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Title:
POLYMERIC-INORGANIC NANOPARTICLE COMPOSITIONS, MANUFACTURING PROCESS THEREOF AND THEIR USE AS LUBRICANT ADDITIVES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/145307
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The inventionrelates to polymeric-inorganic nanoparticlecompositionsand preparation processes thereof. The invention also relates to an additive andlubricant composition comprising these polymeric-inorganic nanoparticlecompositions, as well as to the use of these polymeric-inorganic nanoparticlecompositionsin an oil lubricant formulation to improve tribological performance, in particular to improve anti-friction performance on metal parts.

Inventors:
WIEBER, Stephan (Marie-Juchacz-Str. 7, Karlsruhe, 76137, DE)
SIRAK, Sofia (1616 Northview Blvd, Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania, 19462, US)
NESS, Daniel (Gärtnerstr. 52, Hanau, 63450, DE)
WILKENS, Roland (Alte Landstrasse 3, Gernsheim, 64579, DE)
KLEIN, Rebecca (Alt-Praunheim 56, Frankfurt am Main, 60488, DE)
SCHMITT, Günter (Nach dem Wieschen 3, Darmstadt, 64291, DE)
HAGEMANN, Michael (Im Mainfeld 5, Kahl, 63796, DE)
Application Number:
EP2019/051516
Publication Date:
August 01, 2019
Filing Date:
January 22, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
EVONIK OIL ADDITIVES GMBH (Kirschenallee, Darmstadt, 64293, DE)
International Classes:
C10M161/00; C08F290/04; C08F292/00; C10M171/06
Domestic Patent References:
WO2003106600A12003-12-24
WO2007003238A12007-01-11
WO1997021788A11997-06-19
WO2000015736A22000-03-23
WO2000014188A22000-03-16
WO2000014187A22000-03-16
WO2000014183A12000-03-16
WO2000014179A12000-03-16
WO2000008115A12000-02-17
WO1999041332A11999-08-19
WO2001018156A12001-03-15
WO2001057166A12001-08-09
WO2013189951A12013-12-27
Foreign References:
EP2457884A12012-05-30
KR100795508B12008-01-16
US20170327761A12017-11-16
US20110046027A12011-02-24
US20090048381A12009-02-19
DE2530002A11977-01-27
US20130005619A12013-01-03
US20110118156A12011-05-19
GB2270317A1994-03-09
US4316973A1982-02-23
JPS63175096A1988-07-19
EP0776959A21997-06-04
EP0668342A11995-08-23
EP1029029A12000-08-23
Other References:
ZHOU ET AL., TRIBOLOLOGY LETTERS, vol. 8, 2000, pages 213 - 218
QIU ET AL., J. TRIBOL., vol. 123, no. 3, 2001, pages 441 - 443
ANGEW. MAKROMOL. CHEMIE, vol. 28, 1973, pages 31
PENG ET AL., INDUSTRIAL LUBRICATION AND TRIBOLOGY, vol. 62, no. 2, 2010, pages 111 - 120
TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, vol. 42, 2009, pages 911 - 917
BOTTCHER ET AL., POLYMER BULLETIN, vol. 44, 2000, pages 223 - 229
GU ET AL., JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE, PART A: POLYMER CHEMISTRY, vol. 51, 2013, pages 3941 - 3949
BATTEZ ET AL., WEAR, vol. 261, 2006, pages 256 - 263
APPENDIX E-API BASE OIL INTERCHANGEABILITY GUIDELINES FOR PASSENGER CAR MOTOR OILS AND DIESEL ENGINE OILS, April 2008 (2008-04-01)
API 1509, ANNEX E - API BASE OIL INTERCHANGEABILITY GUIDELINES FOR PASSENGER CAR MOTOR OILS AND DIESEL ENGINE OILS, September 2011 (2011-09-01)
"Lubricants and Lubrication", 2001, WILEY-VCH
"Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants"
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
EVONIK PATENT ASSOCIATION (IP Management PB 84/33, Rodenbacher Chaussee 4 Hanau, 63457, DE)
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Claims:
Claims

1. A polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition, obtainable by milling a mixture, the mixture comprising one or more nanoparticle compound (A) and one or more polymer compound (B),

(A) wherein the one or more nanoparticle compound is selected from

- the group consisting of metal oxide nanoparticle, metal nitride nanoparticle, metal carbide nanoparticle, and mixtures thereof; or

- the group consisting of oxidized metal nitride nanoparticle, oxidized metal carbide nanoparticle, and mixtures thereof; or

- the group consisting of non-metal oxide nanoparticle, or

- the group consisting of multi or single layered carbonous structures, multi or single walled nanotubes, carbon fullerenes, graphene, carbon black, graphite, and mixtures thereof; or

- mixtures of the foregoing nanoparticle compounds;

and

(B) wherein the one or more polymer compound is obtainable by polymerizing a monomer composition comprising:

a) one or more functional monomer selected from the list consisting of:

a1) hydroxyalkyl (meth)acrylates;

a2) aminoalkyl (meth)acrylates and aminoalkyl (meth)acrylamides;

a3) nitriles of (meth)acrylic acid and other nitrogen-containing (methacrylates;

a4) aryl (meth)acrylates, where the acryl residue in each case can be unsubstituted or substituted up to four times;

a5) carbonyl-containing (meth)acrylates;

a6) (meth)acrylates of ether alcohols;

a7) (meth)acrylates of halogenated alcohols;

a8) oxiranyl (meth)acrylate;

a9) phosphorus-, boron- and/or silicon-containing (meth)acrylates;

a10) sulfur-containing (meth)acrylates;

a11 ) heterocyclic (meth)acrylates;

a12) maleic acid and maleic acid derivatives;

a13) fumaric acid and fumaric acid derivatives;

a14) vinyl halides;

a15) vinyl esters;

a16) vinyl monomers containing aromatic groups;

a17) heterocyclic vinyl compounds;

a18) vinyl and isoprenyl ethers;

a19) methacrylic acid and acrylic acid,

and c) the reaction product of one or more ester of (meth)acrylic acid and one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (Mn) of 500 to 10,000 g/mol, and wherein the weight ratio of the one or more intercalation compound (A) to the one or more polymer compound (B) is 20:1 to 1 :5.

2. The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle according to claim 1 , wherein the hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene of at least one of the one or more ester c) has a number-average molecular weight (Mn) of 1 ,500 to 2, 100 g/mol.

3. The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the monomer composition further comprises as component b) one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer wherein each of the alkyl group of the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer independently is linear, cyclic or branched and comprises from 1 to 40 carbon atoms.

4. The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle according to claim 3, wherein one or more of the alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer having the linear, cyclic or branched alkyl group which comprises the 1 to 40 carbon atoms independently is

b1 ) of formula (I):

wherein R is hydrogen or methyl, R1 means a linear, branched or cyclic alkyl residue with 1 to 8 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and more preferably 1 to 3 carbon atoms, or b2) of formula (II):

wherein R is hydrogen or methyl, R2 means a linear, branched or cyclic alkyl residue with 9 to 15 carbon atoms, preferably 12 to 15 carbon atoms, and more preferably 12 to 14 carbon atoms, or b3) of formula (III):

wherein R is hydrogen or methyl, R3 means a linear, branched or cyclic alkyl residue with 16 to 40 carbon atoms, preferably 16 to 30 carbon atoms, and more preferably 6 to 20 carbon atoms.

5. The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the one or more polymer compound (B) is obtainable by polymerizing a monomer composition comprising components a) and c), and optionally component b), and wherein the one or more polymer compound (B) has a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 10,000 to 1 ,000,000 g/mol, more preferably 50,000 to 1 ,000,000 g/mol, even more preferably 100,000 to 800,000 g/mol, most preferably 200,000 to 600,000 g/mol.

6. The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the weight ratio of the one or more intercalation compound (A) to the one or more polymer compound (B) is preferably 10:1 to 1 :2, more preferably 5:1 to 1 :1 , most preferably 4:1 to 2:1.

7. The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to any one of claims 3 to 6, wherein the one or more polymer compound (B) is obtainable by polymerizing a monomer composition comprising:

a2) 0.5 to 5 % by weight of an aminoalkyl (meth)acrylamide, most preferably N-(3-dimethyl- aminopropyl)methacrylamide, as first component a) based on the one or more polymer compound (B);

a16) 5 to 20 % by weight of a vinyl monomer containing aromatic groups, most preferably styrene, as second component a) based on the one or more polymer compound (B); b1 ) 25 to 60 % by weight of an alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer of formula (I), most

preferably methyl methacrylate and/or butyl methacrylate, as first component b) based on the one or more polymer compound (B);

b2) 1 to 10 % by weight of an alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer of formula (II), most preferably lauryl methacrylate, as second component b) based on the one or more polymer compound (B); and

c) 25 to 60 % by weight of an ester of a (meth)acrylic acid and a hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (Mn) of 500 to 10,000 g/mol, most preferably a macromonomer derived from the reaction of an ester of a (meth)acrylic acid and a hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (Mn) of 1 ,500-5,000 g/mol, as component c) based on the one or more polymer compound (B);

wherein the amounts of all monomers of the monomer composition sum up to 100 % by weight.

8. The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the nanoparticle compound (A) comprises hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoparticle.

9. A method for manufacturing a polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition as defined in any one of claims 1 to 8, the method comprising the steps of:

(a) Providing one or more nanoparticle compound (A);

(b) providing one or more polymer compound (B);

(c) preferably, providing a solvent (C);

(d) combining at least the one or more nanoparticle compound (A) and the one or more polymer compound (B) to obtain a mixture, preferably combining at least the one or more nanoparticle compound (A), the one or more polymer compound (B) and the solvent (C) to obtain a mixture; and

(e) milling the mixture.

10. Use of the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to any one of claims 1 to 8 as an additive for a lubricant composition.

11. A formulation comprising:

(a) a base oil; and

(b) a polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to any one of claims 1 to 8.

12. The formulation according to claim 11 , wherein the base oil is selected from the list consisting of an API Group I base oil, an API Group II base oil, an API Group III base oil, an API Group IV base oil and an API Group V base oil, or a mixture of one or more of these base oils.

13. The formulation according to claim 11 or 12, comprising (i) 40 to 95 % by weight, more preferably 70 to 90 % by weight of base oil and (ii) 5 to 60 % by weight, more preferably 10 to 30 % by weight of the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition, based on the total weight of the formulation.

14. The formulation according to claim 11 or 12, comprising (i) 50 to 99.99 % by weight, more preferably 65 to 99.99 % by weight, even more preferably 75 to 99.9 % by weight of base oil and (ii) 0.01 to 50 % by weight, more preferably 0.01 to 35 % by weight, even more preferably

0.1 to 25 % by weight of the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition, based on the total weight of the formulation.

Description:
Polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle compositions, manufacturing process thereof and their use as lubricant additives

TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle compositions and preparation processes thereof. The invention also relates to an additive and lubricant composition comprising these polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle compositions, as well as to the use of these polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle compositions in an oil lubricant formulation to improve tribological performance, in particular to improve anti-friction performance on metal parts.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the field of lubrication. Lubricants are compositions that reduce friction between surfaces. In addition to allowing freedom of motion between two surfaces and reducing mechanical wear of the surfaces, a lubricant also may inhibit corrosion of the surfaces and/or may inhibit damage to the surfaces due to heat or oxidation. Examples of lubricant compositions include, but are not limited to, engine oils, transmission fluids, gear oils, industrial lubricating oils, greases and metalworking oils.

Lubricants typically contain a base fluid and variable amounts of additives. Some additives in the lubricant formulation are used to reduce friction and wear between the contacts, which is important energy efficiency and durability of the device that is being lubricated.

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of solid inorganic nanoparticles in lubricant formulations. These particles are especially useful to achieve boundary lubrication and keep surfaces separated. Studies have shown that the addition of nanoparticles can drastically improve wear and friction performance (Zhou et at, Tribolology Letters 8, 213-218 (2000); Qiu et at. J. Tribol. 123 (3) 441-443 (2001 ).

However, creating a stable dispersion of nanoparticles is problematic. Most untreated inorganic nanoparticles, such as T1O 2 and S1O 2 , are hydrophilic in nature and therefore form poor dispersions in oil or non-polar environments. Furthermore, the poor dispersion and weak forces of the particles draw particles together causing agglomeration and particle aggregates. These aggregates will lead to sedimentation that is unwanted and ineffective for the formulation.

In order to prevent this sedimentation and enhance dispersion, several techniques have been employed. These techniques include for instance the use of a dispersant moiety in the oil blend. By adding a dispersant moiety to an oil formulation, dispersion of nanoparticles can be improved. The dispersion agent or surfactant will have a hydrophilic part that can interact with the particle’s surface and a hydrophobic tail that will assist in oil dispersion thereby forming micelles. One problem with the use of dispersant is that a careful equilibrium of dispersant to particle must exist or the dispersion will fall apart. Heat, energy, and shear forces that are present in a working machine or part can easily break this equilibrium. The disruption of the equilibrium will lead to sedimentation and agglomeration of particles. Furthermore, dispersant moieties are not suited well for non-polar environments. Typically, more polar base fluids need to be added so that the dispersant can be compatible. With increasing trends towards more non-polar fluids (Group III or Group IV oils), many dispersants will not work well in oil formulations containing these oil.

DE2530002 A1 relates to a method of improving the lubricating properties of solid lubricants, especially of molybdenum disulphide. The chemical and mechanical grafting of polymers or functional organic or inorganic groups on solids is known. Thus, according to Angew. Makromol. Chemie 28, 31 (1973) polymers grafted on various solid fillers to improve in this way the properties of the fillers. Also, of course, polymers are already mixed with solids for a variety of applications. However, solid lubricants, and especially molybdenum disulphide, have not yet been treated by these methods. The disadvantages are the insufficient stability of the particles in oil and the low stress stability of the dispersion under tribological conditions. The disclosed procedure handles unhealthy and gaseous or at least very volatile compounds and in a very complicated process procedure.

US 2013/0005619 A1 describes the use of nanoparticles (S1O 2 , T1O 2 , alumina, and tin oxide) in lubricant formulation in order to reduce friction. In this work, a common dispersing agent, polyisobutenyl succinimide is used in order to properly disperse the particles.

US 201 1/01 18156 uses ceramic nanoparticles, specifically S1O 2 with a special geometry, to reduce wear and friction. It is also shown that the addition of these particles helps in the load-bearing capability of materials. In order to disperse the particles, the base oil must be polar, e.g. water or polar natural oils such as soy bean or palm oil.

Peng et al. (Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 62, Issue 2, 2010, pages 111 - 120 or Tribology International, 42, (2009), pages 911-917) explain the problem of sedimentation of nanoparticle in oil formulations. Peng et al. treat the surface of the particles with oleic acid. Sedimentation still occurs after some time.

For instance, Bottcher et al. (Polymer Bulletin 44, 223-229, 2000) and Gu et al (Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 51, 2013, 3941-3949) describe the surface initiated polymerization method using controlled radical polymerization techniques on S1O 2 and graphene surfaces. Literature shows that polymers can be added to the surface via surface initiated polymerization. Just like in the previous examples, a small molecule is first reacted with the particles surface. Here, the molecule that is attached can react during a polymerization technique. One problem with this method is that crosslinking is likely to occur at high monomer conversions because of the high density of reactive sites on the particle surface. Another disadvantage to this method is that the polymer can only be attached at the chain end. Furthermore, if a controlled polymerization technique such as ATRP is used, then filtration of the catalyst is not possible by standard means because the particle cannot pass through the filter media. Lastly, the controlled polymerization method is costly and initiator attachment to the particle surface is tedious.

Battez et al. (Wear 261 (2006) 256-263) describe how ZnO particles in a PA06 oil formulation can reduce the wear in extreme pressure (EP) conditions. In order to disperse and stabilize the particles, a dispersing agent was needed. Here, non-ionic dispersing agents containing polyhydroxystearic acid were used (Commercial names of the dispersing agents are Octacare DSP-OL100, and Octacare DSP-OL300). Even though a dispersion was created, sedimentation and agglomeration still occurred. The authors also showed that a formulation only containing the dispersing agent and base oil can provide a large improvement on wear, and in certain tests outperform the stabilized nanoparticle dispersion. In fact, unstable nanoparticle increased wear.

Another technique to prevent the sedimentation and enhance dispersion of particles is the chemical surface treatment of the particle. This technique may add hydrophobic or oleophilic character to the particle thereby helping dispersion. Since this method only covers part of the particle’s surface, there is still a fair amount of hydrophilic character and this will still lead to agglomeration. The surface modification is accomplished by reacting some surface groups of the particle with small molecules or polymers suited for non-polar fluids.

It was therefore an object of the present invention to provide a lubricant additive which shows improved anti-friction performances, while maintaining excellent stability over a long period of time in the lubricating oil. In addition, the lubricant additive should show good compatibilities with the different package components, dispersing agents, and other additives in a lubricant formulation to fulfill the industry needs.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A first aspect of the invention is that after thorough investigation the inventors of the present invention have surprisingly found that polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle compositions as defined in claim 1 provide improved anti-friction performances when added to a lubricant composition while being very well dispersed in the lubrication oil.

A second aspect of the invention is a method for manufacturing such a polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition. A third aspect of the invention is the use of such a polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition as an additive for a lubricant composition. A fourth aspect of the invention is a formulation - either as additive formulation or as ready-to-use lubricant formulation - comprising a base oil and the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to the invention

The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle compositions according to the invention are characterized in that they are obtainable by milling a mixture, the mixture comprising one or more nanoparticle compound (A) and one or more polymer compound (B),

(A) wherein the one or more nanoparticle compound is selected from

- the group consisting of metal oxide nanoparticle, metal nitride nanoparticle, metal carbide nanoparticle, and mixtures thereof; or

- the group consisting of oxidized metal nitride nanoparticle, oxidized metal carbide nanoparticle, and mixtures thereof; or

- the group consisting of non-metal oxide nanoparticle, or

- the group consisting of multi or single layered carbonous structures, multi or single walled nanotubes, carbon fullerenes, graphene, carbon black, graphite, and mixtures thereof; or

- mixtures of the foregoing nanoparticle compounds;

and

(B) wherein the one or more polymer compound is obtainable by polymerizing a monomer composition comprising:

a) one or more functional monomer selected from the list consisting of:

a1) hydroxyalkyl (meth)acrylates like 3-hydroxypropyl (meth)acrylate, 3,4-dihydroxybutyl

(meth)acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 2 hydroxypropyl (meth)acrylate, 2,5-dimethyl- 1 ,6-hexanediol (meth)acrylate, 1 ,10 decanediol (meth)acrylate;

a2) aminoalkyl (meth)acrylates and aminoalkyl (meth)acrylamides like N-(3-dimethyl- aminopropyl)methacrylamide, 3-diethylaminopentyl (meth)acrylate, 3-dibutyl-aminohexadecyl (meth)acrylate;

a3) nitriles of (meth)acrylic acid and other nitrogen-containing (meth)acrylates like N-

(methacryloyloxyethyl)diisobutylketimine, N-(methacryloyloxyethyl)dihexadecyl-ketimine, (meth)acryloylamidoacetonitrile, 2-methacryloyloxyethylmethylcyanamide, cyanomethyl

(meth)acrylate;

a4) aryl (meth)acrylates like benzyl (meth)acrylate or phenyl (meth)acrylate, where the acryl residue in each case can be unsubstituted or substituted up to four times;

a5) carbonyl-containing (meth)acrylates like 2-carboxyethyl (meth)acrylate, carboxymethyl (meth)acrylate, N-methyacryloyloxy)-formamide, acetonyl (meth)acrylate, N-methacryloyl-2 pyrrolidinone, N-(2-methyacryloxyoxyethyl)-2-pyrrolidinone, N-(3-methacryloyloxy-propyl)-2- pyrrolidinone, N-(2-methyacryloyloxypentadecyl(-2-pyrrolidinone, N-(3 methacryloyloxyheptadecyl-2-pyrrolidinone;

a6) (methacrylates of ether alcohols like tetrahydrofurfuryl (meth)acrylate, methoxyethoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 1-butoxypropyl (meth)acrylate, cyclohexyloxyethyl (meth)acrylate, propoxyethoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, benzyloxyethyl (meth)acrylate, furfuryl (meth)acrylate, 2- butoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 2-ethoxy-2-ethoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 2-methoxy-2-ethoxypropyl (meth)acrylate, ethoxylated (meth)acrylates, 1-ethoxybutyl (meth)acrylate, methoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 2-ethoxy-2-ethoxy-2-ethoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, esters of (meth)acrylic acid and methoxy polyethylene glycols;

a7) (meth)acrylates of halogenated alcohols like 2,3-dibromopropyl (meth)acrylate, 4 bromophenyl (meth)acrylate, 1 ,3-dichloro-2-propyl (meth)acrylate, 2-bromoethyl (meth)acrylate, 2-iodoethyl (meth)acrylate, chloromethyl (meth)acrylate;

a8) oxiranyl (meth)acrylate like 2, 3-epoxybutyl (meth)acrylate, 3,4-epoxybutyl (meth)acrylate, 10,11 epoxyundecyl (meth)acrylate, 2,3-epoxycyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, oxiranyl (meth)acrylates such as 10,11-epoxyhexadecyl (meth)acrylate, glycidyl (meth)acrylate; a9) phosphorus-, boron- and/or silicon-containing (meth)acrylates like 2-(dimethyl- phosphato)propyl (meth)acrylate, 2-(ethylphosphito)propyl (meth)acrylate, 2 dimethylphosphinomethyl (meth)acrylate, dimethylphosphonoethyl (meth)acrylate, diethylmethacryloyl phosphonate, dipropylmethacryloyl phosphate, 2 (dibutylphosphono)ethyl (meth)acrylate, 2,3-butylenemethacryloylethyl borate, methyldiethoxymethacryloylethoxysiliane, diethylphosphatoethyl (meth)acrylate;

a10) sulfur-containing (meth)acrylates like ethylsu Ifinylethyl (meth)acrylate, 4-thio-cyanatobutyl (meth)acrylate, ethylsu Ifonylethyl (meth)acrylate, thiocyanatomethyl (meth)acrylate, methylsulfinylmethyl (meth)acrylate, bis(methacryloyloxyethyl) sulfide;

a11) heterocyclic (meth)acrylates like 2-(1-imidazolyl)ethyl (meth)acrylate, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl (meth)acrylate, oxazolidinylethyl (meth)acrylate and N-methacryloylmorpholine;

a12) maleic acid and maleic acid derivatives such as mono- and diesters of maleic acid, maleic anhydride, methylmaleic anhydride, maleinimide, methylmaleinimide;

a13) fumaric acid and fumaric acid derivatives such as, for example, mono- and diesters of fumaric acid;

a14) vinyl halides such as, for example, vinyl chloride, vinyl fluoride, vinylidene chloride and vinylidene fluoride;

a15) vinyl esters like vinyl acetate;

a16) vinyl monomers containing aromatic groups like styrene, substituted styrenes with an alkyl substituent in the side chain, such as alpha-methylstyrene and alpha-ethylstyrene, substituted styrenes with an alkyl substituent on the ring such as vinyltoluene and p-methylstyrene, halogenated styrenes such as monochlorostyrenes, dichlorostyrenes, tribromostyrenes and tetrabromostyrenes ;

a17) heterocyclic vinyl compounds like 2-vinylpyridine, 3-vinylpyridine, 2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine, 3- ethyl-4-vinylpyridine, 2,3-dimethyl-5-vinylpyridine, vinylpyrimidine, vinylpiperidine, 9- vinylcarbazole, 3-vinylcarbazole, 4-vinylcarbazole, 1-vinylimidazole, 2-methyl-1- vinylimidazole, N-vinylpyrrolidone, 2-vinylpyrrolidone, N-vinylpyrrolidine, 3-vinylpyrrolidine, N- vinylcaprolactam, N-vinylbutyrolactam, vinyloxolane, vinylfuran, vinylthiophene, vinylthiolane, vinylthiazoles and hydrogenated vinylthiazoles, vinyloxazoles and hydrogenated vinyloxazoles;

a18) vinyl and isoprenyl ethers;

a19) methacrylic acid and acrylic acid,

and

c) the reaction product of one or more ester of (meth)acrylic acid and one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (Mn) of 500 to 10,000 g/mol, and wherein the weight ratio of the one or more intercalation compound (A) to the one or more polymer compound (B) is 20:1 to 1 :5. In one embodiment of the invention the monomer composition further comprises as component b) one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer wherein each of the alkyl group of the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer independently is linear, cyclic or branched and comprises from 1 to 40 carbon atoms. According to the invention, the above-defined monomer composition comprises as component c) one or more ester of (meth)acrylic acid and one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (M n ) of 500 to 10,000 g/mol. In this context, the polymer compound (B) of this invention comprises a first polymer, which is also referred to as backbone or main chain, and a multitude of further polymers which are referred to as side chains and are bonded covalently to the backbone. In the present case, the backbone of the polymer is formed by the interlinked unsaturated groups of the mentioned (meth)acrylic acid esters. The alkyl groups and the hydrogenated polybutadiene chains of the (meth)acrylic esters form the side chains of the polymer. The reaction product of one or more additional ester of (meth)acrylic acid and one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight of 500 to 10,000 g/mol is also referred in the present invention as macromonomer. If these monomers are included, they are also regarded as macromonomers for the purpose of calculating the below- mentioned degree of branching.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention the one or more polymer compound (B) is obtainable by polymerizing a monomer composition comprising components a) and c), and optionally component b), and wherein the one or more polymer compound (B) has a weight-average molecular weight (M w ) of 10,000 to 1 ,000,000 g/mol, more preferably 50,000 to 1 ,000,000 g/mol, even more preferably 100,000 to 800,000 g/mol, most preferably 200,000 to 600,000 g/mol.

In the present invention, molecular weights of the polymers were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using commercially available polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) standards. The determination is effected by GPC with THF as eluent (flow rate: 1 mL/min; injected volume: 100 μL).

The number-average molecular weight M n of the macromonomer is determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using commercially available polybutadiene standards. The determination is effected to DIN 55672-1 by GPC with THF as eluent.

The one or more polymer compound (B) prepared with a monomer composition comprising the components a) and c), and optionally component b), can be characterized on the basis of its molar degree of branching ("f-branch"). The molar degree of branching refers to the percentage in mol% of macromonomers (component (c)) used, based on the total molar amount of all the monomers in the monomer composition. The molar amount of the macromonomers used is calculated on the basis of the number-average molecular weight (M n ) of the macromonomers. The calculation of the molar degree of branching is described in detail in WO 2007/003238 A1 , especially on pages 13 and 14, to which reference is made here explicitly.

Preferably, the one or more polymer compound (B) prepared with a monomer composition comprising the components a) and c), and optionally component b), have a molar degree of branching f branch of 0.1 to 6 mol%, more preferably 1 to 4 mol% and most preferably 1.5 to 3 mol%.

The term "(meth)acrylic acid" refers to acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and mixtures of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid; methacrylic acid being preferred. The term "(meth)acrylate" refers to esters of acrylic acid, esters of methacrylic acid or mixtures of esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid; esters of methacrylic acid being preferred.

Hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadienes

The one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadienes for use as component c) in accordance with the invention have a number-average molecular weight (M n ) of 500 g/mol to 10,000 g/mol. Because of their high molecular mass, the hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadienes can also be referred to as macroalcohols in the context of this invention. The corresponding esters of (meth)acrylic acid can also be referred to as macromonomers in the context of this invention. Component c) may comprise a single type of macromonomer or may comprise a mixture of different macromonomers based on different macroalcohols.

By combining a macromonomer as component c) based on a macroalcohol having number-average molecular weight (M n ) of 500 g/mol to 10,000 g/mol with the one or more compound a) and, optionally, the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate b) according to the invention, a polymer (B) can be obtained which when combined with the nanoparticle compound (A) offers a stable well-dispersed polymeric- inorganic nanoparticle composition. The hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene may be a single polybutadiene with a single number- average molecular weight (Mn) or it may be a mixture of different polybutadienes having different number-average molecular weight (M n ).

In the present invention, the expression“based on the one or more polymer compound (B)” means the same as“based on the total weight of the monomer composition”, or“based on the total weight of the one or more polymer compound (B)”.

Preferably, the monomer composition comprises as component c) 20 to 80 % by weight, more preferably 20 to 70 % by weight, even more preferably 20 to 60 % by weight, most preferably 20 to 50 % by weight, of one or more ester of (meth)acrylic acid and one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (M n ) of 500 g/mol to 10,000 g/mol, based on the total weight of the monomer composition.

According to the invention, the one or more polymer compound (B) prepared with a monomer composition comprising the components a) and c), and optionally component b), is obtainable by polymerizing a monomer composition comprising: a) 1 to 30 % by weight, preferably 5.5 to 30 % by weight, more preferably 5.5 to 25 % by weight, of the one or more functional monomer as component a), based on the total weight of the monomer composition; and

b) 0 to 80% by weight, preferably 15 to 70% by weight, more preferably 30 to 60 % by weight, of the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer wherein each of the alkyl group of the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer independently is linear, cyclic or branched and comprises from 1 to 40 carbon atoms), based on the total weight of the monomer composition; and

c) 20 to 80 % by weight, preferably 20 to 60 % by weight, more preferably 25 to 60 % by weight, of one or more ester of (meth)acrylic acid and one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (Mn) of 500 g/mol to 10,000 g/mol, based on the total weight of the monomer composition. ln a preferred embodiment the amount of monomer a), c) and optionally b) of the monomer composition sum up to 100 % by weight.

In a preferred embodiment the one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadienes for use as component c) in accordance with the invention have a number-average molecular weight (M n ) of 1 ,500 to 7,500 g/mol.

Preferably, the one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene of component c) has a number-average molecular weight (M n ) of 1 ,500 to 2,100 g/mol, more preferably 1 ,800 to 2,100 g/mol, most preferably 1 ,900 to 2,100 g/mol.

In another preferred embodiment, component c) may be one macromonomer prepared using one or more macroalcohols having different molecular weights, the first macroalcohol having a number- average molecular weight of 1 ,500 to 2,100 g/mol, more preferably 1 ,800 to 2,100 g/mol, most preferably 1 ,900 to 2,100 g/mol, and the second macroalcohol having a number-average molecular weight of 3,500 to 7,000 g/mol, preferably 4,000 to 6,000 g/mol, more preferably 4,500 to 5,000 g/mol. Component c) may also comprise a mixture of two macromonomers, the first macromonomer being prepared with a macroalcohol having a number-average molecular weight of 1 ,500 to 2,100 g/mol, more preferably 1 ,800 to 2,100 g/mol, most preferably 1 ,900 to 2,100 g/mol, and the second macromonomer being prepared with a macroalcohol having a number-average molecular weight of 3,500 to 7,000 g/mol, preferably 4,000 to 6,000 g/mol, more preferably 4,500 to 5,000 g/mol.

According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, by combining two macromonomers of different number-average molecular weights, the weight proportion of the lower molecular weight macromonomer to the higher molecular weight macromonomer is preferably one or more, more preferably 1.5 to 15, even more preferably 2 to 7, most preferably 3 to 6.

In a preferred embodiment, the hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene is a monohydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene, preferably a hydroxyethyl-terminated or hydroxypropyl-terminated hydrogenated polybutadiene.

In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the one or more ester of (meth)acrylic acid of the component c) used for the preparation of the polymer compound (B) is methyl (meth)acrylate or ethyl (meth)acrylate.

Preferably, the one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene has a hydrogenation level of at least 99%. An alternative measure of the hydrogenation level which can be determined on the polymer of the invention is the iodine number. The iodine number refers to the number of grams of iodine which can be added onto 100 g of polymer. Preferably, the polymer of the invention has an iodine number of not more than 5 g of iodine per 100 g of polymer. The iodine number is determined by the Wijs method according to DIN 53241-1 :1995-05.

Preferred hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadienes can be obtained according to GB 2270317.

As used herein, the term “hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene” refers to a hydrogenated polybutadiene that comprises one or more hydroxyl group. The hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene may further comprise additional structural units, such as polyether groups derived from the addition of alkylene oxides to a polybutadiene or a maleic anhydride group derived from the addition of maleic anhydride to a polybutadiene. These additional structural units may be introduced into the polybutadiene when the polybutadiene is functionalized with hydroxyl groups.

Preference is given to monohydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadienes. More preferably, the hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene is a hydroxyethyl- or hydroxypropyl-terminated hydrogenated polybutadiene. Particular preference is given to hydroxypropyl-terminated polybutadienes.

These monohydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadienes can be prepared by first converting butadiene monomers by anionic polymerization to polybutadiene. Subsequently, by reaction of the polybutadiene monomers with an alkylene oxide, such as ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, a hydroxy-functionalized polybutadiene can be prepared. The polybutadiene may also be reacted with more than one alkylene oxide units, resulting in a polyether-polybutadiene block copolymer having a terminal hydroxyl group. The hydroxylated polybutadiene can be hydrogenated in the presence of a suitable transition metal catalyst.

These monohydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadienes can also be selected from products obtained by hydroboration of (co)polymers of having a terminal double bond (e.g. as described in US Patent No. 4,316,973); maleic anhydride-ene-amino alcohol adducts obtained by an ene reaction between a (co)polymer having a terminal double bond and maleic anhydride with an amino alcohol; and products obtained by hydroformylation of a (co)polymer having a terminal double bond, followed by hydrogenation (e.g. as described in JP Publication No. S63-175096).

The macromonomers for use in accordance with the invention can be prepared by transesterification of alkyl (meth)acrylates. Reaction of the alkyl (meth)acrylate with the hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene forms the ester of the invention. Preference is given to using methyl (meth)acrylate or ethyl (meth)acrylate as reactant.

This transesterification is widely known. For example, it is possible for this purpose to use a heterogeneous catalyst system, such as lithium hydroxide/calcium oxide mixture (LiOH/CaO), pure lithium hydroxide (LiOH), lithium methoxide (LiOMe) or sodium methoxide (NaOMe) or a homogeneous catalyst system such as isopropyl titanate (Ti(OiPr) 4 ) or dioctyltin oxide (Sn(OCt) 2 0). The reaction is an equilibrium reaction. Therefore, the low molecular weight alcohol released is typically removed, for example by distillation. In addition, the macromonomers can be obtained by a direct esterification proceeding, for example, from (meth)acrylic acid or (meth)acrylic anhydride, preferably under acidic catalysis by p- toluenesulfonic acid or methanesulfonic acid, or from free methacrylic acid by the DCC method (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide). Furthermore, the present hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene can be converted to an ester by reaction with an acid chloride such as (meth)acryloyl chloride.

Preferably, in the above-detailed preparations of the esters of the invention, polymerization inhibitors are used, for example the 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinooxyl radical and/or hydroquinone monomethyl ether.

Additional monomers

The term“C 1-40 alkyl (meth)acrylates” refers to esters of (meth)acrylic acid and straight chain, cyclic or branched alcohols having 1 to 40 carbon atoms. The term encompasses individual (meth)acrylic esters with an alcohol of a particular length, and likewise mixtures of (meth)acrylic esters with alcohols of different lengths.

According to the invention it is preferred that in optional component b) of the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition each of the alkyl group of the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer independently is linear, cyclic or branched and comprises from 1 to 40 carbon atoms.

According to the invention it is also preferred that each of the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer independently is

b1 ) of formula (I):

wherein R is hydrogen or methyl, R 1 means a linear, branched or cyclic alkyl residue with 1 to 8 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and more preferably 1 to 3 carbon atoms, or b2) of formula (II):

wherein R is hydrogen or methyl, R 2 means a linear, branched or cyclic alkyl residue with 9 to 15 carbon atoms, preferably 12 to 15 carbon atoms, and more preferably 12 to 14 carbon atoms, or b3) of formula (III):

wherein R is hydrogen or methyl, R 3 means a linear, branched or cyclic alkyl residue with 16 to 40 carbon atoms, preferably 16 to 30 carbon atoms, and more preferably 6 to 20 carbon atoms.

That is to say, according to the invention, it is preferred that the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylates as component b) are selected from b1 ), b2), b3) or a mixture thereof.

The term“C 1 -8 alkyl (meth)acrylates” refers to esters of (meth)acrylic acid and straight chain or branched alcohols having 1 to 8 carbon atoms. The term encompasses individual (meth)acrylic esters with an alcohol of a particular length, and likewise mixtures of (meth)acrylic esters with alcohols of different lengths. According to the invention each of the one or more monomer according to formula (I), i.e. the C-i-8 alkyl (meth)acrylates, may independently be selected from the group consisting of (meth)acrylates derived from saturated alcohols, preferably methyl (meth)acrylate, ethyl (meth)acrylate, n-propyl (meth)acrylate, isopropyl (meth)acrylate, n-butyl (meth)acrylate, tert-butyl (meth)acrylate, pentyl (meth)acrylate, hexyl (meth)acrylate, cycloalkyl (meth)acrylates, cyclopentyl (meth)acrylate, cyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl (meth)acrylate, heptyl (meth)acrylate, 2-tert-butylheptyl (meth)acrylate, n-octyl (meth)acrylate and 3-isopropylheptyl (meth)acrylate, the most preferred monomer according to formula (II) is methyl methacrylate.

Particularly preferred C 1 -8 alkyl (meth)acrylates are methyl (meth)acrylate and n-butyl (meth)acrylate; methyl methacrylate and n-butyl methacrylate are especially preferred.

The term“C 9-15 alkyl (meth)acrylates” refers to esters of (meth)acrylic acid and straight chain or branched alcohols having 9 to 15 carbon atoms. The term encompasses individual (meth)acrylic esters with an alcohol of a particular length, and likewise mixtures of (meth)acrylic esters with alcohols of different lengths.

According to the invention each of the one or more monomer according to formula (II), i.e. the C 9 - 15 alkyl (meth)acrylates, may also independently be selected from the group consisting of nonyl (meth)acrylate, decyl (meth)acrylate, isodecyl (meth)acrylate, undecyl (meth)acrylate, 5- methylundecyl (meth)acrylate, n-dodecyl (meth)acrylate, 2-methyldodecyl (meth)acrylate, tridecyl (meth)acrylate, 5-methyltridecyl (meth)acrylate, n-tetradecyl (meth)acrylate, pentadecyl (meth)acrylate, oleyl (meth)acrylate, cycloalkyl (meth)acrylates, cyclohexyl (meth)acrylate having a ring substituent, tert-butylcyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, trimethylcyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, bornyl (meth)acrylate and isobornyl (meth)acrylate.

Particularly preferred C 9-15 alkyl (meth)acrylates are (meth)acrylic esters of a linear C 12-14 alcohol mixture (C12-14 alkyl (meth)acrylate).

The term“C 16-40 alkyl (meth)acrylates” refers to esters of (meth)acrylic acid and straight chain or branched alcohols having 16 to 40 carbon atoms. The term encompasses individual (meth)acrylic esters with an alcohol of a particular length, and likewise mixtures of (meth)acrylic esters with alcohols of different lengths.

According to the invention each of the one or more monomer according to formula (III) , i.e. the C 16- 40 alkyl (meth)acrylates, may also independently be selected from the group consisting of hexadecyl (meth)acrylate, 2-methylhexadecyl (meth)acrylate, heptadecyl (meth)acrylate, 5- isopropylheptadecyl (meth)acrylate, 4-tert-butyloctadecyl (meth)acrylate, 5-ethyloctadecyl (meth)acrylate, 3-isopropyloctadecyl (meth)acrylate, octadecyl (meth)acrylate, nonadecyl (meth)acrylate, eicosyl (meth)acrylate, cetyleicosyl (meth)acrylate, stearyleicosyl (meth)acrylate, docosyl (meth)acrylate, behenyl (meth)acrylate, eicosyltetratriacontyl (meth)acrylate, cycloalkyl (meth)acrylates, 2,4,5-tri-t-butyl-3-vinylcyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, and 2,3,4,5-tetra-t-butylcyclohexyl (meth)acrylate.

Preferably, the C 1-40 alkyl (meth)acrylates include a mixture of C 1 -8 alkyl (meth)acrylates and C 9 - 15 alkyl (meth)acrylates, more preferably is a C 12-14 alkyl (meth)acrylate.

Preferable monomer compositions

According to a preferred aspect of the invention, the one or more polymer compound (B) is obtainable by polymerizing a monomer composition comprising:

a) 1 to 30 % by weight, preferably 5.5 to 30 % by weight, more preferably 5.5 to 25 % by weight, of the one or more functional monomer as component a), based on the total weight of the monomer composition; and b1 ) 10 to 60 % by weight, preferably 20 to 60 % by weight, more preferably 25 to 60 % by weight, of the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer as component b), based on the total weight of the monomer composition,; and

b2) 0 to 20 % by weight, preferably 1 to 15 % by weight, more preferably 1 to 10 % by weight, of the one or more alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer as component b), based on the total weight of the monomer composition, and;

c) 20 to 80 % by weight, more preferably 20 to 60 % by weight, more preferably 25 to 60 % by weight of the reaction product of one or more ester of (meth)acrylic acid and one or more hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (M n ) of 500 to 10,000 g/mol, based on the total weight of the monomer composition, wherein the amounts of all monomers of the monomer composition sum up to 100 % by weight.

In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention the one or more polymer compound (B) is obtainable by polymerizing a monomer composition comprising:

a2) 0.5 to 5 % by weight of an aminoalkyl (meth)acrylamide, most preferably N-(3-dimethyl- aminopropyl)methacrylamide, as first component a) based on the one or more polymer compound (B);

a16) 5 to 20 % by weight of a vinyl monomer containing aromatic groups, most preferably styrene, as second component a) based on the one or more polymer compound (B);

b1 ) 25 to 60 % by weight of an alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer of formula (I), most preferably methyl methacrylate and/or butyl methacrylate, as first component b) based on the one or more polymer compound (B);

b2) 1 to 10 % by weight of an alkyl (meth)acrylate monomer of formula (II), most preferably lauryl methacrylate, as second component b) based on the one or more polymer compound (B); and

c) 25 to 60 % by weight of an ester of a (meth)acrylic acid and a hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (M n ) of 500 to 10,000 g/mol, most preferably a macromonomer derived from the reaction of an ester of a (meth)acrylic acid and a hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene having a number-average molecular weight (M n ) of 1 ,500-5,000 g/mol, as component c) based on the one or more polymer compound (B);

wherein the amount of all monomers of the monomer composition sum up to 100 % by weight.

Inorganic nanoparticles

According to the present invention, the inorganic nanoparticle (also referred to as“particle” or “nanoparticle” in the present text) is a microscopic particle with at least one dimension being between 1 and 500 nm, preferably between 2 and 250 nm and more preferably between 5 and 100 nm (determined using transmission electron microscopy, TEM). This particle can either be of individual character or be present in an aggregated and/or agglomerated structure. In the latter, the size of the primary particle is between the aforementioned sizes in at least one dimension.. The above dimensions are provided for illustrative purposes only, and are not intended to limit the present disclosure.

According to a preferred aspect of the present invention, the inorganic nanoparticle is an oxide, nitride or carbide of silicon, zirconium, cerium, titanium, aluminum, copper, calcium, magnesium, barium, iron, nickel, zinc, yttrium, boron or carbon. Preferred oxide nanoparticles are ZrO, CeO, T1O 2 , S1O 2 , AI2O3, CuO, CaO, MgO, BaO, Fe2O3, NiO, FeO, ZnO, Y2O3, boron oxides; B 6 O (boron suboxide) and mixture thereof.

According to another preferred aspect of the present invention, the inorganic nanoparticle is selected from nitrides and carbides of boron, silicon, aluminum, silico-oxy, tungsten, and mixture thereof, such as cBN, hBN, AIN, TiN, Si 3 N 4 .

In a particularly preferred aspect of the invention the nanoparticle compound (A) comprises hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoparticle.

According to another preferred aspect of the present invention, the inorganic nanoparticle is selected from multi or single layered carbonous structures; multi or single walled nanotubes, carbon fullerenes, graphene, carbon black, graphite and mixture thereof.

According to a preferred aspect of the present invention, the inorganic nanoparticle is a non-metal oxide. Preferred non-metal oxide nanoparticles are graphene oxide, graphite oxide and mixture thereof.

According to a preferred aspect of the present invention, the nanoparticle is selected from mixture of above mentioned structures.

Preparation of the polymer compound (B)

According to the present invention, the above-mentioned polymers may be prepared following the method comprising the steps of:

(a) providing a monomer composition as describe above; and

(b) initiating radical polymerization in the monomer composition.

Standard free-radical polymerization is detailed, inter alia, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Sixth Edition. In general, a polymerization initiator and optionally a chain transfer agent are used for this purpose. The polymerization can be conducted under standard pressure, reduced pressure or elevated pressure. The polymerization temperature is also uncritical. In general, however, it is in the range from -20 to 200°C, preferably 50 to 150°C and more preferably 80 to 130°C.

The polymerization step (b) may be performed with or without dilution in oil. If dilution is performed, then the amount of the monomer composition, i.e. the total amount of monomers, relative to the total weight of the reaction mixture is preferably 20 to 90 % by weight, more preferably 40 to 80 % by weight, most preferably 50 to 70 % by weight.

Preferably, the oil used for diluting the monomer mixture is an API Group I, II, III, IV or V oil, or a mixture thereof. Preferably, a Group III oil or a mixture thereof is used to dilute the monomer mixture.

Preferably, step (b) comprises the addition of a radical initiator.

Suitable radical initiators are, for example, azo initiators, such as azobis-isobutyronitrile (AIBN), 2,2'- azobis(2-methylbutyronitrile) (AMBN) and 1 ,1-azobiscyclohexanecarbonitrile, and peroxy compounds such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, acetylacetone peroxide, dilauryl peroxide, tert- butyl per-2-ethylhexanoate, ketone peroxide, tert- butyl peroctoate, methyl isobutyl ketone peroxide, cyclohexanone peroxide, dibenzoyl peroxide, tert- butyl peroxybenzoate, tert- butyl peroxyisopropylcarbonate, 2,5-bis(2-ethylhexanoylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane, tert- butyl peroxy-2- ethylhexanoate, tert- butyl peroxy-3,5,5-trimethylhexanoate, dicumyl peroxide, 1 ,1 -bis (tert- butylperoxy)cyclohexane, 1 ,1-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane, cumyl hydroperoxide, tert- butyl hydroperoxide and bis(4-tert-butylcyclohexyl) peroxydicarbonate.

Preferably, the radical initiator is selected from the group consisting of 2,2'-azobis(2- methylbutyronitrile), 2,2-bis(tert-butylperoxy)butane, tert-butylperoxy 2-ethyl hexanoate, 1 ,1-di -tert- butylperoxy-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexan, tert- butyl peroxybenzoate and tert-butylperoxy-3,5,5- trimethylhexanoat. Particularly preferred initiators are tert-butylperoxy 2-ethylhexanoate and 2,2- bis(tert-butylperoxy)butane.

Preferably, the total amount of radical initiator relative to the total weight of the monomer mixture is 0.01 to 5 % by weight, more preferably 0.02 to 1 % by weight, most preferably 0.05 to 0.6 % by weight.

The total amount of radical initiator may be added in a single step or the radical initiator may be added in several steps over the course of the polymerization reaction. Preferably, the radical initiator is added in several steps. For example, a part of the radical initiator may be added to initiate radical polymerization and a second part of the radical initiator may be added 0.5 to 3.5 hours after the initial dosage. Preferably, step (b) also comprises the addition of a chain transfer agent. Suitable chain transfer agents are especially oil-soluble mercaptans, for example n-dodecyl mercaptan or 2- mercaptoethanol, or else chain transfer agents from the class of the terpenes, for example terpinolene. Particularly preferred is the addition of n-dodecyl mercaptan.

It is also possible to divide the monomer composition into an initial part and a second part and to add a part of the radical initiator to the initial part only to start the polymerization reaction therein. Then, the second part of the radical initiator is added to the second part of the monomer composition which is then added over the course of 0.5 to 5 hours, preferably 1.5 to 4 hours, more preferably 2 to 3.5 hours, to the polymerization reaction mixture. After addition of the second monomer mixture, a third part of the radical initiator may be added to the polymerization reaction as described above.

Preferably, the total reaction time of the radical polymerization is 2 to 10 hours, more preferably 3 to 9 hours.

After completion of the radical polymerization, the obtained polymer is preferably further diluted with the above-mentioned oil to the desired viscosity. Preferably, the polymer is diluted to a concentration of 5 to 60 % by weight polymer, more preferably 10 to 50 % by weight, most preferably 20 to 40 % by weight.

The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition of the invention and preparation process thereof

According to the invention in the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition the weight ratio of the one or more nanoparticle compound (A) to the one or more polymer compound (B) is 20:1 to 1 :5, preferably 10:1 to 1 :2, more preferably 5:1 to 1 :1 , most preferably 4:1 to 2:1.

According to the invention it is preferred that the mixture comprising the one or more inorganic nanoparticle (A) and the one or more polymer compound (B) further comprises a solvent (C), preferably wherein the solvent is a base oil, an organic solvent or a mixture thereof.

The solvent (C) can be a base oil, selected from the list consisting of an API Group I base oil, an API Group II base oil, an API Group III, an API Group IV base oil and an API Group V base oil or a combination thereof.

The solvent (C) can be an organic solvent selected from the list of alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ethers or a combination thereof.

It is preferred, that the mixture comprises 30 to 99.9 %, more preferably 50 to 99 %, most preferably 70 to 99 % by weight of solvent (C).

According to this invention, the mixture of one or more inorganic nanoparticle (A), the one or more polymer compound (B) and the solvent (C) is milled via a ball mill process. Preferably, the ball mill process comprises introducing 0.1 to 10 kWh/kg, preferably 1 to 5 kWh/kg, more preferably 1.5 to 3 kWh/kg energy into the mixture.

In another preferred embodiment of the method for manufacturing the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition, the mixture of one or more inorganic nanoparticle (A), the one or more polymer compound (B) and the solvent (C) is milled using an ultrasound equipment having between 10 to 1000 W, preferably 50 to 800 W and more preferably 100 to 500 W power. Preferably, the composition is milled for 1 to 240 minutes, more preferably for 10 to 180 minutes and even more preferably for 30 to 150 minutes to achieve a stable polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition.

In another preferred embodiment, the mixture of one or more inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticle (A), the one or more polymer compound (B) and the solvent (C) is milled using ultrahigh-pressure technology (e.g. jet mill equipment Sugino Ultimaizer HJP- 25050). At least two flows of this mixture are sprayed by means of pumps, preferably high-pressure pumps, through one nozzle (0.25 mm diameter) each into a grinding chamber enclosed by a reactor housing onto a collision point, characterized in that the grinding chamber is flooded with the mixture and the finally milled mixture is removed from the grinding chamber by the overpressure of the continuous flow into the grinding chamber. The pump pressure is between 100 to 4000 bar, preferably between 400 to 3000 bar, more preferably between 1000 to 2500 bar.

Another aspect of the invention is a method for manufacturing a polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition, especially a polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition as described above. The inventive method comprises the steps of:

(a) providing one or more nanoparticle compound (A) as defined herein;

(b) providing one or more polymer compound (B) as defined herein;

(c) preferably, providing a solvent (C) as defined herein;

(d) combining at least the one or more nanoparticle compound (A) and the one or more polymer compound (B) to obtain a mixture, preferably combining at least the one or more nanoparticle compound (A), the one or more polymer compound (B) and the solvent (C) to obtain a mixture; and

(e) milling the mixture.

According to this invention, the milling step (e) is defined by a resulting change of particle size distribution of the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition measured using dynamic light scattering technology (DLS). The milling technology according to the invention described in step (e) can be rotor-stator equipment, homogenization, high pressure homogenization, high shear mixing, ultrasonic sound, ball milling or ultrahigh-pressure technology (jet mill) or a combination thereof. Indeed, the particle size of the agglomerates is reduced using these milling technologies.

The most preferred embodiment is milling the mixture via ultrahigh pressure technology (jet mill) or a ball mill process.

Use of the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to the invention

A further aspect of the invention is the use of the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition as defined herein as an additive for a lubricant composition.

The polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition as defined herein and the lubricant compositions comprising the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to the invention are favorably used for driving system lubricating oils (such as manual transmission fluids, differential gear oils, automatic transmission fluids and belt-continuously variable transmission fluids, axle fluid formulations, dual clutch transmission fluids, and dedicated hybrid transmission fluids), hydraulic oils (such as hydraulic oils for machinery, power steering oils, shock absorber oils), engine oils (for gasoline engines and for diesel engines) and industrial oil formulations (such as wind turbine). In a preferred embodiment according to the invention the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition improves the anti-friction performance of moving metal parts of an engine, a gearbox or pump of an automobile, a wind turbine, or a hydraulic system.

Formulations

Yet another aspect of the invention is a composition comprising:

(i) a base oil; and

(ii) a polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition as defined herein.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention the base oil is selected from the list consisting of an API Group I base oil, an API Group II base oil, an API Group III, an API Group IV base oil and an API Group V base oil or a mixture of one or more of these base oils.

The formulation may be an additive formulation comprising the polymer-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to the invention and a base oil as diluent. The additive formulation may, for example, be added as anti-friction additive to lubricants. Typically, the additive formulation comprises a relatively high amount of polymer-inorganic nanoparticle composition according the invention.

The formulation may also represent a lubricant formulation comprising the polymer-inorganic nanoparticle composition according to the invention, a base oil and optionally further additives as discussed below. The lubricant formulation may, for example, be used as a transmission fluid or an engine oil. Typically, the lubricant formulation comprises a lower amount of polymer according to the invention as compared to the aforementioned additive formulation.

If the formulation is used as an additive formulation, the amount of base oil as component (i) preferably is 40 to 95 % by weight, more preferably 70 to 90 % by weight and the amount of polymer- inorganic nanoparticle composition as component (ii) preferably is 5 to 60 % by weight, more preferably 10 to 30 % by weight, based on the total weight of the formulation.

If the formulation is used as a lubricant formulation, the amount of base oil as component (i) is preferably 50 to 99.99 % by weight, more preferably 65 to 99.99 % by weight, even more preferably 75 to 99.9 % by weight, and the amount of polymer-inorganic nanoparticle composition as component

(ii) preferably is 0.01 to 50 % by weight, more preferably 0.01 to 35 % by weight, even more preferably 0.1 to 25 % by weight, based on the total weight of the formulation.

Preferably, the amounts of components (i) and (ii) add up to 100 % by weight. The base oil to be used in the formulation preferably comprises an oil of lubricating viscosity. Such oils include natural and synthetic oils, oil derived from hydrocracking, hydrogenation, and hydrofinishing, unrefined, refined, re-refined oils or mixtures thereof. The base oil may also be defined as specified by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (see April 2008 version of "Appendix E-API Base Oil Interchangeability Guidelines for Passenger Car Motor Oils and Diesel Engine Oils", section 1.3 Sub-heading 1.3. "Base Stock Categories").

The API currently defines five groups of lubricant base stocks (API 1509, Annex E - API Base Oil Interchangeability Guidelines for Passenger Car Motor Oils and Diesel Engine Oils, September 2011 ). Groups I, II and III are mineral oils which are classified by the amount of saturates and sulphur they contain and by their viscosity indices; Group IV are polyalphaolefins; and Group V are all others, including e.g. ester oils. The table below illustrates these API classifications. Table 1 : API definition of lubricant base stocks

Further base oils which can be used in accordance with the present invention are Group ll-lll Fischer- Tropsch derived base oils. Fischer-Tropsch derived base oils are known in the art. By the term "Fischer-Tropsch derived" is meant that a base oil is, or is derived from, a synthesis product of a Fischer-Tropsch process. A Fischer-Tropsch derived base oil may also be referred to as a GTL (Gas-To-Liquids) base oil. Suitable Fischer-Tropsch derived base oils that may be conveniently used as the base oil in the lubricating composition of the present invention are those as for example disclosed in EP 0 776 959, EP 0 668 342, WO 97/21788, WO 00/15736, WO 00/14188, WO 00/14187, WO 00/14183, WO 00/14179, WO 00/08115, WO 99/41332, EP 1 029 029, WO 01/18156, WO 01/57166 and WO 2013/189951.

Especially for transmission oil formulations, base oils of API Group III and mixtures of different Group III oils are used. In a preferred embodiment, the base oil may also be a polyalphaolefin base oil or a mixture of a polyalphaolefin base oil with an API Group III base oil or a mixture of API Group III base oils. The lubricant formulation according to the invention may also contain, as component (iii), further additives selected from the group consisting of dispersants, defoamers, detergents, antioxidants, pour point depressants, antiwear additives, extreme pressure additives, anticorrosion additives, yellow metal passivator, friction modifiers, dyes and mixtures thereof.

Appropriate dispersants include poly(isobutylene) derivatives, for example poly(isobutylene)succinimides (PIBSIs), including borated PIBSIs; and ethylene-propylene oligomers having N/O functionalities.

Dispersants (including borated dispersants) are preferably used in an amount of 0 to 5% by weight, based on the total amount of the lubricant composition.

Suitable defoamers are silicone oils, fluorosilicone oils, fluoroalkyl ethers, etc.

The defoaming agent is preferably used in an amount of 0.001 to 0.2% by weight, based on the total amount of the lubricant composition.

The preferred detergents include metal-containing compounds, for example phenoxides; salicylates; thiophosphonates, especially thiopyrophosphonates, thiophosphonates and phosphonates; sulfonates and carbonates. As metal, these compounds may contain especially calcium, magnesium and barium. These compounds may preferably be used in neutral or overbased form.

Detergents are preferably used in an amount of 0.2 to 8 % by weight, preferably 0.2 to 1 % by weight, based on the total amount of the lubricant composition.

The suitable antioxidants include, for example, phenol-based antioxidants and amine-based antioxidants.

Phenol-based antioxidants include, for example, octadecyl-3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- hydroxyphenyl)propionate; 4,4' -methylenebis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol); 4,4' -bis(2,6-di-t-butylphenol); 4,4' -b is(2-methyl-6-t-butylphenol); 2,2' -methylenebis(4-ethyl-6-t-butylphenol); 2,2' -methylenebis( 4-methyl-6-t-butyl phenol); 4,4' -butyl idenebis(3-methyl-6-t-butylphenol); 4,4'-isopropylidenebis(2,6- di-t-butylphenol); 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-nonylphenol); 2,2'-isobutylidenebis(4,6- dimethylphenol); 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-cyclohexylphenol); 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol; 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-ethyl-phenol; 2,4-dimethyl-6-t-butylphenol; 2,6-di-t-amyl-p-cresol; 2,6-di-t-butyi-4- (N,N'-dimethylaminomethylphenol); 4,4'thiobis(2-methyl-6-t-butylphenol); 4,4'-thiobis(3-methyl-6-t- butylphenol); 2,2'-thiobis(4-methyl-6-t-butylphenol); bis(3-methyl-4-hydroxy-5-t-butylbenzyl) sulfide; bis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) sulfide; n-octyl-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-t-butylphenyl)propionate; n- octadecyl-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-t-butylphenyl)propionate; 2,2'-thio[diethyl-bis-3-(3,5-di-t-butyl-4- hydroxyphenyl)propionate], etc. Of those, especially preferred are bis-phenol-based antioxidants and ester group containing phenol-based antioxidants.

The amine-based antioxidants include, for example, monoalkyldiphenylamines such as monooctyldiphenylamine, monononyldiphenylamine, etc.; dialkyldiphenylamines such as 4,4' - dibutyldiphenylamine, 4,4'-dipentyldiphe nylamine, 4,4'- dihexyldiphenylamine, 4,4'- diheptyldiphenylamine, 4,4'-dioctyldiphenylamine, 4,4'-dinonyldiphenylamine, etc.; polyalkyldiphenylamines such as tetrabutyldiphenylamine, tetrahexyldiphenylamine, tetraoctyldiphenylamine, tetranonyldiphenylamine, etc.; naphthylamines, concretely alpha- naphthylamine, phenyl-alpha-naphthylamine and further alkyl-substituted phenyl-alpha- naphthylamines such as butylphenyl-alpha-naphthylamine, pentylphenyl-alpha-naphthylamine, hexylphenyl-alpha-naphthylamine, heptylphenyl-alpha-naphthylamine, octylphenyl-alpha- naphthylamine, nonylphenyl-alpha-naphthylamine, etc. Of those, diphenylamines are preferred to naphthylamines, from the viewpoint of the antioxidation effect thereof.

Suitable antioxidants may further be selected from the group consisting of compounds containing sulfur and phosphorus, for example metal dithiophosphates, for example zinc dithiophosphates (ZnDTPs), "OOS triesters" = reaction products of dithiophosphoric acid with activated double bonds from olefins, cyclopentadiene, norbornadiene, a-pinene, polybutene, acrylic esters, maleic esters (ashless on combustion); organosulfur compounds, for example dialkyl sulfides, diaryl sulfides, polysulfides, modified thiols, thiophene derivatives, xanthates, thioglycols, thioaldehydes, sulfur- containing carboxylic acids; heterocyclic sulfur/nitrogen compounds, especially dialkyldimercaptothiadiazoles, 2-mercaptobenzimidazoles; zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) and methylene bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate); organophosphorus compounds, for example triaryl and trialkyl phosphites; organocopper compounds and overbased calcium- and magnesium-based phenoxides and salicylates.

Antioxidants are used in an amount of 0 to 15% by weight, preferably 0.01 to 10% by weight, more preferably 0.01 to 5% by weight, based on the total amount of the lubricant composition.

Suitable anticorrosion additives are succinic acid partial esters, succinic acid partial ester amine salts, organic carboxylic acids, sulfonates and suitable yellow metal passivators are thiadiazoles, triazoles and high molecular phenolic antioxidants.

Anticorrosion additives are used in an amount of 0 to 5% by weight, yellow metal passivators are used in an amount of 0 to 1 % by weight, all amounts based on the total weight of the lubricant composition.

The pour-point depressants include ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, chlorinated paraffin- naphthalene condensates, chlorinated paraffin-phenol condensates, polymethacrylates, polyalkylstyrenes, etc. Preferred are polymethacrylates having a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of from 5,000 to 200,000 g/mol.

The amount of the pour point depressant is preferably from 0.1 to 5% by weight, based on the total amount of the lubricant composition.

The preferred antiwear and extreme pressure additives include sulfur-containing compounds such as zinc dithiophosphate, zinc di-C3-i 2 -alkyldithiophosphates (ZnDTPs), zinc phosphate, zinc dithiocarbamate, molybdenum dithiocarbamate, molybdenum dithiophosphate, alkyl dithiophosphate, disulfides, sulfurized olefins, sulfurized oils and fats, sulfurized esters, thiocarbonates, thiocarbamates, polysulfides, etc.; phosphorus-containing compounds such as phosphites, phosphates, for example trialkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates, e.g. tricresyl phosphate, amine-neutralized mono- and dialkyl phosphates, ethoxylated mono- and dialkyl phosphates, phosphonates, phosphines, amine salts or metal salts of those compounds, etc.; sulfur and phosphorus-containing anti-wear agents such as thiophosphites, thiophosphates, thiophosphonates, amine salts or metal salts of those compounds, etc.

The antiwear agent may be present in an amount of 0 to 3% by weight, preferably 0.1 to 1.5% by weight, more preferably 0.5 to 0.9% by weight, based on the total amount of the lubricant composition.

The preferred friction modifiers may include mechanically active compounds, for example molybdenum disulphide, graphite (including fluorinated graphite), poly (trifluorethylene), polyamide, polyimide; compounds which form adsorption layers, for example long-chain carboxylic acids, fatty acid esters, ethers, alcohols, amines, amides, imides, phosphonates, phosphite; compounds which form layers through tribochemical reactions, for example saturated fatty acids, phosphoric acid, boric acid esters and thiophosphoric esters, xanthogenates, sulphurized fatty acids; compounds which form polymer-like layers, for example ethoxylated dicarboxylic acid partial esters, dialkyl phthalates, methacrylates, unsaturated fatty acids, sulphurized olefins and organometallic compounds, for example molybdenum compounds (molybdenum dithiophosphates and molybdenum dithiocarbamates MoDTC) and their combinations with ZnDTPs, copper-containing organic compounds.

Some of the compounds listed above may fulfil multiple functions. ZnDTP, for example, is primarily an antiwear additive and extreme pressure additive, but also has the character of an antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (here: metal passivator/deactivator).

The above-detailed additives are described in detail, inter alia, in T. Mang, W. Dresel (eds.): "Lubricants and Lubrication", Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2001 ; R. M. Mortier, S. T. Orszulik (eds.): "Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants". Preferably, the total concentration of the one or more additive (iii) is up to 20% by weight, more preferably 0.05% to 15% by weight, more preferably 5% to 15% by weight, based on the total weight of the lubricant formulation.

Preferably, the amounts of (i) to (iii) add up to 100 % by weight.

The all-in-once lubricant formulation comprising the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition of the invention combines stability over the time, as well as improved anti-friction properties as shown below in the experimental part. This approach may therefore avoid any incompatibilities between different package components, dispersing agents, and other additives in the lubricant formulation as a single additive combines all properties.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For the purpose of better illustrating the advantages and properties of the claimed polymeric- inorganic particles object of the invention, a graph is attached as a non-limiting example: Figure 1 is a diagram showing the friction reduction in % in boundary regime.

EXPERIMENTAL PART The invention is further illustrated in detail hereinafter with reference to examples and comparative examples, without any intention to limit the scope of the present invention.

Abbreviations C 1 AMA C 1 -alkyl methacrylate (methyl methacrylate; MMA)

C 4 AMA C 4 -alkyl methacrylate (n-butyl methacrylate)

C 12-14 AMA C 12 - 14 -alkyl methacrylate

DMAPMAA A/-3-Dimethylaminopropylmethacrylamid

f branch degree of branching in mol%

MMA methyl(meth)acrylate

MA-1 macroalcohol (hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene Mn = 2,000 g/mol) MM-1 macromonomer of hydrogenated polybutadiene MA-1 with methacrylate functionality (M n = 2,000 g/mol)

Mn number-average molecular weight

M w weight-average molecular weight NB3020 Nexbase ® 3020, Group III base oil from Neste with a KV 100 of 2.2 cSt

NB3043 Nexbase ® 3043, Group III base oil from Neste with a KV 100 of 4.3 cSt

NB3060 Nexbase ® 3060, Group III base oil from Neste with a KV 100 of 6.0 cSt

PDI polydispersity index, molecular weight distribution calculated via M w /M n

MTM Mini Traction Machine equipment

Synthesis of a hydroxylated hydrogenated polybutadiene (macroalcohol) MA-1

The macroalcohol was synthesized by anionic polymerization of 1 ,3-butadiene with butyllithium at 20-45 °C. On attainment of the desired degree of polymerization, the reaction was stopped by adding propylene oxide and lithium was removed by precipitation with methanol. Subsequently, the polymer was hydrogenated under a hydrogen atmosphere in the presence of a noble metal catalyst at up to 140 °C and 200 bar pressure. After the hydrogenation had ended, the noble metal catalyst was removed and organic solvent was drawn off under reduced pressure to obtain a 100% macroalcohol MA-1.

Table 2 summarizes the characterization data of MA-1

Table 2: Characterization data of used macroalcohol.

Synthesis of macromonomer MM-1

In a 2 L stirred apparatus equipped with saber stirrer, air inlet tube, thermocouple with controller, heating mantle, column having a random packing of 3 mm wire spirals, vapor divider, top thermometer, reflux condenser and substrate cooler, 1000 g of the above-described macroalcohol are dissolved in methyl methacrylate (MMA) by stirring at 60 °C. Added to the solution are 20 ppm of 2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl radical and 200 ppm of hydroquinone monomethyl ether. After heating to MMA reflux (bottom temperature about 110 °C) while passing air through for stabilization, about 20 ml_ of MMA are distilled off for azeotropic drying. After cooling to 95 °C, LiOCH3 is added and the mixture is heated back to reflux. After the reaction time of about 1 hour, the top temperature has fallen to ~64 °C because of methanol formation. The methanol/MMA azeotrope formed is distilled off constantly until a constant top temperature of about 100 °C is established again. At this temperature, the mixture is left to react for a further hour. For further workup, the bulk of MMA is drawn off under reduced pressure. Insoluble catalyst residues are removed by pressure filtration (Seitz T1000 depth filter). Table 3 summarizes the MMA and LiOCH3 amounts used for the synthesis of macromonomer MM- 1

Table 3: Macroalcohol, MMA and catalyst amounts for the transesterification of the

macromonomer.

Preparation of amine- and macromonomer-containing polymer compound (B) according to the invention

As described above, the polymer weight-average molecular weights (M w ) were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) calibrated using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) standards. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is used as eluent.

Example Polymer 1 (P1 ):

85 grams of Nexbase 3020, 85 grams of Berylane 230SPP, 140 grams of macromonomer, 107 grams of butyl methacrylate, 28 grams of styrene, 13 grams of lauryl methacrylate, 8 grams of dimethylaminopropylmethacrylamide, and 1 grams of n-dodecylmercaptan were charged into a 2- liter, 4-necked round bottom flask. The reaction mixture was stirred using a C-stirring rod, inerted with nitrogen, and heated to 115°C. Once the reaction mixture reached the setpoint temperature, 0.9 grams of tertbutyl-2-ethyleperoxyhexanoate were fed into the reactor over 3 hours. 0.5 grams of 2,2- di-(tert-butylperoxy)-butane were added in 30 minutes and 3 hours after the previous feed. The reaction was allowed to stir for one hour, and then an additional 132 grams of Nexbase 3020 were added to the reactor and allowed to mix for 1 hour. The polymer obtained has a weight-average molecular weight (M w ) of 260,000 g/mol (PMMA standard).

Preparation of comparative polymer

Comparative Example Polymer 2 (P2):

200 grams of Nexbase 3043, 1 1 ,34 grams of n-3-dimethylaminopropylmethacrylamid (DMAPMAA), 272,21 grams of lauryl methacrylate (C 12-14 AMA , 5,53 grams of n-dodecyl mercaptan (n-DDM) 5,53 grams of 2-Ethylhexylthioglycolate (TGEH) were charged into 2 liter, 4-necked round bottom flask. The reaction mixture was stirred using a C-stirring rod, inerted with nitrogen, and heated to 90°C. Once the reaction mixture reached the setpoint temperature, 2,83 grams t-butylperoctoate was fed into the reactor over 2 hours. After 2 hours the mixture was heated up to 100°C and after reaching the setpoint 1 ,42 grams of t-butylper-2-ethylhexanoate and 1 ,13 grams of tert-butylperpivalate were fed in one hour. Residual monomer was measured by gas chromatography to ensure good monomer conversion. The polymer obtained has a weight-average molecular weight (M w ) of 10,500 g/mol (PMMA standard).

For the examples P1 and P2, the monomer components add up to 100%. The amount of initiator and chain transfer agent is given relative to the total amount of monomers. Table 4 below shows the monomer composition and reactants to prepare the polymers P1 and P2, as well as their final characterization.

Preparation of polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle concentrates according to the invention

Inventive example Dispersion IE1 :

2 g of hBN particles are given into a solution of 16 g Nexbase 3043 oil including 2 g of P1 while this mixture is treated with ultrasound (ultrasound processor UP400S with 400 Watt, 24kHz with Ti- sonotrode). After the addition is finished the dispersion is treated for 120 minutes. The particle size distribution (measured in Tegosoft DEC oil using dynamic light scattering equipment, LA- 950, Horiba Ltd., Japan) shows a d50 value of 267 nm (d99: 337 nm).

Preparation of polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle concentrates as comparative example

Comparative example Dispersion CE1 :

2 g of hBN particles are given into a solution of 16.3 g Nexbase 3043 oil including 1.7 g of P2 while this mixture is treated with ultrasound (ultrasound processor UP400S with 400 Watt, 24kHz with Ti- sonotrode) for 120 minutes, respectively. The particle size distribution (measured in Tegosoft DEC oil using dynamic light scattering equipment, LA- 950, Horiba Ltd., Japan) shows a d50 value of 479 nm.

The table 5 below summarizes the compositions of the inventive dispersions (IE) according to the invention and the comparative dispersions (CE). The listed weight percentages are based on the total weight of the different compositions.

Table 5: Comparison of dispersions according the present invention

Dynamic light scattering (DLS)

The particle size distribution was measured in Tegosoft DEC oil using the dynamic light scattering equipment LB-500 produced by Horiba Ltd.

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique in physics that can be used to determine the size distribution profile of small particles in suspension or polymers in solution. This equipment can be used to measure the particle size of dispersed material (inorganic nanoparticles or polymeric spheres, e.g.) in the range from 3 nm to 6 pm. The measurement is based on the Brownian motion of the particles within the medium and the scattering of incident laser light because of a difference in refraction index of liquid and solid material.

The resulting value is the hydrodynamic diameter of the particle’s corresponding sphere. The values d50, d90 and d99 are common standards for discussion, as these describe the hydrodynamic diameter of the particle below which 50%, 90% or 99% of the particles are within the particle size distribution. The lower these values, the better the particle dispersion. Monitoring these values can give a clue about the particle dispersion stability. If the values increase tremendously, the particles are not stabilized enough and may tend to agglomerate and sediment over time resulting in a lack of stability. Depending on the viscosity of the medium, it can be stated, that a d99 value of < 500 nm (e.g. for Nexbase base oil) is an indication for a stable dispersion as the particles are held in abeyance over time.

For the sake of comparison lubricating formulations are always compared based on the same content of inorganic nanoparticles. Therefore, formulations named with “-1” correspond to formulations having an inorganic nanoparticle concentration of 1 wt%, based on the total weight of lubricating formulation. Similarly“-2” corresponds to a concentration of 0.5 wt%,“-3” corresponds to a concentration of 10 wt%,“-4” corresponds to a concentration of 5 wt% and“-5” corresponds to a concentration of 0.1 wt%.

Determination of the reduction in friction via mini traction machine (MTM)

The coefficient of friction was measured using a Mini traction machine named MTM2 from PCS Instruments following the test method described in Table 4 below. SRR refers to the Sliding Roll Ratio. This parameter was maintained constant during the 2 hours test and is defined as (U Ball U DISC )/U wherein (U BaII - U DISC ) represents the sliding speed and U the entrainment speed, given by U = (U Ball + U DISC ) / 2. Stribeck curves for each sample were measured according to protocol in Table 6.

Table 6: Protocol to measure the Stribeck curves

According to MTM Method 1 , the friction coefficient was recorded over the complete range of speed for each blend and a Stribeck curve is obtained. The friction tests were performed according to these conditions for the formulations listed in Table 7 and results thereof are disclosed in Table 8 below. The listed weight percentages are based on the total weight of the different formulations.

Table 7: Formulations according to the invention

To express in % the friction reduction, a quantifiable result can be expressed as a number and is obtained by integration of the friction value curves using the obtained corresponding Stribeck curves in the range of sliding speed 5 mm/s - 60 mm/s using the trapezoidal rule. The area corresponds to the“total friction” over the selected speed regime. The smaller the area, the greater the friction- reducing effect of the product examined. The percentage friction reductions were calculated by using the values of the reference oil Nexbase ® 3043, which generates an area of friction of 6.32 mm/s. Positive values indicate a decrease of friction coefficients. Values in relation to the reference oil are compiled in the table 8 below (see also figure 1 ). Table 8: Friction reduction in boundary regime for the formulations according to the invention compared to base oil

The results are shown in table 8, the results of the calculated total friction in the range of sliding speed 5 mm/s - 60 mm/s clearly show that the inventive example IE1 has a much better effect with regard to the reduction in friction than the corresponding comparative example and reference NB3043 oil. NB3043 is the reference base oil.

The results obtained were not foreseeable from the available documentation of the state of the art. The results show that the dispersibility and plays an important role with polymer P1

Dispersion stability test by visual appearance

A stability test was conducted for each sample by diluting a small amount of concentrate to a 5 wt%, 1 wt% and 0.1 wt% solution of the polymeric-inorganic nanoparticle composition based on the total weight of the different formulations. The dilution was prepared by blending one concentrate chosen from inventive example IE1 or comparative example CE1 in a 10 mL glass vial at room temperature. For example, 0.5 grams of inventive example IE1 were mixed with 4.5 grams of NB3043 to obtain a 1wt% solution of polymeric-inorganic nanoparticles.

Each dilution was stored at room temperature. The vials were checked after 1 week, 4 weeks and 3 months for signs of sedimentation or other instabilities. The stability of the dispersion was judged using two factors: first, the amount of sedimentation was classified into 4 categories: o: no sedimentation (no particles settled at the bottom of the vial); D: minor sedimentation (some particles start to settle at the bottom of the vial); +: moderate sedimentation (thin layer at the bottom of the vial), and +++: nearly complete sedimentation (almost all particles have settled and supernatant is almost clear). Second, it was controlled that no phase separation has occurred. An instable dispersion can show almost no sedimentation of nanoparticles, but a phase separation which results in a clear and completely particle-free upper part and a higher concentration of nanoparticles in the lower part of the dilution. Therefore, we classified the phase separation into two categories: -: no phase separation visible and +: phase separation occurred.

The results obtained as shown in Table 9 below. 2017P00397WO - Clean version

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