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Title:
POLYMER SYNTHETIC TECHNIQUE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2008/042289
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The present invention generally relates to methods for the synthesis of species including monomers and polymers. Methods of the invention comprise the use of chemical techniques including metathesis chemistry to synthesize, for example, monomers and/or polymers with desired functional groups.

Inventors:
SWAGER, Timothy, M. (18 Copley Street, Newton, MA, 02458, US)
AMARA, John, P. (121 Norwich Circle, Medford, MA, 02155, US)
Application Number:
US2007/020992
Publication Date:
April 10, 2008
Filing Date:
September 28, 2007
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139, US)
SWAGER, Timothy, M. (18 Copley Street, Newton, MA, 02458, US)
AMARA, John, P. (121 Norwich Circle, Medford, MA, 02155, US)
International Classes:
C08G61/02; C08G85/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2005030681A12005-04-07
Foreign References:
US5942638A1999-08-24
Other References:
KATAYAMA, H.; OZAWA, F.: "Review Vinylideneruthenium complexes in catalysis" COORDINATION CHEMISTRY REVIEWS, vol. 248, no. 15-16, August 2004 (2004-08), pages 1703-1715, XP004580633 ELSEVIER SCIENCE, AMSTERDAM, NL
CHATTERJEE, A:; MORGAN, J.P.; SCHOLL, M.; GRUBBS, R.H.: "Synthesis of Functionalized Olefins by Cross and Ring-Closing Metatheses" JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 122, no. 15, 4 April 2000 (2000-04-04), pages 3783-3784, XP002399239 Washington, DC, US
MATLOKA ET AL: "The acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization approach to silicon containing materials" JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR CATALYSIS. A, CHEMICAL, ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 257, no. 1-2, 1 September 2006 (2006-09-01), pages 89-98, XP005646383 ISSN: 1381-1169
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
OYER, Timothy, J. (Wolf, Greenfield & Sacks P.C.,Federal Reserve Plaza,600 Atlantic Avenu, Boston MA, 02210-2206, US)
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Claims:

1. A method for synthesizing a polymer containing a desired functional group, comprising: providing a species comprising a carbon-carbon double bond; performing a metathesis reaction between the species and a functional group precursor to form a covalent bond therebetween, thereby forming a functionalized species; and polymerizing the functionalized species, with or without other non- or differently-functionalized species, to form a polymer comprising the functional group.

2. A method as in claim 1, wherein performing the metathesis reaction comprises exposing the species and the functional group precursor to a metathesis catalyst comprising ruthenium, molybdenum, or tungsten.

3. A method as in claim 1 , wherein the metathesis reaction is a cross-metathesis, a ring-closing metathesis, or a ring-opening metathesis reaction.

4. A method as in claim 1, wherein polymerizing the functionalized species comprises cationic polymerization, anionic polymerization, radical polymerization, condensation polymerization, Wittig polymerization, ring-opening polymerization, cross- coupling polymerization, addition polymerization, or chain polymerization.

5. A method as in claim 1 , wherein the functional group precursor comprises a carbon-carbon double bond and the functional group.

6. A method as in claim 1 , wherein the functional group precursor comprises alkyl, alkene, alkyne, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, hydroxy, carbonyl groups, nitro, nitroso, peroxide, cyano, isocyano, amino, halogen, azo, cyanate, isocyanate, ether, acetal, imine, alkoxy, phosphine, phosphate, phosphodiester, phosphonic acid, phosphinic acid, sulfide, sulfone, sulfonic acid, sulfoxide, thiol, metal complex, substituted derivatives thereof, or combinations thereof.

7. A method as in claim 1 , wherein the polymer is a homopolymer, a random copolymer, a block co-polymer, or a biological polymer.

8. A method as in claim 1 , wherein the polymer is a conjugated polymer.

9. A method as in claim 1 , wherein the polymer comprises a pendant groups comprising the functional group.

10. A method as in claim 1 , wherein the metathesis reaction is performed at a temperature of 100 0 C or less.

11. A method as in claim 1, wherein the metathesis reaction is performed at a temperature of 75 0 C or less.

12. A method as in claim 1, wherein the metathesis reaction is performed at a temperature of 50 0 C or less.

13. A method as in claim 1, wherein the metathesis reaction is performed at a temperature of 25 0 C or less.

14. A method for synthesizing a polymer containing a desired functional group, comprising: providing a polymer comprising at least one carbon-carbon double bond; and performing a metathesis reaction between the polymer and a functional group precursor such that a covalent bond is formed therebetween, thereby forming a polymer comprising the functional group.

15. A method as in claim 14, wherein performing the metathesis reaction comprises exposing the species and the functional group precursor to a catalyst comprising ruthenium, molybdenum, or tungsten.

16. A method as in claim 14, wherein the metathesis reaction is a cross-metathesis, a ring-closing metathesis, or a ring-opening metathesis reaction.

17. A method as in claim 14, wherein the polymer comprising at least one carbon-carbon double bond comprises a pendant group comprising the carbon-carbon double bond.

18. A method as in claim 14, wherein the functional group precursor comprises a carbon-carbon double bond and the functional group.

19. A method as in claim 14, wherein the functional group precursor comprises alkyl, alkene, alkyne, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, hydroxy, carbonyl groups, nitro, nitroso, peroxide, cyano, isocyano, amino, halogen, azo, cyanate, isocyanate, ether, acetal, imine, alkoxy, phosphine, phosphate, phosphodiester, phosphonic acid, phosphinic acid, sulfide, sulfone, sulfonic acid, sulfoxide, thiol, metal complex, substituted derivatives thereof, or combinations thereof.

20. A method as in claim 14, wherein the polymer is a homopolymer, a random copolymer, a block co-polymer, or a biological polymer.

21. A method as in claim 14, wherein the polymer is a homopolymer, a random copolymer, a block co-polymer, or a biological polymer.

22. A method as in claim 14, wherein the polymer is a conjugated polymer.

23. A method as in claim 14, wherein the polymer comprises a pendant groups comprising the functional group. '

24. A method as in claim 14, wherein the metathesis reaction is performed at a temperature of 100 0 C or less.

25. A method as in claim 14, wherein the metathesis reaction is performed at a temperature of 75 0 C or less.

26. A method as in claim 14, wherein the metathesis reaction is performed at a temperature of 50 0 C or less.

27. A method as in claim 14, wherein the metathesis reaction is performed at a temperature of 25 0 C or less.

28. A method for synthesizing a polymer containing a desired functional group, comprising: providing a species comprising a carbon-carbon double bond; and performing a metathesis reaction between the species and a functional group precursor to form a covalent bond therebetween, thereby forming a functionalized species, wherein the species is a monomer, oligomer, or polymer, and wherein, when the species is a monomer or oligomer, the method further comprises polymerizing the functionalized species, with or without other non- or differently-functionalized species, to form a functionalized polymer.

Description:

POLYMER SYNTHETIC TECHNIQUE

Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to synthetic methods for species including monomers and polymers.

Background of the Invention

Metathesis chemistry has been widely used in the synthesis of high molecular weight polymers and other materials. In the presence of transition metal-catalysts, including commercially available ruthenium-based Grubbs-type carbenes and molybdenum-based and tungsten-based Schrock alkylidenes, olefins can exchange groups around double bonds via metallocyclobutane intermediates to form new double bonds. Olefin metathesis employs carbon-carbon double bonds, which may typically be unreactive toward other reagents, as the reactive functional groups. In some cases, metathesis reactions may be performed in the presence of a wide variety of functional groups and under mild conditions, such as at room temperature.

Summary of the Invention The present invention provides methods for synthesizing a polymer containing a desired functional group, comprising providing a species comprising a carbon-carbon double bond; performing a metathesis reaction between the species and a functional group precursor to form a covalent bond therebetween, thereby forming a functionalized species; and polymerizing the functionalized species, with or without other non- or differently-functionalized species, to form a polymer comprising the functional group. The present invention also provides methods for synthesizing a polymer containing a desired functional group, comprising providing a polymer comprising at least one carbon-carbon double bond; and performing a metathesis reaction between the polymer and a functional group precursor such that a covalent bond is formed therebetween, thereby forming a polymer comprising the functional group. The present invention also provides methods for synthesizing a polymer containing a desired functional group, comprising providing a species comprising a carbon-carbon double bond; and performing a metathesis reaction between the species and a functional group precursor to form a covalent bond therebetween, thereby forming

a functionalized species; wherein the species is a monomer, oligomer, or polymer, and wherein, when the species is a monomer or oligomer, the method further comprises polymerizing the functionalized species, with or without other non- or differently- functionalized species, to form a functionalized polymer. Brief Description of the Drawings

FIG. IA shows the synthesis of a polymer, wherein the synthesis comprises functionalization of a species via metathesis chemistry, followed by polymerization of the functionalized species.

FIG. IB show the synthesis of a polymer, wherein the synthesis comprising functionalization of a polymer via metathesis chemistry.

FIG. 2 shows examples of metathesis reactions including (a) cross metathesis, (b) ring-closing metathesis, and (c) ring-opening metathesis.

FIG. 3 shows examples of metathesis catalysts known in the art.

FIG. 4 shows a schematic synthesis of a monomer having a hexafluoroisopropanol group, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 5 shows a schematic synthesis of a monomer having two hexafluoroisopropanol groups, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIGS. 6A-B show a schematic syntheses of polymers containing hexafluoroisopropanol groups. Detailed Description

The present invention generally relates to methods for the synthesis of species including monomers and polymers. Methods of the invention comprise the use of chemical techniques including metathesis chemistry to synthesize, for example, monomers and/or polymers with desired functional groups. In some embodiments, methods of the invention employ the use of olefin metathesis chemistry. As used herein, "metathesis" or "olefin metathesis" is given its ordinary meaning in the art and refers to a chemical reaction in which two reacting species exchange partners in the presence of a transition-metal catalyst, according to the formula shown in Scheme 1, and ethylene is formed as a byproduct. FIGS. 2A-C show examples of different kinds of metathesis reactions including cross metathesis (FIG. 2A), ring-closing metathesis (FIG. 2B), and ring-opening metathesis (FIG. 2C). Other examples of metathesis reactions may include acyclic diene metathesis, alkyne metathesis, enyne metathesis, and the like.

Scheme 1

R 1 HC=CH 2 + R 2 HC=CH 2 ca a ys . R 1 HC=CHR 2 + H 2 C=CH 2

In some cases, methods of the invention employ the use of metathesis chemistry to synthesize a species having a desired functional group. As used herein, the term "species" may refer to any chemical moiety including monomers, oligomers, polymers, and the like. The method may comprise performing a metathesis reaction between a species and a functional group precursor to form a covalent bond therebetween to form a functionalized species. The method may comprise exposure of the species and the functional group precursor to a metathesis catalyst. In some cases, the metathesis catalyst may comprise ruthenium, molybdenum, or tungsten. As used herein, a "functional group precursor" refers to a chemical moiety containing a desired functional group that may be reacted to form a covalent bond between the species (e.g., monomer, oligomer, polymer) and the desired functional group. In some embodiments, the species and/or functional group precursor may comprise a carbon-carbon double bond. The carbon-carbon double bond may be ethylene, mono-substituted (e.g., alpha-olefin), di- substituted (e.g., 1,1-disubstituted, 1,2-disubstiruted), tri-substituted, tetra-substituted, or the like. In some embodiments, the carbon-carbon double bond may be an alpha-olefin. For example, the species and the functional group precursor may each comprise at least one alpha-olefin wherein, upon exposure to a metathesis catalyst, a covalent bond is formed therebetween to produce a functionalized species.

In some embodiments, the species is a monomelic species, wherein methods of the invention may comprise the synthesis of a functionalized monomer. The synthesis of functionalized monomers is described herein by-way of example only, and it should be understood that other species, including oligomers, polymers, and the like, may also be suitable for use in the invention. As shown by the illustrative embodiment in FIG. IA, monomer 10 comprises two alpha-olefins within pendant sidechains. A metathesis reaction may then be performed between monomer 10 and functional group precursor 22, which also comprises an alpha olefin, to form functionalized monomer 20, which is covalently bonded to functional groups 24 and 26. Monomer 20 may optionally be further reacted, either prior to or subsequent to the metathesis reaction, to form a desired, functionalized species. In two illustrative embodiments, FIG. 4 shows a schematic

synthesis of a monomer comprising a hexafluoroisopropanol group and FIG. 5 shows a schematic synthesis of a monomer comprising two hexafluoroisopropanol groups.

Polymerization of functionalized monomer 20 may then provide polymer 30 comprising functional groups 24 and 26. (FIG. IA) Polymerization of the functionalized monomer may be performed with or without other types of species (e.g., monomers, oligomers, polymers, and the like), including non-functionalized or differently- functionalized species. In some cases, a functionalized monomer is polymerized to form a homopolymer or a homopolymeric portion of a polymer. In some cases, the functionalized monomer is polymerized in the presence of a second, different monomer to form a copolymer (e.g., random co-polymer). It should be understood that the functionalized monomer may be polymerized with any number of additional, different monomers to produce a desired polymer. The ratio of functionalized monomer to other monomers may be selected to afford polymers having a desired amount (e.g., concentration) of functional groups within each polymer chain. The functionalized monomers may be polymerized according to known methods, including, but not limited to, cationic polymerization, anionic polymerization, radical polymerization, condensation polymerization, Wittig polymerization, ring-opening polymerization, cross-coupling polymerization, addition polymerization, chain polymerization, or the like.

In some embodiments, methods of the invention employ the use of metathesis chemistry to functionalize a polymeric species. For example, a metathesis reaction between a polymer comprising at least one carbon-carbon double bond and a functional group precursor may be performed such that a covalent bond is formed therebetween, thereby forming a polymer comprising the functional group. In some cases, the polymer may comprise a plurality of carbon-carbon double bonds. In some cases, the carbon- carbon double bonds may be positioned adjacent, within, or pendant to the polymer backbone. In some cases, the carbon-carbon double bonds may be positioned pendant to the polymer backbone, such as within a pendant side chain. For example, the polymer comprising at least one carbon-carbon double bond may comprise a pendant group comprising the carbon-carbon double bond. The carbon-carbon double bond may be ethylene, mono-substituted (e.g., alpha-olefin), di-substituted (e.g., 1,1-disubstituted, 1,2- disubstituted), tri-substituted, tetra-substituted, or the like. In some embodiments, the carbon-carbon double bond may be an alpha-olefin positioned within a pendant side chain (e.g., alkyl, heteroalkyl, or the like) of the polymer.

Some embodiments of the invention comprise the use of species (e.g., monomers, polymers) having pendant side chains comprising terminal, monosubstituted olefins. For example, the pendant side chain may be an alkenyl chain comprising one, terminal, carbon-carbon double bond. One particular advantage of such methods is that species comprising terminal carbon-carbon double bonds may be readily synthesized, as halo- alkenes of various chain lengths are commercially available.

As shown in FIG. IB, polymer 40 may comprise pendant side chains having terminal carbon-carbon double bonds. A metathesis reaction may then be performed between polymer 40 and functional group precursor 52, which also comprises an alpha olefin, to form functional ized polymer 50, which is covalently bonded to functional groups 54 and 56.

In some embodiments, methods of the present invention may be particularly advantageous since they may allow for the modular synthesis of various monomers, oligomers, and/or polymers. For example, a monomer and/or polymer may be synthesized comprising a plurality of pendant side chains having a terminal olefin. The terminal olefin may be functionalized via a metathesis reaction as described herein with any desired functional group selected to impart a particular property on the monomer and/or polymer. In some cases, a monomer and/or polymer may be functionalized with, for example, hydrophilic groups such as a poly(ethylene glycol) groups to increase the water solubility of the monomer and/or polymer. In some cases, the polymer may be functionalized with, for example, hydrophobic groups such as alkyl groups to decrease the water solubility of the monomer and/or polymer. Other examples of properties of monomers and/or polymers that may be modulated by the addition of functional groups include solubility, steric size, particle size, electrostatic properties, optical properties, secondary and/or tertiary structures, and the like.

In one set of embodiments, monomers and/or polymers may be designed and synthesized for determination of a target analyte, wherein the monomer or polymer may be functionalized with a binding site capable of interacting with a target analyte. For example, a sample suspected of containing an analyte may be exposed to a monomer or polymer as described herein. The analyte may interact with the monomer or polymer to cause a change in a property of the monomer or polymer, such as an optical property, wherein the change in the property may then determine the analyte. As used herein, the term "determination" or "determining" generally refers to the analysis of a species or

signal, for example, quantitatively or qualitatively, and/or the detection of the presence or absence of the species or signals. "Determination" or "determining" may also refer to the analysis of an interaction between two or more species or signals, for example, quantitatively or qualitatively, and/or by detecting the presence or absence of the interaction.

In some embodiments, the interaction between the analyte and the binding site may comprise formation of a bond, such as a covalent bond (e.g. carbon-carbon, carbon- oxygen, oxygen-silicon, sulfur-sulfur, phosphorus-nitrogen, carbon-nitrogen, metal- oxygen or other covalent bonds), an ionic bond, a hydrogen bond (e.g., between hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, thiol and/or similar functional groups, for example), a dative bond (e.g. complexation or chelation between metal ions and monodentate or multidentate ligands), or the like. The interaction may also comprise Van der Waals interactions. In one embodiment, the interaction comprises forming a covalent bond with an analyte. The binding site may also interact with an analyte via a binding event between pairs of biological molecules. For example, the polymeric structure may comprise an entity, such as biotin that specifically binds to a complementary entity, such as avidin or streptavidin, on a target analyte.

In some cases, the binding site may comprise a biological or a chemical molecule able to bind to another biological or chemical molecule in a medium (e.g., solution, vapor phase, solid phase). For example, the binding site may be a functional group, such as a thiol, aldehyde, ester, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, or the like, wherein the functional group forms a bond with the analyte. In some cases, the binding site may be an electron- rich or electron-poor moiety within the polymer, wherein interaction between the analyte and the conducting polymer comprises an electrostatic interaction. The binding site may also be capable of biologically binding an analyte via an interaction that occurs between pairs of biological molecules including proteins, nucleic acids, glycoproteins, carbohydrates, hormones, and the like. Specific examples include an antibody/peptide pair, an antibody/antigen pair, an antibody fragment/antigen pair, an antibody/antigen fragment pair, an antibody fragment/antigen fragment pair, an antibody/hapten pair, an enzyme/substrate pair, an enzyme/inhibitor pair, an enzyme/cofactor pair, a protein/substrate pair, a nucleic acid/nucleic acid pair, a protein/nucleic acid pair, a peptide/peptide pair, a protein/protein pair, a small molecule/protein pair, a glutathione/GST pair, an anti-GFP/GFP fusion protein pair, a

Myc/Max pair, a maltose/maltose binding protein pair, a carbohydrate/protein pair, a carbohydrate derivative/protein pair, a metal binding tag/metal/chelate, a peptide tag/metal ion-metal chelate pair, a peptide/NTA pair, a lectin/carbohydrate pair, a receptor/hormone pair, a receptor/effector pair, a complementary nucleic acid/nucleic acid pair, a ligand/cell surface receptor pair, a virus/ligand pair, a Protein A/antibody pair, a Protein G/antibody pair, a Protein L/antibody pair, an Fc receptor/antibody pair, a biotin/avidin pair, a biotin/streptavidin pair, a drug/target pair, a zinc finger/nucleic acid pair, a small molecule/peptide pair, a small molecule/protein pair, a small molecule/target pair, a carbohydrate/protein pair such as maltose/MBP (maltose binding protein), a small molecule/target pair, or a metal ion/chelating agent pair.

The analyte may be a chemical or biological analyte. The term "analyte," may refer to any chemical, biochemical, or biological entity (e.g. a molecule) to be analyzed. In some cases, the polymeric structure may be selected to have high specificity for the analyte, and may be a chemical, biological, or explosives sensor, for example. In some embodiments, the analyte comprises a functional group that is capable of interacting with at least a portion of the polymeric structure. For example, the functional group may interact with the outer layer of the article by forming a bond, such as a covalent bond. In some cases, the binding site may determine changes in pH, moisture, temperature, or the like. Metathesis catalysts suitable for use in the present invention include any species comprising a metallocarbene or metallocarbene precursor capable of reacting with an olefin or alkyne to form a four-membered ring intermediate such as a metallacyclobutane, as shown in Scheme 2, or a metallacyclobutene. The intermediate may then react further to produce a new olefin (e.g., reaction product) and a new metallocarbene, which can then be recycled through the reaction pathway. (Scheme 2) In some embodiments, the metathesis catalyst may comprise ruthenium, tungsten, or molybdenum. For example, FIG. 3 shows examples of metathesis catalysts including benzylidene-bis(tricyclohexylphosphine)dichlororuthenium (Grubbs' first generation catalyst) and benzylidene[l ,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-imidazolidinylidene]dichloro - (tricyclohexylphosphine)ruthenium (Grubbs' second generation catalyst). Other metathesis catalysts include various molybdenum-containing and tungsten catalysts, such as Schrock catalysts (e.g., tris(t-butoxy)(2,2-dimethylpropylidyne)(VI)tungsten). In some cases, the metathesis catalyst may be chiral.

Scheme 2

The functional group precursor may be any material comprising an olefin capable of undergoing a metathesis reaction. In some cases, the functional group precursor comprises a carbon-carbon double bond (e.g., alpha-olefin) and a functional group. In some cases, the functional group precursor comprises a carbon-carbon double bond (e.g., alpha-olefin) covalently bonded to a functional group. As described herein, the functional group may be selected to impart a particular property to, for example, the monomer or polymer. The functional group may also be selected to be stable to (e.g., chemically inert to) the metathesis catalyst or metathesis conditions. Examples of functional groups include, but are not limited to, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, hydroxy, carbonyl groups, nitro, nitroso, peroxide, cyano, isocyano, amino, halogen, azo, cyanate, isocyanate, ether, acetal, imine, alkoxy, phosphine, phosphate, phosphodi ester, phosphonic acid, phosphinic acid, sulfide, sulfone, sulfonic acid, sulfoxide, thiol, metal complex, substituted derivatives thereof, substituted derivatives thereof, combinations thereof, and the like. In one set of embodiments, the functional group may be a binding site for an analyte. For example, the functional group may be a Lewis acid, Lewis base, Bronsted acid, Bronsted base, hydrogen-bond donor, hydrogen-bond acceptor, or the like. In one embodiment, the functional group precursor may be l,l,l-trifluoro-2(trifluoromethyl)- pent-4-en-2-o 1.

The species, such as a monomer or polymer, may comprise groups that are capable of undergoing a metathesis reaction (e.g., an olefin). In some cases, the species (e.g., monomer, oligomer, polymer, etc.) comprises alpha-olefins. Examples of such alpha-olefins include, but are not limited to, ethylene, 1 -propylene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene, 1-nonene, 1-decene, 4-methyl-l-pentene, substituted derivatives thereof, and the like. It should be understood that species of the invention may also comprise other groups capable of undergoing metathesis reactions, such as enynes. In some cases, the species may comprise terminal carbon-carbon double bonds that may

react with a metathesis catalyst, as well as additional carbon-carbon double bonds which may be less reactive towards metathesis catalysts. In some cases, any additional carbon- carbon double bonds are internal (non-terminal). Those of ordinary skill in the art would be able to select other additional groups and/or reaction conditions that would be compatible with (e.g, stable to) metathesis catalysts and groups that are capable of undergoing metathesis reactions. For example, protecting group chemistry may be used in order to prevent undesired reaction between metathesis catalysts and polymerization sites within a monomer, metathesis sites (e.g., olefins, enynes) and polymerization sites within the same monomer, or metathesis sites (e.g., olefins, enynes) and other groups within a monomer, oligomer, or polymer.

In some cases, the species may be a monomer, oligomer, or polymer comprising at least two polymerization sites, i.e., at least two sites which may form bonds with other species in a polymerization reaction. Those of ordinary skill in the art would be able to select the appropriate species in order to obtain a desired polymeric product. For example, monomers comprising two hydroxyl groups may be polymerized with monomers comprising two carbonyl groups (e.g, acyl halide, carboxylic acid, etc.) to form a polyether via condensation polymerization. Likewise, monomers comprising a styrene moiety may be polymerized to form polystyrene via radical polymerization. In one embodiment, monomers comprising di-acetylene substituted aryl groups may be polymerized with monomers comprising di-halide substituted aryl groups to form poly(arylene ethynylene)s via cross-coupling polymerization. As described herein, monomers or other species of the invention may further comprise carbon-carbon double bonds that may be functionalized via metathesis chemistry.

Polymers suitable for use in the invention may comprise groups that are capable of undergoing a metathesis reaction, as described herein. As described herein, the polymers may further comprise carbon-carbon double bonds that may be functionalized via metathesis chemistry. The polymer may be homopolymers, blends of homopolymer, copolymers including random, graft and block copolymers, blends of copolymers, blends of homopolymers and copolymers, and any such systems mixed with additives such as dyes, particles, inorganic atoms and the like. In certain embodiments, the polymers may comprise mixtures of polymeric materials, or mixtures of polymeric materials and other, non-polymeric materials, and include two or more distinct domains of different composition and/or physical, chemical, or dielectric properties. In some embodiments,

one or more of the distinct domains of the systems can comprise non-polymeric material or void space. In some embodiments, the polymer may be cross-linked with another polymer.

In some embodiments, at least a portion of the polymer is conjugated, wherein electron density or electronic charge is "delocalized" or may be conducted along the portion. Each p-orbital participating in conjugation can have sufficient overlap with adjacent conjugated p-orbitals. In some cases, substantial a majority of the polymer backbone is conjugated and the polymer is referred to as a "conjugated polymer." Polymers having a pi-conjugated backbone capable of conducting electronic charge are typically referred to as "conducting polymers." Typically, atoms directly participating in the conjugation may form a plane arising from an arrangement of the p-orbitals to maximize p-orbital overlap, thus maximizing conjugation and electronic conduction.

In some cases, the polymer is a homopolymer, a random copolymer, a block copolymer, or a biological polymer. In some cases, the polymer is a conjugated polymer. In one embodiment, the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyarylenes, polyarylene vinylenes, polyarylene ethynylenes and ladder polymers, i.e. polymers having a backbone that can only be severed by breaking two bonds. Examples of such polymers include polythiophene, polypyrrole, polyacetylene, polyphenylene, polyiptycene, and substituted derivatives thereof. Other examples of polymers include, but are not limited to, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutryl, polyvinylpyridyl, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyvinyl acetate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPDM), EPR, chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), ethelynebisacrylamide (EBA), acrylates (e.g., alkyl acrylates, glycol acrylates, polyglycol acrylates, ethylene ethyl acrylate (EEA)), hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR), natural rubber, nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), certain fluoropolymers, silicone rubber, polyisoprene, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), chlorosulfonyl rubber, flourinated poly(arylene ether) (FPAE), polyether ketones, polysulfones, polyether imides, diepoxides, diisocyanates, diisothiocyanates, formaldehyde resins, amino resins, polyurethanes, unsaturated polyethers, polyglycol vinyl ethers, polyglycol divinyl ethers, copolymers thereof, polyamines (e.g., poly(ethylene imine) and polypropylene imine (PPI)); polyamides (e.g., polyamide (Nylon), poly(e-caprolactam) (Nylon 6) , poly(hexamethylene adipamide) (Nylon 66)), polyimides (e.g., polyimide, polynitrile, and poly(pyromellitimide-l,4-diphenyl ether)

(Kapton)); vinyl polymers (e.g., polyacrylamide, poly(2-vinyl pyridine), polyvinylpyrrolidone), poly(methylcyanoacrylate), poly(ethylcyanoacrylate), poly(butylcyanoacrylate), poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate), poly( vinyl acetate), poly (vinyl alcohol), poly( vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl fluoride), poly(2 -vinyl pyridine), vinyl polymer, polychlorotrifluoro ethylene, and poly(isohexylcynaoacrylate)), polyacetals, polyoleflns (e.g., poly(butene-l), poly(n-pentene-2), polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene), polyesters (e.g., polycarbonate, polybutylene terephthalate, polyhydroxybutyrate), polyethers (poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO)), vinylidene polymers (e.g., polyisobutylene, poly(methyl styrene), poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly(vinylidene chloride), and poly( vinylidene fluoride)), polyaramides (e.g., poly(imino-l,3-phenylene iminoisophthaloyl) and poly(imino-l,4-phenylene iminoterephthaloyl)), polyheteroaromatic compounds (e.g., polybenzimidazole (PBI), polybenzobisoxazole (PBO) and polybenzobisthiazole (PBT)), polyheterocyclic compounds (e.g., polypyrrole), polyurethanes, phenolic polymers (e.g., phenol-formaldehyde), polyalkynes (e.g., polyacetylene), polydienes (e.g., 1,2-polybutadiene, cis or trans- 1,4- polybutadiene), polysiloxanes (e.g., poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), poly(diethylsiloxane) (PDES), polydiphenylsiloxane (PDPS), and polymethylphenylsiloxane (PMPS)), inorganic polymers (e.g., polyphosphazene, polyphosphonate, polysilanes, polysilazanes), substituted derivatives thereof, combinations thereof, and the like.

In general, the metathesis reaction may be performed by dissolving a catalytic amount of a metathesis catalyst as described herein in a solvent and adding the species and/or functional group precursor, optionally dissolved in a solvent, to the catalyst solution. Preferably, the reaction is agitated (e.g., stirred). The progress of the reaction can be monitored by standard techniques, e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, etc. In some cases, the metathesis reaction may be performed in an inert atmosphere (e.g., argon, nitrogen). In some cases, the metathesis reaction may be performed in the presence of oxygen. The metathesis reaction may be carried out in the presence of a wide variety of solvents including aqueous solvents. Examples of solvents suitable for use in a metathesis reaction include organic, protic, or aqueous solvents which are inert under the metathesis conditions, including aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ethers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, water,

or mixtures thereof. Examples of specific solvents include benzene, toluene, p-xylene, methylene chloride, dichloroethane, dichlorobenzene, tetrahydrofuran, diethylether, pentane, methanol, ethanol, water, or mixtures thereof. In some cases, the metathesis reaction may be performed at a temperature of 100 0 C or less, 75 0 C or less, 50 0 C or less, or 25 0 C or less. In some cases, the metathesis reaction may be carried out under reduced pressure to remove the generated ethylene gas to shift the equilibrium towards formation of the product. Other reaction conditions may be selected to optimize the metathesis reaction, as described in Handbook of Metathesis. R. H. Grubbs (Ed.), Wiley- VCH, Weinheim, 2003, incorporated herein by reference. While several embodiments of the present invention have been described and illustrated herein, those of ordinary skill in the art will readily envision a variety of other means and/or structures for performing the functions and/or obtaining the results and/or one or more of the advantages described herein, and each of such variations and/or modifications is deemed to be within the scope of the present invention. More generally, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that all parameters, dimensions, materials, and configurations described herein are meant to be exemplary and that the actual parameters, dimensions, materials, and/or configurations will depend upon the specific application or applications for which the teachings of the present invention is/are used. Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. It is, therefore, to be understood that the foregoing embodiments are presented by way of example only and that, within the scope of the appended claims and equivalents thereto, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described and claimed. The present invention is directed to each individual feature, system, article, material, kit, and/or method described herein. In addition, any combination of two or more such features, systems, articles, materials, kits, and/or methods, if such features, systems, articles, materials, kits, and/or methods are not mutually inconsistent, is included within the scope of the present invention.

The indefinite articles "a" and "an," as used herein in the specification and in the claims, unless clearly indicated to the contrary, should be understood to mean "at least one."

The phrase "and/or," as used herein in the specification and in the claims, should be understood to mean "either or both" of the elements so conjoined, i.e., elements that

are conjunctively present in some cases and disjunctively present in other cases. Other elements may optionally be present other than the elements specifically identified by the "and/or" clause, whether related or unrelated to those elements specifically identified unless clearly indicated to the contrary. Thus, as a non-limiting example, a reference to "A and/or B," when used in conjunction with open-ended language such as "comprising" can refer, in one embodiment, to A without B (optionally including elements other than B); in another embodiment, to B without A (optionally including elements other than A); in yet another embodiment, to both A and B (optionally including other elements); etc. As used herein in the specification and in the claims, "or" should be understood to have the same meaning as "and/or" as defined above. For example, when separating items in a list, "or" or "and/or" shall be interpreted as being inclusive, i.e., the inclusion of at least one, but also including more than one, of a number or list of elements, and, optionally, additional unlisted items. Only terms clearly indicated to the contrary, such as "only one of or "exactly one of," or, when used in the claims, "consisting of," will refer to the inclusion of exactly one element of a number or list of elements. In general, the term "or" as used herein shall only be interpreted as indicating exclusive alternatives (i.e. "one or the other but not both") when preceded by terms of exclusivity, such as "either," "one of," "only one of," or "exactly one of." "Consisting essentially of," when used in the claims, shall have its ordinary meaning as used in the field of patent law. As used herein in the specification and in the claims, the phrase "at least one," in reference to a list of one or more elements, should be understood to mean at least one element selected from any one or more of the elements in the list of elements, but not necessarily including at least one of each and every element specifically listed within the list of elements and not excluding any combinations of elements in the list of elements. This definition also allows that elements may optionally be present other than the elements specifically identified within the list of elements to which the phrase "at least one" refers, whether related or unrelated to those elements specifically identified. Thus, as a non-limiting example, "at least one of A and B" (or, equivalently, "at least one of A or B," or, equivalently "at least one of A and/or B") can refer, in one embodiment, to at least one, optionally including more than one, A, with no B present (and optionally including elements other than B); in another embodiment, to at least one, optionally including more than one, B, with no A present (and optionally including elements other than A); in yet another embodiment, to at least one, optionally including more than one,

A, and at least one, optionally including more than one, B (and optionally including other elements); etc.

In the claims, as well as in the specification above, all transitional phrases such as "comprising," "including," "carrying," "having," "containing," "involving," "holding," and the like are to be understood to be open-ended, i.e., to mean including but not limited to. Only the transitional phrases "consisting of and "consisting essentially of shall be closed or semi-closed transitional phrases, respectively, as set forth in the United States Patent Office Manual of Patent Examining Procedures, Section 2111.03.

Example 1

Compounds 61, 63, 65, and 66, Polymer 1, and Polymer 2 were synthesized and studied according to the following general methods and instrumentation. All chemicals were of reagent grade from Aldrich Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO), Strem Chemicals, Inc. (Newburyport, MA) or Oakwood Products Inc. (West Columbia, SC) and used as received. All synthetic manipulations were performed under an argon atmosphere using standard Schlenk line or drybox techniques unless otherwise noted. Dichloromethane and toluene were obtained from J.T. Baker and purified by passing through a Glasscontour dry solvent system. Glassware was oven dried before use. Column chromatography was performed using Baker 40 μm silica gel. All organic extracts were dried over MgS04 and filtered prior to removal with a rotary evaporator.

Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) was purchased from Strem and used as received. Grubbs' 2nd generation catalyst [l,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2- imidazolidin-ylidene)dichloro(phenylmethylene)- (tri-cyclohexylphosphine)ruthenium(II)] was purchased from Aldrich. Compounds 60 and 64 were prepared according to procedures described in Kim et al., Macromolecules 1999, 32, 1500-1507; Kim, et al., Nature 2001, 411, 1030-1034; Jones, et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1953, 713-715; Zhou, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1995, 117, 12593; and Yang, et al., ./. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 11864-11873. Compound 68 was purchased from Nomadics Inc. (Stillwater, OK).

1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and 19 F NMR spectra were obtained on Varian Mercury (300 MHz), Bruker Avance-400 (400 MHz), and Varian Inova (500 MHz) instruments. NMR chemical shifts are referenced to CHC I3 /TMS (7.27 ppm for 1 H,

77.23 ppm for 13 C). For 19 F NMR spectra, trichlorofluoromethane was used as an external standard (0 ppm) and upfϊeld shifts are reported as negative values. Mass spectra (MS) were obtained at the MIT Department of Chemistry Instrumentation Facility (DCIF) using a peak-matching protocol to determine the mass and error range of the molecular ion.

All polymer solutions were filtered through 0.45 micron syringe filters prior to use. Polymer molecular weights were determined at room temperature on a HP series 1100 GPC system in THE at 1.0 mL/min (1 mg/mL sample concentrations) equipped with a diode array detector (254 nm and 450 nm) and a refractive index detector. Polymer molecular weights are reported relative to polystyrene standards. Melting points were measured with a Meltemp II apparatus and are reported uncorrected.

Example 2 Compound 61 was synthesized according to the following method. Into a 25 mL roundbottom flask, fitted with a refluxing condenser and a magnetic stirring bar, were added 0.90 g (1.8 mmol) of 1, 0.87 g (5.8 mmol) of 5-bromo-l-pentene, 0.30 g (2.2 mmol) of potassium carbonate, 0.12 g (0.7 mmol) of potassium iodide, and 20 mL of 2-butanone. The suspension was heated to reflux for 18 hours. After cooling to room temperature, water (50 mL) and ethyl ether (50 mL) were added. The organic layer was extracted into ethyl ether (3 x 50 mL), washed with water (3 x 50 mL) and dried to yield a green oil. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (0-10% CH 2 Cl 2 in hexanes) to yield 0.78 g (76%) of a colorless crystalline solid, mp: 293 0 C. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 7.18 (s, 2H), 5.80-5.87 (m, IH), 5.05-5.14 (m, IH), 5.00-5.05 (m, IH), 3.94 (dd, 4H, J = 6, 12 Hz), 2.25-2.35 (m, 2H), 1.85-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.75-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.43-1.55 (m, 4H), 1.23-1.44 (m, 10H), 0.85-0.92 (m, 3H). 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 153.1, 152.9, 137.9, 122.9, 122.8, 115.6, 86.5, 86.4, 70.5, 69.6, 32.1, 30.3, 29.8, 29.7, 29.5, 29.4, 29.3, 28.5, 26.2, 22.9, 14.4. MS (EI): calcd for C 2 IH 32 I 2 O 2 (M + ), 570.0486; found 570.0460.

Example 3 Compound 63 was synthesized according to the following method. Into a 25 mL Schlenk tube with a magnetic stirring bar were added 0.10 g (0.2 mmol) of compound 25, and 0.01 g (0.01 mmol) of Grubbs' 2nd generation catalyst. A solution of l,l,l-trifluoro-2(trifluoromethyl)-pent-4-en-2-ol (compound 62) 0.37 g (1.8 mmol)

in 0.5 mL, CH 2 CI 2 was added and the reaction mixture was heated to 65 0 C for 18 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the solvent was removed and the crude product was purified by column chromatography (0-10% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to yield 0.09 g (67%) of a colorless solid, mp: 51-52 0 C. 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 7.18 (m, 2H), 5.82-5.94 (m, IH), 5.48-5.56 (m, 111), 3.94 (m, 4H), 2.94 (s, IH), 2.70 (d, 2H, J = 8 Hz), 2.34-2.42 (dd, 2H, J = 7, 14), 1.881.96 (m, 2H), 1.78-1.84 (m, 2H), 1.46-1.54 (m, 2H), 1.25-1.40 (m, 12 H), 0.85-0.92 (m, 3H). 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 153.3, 152.7, 139.7, 123.1, 122.9, 120.2, 86.5, 86.4, 70.5, 69.6, 33.8, 32.1, 29.8, 29.7, 29.6, 29.5, 29.4, 29.3, 28.7, 26.2, 24.1, 22.9, 14.3. 19 F NMR (282 MHz, CDCl 3 ): -76.9, -77.1 (two isomers). MS (EI): calcd for C 25 H 34 F 6 I 2 O 3 (M + ), 750.0496; found 750.0478.

Example 4

Compound 65 was synthesized according to the following method. Into a 25 mL roundbottom flask, fitted with a refluxing condenser and a magnetic stirring bar, were added 0.20 g (0.6 mmol) of 5, 0.50 g (3.4 mmol) of 5-bromo-l-pentene, 0.20 g (1.4 mmol) of potassium carbonate, 0.08 g (0.5 mmol) of potassium iodide, and 6 mL, of 2-butanone. The suspension was heated to reflux for 18 hours. After cooling to room temperature, water (50 mL) and ethyl ether (50 mL) were added. The organic layer was extracted into ethyl ether (3 x 50 mL), washed with water (3 x 50 mL) and dried to yield a green oil. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (0-5% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to yield 0.23 g (85%) of colorless crystals, mp: 41-42 0 C. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: S 7.18 (s, 2H), 5.80-5.95 (m, 2H), 5.05-5.14 (m, 2H), 4.98-5.05 (m, 2H), 3.95 (t, 4H, J = 6), 2.26-2.37 (dd, 4H, J = 7, 14), 1.86-1.98 (m, 4H). 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 152.9, 137.8, 122.9, 115.6, 86.5, 69.5, 30.3, 28.5. MS (ESI): calcd for C 6 H 20 I 2 O 2 (M+Na)\ 520.9445; found 520.9455.

Example 5

Compound 66 was synthesized according to the following method. Into a 50 mL Schlenk tube with a magnetic stirring bar were added 0.50 g (1.0 mmol) of compound 29, and 0.08 g (0.1 mmol) of Grubbs' 2nd generation catalyst. A solution of 1,1,1 -trifluoro-2(trifluoromethyl)-pent-4-en-2-ol (compound 62) 3.13 g (15.0 mmol) in 2.5 mL, CH 2 Cl 2 was added and the reaction mixture was heated to 65 0 C for 48 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the solvent was removed and the crude product was purified by column chromatography (0-33% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to yield an oily

paste. Trituration with hexanes afforded 0.1 g (12%, first crop) of colorless crystals, mp: 125-126 0 C. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 7.17 (s, 2H), 5.80-5.88 (m, 2H), 5.48- 5.55 (in, 2H) 5 3.96 (t, 4H, J = 6 Hz), 2.94 (s, 2H), 2.69-2.71 (d, 4H, J = 8 Hz), 2.34- 2.42 (dd, 4H, J = 7, 14), 1.90-1.94 (m, 4H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 153.0, 139.7, 123.1, 120.3, 86.5, 69.5, 33.7, 29.4, 28.7. 19 F NMR (282 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: -76.9. MS (ESI): calcd for C 24 H 24 Fj 2 I 2 O 4 (M+Na) + , 880.9465; found 880.9459.

Example 6

A general procedure for the synthesis of Polymer 1 and Polymer 2 is illustrated by the synthesis of Polymer 1, as described below. Polymer 2 was prepared in a similar manner from compounds 67 and 68. FIG. 6 A shows the synthesis of Polymer 1 and FIG. 6B shows the synthesis of Polymer 2. All polymers were characterized by 1 H and 19 F NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as UV-VIS, and fluorescence spectroscopy.

Into a 25 mL Schlenk tube with a magnetic stirring bar were added compound 63 (15 mg, 0.02 mmol), compound 68 (9.7 mg, 0.02 mmol), and small amounts of copper iodide (< 1 mg), and Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (< 1 mg). A deoxygenated solution of 3:2 (v/v) 4 Solvents were deoxygenated by vigorous argon bubbling for 20 minutes, toluene/diisopropylamine (0.750 mL) was then added. The tube was sealed and heated to 65 0 C for 72 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was precipitated by slow addition to 20 mL of methanol. The precipitate was isolated by centrifugation and decantation of the supernatant. The precipitate was washed with several 20 mL portions of methanol to remove any short oligomers. The material was dried under vacuum to yield a yellow solid (17 mg, 87%).

Polymer 1: GPC (THF): M n = 17K, M w , = 37K. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 7.40-7.55 (aromatic C-H), 6.96-7.10 (aromatic C-H), 5.90-6.20 (iptycene bridgehead C-H), 5.60-5.78 (olefinic C-H), 5.30-5.45 (olefinic C-H), 4.38-4.55 (aliphatic C-H), 4.15-4.32 (aliphatic C-H), 2.65-3.05 (aliphatic C-H), 2.43-2.58 (aliphatic C-H), 2.18-2.32 (aliphatic C-H), 1.68-1.80 (aliphatic C-H), 1.35-1.68 (aliphatic C-H), 1.10-1.35 (aliphatic C-H), 0.78-0.95 (aliphatic C-H). 8. 1917 NMR (282 MHz, CDC13): 6 -76.8, -77.0. (two isomers)

Polymer 2: (75%) GPC (THF): M n = 26K, M w = 6OK. 1 U NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 7.44-7.52 (aromatic C-H), 6.96-7.09 (aromatic C-H), 6.02-6.14 (iptycene bridgehead C-H), 5.62-5.78 (olefinic C-H), 5.28-5.42 (olefinic C-H), 4.42-4.52

(aliphatic C-H) 3 2.88-2.98 (aliphatic C-H), 2.75-2.80 (aliphatic C-H), 2.44-2.56 (aliphatic C-H), 2.18-2.30 (aliphatic C-H). 1917 NMR (282 MHz, CDC13): 8 -76.9, 77.0 (two isomers).

What is claimed: