminopropanol, aminobutanol, aminopentanol, amino- 1-hexanol, the central backbone may be chemically extended and modified to provide said third or a fourth available binding position or site, i.e., a similar coupling procedure as showed in the General structure 17.

[00186] Yet another feature or aspect of an embodiment is demonstrated at the time of the filing of this patent application to possibly reside broadly in a chemical compound or a method of making a compound wherein the therapeutic agent is a fungicide or immunosuppressant or antitumor agent or anesthetic agent; and where the weight ratio of the PEG-carbohydrate conjugate to the drug compound is between about 1 and about 30.

[00187] Another feature or aspect of an embodiment is to differentiate the present invention chemically and physically from the previous patent publications US2012/202,979 and US2012/202,890; in the present invention, a sterol with sole hydroxyl group excluding water soluble steroid acids is incorporated. As demonstrated in Tables 1 , 15 and 16, such structures increased lipophilic properties was not mentioned or utilized in the previous inventions. For instance, the PEG-carbohydrate-cholesterol conjugates and PEG-carbohydrate-lipo-vitamin conjugates were demonstrated for the first time.

[00188] While preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described, those skilled in the art will recognize that other and further changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and all such changes and modifications should be understood to fall within the scope of the invention.