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Title:
POLYMERIC ANTIMICROBIAL SURFACTANT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/232417
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant and polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant compositions are useful in dispersing various compounds in a carrier liquid. The polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant and polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant compositions employ polymers having both hydrophilic domains and hydrophobic domains so that the compositions can disperse particles such as polymer particles or droplets in a continuous phase as well as provide stable dispersions that have not been provided before. The antimicrobial properties of the compositions provide much-needed capabilities of fighting infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses in a wide spectrum of products such as paint, adhesives, and coatings. Methods of using these compositions as well as methods of making products using the compositions are disclosed.

Inventors:
HOPKINS, Thomas, E. (12404 Warner Drive, Goshen, Kentucky, 40026, US)
KALMER, Craig, A. (429 South Sherrin Ave, Louisville, Kentucky, 40207, US)
Application Number:
US2018/038126
Publication Date:
December 20, 2018
Filing Date:
June 18, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
POLY GROUP LLC (3000 Technology Ave, Suite N2221New Albany, Indiana, 47150, US)
International Classes:
C09D5/14; A01N25/04; A01N25/30; A01N33/12; A01N43/40; C08F26/06; C08F226/06; C08L39/08; C09D5/02; C09D139/08; C11D1/00; C11D1/40
Domestic Patent References:
WO2004045755A22004-06-03
Foreign References:
US20140080977A12014-03-20
US20160053038A12016-02-25
GB1350400A1974-04-18
US8343473B22013-01-01
US4482680A1984-11-13
US3328328A1967-06-27
Other References:
DATABASE WPI Week 199349, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 1993-389137, XP002783622
"Use of International Standard ISO-10993, Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part-]: Evaluation and Testing", U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) BLUE BOOK MEMORANDUM NO. G95-1
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HOLLAND, Charles, D. (Strategic Innovation IP Law Offices, P.C.1250 Oakmead Parkway, Suite 21, Sunnyvale California, 94085, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS;

1. A polycationic polymeric antimicrobial compound for use as a surfactant, wherein the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial compound comprises a polymer having a nonionic hydrophilic monomer and a cationic antimicrobial monomer comprising a vinyl pyridine quatemized with an alkyl group and having a sufficient number of nonionic hydrophilic monomers present in the polymer to provide a hydrophilic domain, a sufficient number of cationic antimicrobial monomers and vinylic groups from nonionic hydrophilic monomers present in the polymer to provide a hydrophobic domain, and the number of cationic antimicrobial monomers present is sufficient to provide at least three cations in the polymer.

2. A compound according to claim 1 , wherein the nonionic hydrophilic monomer comprises at least one of HEM A, PEGMA, and PEGMEMA.

3. A compound according to claim I or claim 2, wherein the nonionic hydrophilic monomer renders the compound biocompatible.

4. A compound according to any of claims 1 -3, wherein the vinyl pyridine comprises 4-vinyl pyridine.

5. A compound according to any of claims 1-4, wherein the alkyl group has from 4 to 12 carbon atoms.

6. A compound according to claim 5, wherein the alkyl group has from S to 10 carbon atoms.

7. A compound according to claim 6, wherein the alkyl group has from 6 to 8 carbon atoms.

8. A compound according to any claim above, wherein the alkyl group is a linear alkyl group.

9. A compound according to any claim above, wherein the polymer consists essentially of the nonionic hydrophilic monomer and the cationic antimicrobial monomer.

10. A dispersion comprising a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant, a continuous liquid phase, and particles of a second polymer associated with the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant, wherein the dispersion comprises a suspension or a colloid and wherein the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant comprises a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial compound of any of claims 1-9.

11. A dispersion according to claim 10, wherein the particles of the second polymer comprise a binder polymer of a coating.

12. A dispersion according to claim 10 or claim 1 1, wherein the dispersion is a latex or an emulsion.

13. A dispersion according to any of claims 10-12, wherein the continuous liquid phase is aqueous.

14. A dispersion according to any of claims 10-12, wherein the continuous liquid phase is an oil.

15. A dispersion according to claim 14, wherein the dispersion comprises an aqueous phase.

16. A dispersion according to claim 13, wherein the dispersion comprises an oil phase.

17. A dispersion according to any of claims 10-16, wherein the dispersion further

comprises a second surfactant different from die polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant.

18. A dispersion according to any of claims 10-16, wherein the dispersion contains no other surfactant besides the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant.

Description:
POLYMERIC ANTIMICROBIAL SURFACTANT

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] litis application is related to and claims the benefit of priority to U.S. App. No. 62/521,313 filed June 16, 2017 and entitled "Polymeric Antimicrobial Surfactant", inventors Thomas E. Hopkins and Craig Kalmer, the contents of which are incorporated by reference herein as if put forth in full below.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The invention relates to surfactants for suspensions, emulsions, latexes, and/or colloids that have at least two phases, a continuous aqueous or aqueous-organic phase and a dispersed hydrophobic phase (e.g. a latex binder system used in coatings formulations.)

BACKGROUND

[0003] The formulation of many aqueous and aqueous-organic coatings starts with a binder component. The binder component in water based systems is generally a latex resin consisting of but not limited to polymers of acrylics, vinyl acrylics, and/or styrene acrylics. The dispersion of the less polar substantially insoluble monomer and/or polymer particles in the more polar aqueous solvent system is accomplished by the addition of stabilizing surfactants. [0004] Additionally, some grades of plastics are also produced initially from an emulsion polymerization process followed by isolation of the solid e.g. polyvinylidene fluoride, polyvinyl fluoride, and PTFE. The final polymeric product is formed by destabilizing or breaking the emulsion so that the small polymer particles separate from the aqueous phase and are isolated. [0005] These stabilizing surfactants generally contain polar and non-polar domains that effectively reduce the surface tension present at the interface of polar and non-polar components. The polar component of these stabilizing surfactants may consist of positively charged cationic groups, negatively charged anionic groups, and/or non-ionic polar groups.

[0006] For example, latex paints comprise an emulsion of polymer particles dispersed in water. The emulsions commonly found in latex paint are inherently unstable and phase-separate, so surfactants are added to reduce interfacial tension and stabilize polymer particles to prevent demulsification. The following are examples of a cationic, an anionic, and a nonionic surfactant that may be used to stabilize the emulsion.

[0007] Anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate are most commonly used for stabilizing emulsions because of their affinity for hydrogen bonding through the anionic sulfate head with the aqueous medium while anchored to title non-polar monomer / polymer particle through the aliphatic tail. The particle is stabilized through electrostatic repulsion.

[0008J Nonionic surfactants are rarely used alone due to their inferior efficiency in creating stable emulsions in comparison to anionic surfactants. Ionic surfactants are, however, sensitive to changes in ionic strength of the compositions they stabilize. Because of this, non-ionic surfactants are usually used in tandem with anionic and cationic surfactants and impart a second method of colloidal stabilization through steric interference of the van der Waals forces amid polymer and pigment particles. Latexes that require stability over large pH ranges use larger nonionic to anionic surfactant ratios. |0009| Cationic surfactants are not commonly used due mainly to their higher costs. Cationic surfactants are frequently made up of quaternized ammonium compounds.

Cationic surfactants frequently require title addition of nonionic surfactants to increase the stability of the latex. They are used in cases where their properties justify the additional cost. One example is in those cases where the resulting polymer emulsion is "broken" and the solid polymer is isolated.

10010] Quaternary ammonium compounds are not typically added to already formed coating compositions that consist of a continuous aqueous or aqueous-organic phase containing a dispersed hydrophobic phase commonly stabilized by an anionic surfactant such as that used in a latex binder system. This is due to a negative effect on the quality and stability of the latex suspension. Quaternary ammonium compounds when added to latex- paint formulations have caused an undesirable increase in viscosity as well as permitting the dispersed polymer and pigments to agglomerate, flocculate, and settle. The emulsion is said to be "broken" in this case. Without being limited to any particular theory, it is believed that the cationic nature of die quaternary ammonium compounds is not compatible with the commonly anionic nature of latex paint formulations, hi some cases, insoluble complexes of the quaternary ammonium compound and the latex stabilizing surfactant form, resulting in the effective reduction of surfactant concentration. This reduction of surfactant concentration causes the latex dispersion to destabilize, allowing the agglomeration of the various components of the composition. This results in a shorter shelf life and an undesirable appearance as the agglomerated particles cause the dry paint film to have a grainy appearance or texture.

[0011] This is particularly true where the quaternary ammonium compounds are polymers themselves. Polymers containing quaternary amines as part of their structure do not typically possess ionic and/or polar domains in high enough concentration to form stable micelles needed for construction of suspensions, emulsions, latexes, or colloids. Because of this lack of amphiphilicity or polarity, it is particularly difficult to prevent particles of hydrophobic organic polymers in aqueous or aqueous-organic carriers from precipitating and agglomerating. The hydrophobicity of an organic polymer causes the particles to rapidly separate from water and agglomerate into larger sized aggregates which may then irreversibly segregate yielding a non-homogeneous suspension. The polymeric particles have a much greater affinity for one another than the aqueous or aqueous-organic carriers and often clump together in the bottom of the container. Their relatively large surface area and affinity for one another virtually assures that, once the polymeric particles have clumped together and entangled, it is impossible to re-suspend the polymeric particles. This entanglement of polymer chains is often referred to as "pseudo cross-linking" due to the inhibition of solvation similar to that observed in covalently cross-linked polymers. The addition of nonionic surfactants may be required to enhance the stability of the suspension.

[0012] Additionally, quaternary ammonium compounds are known to be toxic above certain concentrations and irritants even at low concentrations, indicating a significant lack of biocompatibility. Quaternary ammonium compounds can display a range of health effects, amongst which are mild skin and respiratory irritation up to severe caustic burns on skin and gastrointestinal lining (depending on concentration), gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea and vomiting), coma, convulsions, hypotension and death. One example is Quatemium-15 which is the single most often found cause of allergic contact dermatitis of the hands.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF ASPECTS OF THE INVENTION

[0013] Among other embodiments, the invention provides a suspension-stabilizing surfactant, latex-stabilizing surfactant, emulsion-stabilizing surfactant and/or colloid- stabilizing surfactant that is also antimicrobial and biocompatible. The invention in one instance provides aqueous coating compositions that contain a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant such as a polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant and (a) a lipophilic phase and/or (b) a phase having otherwise insufficient inherent water dispersibility. The invention also provides antimicrobial coatings formed by drying the aqueous coating compositions. This polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant can, in one instance, be part of a stable aqueous binder/carrier system in which this surfactant (a) aids in dispersing a latex binder that is hydrophobic or otherwise has insufficient inherent water dispersibility and/or (b) imparts antimicrobial properties to the binder/carrier system and/or binder as applied to an object. The invention also provides methods of dispersing a hydrophobic phase and/or hydrophobic particles in an aqueous phase; further, the invention provides methods of making the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant /polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant and polymeric product that contains the surfactant. The invention also provides new methods of using existing polymers as a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant in such compositions.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

|0014] The invention in one instance provides a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant and a polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant that is soluble in an aqueous carrier such as water or water-based solution that aids in the formation and stability of a dispersed hydrophobic phase. The dispersed hydrophobic phase may consist of hydrophobic inorganic materials, small molecules, preformed polymers, or monomers that may be subsequently polymerized. The polymeric antimicrobial surfactant can form part of a stable aqueous dispersion that can be applied to a surface to form a coating.

[0015] Additionally the polymer prepared in the stable aqueous dispersion described above can be isolated by either removal of solvent, breaking of tile emulsion or any other suitable means to give a solid polymer with intrinsic antimicrobial properties due to inclusion of the biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant in the solid polymer.

(0016] The polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant is a polymer that can be represented as the polymerization product of at least two components introduced as monomers. The first component is a hydrophilic monomer that gives the resulting polymer its nonionic surfactant / biocompatibility properties. The second component is a quatemized or quaternizable monomer (referred to as the "cationic monomer" herein) such as a nitrogen-containing monomer or a phosphorous-containing monomer that gives the polymer its cationic surfactant / antimicrobial properties. The combination of these two monomers followed by polymerization using techniques commonly used by those familiar with the art and with subsequent quatemization of the quaternizable atoms present using a quaternizing agent such as an appropriate activated alkyl compound if necessary yields the desired polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant The polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant may have a molecular weight of at least about 1000 Daltons, for instance. [0017] The surfactant properties of the polymer provides an interface between tire dispersed hydrophobic phase and the continuous aqueous phase. In many instances, the aliphatic / hydrophobic domain portion of the polymeric antimicrobial resides within the dispersed hydrophobic phase due to its low polarity. The hydrophilic domain portion of the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant may have sufficient solvating ability in water that it can facilitate the polymer's dissolution in water. The cationic domain assists in both the surfactant properties of the polymer as well as supplying the cationic center required for the antimicrobial properties. Consequently, the cationic polymeric

antimicrobial portion is not limited to being present in the disperse phase. Thus the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant has a chemical structure that provides a lipophilic portion and a hydrophilic portion as well as a cationic portion. The polymer is therefore adapted to interface with bom the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. The polymer therefore typically resides as an interface layer between the disperse and continuous phases of a dispersion, thus stabilizing the dispersion through electrostatic and steric effects. The polymer combines the properties of a cationic surfactant and a nonionic surfactant into a single polymeric species. The following illustrates a simplified non- limiting example of the domains discussed.

Simplified Illustration of the Domains Present in the Invention.

|(MH8| The canonic domain of a conventional polymer may cause the polymer to be antimicrobial. However, the cationic domain of a conventional polymer may be a relatively nonpoiar cation or a cation that possesses polar portions but in a number insufficient to enable the cationic polymeric antimicrobial portion to be sufficiently soluble in the aqueous carrier, making the polymer potentially antimicrobial but not effective as a surfactant. The addition of a significant polar domain through the addition of one or more polar monomers enables a controlled adjustment of the overall amphiphilicity of the modified polymer in an aqueous solution. For instance, the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant may be a copolymer of a vinyl pyridine such as 4-vmylpyridine and e.g. (2-hydroxyethyl) methacrylate (HEMA), poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), and/or poly(ethylenc glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) that has been quaternized with e.g. an alkyl from a halide compound such as butyl bromide as is disclosed in e.g. U.S. Patent Number 8,343,473 issued Jan. 1, 2013 entitled "Hydrophitized Antimicrobial Polymers", which is incorporated by reference in its entirety for all that it teaches and for all purposes herein (this patent is therefore to be treated as if this patent is repeated in full below). The polymeric antimicrobial due to the presence of the hydrophilic monomer may be non-toxic and biocompatible so that the coating composition and the resultant coating or solid polymer may also be biocompatible. [0019] The hydrophilic domain of the surfactant polymer is provided by a monomer or monomers that have a polar portion or portions in addition to e.g. a vinylic center or other reactive moiety that reacts with the latent cationic monomer of the antimicrobial portion to provide a copolymer. The hydrophilic monomer(s) may have one or more electronegative and/or electropositive atoms functioning as a nonionic surfactant domain to aid in dispersing the resulting polymeric antimicrobial surfactant particles within the coating solution (mixture) and in the vicinity of the disperse phase. The antimicrobial portion may also have a hydrophobic domain mat is compatible with the disperse phase and / or the continuous phase. The hydrophobic domain may also contain a portion of the hydrophilic monomer, such as a vinylic portion of the monomer (e.g. a vinyl or vinyl portion of an ester). The hydrophilic domain of the surfactant imparts water solubility to the polymeric antimicrobial surfactant and thus does not destabilize the disperse phase. The hydrophilic surfactant portion also surprisingly does not interfere substantially and in fact may augment the antimicrobial activity of the cationic polymeric antimicrobial portion.

[0020] The amount of each monomer and their respective molecular weights are selected so that the copolymer has (a) sufficient hydrophilicity from the hydrophilic surfactant domain and (b) sufficient hydrophobichy from the hydrophobic domain and (c) antimicrobial activity from the cationic domain of the of the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant that a sufficient amount of the copolymer in the solution resides as an interface between the disperse phase and the continuous phase selected for the particular dispersion.

[0021] U.S. Pat. No. 8.343,473 generally discloses copolymers that may be adapted for use as a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant in forming compositions according to one aspect of the invention. One or more cationic monomers (e.g. nitrogen-containing monomers) may be

copoiymerized with one or more hydrophilic monomers to form the polymeric

biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant. Examples of nitrogen-containing monomers may include a variety of vinyl monomers capable of free radical polymerization and/or quatemization. Accordingly, these monomers may include, but are not limited to, vinyl amines, such as N,N-dimethy!viny!amine; Ν,Ν-dialkyl allyl amines; and/or tertiary amines in which at least one of the three substituents of nitrogen contains an unsaturation capable of participating in free radical polymerization and when quatemized is rendered antimicrobial. |0022| A polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant has multiple cations in its structure. For instance, a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant may contain three or more cationic sites by copolymerizing one or more hydrophiiic monomers with 3 or more monomers that each have a single cationic site. Alternatively, a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant may be formed by copolymerizing one or more hydrophiiic monomers with two or more monomers that each have two or more cationic sites. While a polycationic polymer can easily destabilize a dispersion in the form of a suspension or colloid such as a latex or an emulsion by complexing or otherwise interfering with a surfactant already present in the dispersion, a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant as provided herein can be formulated to augment and/or provide stability to a dispersion that includes an antimicrobial polymer containing multiple cationic sites.

Preferably, the cations of the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant are quatemized nitrogen and/or phosphorous atoms. Also preferably, the hydrophiiic monomer is selected to provide biocompatibility to the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant. A polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant may contain PEGMA, PEGMEMA, and/or HEM A for instance that aid in providing a biocompatible copolymer.

[0023] In a preferred embodiment a pyridinium-type monomer, such as vinyl pyridine or 4-vinylpyridine, is quatemized after polymerization to a hydrophiiic monomer.

[0024] A nitrogen-containing monomer may be inherently bactericidal or antimicrobial, or it may be rendered bactericidal or antimicrobial after polymerization with a hydrophiiic monomer to form a copolymer. Where the copolymer undergoes a chemical modification, such as quaternization, preferably, the resultant copolymer is more hydrophiiic and/or bactericidal or antimicrobial than a similarly modified (by e.g., quaternization) nitrogen- containing comonomer alone or copolymer containing the same number of nitrogen- containing monomers as the copolymer.

[0025] A nitrogen-containing monomer may include or be chemically linked to a suitable bactericidal or antimicrobial moiety, including, but not limited to polycationic species, polycationic derivatives or combinations therefrom. Polycationic species may contain two or more quaternary ammonium groups with a molecular weight ranging from several hundred Daitons to a few hundred thousand Daltons. The quaternary ammonium groups may be part of a ring or they may be acyclic. Examples include but are not limited to: polyionenes, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), dimethylaraine-epichlorohydrin copolymers and imidazole-epichlorohydrin copolymers. Suitable nitrogen-containing monomers for use in the present invention may include the quaternary ammonium group- containing polymers disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,482,680, which are incorporated by reference herein.

(0026] Polycationic species may contain two or more cationic groups. The canonic groups (e.g. amines) can be primary, secondary, tertiary, or mixtures thereof. The cationic groups may be part of a ring or they may be acycli c. Examples include but are not l imited to: polyethyleneimines, polypropyleneimines, polyvinylanunes, poiyallylamines, polydiallylamines, polyamidoanunes, polyaminoalkylmethacrylates, polylysines, and mixtures thereof.

|0027] The polycationic species may also be a modified polyamine with at least one amine group substituted with at least one other functional group. Examples include ethoxylated and alkoxylated polyamines and alkylated polyamines. Other suitable nitrogen- containing monomers or those mat may be rendered bactericidal or antimicrobial may be identified and/or used in accordance with the applications and objectives set forth in the specification and any claims.

(0028] Quaternization may be carried out using alkylating agents, including but not limited to alkyl hatides (such as hexyl bromide), aikyi sulfonates, alkyl mesylates, alkyl tosylates, or other alkylating agents possessing a suitable leaving group. Quaternization reduces self-polymerization of the bactericidal or antimicrobial comonomer upon polymerization with the hydrophilic monomer. Quaternization may confer increased bactericidal or antimicrobial activity and may be carried out after polymerization. The alkyl group of the alkylating agent and therefore the quatemized nitrogen-containing monomer may have from 4 to 12 carbon atoms, for instance, and preferably, the alkyl group has from 5 to 10 carbon atoms or 6 to 8 carbon atoms. The alkyl group may be linear or branched.

|0029] Alkyl groups at a quatemized site and/or other cationic chains may be attracted to and/or promote interaction and penetration negatively charged bacterial cell walls on account of their lipophilic nature. Alkyl chain lengths of quaternizing agents and overall hydrophilic/lipophilic balance may affect bactericidal or antimicrobial activity of the polymeric compositions of the present invention. Accordingly, these variables may be modified to optimize or improve bactericidal or antimicrobial activity of the polymeric compositions.

[0030] Suitable hydrophilic monomers may include, but are not limited to, ethylene glycol (ethylene oxide); polyethylene glycol derivatives, including poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), including poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate, and vinyl polyethylene glycol; vinyl acetate; poly(vinyl alcohol); vinyl pyrrolidone and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone); vinyl pyrrolidinone and poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone); vinyl oxazoline and poly(vinyl oxazoline); vinyl formamide and polyvinyl formamide); hydroxyalkyl acrylates and hydroxyalkyl methacrylates, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate; methacrylamide; acrylamide and methacrylamide based monomers, such as acrylamide, N,N-dimethyl acrylamide, N-ethyl acrylamide, N-isopropyl acrylamide, and hydroxymethyl acrylamide; monomers containing one or more of the following functional groups: hydroxy, amino, ammonium, ether, carboxylate, amide, and sulfonamide groups; and combinations or copolymers thereof, polyvinyloxazolines

[0031] Preferably, a hydrophilic monomer is biocompatible or imparts biocompatibility to the surfactant in which it is incorporated. Standard assays may be utilized to evaluate biocompatibility, including but not limited to viability/cytotoxicity mammalian cell assays and the like. Preferred hydrophilic monomers may include hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA).

[0032] HEMA is widely used in biomedical applications and devices, most prominently soft contact lenses. pHEMA, with 37.8% water per weight, is typical of hydrogels.

Preferably, the molar ratio of cationic monomer such as 4-vinyl pyridine to HEMA comonomer in the copolymer is between 30:70 and 95.5, and preferably the molar percentage of HEMA comonomer is at least 90%, with 90-95% being preferred.

[0033] Poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) and poly(ethyiene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) are monomers which provide several important properties, such as good solubility in both organic and aqueous media, low toxicity, immunogenicity and biocompatibility to copolymers they are present in. [0034] Preferably, the molar molecular weight of PEGMA and/or poly(etbylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate monomer used in forming the surfactant is equal to or greater than 300, more preferably between about 300 and about 2000, including but not limited to 1000. Preferably, the molar ratio of cationic monomer such as 4-vinyl pyridine to PEGMA and/or PEGMEM A is between about 10:90 and 99: 1 , and more preferably is between 30:70 and 95:5.

[0035] The polymeric antimicrobial surfactant may be formed by free radical polymerization or by other methods. Any of the surfactants as discussed herein may be a block or random copolymer, for instance. [0036] For example, a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant may be represented as the polymerization product of monomers of (a) poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate as the surfactant's hydrophilic surfactant portion and (b) monomers of vinyl pyridine as the surfactant's hydrophobic and cationic polymeric antimicrobial portion. If the molecular weight of the poly(ethylene glycol ) methyl ether methacrylate is about 1000, preferably the copolymer has between about 8 - 72 mol% of monomer (a) and between about 92 - 28 mol% of monomer (b). More preferably, the copolymer has between about 8 - 40% of monomer (a) and between about 92 - 60% of monomer (b). These percentages are provided as guidelines to aid in selecting the types and amounts of monomers for the polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant for various disperse phases and are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.

[0037] The polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant (including the polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant) is formulated to significantly reduce the growth, number, viability and/or metabolic activity of bacteria or microorganisms. The surfactant may be formulated to significantly reduce bacterial or microbial growth from a treated medium by a factor of at least 50%. Further, a bactericidal or antimicrobial composition may be formulated to significantly reduce bacterial or microbial growth from a treated medium by at least 60%, by at least 70%, by at least 80%, by at least 90%, by at least 95%, by at least 99%, or by at least 99.9%. This reduction may occur within a 30 minute period, for example. [0030] The poly cationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant alone (without other surfactants) may be all that is needed to disperse e.g. a binder (such as polymeric particles) in a liquid. The hydrophobic domain of the polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant can associate with polymeric particles to disperse them in e.g. an aqueous carrier liquid with which the hydrophilic domain of the polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant associates. The cationic domain can also associate with the aqueous carrier liquid where ionic charge predominates the structure of the cationic domain and the dispersed hydrophobic phase where the structure of the cationic domain is hydrophobic overall despite the cationic charge. [0039] A second surfactant may also be present with the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant in the carrier liquid. A second surfactant can be provided to e.g. stabilize binder (polymeric particles that form a solid coating upon solvent removal or destabilization of the dispersion) or other components dispersed in the carrier liquid. The second surfactant may be cationic, anionic, or nonionic.

[0030] If the second surfactant is cationic, preferably the cationic

surfactant has greater binding strength to a corresponding anion than the cationic domain of the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant has to that corresponding anion.

Preferably the cationic portion of the second surfactant also has greater binding strength to its corresponding anion than it has to any anions present in the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant.

[0041] If the second surfactant is anionic, preferably the anionic portion of that second surfactant has greater binding strength to a corresponding cation than to the cationic domain of the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant. Preferably the anionic portion of that second surfactant also has greater binding strength to that corresponding cation than any anions present in the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant.

[0042] An example of a coating composition may be e.g. a latex paint formulation containing, in addition to the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant, any one or more of the following components: a, A second surfactant that disperses one or more of the following

components. b. Latex polymer (e.g. acrylic, vinyl acrylic, or styrene acrylic polymer) that has been prepared using an appropriate polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant as described in this invention. c. Pigment and/or dye such as Ί1Ο2, calcium carbonate, talc, clay,

silicates, aluminum silicates, calcium metasilicates, aluminum potassium silicates, magnesium silicates, barium sulfates, nepheline syenite, feldspar, zinc oxides and/or sulfides, functional fillers such as intumescent ingredients, such as ammonium polyphosphates, mel amines, pentaerythritol and/or similar compounds. d. Thickeners such as urethane thickeners and/or acrylic thickeners. e. Synthetic organic materials might ai so be incorporated; these include plastic beads, hollow spheres or other similar materials. f. Other optional components include glycols such as ethylene and/or propylene glycol in amounts up to about 7% and other solvents such as diethylene glycol dibenzoate and dipropylene glycol dibenzoate in amounts up to about 3%. The coating composition may also contain pigment dispersing agents which can be solvents; wet paint preservatives; dry film preservatives; foam control agents such as oils, and silicones; slip and mar additives; adhesion promoters, and/or other known paint additives. g. The paint composition of the present invention may also comprise other biocides including but not limited to metal ion containing compounds, other polymeric biocides, heterocyclic compounds, phenols, organometallics, aldehydes, proteins, peroxygens, alcohols, enzymes, polypeptides, and halogen releasing compounds.

10043] The coating solution may have a pH of about neutral pH to acidic pH. The pH is preferably between e.g. 2 and 9, more preferably between 5.5 and 6,5. 10044] Other coating solutions into which the dispersible polymeric antimicrobial particles may be incorporated include, but are not limited to, floor wax binders, adhesives, sealants, caulks, furniture polish, synthetic rubber compositions, and plastic compositions.

[0045] Floor wax i s typical ly a surfactant stabilized dispersion of a polymer or polymers that impart the Moor wax's finish, a polymeric binder, as well as various coalescems and plasucizers and other components in an aqueous or aqueous-organic continuous phase. An example of such a floor wax is one that has a styrene-ethyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate copolymer binder emulsion, polyethylene emulsion, tricresyl phosphate plasticizer, and styrene-maleic copolymer as disclosed in e.g. U.S. Pat. No. 3,328,328, which patent is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0046] There is a surprising array of modern adhesives having a broad range of components to optimize their use in the particular situation for which they are intended. Most water born adhesives have as one of the components a dispersed polymer in an aqueous continuous phase. The dispersed polymer may be made up of any of a wide array of polymers e.g. polyvinyl acetate, vinyl acetate copolymer, polyacrylate, polyvinylidene chloride, slyrene-butadiene copolymer, polyurethane, polyester, polychloroprene, and/or rubber latex. White glue or carpenter's glue are the best known examples of water born adhesives.

[0047] A sealant or caulk may typically have a silicone polymer dispersed in an aqueous phase or such polymers as butyl rubbers and poiybutene dispersed in aqueous phase.

Sealants and caulks are similar in composition to adhesives in that many contain one or more water dispensed polymer latexes as one of their components. The dispersions are formed using an emulsifying surfactant in an emulsion polymerization scenario.

[0048] A furniture polish may contain one or more of the following hydrophobic materials dispersed in an aqueous phase by use of a surfactant: camauba wax, candelilla wax, sugar cane wax, cotton wax, beeswax, shellac, lanolin fractions from sheep, ozokerite, paraffin waxes, microcrystailine waxes, oxidized microcrystalline waxes, Fischer-Tropsch waxes, montan waxes, polymers such as methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, vinyl acetate, styrene, vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, and oils such as those derived from vegetable, petroleum, or silicone sources to enhance shine. [0049] Synthetic rubber compositions are sometimes prepared through a polymerization process carried out as a surfactant stabilized dispersion. A particularly important example of such a synthetic process is the preparation of Neoprene. Neoprene is produced by free- radical polymerization of chloroprene. In commercial production, this polymer is prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization. Polymerization is initiated using potassium persulfate. Bifunctional nucleophiles, metal oxides (e.g. zinc oxide), and thioureas are used to crosslink individual polymer strands.

[0050] Plastic compositions are also prepared in some instances through a surfactant stabilized polymerization phase. An excellent example where a plastic is prepared through a surfactant stabilized emulsion process would be the production of

poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon, PTFE). Because PTFE is poorly soluble in almost all solvents, and the polymerization is sensitive to temperature fluctuations it is conducted as an emulsion in water. This process gives a suspension of polymer particles which are then isolated as solid particles.

[0051] An ink composition can also be formulated using a surfactant of the invention. The pigment particles (typically 0.005 to 15 micron in size) and/or dye of an ink formulation can associate with the hydrophobic portion of the surfactant, thereby suspending the ink's pigment particles and dyes in aqueous carrier liquid more readily to provide a more homogeneous ink formulation. Ink compositions such as those used in inkjet printers and in the commercial print industry must also meet certain toxicity requirements that a polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant as disclosed herein can help to satisfy. Pigment particles and dyes in ink compositions include sulfonated polyazo black dye and various pigment particles available from commercial suppliers such as Hoechst, Ciba-CJeigy, Mobay, and BASF, for instance. In addition to pigment particles and dyes that can be dispersed using a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant, ink formulations may contain optical brighteners such as stilbenes (e.g. 4,4M>is(benzoxazolyl)^s-stilbene or 4,4'-diamino-2,2'- snlbenedisulfonic acid) and/or thiophenes (e.g. 2,S-bis(benzoxazo1-2-yl)thiophene) that can be dispersed using a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant as discussed herein. {0052| Other products that may utilize a surfactant as provided herein include detergents such as laundry detergent and/or softening agents such as fabric softeners. Brighteners such as title stilbenes and thiophenes discussed above can be dispersed in liquid or dry laundry detergents, and the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric

biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant as discussed herein can aid in dispersing the brighteners and/or other laundry detergent components or other fabric softeners throughout the wash water to better contact clothing while optionally providing antimicrobial properties to the laundered clothing. Clothes can therefore remain fresher for longer periods of time. A polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant may be provided alone or as one of a number of other softener components in a clothes softening composition, and other such softeners include mono- and di-ester quats and derivatives that are typically used in such clothes softening compositions.

[0053] Cosmetics may incorporate a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant as discussed herein. These surfactants can disperse brighteners, oils or oily compounds such as coconut oil, castor oil, shea butter, and derivatives in e.g. foundation, eye shadow, lipstick, blush, makeup, and other cosmetics. The antimicrobial properties of a polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant may aid in keeping skin healthy as well as preserve the cosmetic itself, increasing shelf life.

[0054] Herbicides and insecticides can also benefit from incorporation of a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant into them. The polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant can disperse common herbicides such as atrazine and common insecticides such as organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, and other compounds as well as prevent potential microbial induced degradation thus increasing shelf life.

[0030] It was quite surprising that a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial compound or a biocompatible antimicrobial polymer could be configured as a surfactant. Typically, antimicrobial polymers do not possess both sufficient lipophiliciry and sufficient hydrophilicity to satisfy the requirements for a surfactant, and the cations of the

antimicrobial polymer often disrupt stable dispersions present in a carrier liquid. We have determined, however, that antimicrobial polymers can in fact be configured to be biocompatible as Well as lipophilic and hydrophilic without sacrificing antimicrobial properties. Consequently, a wide array of suspensions, emulsions, latexes, and/or colloids useful in the preparation of coatings, adhesives, sealants, and caulks as disclosed herein can be formulated using a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or a polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant as disclosed herein.

(0056) A general method for preparation of a stable suspension of a hydrophobic monomer solution in an aqueous continuous phase is conducted as follows. The surfactant, derived from this invention, is dissolved in the aqueous / aqueous-organic continuous phase in sufficient quantity / concentration to support the formation of micelles that will contain the monomers. An initiator that is soluble in the aqueous continuous phase and insoluble in the monomer phase is added. The monomer(s) are men added to the aqueous phase with agitation forming droplets. Monomer(s) diffuse to the nascent micelles where they come in contact with a free radical originating from decomposition of the initiator. While some initiation may occur in the aqueous phase as well as the droplet phase the majority occurs in the micelles. The monomer solution is added to the reaction mixture over time in order to reduce the incidence of initiation occurring in the droplet phase. Monomer(s) continues to diffuse from the droplets to the micelles growing the size of the polymer particle as well as to nascent micelles depending on the quantity of surfactant added. This process results in a polymer suspension / emulsion / latex or colloid that contains a surfactant that is antimicrobial. Additional antimicrobial surfactant can be added upon completion of polymerization if additional efficacy is required.

J0O57] Alternatively a stable suspension of a hydrophobic monomer(s) solution in an aqueous or aqueous / organic continuous phase may be formed and polymerized using the following methodology. A polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant of this invention is dissolved in the aqueous or aqueous / organic continuous phase at a concentration that will be sufficient to give the level of antimicrobial activity desired (e.g. 1% by weight in solution). The monomer(s) are added as a single aliquot. The heterogeneous mixture is then agitated such that sufficient energy is input to give the desired particle size of the dispersed phase. A high shear mixer may be used to supply the necessary agitation. After the suspension of monomers is formed and stabilized by the added surfactant, agitation may be reduced substantially to the point where the suspension remains homogeneous. A free radical initiator that is soluble in the continuous phase but not in the dispersed phase is then added and the suspension is heated to conduct the polymerization reaction. The resultant polymer or polymer/oil phase is consequently dispersed through the continuous phase by the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant.

[0058] Polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant possessing suitable bactericidal properties and a suitable hydrophilicity / biocompatibility profile was obtained using a quaternized polymeric composition synthesized from 4-vinylpyridine and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The copolymer was synthesized by radical copolymerization using 2,2 , -azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) as the initiator in a water - isopropanol solvent system. The reactants were stirred at 70°C for 24 hours under flowing Nz to exclude oxygen. The resulting copolymer was quaternized by the addition of one equivalent (relative to 4-vinylpyridine) of 1-bromohexane (HB) in a followed by heating at 70°C for 48 hr. The progress of the quatemization reaction was followed by infrared spectroscopy. The solid polymer was obtained placing the polymer / solvent mixture in trays and heating to 70°C overnight. [0059J Following are other examples of the invention. Table 1 lists various monomers used to form polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant and various polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactants, as recognized from the copolymerization and quatemization products formed using the specified compounds. The quaternizing agent is 1 -butyl chloride and/or fluoride in certain instances not listed, and in other instances the quaternizing agent is 1 -chlorooctane and/or 1-fluorooctane.

Table I Examples of polymeric cationic antimicrobial compounds for use in the invention

HEMA: 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate

PEGMA: poly(ethylene glycol) methacryiate, number indicates the average molecular weight of the monomer

PEGMEMA: poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacryiate, number indicates the average molecular weight of the monomer

HEA: 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate

DMAA: 1,3-dimethylallylamine [0060] Table 2 provides a list of other components that may be dispersed using a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant of Table 1 as well as products in which the particular component and polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant or polymeric biocompatible antimicrobial surfactant are dispersed. Table 2 provides examples of the dispersed materials and is, of course, a nonexhaustive list. Each of the surfactants of Table 1 is individually combined with each of the dispersed polymers or compounds below in a carrier liquid (e.g. water or an oil) and other compounds as appropriate to form the products listed in Table 2.

[0061] Table 3 lists other surfactants that may be present with polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant and typical commercial uses. TABLE 3: Additional surfactants present in some dispersions

}0062| Table 4 provides a list of various microbes against which the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant, dispersed in an aqueous carrier, may be effective. Kill tests have been performed against these microbes for certain polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactants as disclosed, and the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactants have reduced level s of these microbes substantially . Data was generated using the methodology set out in ASTM E 2315-03 (2008) for a period of exposure of microbe to polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant ranging from 1 minute to 30 minutes.

TABLE 4: Microbes retfticed or eliminated by selected pQlvcationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactants

[0063] Consequently, in addition to the inventions described above, the following are examples of the invention:

1. A polycationic polymeric antimicrobial compound for use as a surfactant, wherein the compound comprises a polymer having a hydropbilic monomer and a cationic antimicrobial monomer, wherein the polymer has a sufficient number of hydrophilic monomers present to provide a hydrophilic domain, a sufficient number of cationic antimicrobial monomers and vinylic groups from the hydrophilic monomers to provide a hydrophobic domain, and the number of cationic antimicrobial monomers present is sufficient to provide at least three cations in the polymer. 2. A compound according to paragraph 1, wherein the hydrophilic monomer is nonionic.

3. A compound according to paragraph 1 or paragraph 2, wherein the nonionic

hydrophilic monomer comprises at least one of HEM A, PEGMA, and PEGMEM A.

4. A compound according to any of paragraphs 1-3, wherein the nonionic hydrophilic monomer renders the compound biocompatible.

5. A compound according to any of paragraphs 1 -4, wherein the cationic antimicrobial monomer contains a qualernized amine.

6. A compound according to paragraph 5, wherein the qualernized amine is a portion of a quatemized pyridine.

7. A compound according to paragraph 6, wherein the quatemized pyridine is 4-vinyl pyridine.

8. A compound according to any of paragraphs 5-7, wherein the amine is quatemized with an alkyl group.

9. A compound according to paragraph 8, wherein the alkyl group has alkyl group has from 4 to 12 carbon atoms.

10. A compound according to paragraph 9, wherein the alkyl group has alkyl group has from 5 to 10 carbon atoms.

11. A compound according to paragraph 10, wherein the alkyl group has alkyl group has from 6 to 8 carbon atoms.

12. A compound according to any of paragraphs 8-11, wherein the alkyl group is a

linear alkyl.

13. A compound according to any paragraph above, wherein the polymer consists

essentially of the nonionic hydrophilic monomer and the cationic antimicrobial monomer. 14. A dispersion comprising a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant, a continuous liquid phase, and particles of a second compound dispersed by the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant, wherein the dispersion comprises a suspension or a colloid and wherein the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant comprises a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial compound of any of paragraphs 1-13.

15. A dispersion according to paragraph 14, wherein the particles of the second

compound comprise droplets or particulate of a compound selected from Table 2.

16. A dispersion according to paragraph 14 or paragraph 15, wherein the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant comprises particles of the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial compound.

17. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 14-16, wherein the particles of the second polymer comprise a binder polymer of a coating.

18. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 14-17, wherein the dispersion is a latex or an emulsion.

19. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 14-18, wherein the continuous liquid phase is aqueous.

20. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 14-18, wherein the continuous liquid phase is an oil.

21. A dispersion according to paragraph 20, wherein the dispersion comprises an

aqueous phase.

22. A dispersion according to paragraph 19, wherein the dispersion comprises an oil phase.

23. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 14-22, wherein the dispersion further comprises a second nonionic or cationic surfactant different from the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant. 24. A dispersion according to paragraph 23, wherein the second nonionic or cationic surfactant comprises a surfactant selected from Table 3 above.

25. A dispersion according to paragraph 24, wherein the second nonionic or cationic surfactant provides a stable dispersion of droplets or particulate of a compound selected from Table 2.

26. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 14-22, wherein the dispersion contains no other surfactant besides the po!ycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant,

27. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 14-26, Wherein the dispersion

comprises a stable suspension.

28. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 14-26, wherein the dispersion

comprises a stable colloid.

29. A dispersion according to paragraph 28, wherein the stable colloid comprises a latex.

30. A dispersion according to paragraph 28, wherein the stable colloid comprises an emulsion.

31. A method of using a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant comprising mixing a hydrophilic or a hydrophobic compound with the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant in a carrier liquid to form a stable dispersion.

32. A method according to paragraph 31 , wherein the polycationic polymeric

antimicrobial surfactant is a compound of any of paragraphs 1-13.

33. A method according to paragraph 31, wherein the stable dispersion specified in paragraph 31 is a dispersion as set forth in any of paragraphs 14-30.

34. A method of making a suspension or a colloid comprising incorporating a compound of any of paragraphs 1-13 into a first stable suspension or a first stable colloid containing a second surfactant to form a second stable suspension or a second stable colloid. 35. A method according to paragraph 34, wherein the first stable suspension or the first stable colloid is a stable dispersion of droplets or particulate of a compound selected from Table 2.

36. A method according to paragraph 34 or paragraph 35, wherein the second surfactant comprises a surfactant selected from Table 3 above.

37. A method of creating a dispersion, wherein the method comprises dispersing an insoluble compound in a continuous phase with a polycationic polymeric

antimicrobial surfactant, wherein the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant comprises a polymer having a number of nonionic hydrophilic monomers and a number of cationic antimicrobial monomers, each comprising a vinyl pyridine quatemized with an alkyl group, and wherein the surfactant has a sufficient number of the nonionic hydrophilic monomers present in the polymer to provide a hydrophilic domain, a sufficient number of the cationic antimicrobial monomers and vinylic groups from the nonionic hydrophilic monomers present in the polymer to provide a hydrophobic domain, and the number of the cationic antimicrobial monomers present is sufficient to provide at least three cations in the polymer.

38. A method according to paragraph 37, wherein the nonionic hydrophilic monomer renders the surfactant biocompatible.

39. A method according to paragraph 37 or paragraph 38, wherein the nonionic

hydrophilic monomer comprises at least one of HEM A, PEGMA, and PEGMEMA.

40. A method according to any of paragraphs 37-39, wherein the vinyl pyridine

comprises 4-vinyl pyridine.

41. A method according to paragraph 40, wherein the alkyl group has from 4 to 12

carbon atoms.

42. A method according to paragraph 41 , wherein the alkyl group has from 5 to 10

carbon atoms.

43. A method according to paragraph 42, wherein title alkyl group has from 6 to 8 carbon atoms. 44. A method according to any of paragraphs 37-43, wherein the alkyl group is a linear alkyl group.

45. A method according to any of paragraphs 37-44, wherein the polymer consists

essentially of the nonionic hydrophilic monomer and the cationic antimicrobial monomer.

46. A dispersion comprising a polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant, a

continuous liquid phase, and particles of a second polymer associated with the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant, wherein the dispersion comprises a suspension or a colloid and wherein the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant comprises a polymer having a nonionic hydrophilic monomer and a cationic antimicrobial monomer comprising a vinyl pyridine quaternized with an alkyl group and having a sufficient number of nonionic hydrophilic monomers present in the polymer to provide a hydrophilic domain, a sufficient number of cationic antimicrobial monomers and vinylic groups from nonionic hydrophilic monomers present in the polymer to provide a hydrophobic domain, and the number of cationic monomers present is sufficient to provide at least three cations in the polymer.

47. A dispersion according to paragraph 46, wherein the particles of the second polymer comprise a binder polymer of a coating. 48. A dispersion according to paragraph 46 or paragraph 47, wherein the dispersion is a latex or an emulsion.

49. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 46-48, wherein the continuous liquid phase is aqueous.

50. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 46-48, wherein the continuous liquid phase is an oil.

51. A dispersion according to paragraph SO, wherein the dispersion comprises an

aqueous phase. 52. A dispersion according to paragraph 49, wherein the dispersion comprises an oil phase.

53. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 46-52, wherein the dispersion further comprises a second surfactant different from title polycationic polymeric

antimicrobial surfactant.

54. A dispersion according to any of paragraphs 46-52, wherein the dispersion contains no other surfactant besides the polycationic polymeric antimicrobial surfactant,

[0064] The phrases "significantly reducing the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria and/or viruses and "significantly reducing growth" are used interchangeably to denote one or more of the following conditions, including (i) a condition in which the metabolic activity of at least 50% of the microorganisms of a particular type exposed to a treated medium is terminated or reduced compared to microorganisms of that particular type exposed to an untreated medium over a fixed period of time; (ii ) a condition where there is 50% or less of one or more types of microorganism present in and/or on a treated medium compared to the number of microorganisms exposed to an untreated medium; and/or (iii) a condition resulting when one or more types of microorganisms adhere 50% less to a treated medium compared to an untreated medium. The degree of growth reduction with respective to conditions may range from 50% to greater 99.9%.

[0065] The term "biocompatible" refers to a material that is substantially non-toxic in the in vivo environment of its intended use, and mat is not substantially rejected by the patient's physiological system (i.e., is non-anti genie). This can be gauged by the ability of a material to pass the biocompatibility tests set forth in International Standards Organization

(ISO) Standard No. 10993 and/or the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 and/or the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) blue book memorandum No. G95-1, entitled "Use of International Standard ISO- 10993, Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part-1 :

Evaluation and Testing." Typically, these tests measure a material's toxicity, infectivity, pyrogenicity, irritation potential, reactivity, hemolytic activity, carcinogenicity and/or immunogenicity. A biocompatible structure or material, when introduced into a majority of patients, will not cause a significantly adverse, long-lived or escalating biological reaction or response, and is distinguished from a mild, transient inflammation which typically accompanies surgery or implantation of foreign objects into a living organism. [0030] The term "stable disperaon * refers to a dispersion such as a suspension or colloid (e.g. a latex or emulsion) that has a shelf life of at least seven days, as measured by light scattering instruments or other instruments employed for the particular classification of suspension or colloid formulated (e.g. paint, cosmetic coating, wax, adhesive, or other end- use as discussed above). Preferably the shelf life is at least one month, more preferably at least three months, and more preferably still at least six months and at least a year, respectively.

[0030] All publications listed herein are incorporated by reference for all that they teach, as if put forth in full below.