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Title:
POLYMER ENERGY ABSORBER AND RELATED VEHICLE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/113580
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
In one embodiment, a rail extension (4) comprises: an energy absorber comprising a polymer body, and vehicle attachment tabs (12) extending from one end of the energy absorber and configured to attach to a vehicle rail (6), and an attachment tab extending from another end of the energy absorber and configured to attach to a bumper beam (2). The energy absorber comprises cells (14) formed by cell walls extending a length of the energy absorber and forming cavities therethrough; and open channels (16) formed on each side of the energy absorber, wherein the channels are defined by walls of adjacent cells. A vehicle can comprise: a bumper beam (2); a vehicle rail (6); and the rail extensions (4).

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Inventors:
NAGWANSHI, Dhanendra Kumar (31220 Oak Creek Drive, Wixom, Michigan, 48393, US)
PARAMESHWARA, Arunachala (WTC Export Promotion Industrial Park, Phase 2 Hoodi Village Whitefield Road,Karnataka, Bangalore 6, 560066, IN)
IMAI, Shingo (31220 Oak Creek Drive, Wixom, Michigan, 48393, US)
MARKS, Matthew D. (31220 Oak Creek Drive, Wixom, Michigan, 48393, US)
Application Number:
US2014/011875
Publication Date:
July 24, 2014
Filing Date:
January 16, 2014
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS IP B.V. (Plasticslaan 1, PX Bergen op Zoom, Zoom, NL)
NAGWANSHI, Dhanendra Kumar (31220 Oak Creek Drive, Wixom, Michigan, 48393, US)
International Classes:
B60R19/34; F16F7/12
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010103449A12010-09-16
WO2013007386A12013-01-17
WO2012042396A12012-04-05
WO2012014091A12012-02-02
Foreign References:
EP2380782A12011-10-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CURBELO, Pamela J. (Cantor Colburn LLP, 20 Church St. 22nd Floo, Hartford Connecticut, 06103, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A rail extension, comprising an energy absorber comprising a polymer body, wherein the energy absorber comprises cells formed by cell walls extending a length of the energy absorber and forming cavities therethrough; open channels formed on each side of the energy absorber, wherein the channels are defined by walls of adjacent cells; and vehicle attachment tabs extending from one end of the energy absorber and configured to attach to a vehicle rail, and an attachment tab extending from another end of the energy absorber and configured to attach to a bumper beam.

2. The rail extension of Claim 1, wherein the energy absorber consists of a polymer body.

3. The rail extension of any of Claims 1 - 2, wherein cells adjacent to channels on two opposing sides of the energy absorber have a beveled surface.

4. The rail extension of Claim 3, wherein the beveled surface has a chamfer angle Θ of greater than 0 to 45°.

5. The rail extension of Claim 4, wherein the chamfer angle Θ is greater than 15° to 35°.

6. The rail extension of any of Claims 1 - 5, wherein the energy absorber has a width and a height, and wherein the length of less than or equal to 300 mm, the width, w, of less than or equal to 200 mm, and the height, h, of less than or equal to 300 mm, wherein the length is greater than or equal to the height which is greater than or equal to the width.

7. The rail extension of Claim 6, wherein the length, /, is 50 mm to 250 mm, the width, w, is 20 mm to 150 mm, and the height, h, is 60 mm to 200 mm.

8. The rail extension of any of Claims 1 - 7, wherein a thickness of the cell walls is up to 5.0 mm.

9. The rail extension of Claim 8, wherein the thickness of the cell walls is 2.0 mm to 4.5 mm.

10. The rail extension of any of Claims 1 - 9, wherein the rail extension has a force during crushing of 0.60x to 1.05x, wherein "x" is the maximum force of the vehicle rail before it will begin crushing.

11. The rail extension of Claim 10, wherein the force during crushing is 0.75x to

1.03x.

12. The rail extension of any of Claims 1 - 11, wherein the cavities comprise foam.

13. The rail extension of any of Claims 1 - 12, wherein, during an impact, the rail extensions begin crushing upon an impact of greater than or equal to 60 kN.

14. The rail extension of any of Claims 1 - 13, wherein, during an impact, the rail extensions have a first peak force of less than or equal to 110% of a force limit of a rail to which the rail extension is attached.

15. The rail extension of any of Claims 1 - 14, wherein the first peak force is less than or equal to 105% of the force limit.

16. A vehicle, comprising, a bumper beam; a vehicle rail; a rail extension comprising an energy absorber comprising a polymer body, wherein the energy absorber comprises cells formed by cell walls extending a length of the energy absorber and forming cavities therethrough; open channels formed on each side of the energy absorber, wherein the channels are defined by walls of adjacent cells; and vehicle attachment tabs extending from a rail end of the energy absorber and attached to the vehicle rail, and a bumper attachment tab extending from another end of the energy absorber and attached to the bumper beam.

17. A method of controlling a crushing of a vehicle extension, comprising: forming a rail extension, the a rail extension comprising an energy absorber comprising a polymer body, wherein the energy absorber comprises cells formed by cell walls extending a length of the energy absorber and forming cavities therethrough; forming open channels along the outside of the rail extension; determining an initial force peak during crushing of the energy absorber; beveling a surface of some cells based upon the initial force peak; changing the angle of the bevel until the initial force peak is less than a desired maximum force.

18. The method of Claim 17, further comprising filling some of the cavities with foam.

19. The method of Claim 17, further comprising filling all of the cavities with foam.

Description:
POLYMER ENERGY ABSORBER AND RELATED VEHICLE

BACKGROUND

[0001] The present disclosure relates generally to a polymer energy absorbing rail extension.

[0002] Bumper systems generally extend widthwise, or transverse, across the front and rear of a vehicle and are mounted to rails that extend in a lengthwise direction. Many bumper assemblies for an automotive vehicle include a bumper beam and an injection molded energy absorber secured to the bumper beam with a fascia covering the energy absorber.

[0003] Beneficial energy absorbing bumper systems achieve high efficiency by building load quickly to just under the load limit of the rails and maintain that load constant until the impact energy has been dissipated. Energy absorbing systems attempt to reduce vehicle damage as a result of a collision by managing impact energy absorption. Bumper system impact requirements are set forth by United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (US FMVSS), Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (CMVSS), European EC E42 consumer legislation, EuroNCAP pedestrian protection requirements, Allianz impact requirements, and Asian Pedestrian Protection for lower and upper legs. In addition, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) has developed different barrier test protocols on both front and rear bumper systems. These requirements must be met for the various design criteria set forth for each of the various automotive platforms and car models. If there is even very limited damage to any component of the frame of the vehicle, costs of repairing the vehicle can escalate dramatically.

[0004] This generates the need to develop low cost, lightweight, and high

performance energy absorbing systems that will deform and absorb impact energy to ensure a good vehicle safety rating and reduce vehicle damage in low speed collisions. Different components due to their inherent geometry and assembly requirements need different energy absorber designs to satisfy the impact criteria. Therefore, the automotive industry is continually seeking economic solutions to improve the overall safety rating of a vehicle. Hence, there is a continual need to provide a solution that would reduce vehicle damage and/or enhance a vehicle safety rating. BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0005] Disclosed, in various embodiments, are energy absorbing rail extensions, methods for making and vehicles using the same.

[0006] In one embodiment, a rail extension, comprises: an energy absorber comprising a polymer body, and vehicle attachment tabs extending from one end of the energy absorber and configured to attach to a vehicle rail, and an attachment tab extending from another end of the energy absorber and configured to attach to a bumper beam. The energy absorber can comprise cells formed by cell walls extending a length of the energy absorber and forming cavities therethrough; and open channels formed on each side of the energy absorber, wherein the channels are defined by walls of adjacent cells.

[0007] In one embodiment, a vehicle can comprise: a bumper beam; a vehicle rail; a rail extension; and vehicle attachment tabs extending from a rail end of the rail extension and attached to the vehicle rail, and a bumper attachment tab extending from another end of the rail extension and attached to the bumper beam. The rail extension can comprise: an energy absorber comprising a polymer body, wherein the energy absorber comprises cells formed by cell walls extending a length of the energy absorber and forming cavities therethrough; and open channels formed on each side of the energy absorber, wherein the channels are defined by walls of adjacent cells.

[0008] In one embodiment, a method of controlling a crushing of a vehicle extension, can comprise: forming a rail extension, the rail extension comprising an energy absorber comprising a polymer body, wherein the energy absorber comprises cells formed by cell walls extending a length of the energy absorber and forming cavities therethrough; forming open channels along the outside of the rail extension; determining an initial force peak during crushing of the energy absorber; beveling a surface of some cells based upon the initial force peak; changing the angle of the bevel until the initial force peak is less than a desired maximum force.

[0009] These and other non-limiting characteristics are more particularly described below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0010] The following is a brief description of the drawings wherein like elements are numbered alike and which are presented for the purposes of illustrating the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein and not for the purposes of limiting the same. [0011] FIG. 1 is a perspective, partial view of an embodiment of a body- in- white (BIW) with polymer rail extensions located between the bumper beam and the rails.

[0012] FIG. 2 is a perspective front view of an embodiment of a polymer rail extension with chamfered cells and vehicle attachments.

[0013] FIG. 3 is a perspective front view of another embodiment of a polymer rail extension without chamfered cells and with vehicle attachments.

[0014] FIG. 4 is a perspective front view of yet another embodiment of a polymer rail extension with chamfered cells and vehicle attachments.

[0015] FIG. 5 is graphical representation of rail extension performance showing displacement (mm) versus force (kiloNewtons (kN)) for a simulated and a test polymer rail extensions.

[0016] FIG. 6 is graphical representation of rail extension performance showing displacement (mm) versus force (kN)) for the simulated polymer rail extension of FIG. 5 versus a metal rail extension.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0017] Disclosed herein, in various embodiments, are energy absorbing devices which can be used in conjunction with vehicle components, e.g., to minimize the damage suffered during an impact. Although it is envisioned that the energy absorbing rail extensions can comprise metal inserts (e.g., strategically located metal reinforcements), these elements can be wholly polymer elements (besides attachment inserts that can be located in tabs configured to be attached to the vehicle). The energy absorption section of the extensions are desirably configured to, during impact, maintain a substantially constant force (e.g., will vary by less than or equal to 20%). In other words, if the desired constant force is 100 kN, the variation will not exceed 80 kN to 120 kN. It is also noted, that, desirably, during an impact, the energy absorption section imparts a force that exceeds the constant force (e.g., the maximum desired force) by less than or equal to 20%, specifically, less than or equal to 10%, and more specifically, less than or equal to 5%. In other words, if the desired constant force is 100 kN, desirably, during an impact, the energy absorption section imparts a force that is less than or equal to 120 kN, specifically, less than or equal to 110 kN, and more specifically, less than or equal to 105 kN. It is understood that the forces exerted by the energy absorption section are exerted during an impact sufficient to crush the energy absorption section, until the energy absorption section is crushed. [0018] In addition to maintaining a substantially constant force during crushing, the rail extension desirably crushes completely and does not exceed a force during crushing over the force limit for the vehicle. The minimum force on the rail extensions that will initiate crushing is dependent upon the strength of the rails. Generally, the minimum force to initiate crushing is greater than or equal to 60 kN, specifically, greater than or equal to 70 kN, and more specifically, greater than or equal to 80 kN. In other words, the force during impact is maintained below the force limit of the rails so that the rails do not fail or deform before the rail extensions fully crush.

[0019] The rail extensions can have multiple cells and can be alveolar structures more commonly referred to as "honeycomb". The combs of the structure can be any polygonal or rounded shape, such as circular, oval, square, rectangular, triangular, diamond, pentagonal, hexagonal, heptagonal, and octagonal geometries as well as combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing geometries. Structures wherein the length of the sides are equal (besides a difference caused by the curvature of the angle formed by adjacent sides) have been particularly useful in obtaining the desired crush characteristics. In other words, substantially square cells having rounded or 90 degree corners have been particularly useful.

[0020] The material of the rail extension can be any thermoplastic material or combination of thermoplastic materials that can be formed into the desired shape and provide the desired properties. Examples of polymers include thermoplastic materials as well as combinations of thermoplastic materials elastomeric material, and/or thermoset materials. Possible thermoplastic materials include polybutylene terephthalate (PBT); acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene (ABS); polycarbonate; polycarbonate/PBT blends; polycarbonate/ ABS blends; copolycarbonate-polyesters; acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile (ASA); acrylonitrile- (ethylene-polypropylene diamine modified)-styrene (AES); phenylene ether resins; blends of polyphenylene ether/polyamide; polyamides; phenylene sulfide resins; polyvinyl chloride PVC; high impact polystyrene (HIPS); low/high density polyethylene (L/HDPE);

polypropylene (PP); expanded polypropylene (EPP); and thermoplastic olefins (TPO). For example, the polymer can comprise Xenoy resin, and/or Noryl™ GTX resin, which is commercially available from SABIC. The polymer can optionally be reinforced, e.g., with fibers, particles, flakes, as well as combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing. For example, glass fibers, carbon fibers, and combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing. For example, the plastic insert can be formed from STAMAX™ materials, a long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene commercially available from SABIC. The extension can also be made from combinations comprising at least one of any of the above-described materials and/or reinforcements, e.g., a combination with a thermoset material.

[0021] The overall size, e.g., the specific dimensions of the rail extension will depend upon the particular vehicle, the desired crush characteristics, and the space available. For example, the length (/), height (h), and width (w) of the rail extension, will depend upon the amount of space available between the rail and the bumper beam of the vehicle as well as crush characteristics (e.g., desired displacement). (See FIG. 1) The design of the cells, the angle and existence of chamfered section, and the thickness of the cell walls will depend upon the desired crush characteristics (e.g., maximum force exerted by the rail extension during an impact (e.g., while crushing)). The length, /, of the rail extension can be less than or equal to 300 mm, specifically, 50 mm to 250 mm, and more specifically 100 mm to 200 mm (e.g., 150 mm). The width, w, of the energy absorbing device can be less than or equal to 200 mm, specifically, 20 mm to 150 mm, and more specifically 40 mm to 100 mm. The height, h, of the energy absorbing device can be less than or equal to 300 mm, specifically, 60 mm to 200 mm, and more specifically 80 mm to 150 mm. The length is greater than or equal to the height which is greater than or equal to the width. The length, height, and width

measurements are the broadest measurement in the specified direction, excluding vehicle attachment tabs. The thickness of the cell walls can be up to 5.0 mm, specifically, 2.0 mm to 4.5 mm, and more specifically 3.0 mm to 4.0 mm.

[0022] As with the dimensions of the components, the number of cells is dependent upon the desired stiffness, crush characteristics, and materials employed. For example, the rail extension can have up to 50 cells or more, specifically, 5 to 25 cells, more specifically, 8 to 15 cells.

[0023] The rail extensions disclosed herein are configured to absorb a significant amount of impact energy when subjected to axial loading while also having acceptable creep performance (i.e., less deformation upon impact). For example, the rail extension can have a creep performance when subjected to 4.5 megaPascals (MPa) stress loading for 600 hours at 90°C of negligible deformation (less than or equal to 5 mm, specifically, less than or equal to 3 mm, and more specifically, less than or equal to 1 mm).

[0024] The rail extensions can be produced by various molding processes, with injection molding generally employed in order to get the desired wall thickness consistency.

[0025] A more complete understanding of the components, processes, and apparatuses disclosed herein can be obtained by reference to the accompanying drawings. These figures (also referred to herein as "FIG.") are merely schematic representations based on convenience and the ease of demonstrating the present disclosure, and are, therefore, not intended to indicate relative size and dimensions of the devices or components thereof and/or to define or limit the scope of the exemplary embodiments. Although specific terms are used in the following description for the sake of clarity, these terms are intended to refer only to the particular structure of the embodiments selected for illustration in the drawings, and are not intended to define or limit the scope of the disclosure. In the drawings and the following description below, it is to be understood that like numeric designations refer to components of like function.

[0026] FIG. 1 is a partial prospective view of a part of a body-in-white 32, wherein rail extensions 4 are connected to the vehicle rails 6 and to the bumper beam 2. On an opposite side of the bumper beam 2 can be crash cans 6, an energy absorber 34 comprising energy absorbing crush lobes 36, and a fascia 38. Desirably, the system (e.g., the rails, rail extensions, and bumper beam) have a natural frequency

[0027] The rail extensions can furthermore have a natural frequency that is more than the frequency of vibration loading (excitation), specifically, the natural frequency is more than or equal to 70% of the vibration loading, and more specifically, the natural frequency is more than or equal to 40% of the frequency of vibration loading.

[0028] FIGS. 2 - 4 illustrate examples of rail extensions with different optional vehicle attachment tab locations. In these figures, it can be seen that the rail extensions can have channels 16 along two or more sides thereof. The channels 16 allow complete crushing of the extensions during an impact at an impact force of greater than or equal to 60 kN, specifically greater than or equal to 80 kN, more specifically greater than or equal to 90 kN, with the upper limit being the force limit of the rails. In other words, the middle cell for two, specifically all four, sides of the rail extension, has only 3 sides, forming an open, 3 sided channel. During crushing, the polymer of the cells is forced into the channel(s), allowing the extension to crush completely. For example, the walls start deforming and start folding in wavy manner to absorb energy during loading, once all walls are folded completely resulting in stack up (-25% of complete length of rail extension) that cannot be crushed more and load start getting transfer to rails. In other words, the extension can comprise opposing "U" shaped cell groups with cell(s) joining the bases of the "U". (See FIG. 2, design illustration 40. This particular design (e.g., combination of reverse "U") allows the walls to fold in systematic manner (e.g., a wavy pattern) to attain a complete crushing, and absorb energy during deformation. A symmetric design, in which all walls are closed, could be very stiff and not allow complete crushing. [0029] Further tuning of the crush characteristics can be attained by beveling the outermost cells of the extension on two opposing sides to form chamfered cells 14. The beveling can be at an angle from the bumper side face 18, of greater than 0° to 45°, specifically, 10° to 40°, more specifically, 15° to 35°. The number of chamfered cells 14 is dependent upon the maximum force that can be exerted during a crash. Beveling cell(s) reduces the number of cells in physical contact with the bumper (see FIG. 1), and therefore reduces the initial force attained during an impact. The specific angle desired for a particular design can be determined by measuring the force transferred to the rails versus displacement upon a frontal crash, to determine if the maximum force is exceeded. As the angle increases, the initial force peak decreases.

[0030] As is illustrated in FIGS. 2 - 4, the rail extensions have vehicle attachments 12 that extend from the ends thereof. The vehicle attachments 12 extending from the front face 18 can be employed to attach the rail extension to the bumper beam. The vehicle attachments 12 extending from the rear face 20 (rail side face) can be employed to attach the rail extension to the vehicle rails. Optionally, the vehicle attachments (e.g., tabs that extend perpendicular to the length of the rail extension), can have reinforcement inserts (attachment inserts) 8,10. The reinforcement inserts 8,10 reduce the stress on the rail extension due to the attachment to the vehicle. Optionally, the attachment inserts can be metal or a different polymer than the cells. For example the reinforcement inserts 8,10 can be overmolded in the tabs so as to form integral elements of the tabs. These inserts can be metal with a hole therethrough configured to receive a bolt or the like for attachment to the vehicle.

[0031] FIG. 5 is a graphic illustration of displacement versus force for a simulation and for a test sample. The design of the test and the simulations were as illustrated in FIG. 2, absent the vehicle attachment tabs. The cell thickness was 3.6 mm, the chamfer angle Θ was 30°, and the material was Xenoy™ resin. As can be seen, for the test sample, the test sample maintains a force close to the maximum force (100 kN), without substantially exceeding the maximum force (also referred to as the nominal force). In other words, the force during the crushing, to a complete crushing of 100 mm, is 80 kN to 105 kN. Furthermore, the peak force does not exceed 105 kN; i.e., when the initial force is applied, and the rail extension begins to crush (e.g., displacement of less than or equal to 20 mm, the force does not exceed 105 kN).

[0032] FIG. 6 is a graphic illustration of displacement versus force for a simulation of the present plastic rail extension (from FIG. 5) and for a metal rail extension. As can be seen, for the test sample, the test sample maintains a force close to the maximum force (100 kN), without substantially exceeding the maximum force, especially during the initial peak. In contrast, the metal rail extension significantly exceed the maximum force during the initial peak. Such crush characteristics can result in damage to or failure of the rails.

[0033] It is noted that lOOkN is provided as the maximum force for these particular examples, however, the actual maximum force can be different and is dependent upon the maximum force that can be applied to the rail before it begins to crush. The force peak of the rail extension and the variability of the force during displacement can be tuned (e.g., adjusted), by adjusting the thickness of the cells, the design of the cells, and the bevel of the outermost cells in contact with the bumper beam.

[0034] Desirably, the rail extension has a force during crushing of 0.60x to 1.05x, specifically, 0.75x to 1.03x, and more specifically, 0.80x to x, wherein "x" is the maximum force of the rail before it will begin crushing.

[0035] Set forth below are some embodiments of the rail extension, vehicles comprising the rail extensions, and methods of making the rail extension.

[0036] Embodiment 1: a rail extension, comprises: an energy absorber comprising a polymer body, and vehicle attachment tabs extending from one end of the energy absorber and configured to attach to a vehicle rail, and an attachment tab extending from another end of the energy absorber and configured to attach to a bumper beam. The energy absorber can comprise cells formed by cell walls extending a length of the energy absorber and forming cavities therethrough; and open channels formed on each side of the energy absorber, wherein the channels are defined by walls of adjacent cells.

[0037] Embodiment 2: The rail extension of Embodiment 1, wherein the energy absorber consists of a polymer body.

[0038] Embodiment 3: The rail extension of any of Embodiments 1 - 2, wherein cells adjacent to channels on two opposing sides of the energy absorber have a beveled surface.

[0039] Embodiment 4: The rail extension of Embodiment 3, wherein the beveled surface has a chamfer angle Θ of greater than 0 to 45°.

[0040] Embodiment 5: The rail extension of Embodiment 4, wherein the chamfer angle Θ is greater than 15° to 35°.

[0041] Embodiment 6: The rail extension of any of Embodiments 1 - 5, wherein the energy absorber has a width and a height, and wherein the length of less than or equal to 300 mm, the width, w, of less than or equal to 200 mm, and the height, h, of less than or equal to 300 mm, wherein the length is greater than or equal to the height which is greater than or equal to the width. [0042] Embodiment 7: The rail extension of Embodiment 6, wherein the length, /, is 50 mm to 250 mm, the width, w, is 20 mm to 150 mm, and the height, h, is 60 mm to 200 mm.

[0043] Embodiment 8: The rail extension of any of Embodiments 1 - 7, wherein a thickness of the cell walls is up to 5.0 mm.

[0044] Embodiment 9: The rail extension of Embodiment 8, wherein the thickness of the cell walls is 2.0 mm to 4.5 mm.

[0045] Embodiment 10: The rail extension of any of Embodiments 1 - 9, wherein the rail extension has a force during crushing of 0.60x to 1.05x, wherein "x" is the maximum force of the vehicle rail before it will begin crushing.

[0046] Embodiment 11: The rail extension of Embodiment 10, wherein the force during crushing is 0.75x to 1.03x.

[0047] Embodiment 12: The rail extension of any of Embodiments 1 - 11, wherein the cavities comprise foam.

[0048] Embodiment 13: The rail extension of any of Embodiments 1 - 12, wherein, during an impact, the rail extensions begin crushing upon an impact of greater than or equal to 60 kN.

[0049] Embodiment 14: The rail extension of any of Embodiments 1 - 13, wherein, during an impact, the rail extensions have a first peak force of less than or equal to 110% of a force limit of a rail to which the rail extension is attached.

[0050] Embodiment 15: A vehicle can comprise: a bumper beam; a vehicle rail; the rail extension of any of Embodiments 1 - 14.

[0051] Embodiment 16: The vehicle of Embodiment 15, further comprising a vehicle energy absorber comprising crush lobes, wherein the bumper beam is between the vehicle energy absorber and the rail extension; and a fascia, wherein the energy absorber is located between the bumper beam and the fascia.

[0052] Embodiment 17: The vehicle of any of Embodiments 15 - 16, wherein an system comprising the bumper beam, rail extension, and rail, has a normal loading frequency that is less than a natural frequency of the system.

[0053] Embodiment 18: The vehicle of Embodiment 17, wherein the normal loading frequency is less than our equal to 75% of the natural frequency.

[0054] Embodiment 19: The vehicle of Embodiment 17, wherein the normal loading frequency is less than our equal to 60% of the natural frequency. [0055] Embodiment 20: A method of controlling a crushing of a vehicle extension, can comprise: forming a rail extension, the a rail extension comprising an energy absorber comprising a polymer body, wherein the energy absorber comprises cells formed by cell walls extending a length of the energy absorber and forming cavities therethrough; forming open channels along the outside of the rail extension; determining an initial force peak during crushing of the energy absorber; beveling a surface of some cells based upon the initial force peak; changing the angle of the bevel until the initial force peak is less than a desired maximum force.

[0056] Embodiment 21: The method of Embodiment 20, further comprising filling some of the cavities with foam.

[0057] Embodiment 22: The method of Embodiment 20, further comprising filling all of the cavities with foam.

[0058] Embodiment 23: The method of any of Embodiments 20 - 22, wherein the maximum force is less than or equal to 110% of a force limit of a rail to which the rail extension will be attached to.

[0059] All ranges disclosed herein are inclusive of the endpoints, and the endpoints are independently combinable with each other (e.g., ranges of "up to 25 wt.%, or, more specifically, 5 wt.% to 20 wt.%", is inclusive of the endpoints and all intermediate values of the ranges of "5 wt.% to 25 wt.%," etc.). "Combination" is inclusive of blends, mixtures, alloys, reaction products, and the like. Furthermore, the terms "first," "second," and the like, herein do not denote any order, quantity, or importance, but rather are used to d one element from another. The terms "a" and "an" and "the" herein do not denote a limitation of quantity, and are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. The suffix "(s)" as used herein is intended to include both the singular and the plural of the term that it modifies, thereby including one or more of that term (e.g., the film(s) includes one or more films). Reference throughout the specification to "one embodiment", "another embodiment", "an embodiment", and so forth, means that a particular element (e.g., feature, structure, and/or characteristic) described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment described herein, and may or may not be present in other embodiments. In addition, it is to be understood that the described elements may be combined in any suitable manner in the various embodiments.

[0060] While particular embodiments have been described, alternatives,

modifications, variations, improvements, and substantial equivalents that are or may be presently unforeseen may arise to applicants or others skilled in the art. Accordingly, the appended claims as filed and as they may be amended are intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications variations, improvements, and substantial equivalents.