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Title:
POLYMERIC PHOTOACTIVE AGENT COMPOSITIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/122736
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present disclosure is drawn to polymeric photoactive agent compositions. The polymeric photoactive agent composition can include a polymeric photoactive agent including a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. The polymeric photoactive agent can be present in a reaction product mixture with either i) a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, or ii) a carbonate base.

Inventors:
ZHOU, Zhang-Lin (16399 W Bernardo Dr, San Diego, California, 92127-1899, US)
STRAMEL, Rodney David (16399 W Bernardo Dr, San Diego, California, 92127-1899, US)
YANG, Qianhan (16399 W Bernardo Dr, San Diego, California, 92127-1899, US)
Application Number:
US2015/057648
Publication Date:
August 04, 2016
Filing Date:
October 27, 2015
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
1/1HEWLETT-PACKARD DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, L.P. (11445 Compaq Center Drive W, Houston, Texas, 77070, US)
International Classes:
C08K5/06; C08K5/101; C09D11/101; C09D11/30
Domestic Patent References:
WO2011030089A12011-03-17
Foreign References:
US4602097A1986-07-22
US20110195198A12011-08-11
US20110015294A12011-01-20
US20110028586A12011-02-03
US20130237628A12013-09-12
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FOUGERE, Jeffrey R. et al. (Hewlett-Packard Company, Intellectual Property Administration3404 E. Harmony Rd.,Mail Stop 3, Fort Collins Colorado, 80528, US)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is: 1 . A polymeric photoactive agent composition, comprising a polymeric photoactive agent including a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent is present in a reaction product mixture with either i) a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, or ii) a carbonate base.

2. The polymeric photoactive agent composition of claim 1 , wherein the reaction product mixture comprises a carbonate base that is sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, cesium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, cesium bicarbonate, or a combination thereof.

3. The polymeric photoactive agent composition of claim 2, wherein the carbonate base is present in an amount up to about 1 .0 equivalent with respect to a total amount of xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group used to form the polymeric photoactive agent.

4. A method of making a polymeric photoactive agent, comprising reacting a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, a polyether modified with a leaving group, and a carbonate base in a single reaction step to yield a polymeric photoactive agent that is a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage.

5. The method of claim 4, wherein the carbonate base is sodium

carbonate, potassium carbonate, cesium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, cesium bicarbonate, or a combination thereof.

6. The method of claim 4, wherein the carbonate base is reacted in an amount from about 1 .0 to about 2.0 equivalents with respect to a total amount of the xanthone analog modified with the hydroxyl group.

7. The method of claim 4, wherein the leaving group is chloride, bromide, iodide, tosylate, triflate, or a combination thereof. 8. The method of claim 4, wherein the xanthone analog modified with the hydroxyl group has the general formula:

wherein to R4 are independently a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyi, a substituted alkyi, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, - SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, or a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyi, a substituted alkyi, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, or a substituted aralkyl; and

wherein X is -O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR- wherein R is CH3, CH2CH3, or

9. The method of claim 4, wherein the polyether modified with the leaving group is formed by reacting a leaving group with a polyether chain, wherein the polyether chain comprises polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, or a copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the polyether chain is PEG 550, PEG 600, or PEG 1000.

1 1 . The method of claim 4, wherein the polyether modified with the leaving group has a general formula of:

wherein R5 is a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyi, a substituted alkyi, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyi, a substituted aralkyi, a halogen atom, - NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, - NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, or a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyi, or a substituted aralkyi, wherein Y is chloride, bromide, iodide, tosylate, or triflate, and wherein n is an integer from 5 to 200.

12. The method of claim 4, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent has the formula:

wherein n is an integer from 10 to 25.

13. The method of claim 4, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent has a weight average molecular weight from about 500 Mw to about 5000 Mw, a water solubility of at least 0.5 wt%, is stable in water at a pH from 7 to 12, or

combination thereof.

14. A method of making a photo curable ink, comprising:

preparing a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with claim 4; and admixing:

the polymeric photoactive agent,

a photo reactive binder,

a co-photo initiator, a synergist, or combination thereof,

a colorant, and

a liquid vehicle including co-solvent and water.

15. A photo curable ink, comprising:

a polymeric photoactive agent composition, comprising a polymeric photoactive agent including a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage;

a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, or a carbonate base, or combination thereof;

a photo reactive binder;

a co-photo initiator, a synergist, or combination thereof;

a colorant; and

a liquid vehicle including co-solvent and water.

Description:
POLYMERIC PHOTOACTIVE AGENT COMPOSITIONS

BACKGROUND

[0001]The inkjet printing industry uses various types of inks, such as oil- based inks, solvent-based (non-aqueous) inks, water-based inks, and solid inks (which are melted in preparation for dispensing). Solvent-based inks are fast drying, and as a result, are widely used for industrial printing. When solvent- based inks containing binders and other ingredients are jetted onto a substrate, the solvent(s) partially or fully evaporate from the ink, leaving the binder and other ingredients such as pigment particles on the printed substrate in the form of a dry film. During the drying process, the solvents, which are often volatile organic compounds (VOC), emit vapors, and therefore can pollute the

environment. The amount of pollution produced can increase greatly with higher printing speeds or for wide format images, where large amounts of ink are deposited onto a substrate. As a result of this and other concerns, efforts related to preparing inks that are environmentally friendly have moved some research in the direction of water-based inks. However, radiation-curable (or photon-curable) water-based ink compositions are noticeably limited among available options due to their specific formulation properties. Accordingly, the development of radiation radiation-curable water-based ink compositions that exhibit, when printed, specific desirable printing properties such as, for example, jetting properties as well as improved adhesion would be an advancement in the field of inkjet technology.

[0002] Ultraviolet (UV) curable ink can be cured after printing by

application of UV radiation or light. Typically, UV curable inks include monomers that form polymers by free radical polymerization. The growing end of each polymer chain is a radical that reacts with additional monomers, transferring the radical to the end of the chain as each monomer is added. A photo initiator is used to form the first radicals to begin the polymerization process. The photo initiator is capable of absorbing UV light to generate radicals to react with the monomers.

[0003] Two types of photo initiators can be used in UV curable

compositions. Type I photo initiators are unimolecular photo initiators that undergo a hemolytic bond cleavage upon absorption of UV light, forming radicals. Type II photo initiators are bimolecular photo initiators. These are used as a system of a photo initiator with a synergist, which can together form radicals upon exposure to UV light. Some type II photo initiators react by hydrogen abstraction from the synergist to the photo initiator.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0004] FIG. 1 is a diagram depicting a method of making a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with an example of the present disclosure; and

[0005] FIG. 2 is a diagram depicting a method of making a photo curable ink in accordance with examples of the present disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0006] The present disclosure is drawn to polymeric photoactive agent compositions and methods of preparing polymeric photoactive agents. In one example, the polymeric photoactive agent compositions can include a polymeric photoactive agent including a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. The polymeric photoactive agent can be present in a reaction product mixture with either i) a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, or ii) a carbonate base. For example, the xanthone analog modified with the hydroxyl group and/or the carbonate base can remain in the composition in minor or even residual after carrying out certain methods of the present disclose.

[0007] The present disclosure also provides methods of making polymeric photoactive agents including a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. The polymeric photoactive agents can be water soluble and stable in aqueous inks, such as aqueous thermal inkjet inks, for example. The polymeric photoactive agents also resist migration in the ink after curing. Thus, the polymeric photoactive agents of the present disclosure overcome some of the drawbacks of other photo initiators and sensitizers which do not behave in this positive manner in aqueous systems. Some small molecular weight photo initiators, such as isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX), can have unwanted odor, toxicity, and migration in cured materials. On the other hand, many polymeric photo initiators are not water soluble and are difficult to formulate into aqueous inks. Furthermore, some polymeric photo initiators using other types of linkages, such as ester linkages, are not stable in the basic aqueous conditions that are common in thermal inkjet inks. Thus, in accordance with this, the present disclosure is drawn to improved methods of making polymeric photoactive agents. The methods described herein include reaction pathways that are simple and provide high yields of the polymeric photoactive agents. These methods can be adapted for large-scale synthesis of polymeric photoactive agents.

[0008] Thus, in one example, and as shown in FIG. 1 , a method of making a polymeric photoactive agent 100 can include the step of reacting 1 10 a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, a polyether modified with a leaving group, and a carbonate base in a single reaction step to yield a polymeric photoactive agent that is a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage.

[0009] In another example, and as shown in FIG. 2, a method of making a photo curable ink 200 can include preparing 210 a polymeric photoactive agent, and admixing 220 the polymeric photoactive agent; a photo reactive binder; a co- photo initiator; a synergist, or combination thereof; a colorant; and a liquid vehicle including co-solvent and water together to form the ink. Specifically, the step of preparing the polymeric photoactive agent can include reacting a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, a polyether modified with a leaving group, and a carbonate base in a single reaction step to yield a polymeric photoactive agent that is a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. [0010] In another example, a photo curable ink can include a polymeric photoactive agent composition having a polymeric photoactive agent including a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. The ink can further include a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, or a carbonate base, or combination thereof, e.g., as a residual component(s) remaining after carrying out a method of the present disclose. The ink can further include a photo reactive binder; a co-photo initiator, a synergist, or combination thereof; a colorant; and a liquid vehicle including co- solvent and water.

[0011] In accordance with these and other examples, a polymeric photoactive agent can include a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. As used herein, "xanthone" refers to the chemical compound having the Formula 1 :

[0012]Also, as used herein, "xanthone analog" refers to xanthone itself and other chemical compounds having the same basic structure as xanthone, but in which one or more atoms are replaced by different atoms or moieties. For example, any of the hydrogen atoms can be replaced by R groups or the ring structures themselves can be replaced by other atoms. In some specific examples, the oxygen atom that is a member of the central ring of the xanthone molecule can be replaced by a sulfur atom, an -NH- group, or an -NR- group where R is CH 3 , CH 2 CH 3 , or CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 . In other examples, hydrogens on the aromatic rings can be replaced by carbon atoms connecting to form additional aromatic rings. Thioxanthone is an example of a xanthone analog in which this oxygen atom is replaced by a sulfur atom. As used herein, "thioxanthone" refers to the molecule also called thioxanthen-9-one, having the Formula 2:

[0013] Other molecules with a similar shape can also be xanthone analogs. Additional examples include compounds having Formulas 3-5:

where R (in Formula 4 or 5) is CH 3 , CH 2 CH 3 , or CH2CH2CH3, and X is -O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR-.

[0014]The polyether chain can be a polyglycol, paraformaldehyde, or other polyether. For example, the polyether chain can be polyethylene glycol (PEG), methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG), polybutylene glycol (PBG), or a polyglycol copolymer. In one specific example, the polyether chain can be selected from polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, and a copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol. Various molecular weights of polyether can be suitable. The type of polyether chain and the molecular weight of the polyether chain can in some cases affect the solubility of the final polymeric photoactive agent. For example, a higher ratio of oxygen atoms to carbon atoms in the polyether chain tends to make the polymeric photoactive agent more soluble. The molecular weight of the polyether chain can also affect the degree to which the polymeric photoactive agent can migrate in a cured ink. Longer polyether chains can make it more difficult for the polymeric photoactive agent to move within a cured ink, thus decreasing migration.

Therefore, the type of polyether chain can be selected to give good water solubility and low migration of the polymeric photoactive agent in cured ink. In one example, the polyether chain can be a polyglycol having at least 5 glycol monomer units, and more specifically in one example, from 5 to 200 glycol monomer units.

[0015] The polyether chain can connect to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. As used herein, connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage means that a single oxygen atom is bonded both to a carbon atom in one of the aromatic side rings of the xanthone analog and to a carbon atom in the polyether chain. This ether linkage can be formed by a suitable reaction, such as a substitution reaction or a condensation reaction.

[0016] The xanthone analog, polyether chain, and ether linkage do not necessarily make up the entire polymeric photoactive agent. For example, additional groups can be attached along the polyether chain or at the opposite end of the polyether chain. In some cases, one or more additional xanthone analog moieties can be attached to the polyether chain. These additional xanthone analog moieties can connect to the polyether chain through ether linkages. In one example, an additional xanthone analog moiety can connect to an opposite end of the polyether chain through an ether linkage. In other examples, the polyether chain can have multiple branches and each branch can terminate with a xanthone analog moiety connected to the polyether chain through an ether linkage. Specific examples of such polymeric photoactive agents are described in detail below.

[0017] In some examples, the xanthone analog with the ether linkage can have a general formula according to Formula 6:

(6)

[0018] In Formula 6, the ether linkage is illustrated as an oxygen atom bonded to the right side ring of the xanthone analog. The oxygen atom can be bonded to any of the available carbon atoms in the right side ring by replacing a hydrogen atom. The groups Ri , R 2 , R 2 , and R 4 can be independently selected from: a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an

unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO 2 , -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NR d R e , -NR d R e , -NR d -CO-R e , -NR d -CO-O-R e , -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SR d , -SO-R d , -SO 2 -R d , -SO 2 -O-R d , -SO 2 NR d R e , and a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein R d , R e , and R f are independently selected from: a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, and a substituted aralkyl. In one specific example, Ri to R 4 can each be a hydrogen atom. The group X can be -O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR- where R is CH 3 , CH 2 CH 3 , or CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 . Formula 6 illustrates only the xanthone analog with the ether linkage. A complete polymeric photoactive agent can be formed by combining a xanthone analog and ether linkage as in Formula 3 with a polyether chain. The polyether chain can be bonded to the oxygen atom forming the ether linkage.

[0019] In some examples, the polymeric photoactive agent can have a general formula according to one of Formulas 7-10:

R4 O R

(10)

[0020] In each of Formulas 7-10, the groups Ri , R 2 , R2, R4, and R 5 can independently be a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyi, a substituted alkyi, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-R d , -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NR d R e , -NR d R e , -NR d -CO-R e , -NR d -CO-O-R e , -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SR d , -SO-R d , -SO 2 -R d , -SO 2 -O-R d , -SO 2 NR d R e , or a

perfluoroalkyl group. In these examples, R d , R e , and Rf can independently be a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyi, a substituted alkyi, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, or a substituted aralkyl. In one specific example, Ri to R 5 can each be a hydrogen atom. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be -O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR- where R is CH 3 , CH2CH3, or CH2CH2CH3.

[0021] As shown in Formulas 7-10, the polymeric photoactive agent can include 1 , 2, 3, or 4 xanthone analog moieties connected to a branching polyether chain. In other examples, the polyether chain can have more than 4 branches terminating in xanthone analog moieties.

[0022] In one example, the polymeric photoactive agent can have a general formula according to Formula 1 1 :

[0023] In the specific example described by Formula 1 1 , n can be any integer, e.g., 0 to 200, and in one example, the sum of m, n. and p can be from 10 to 25.

[0024] The molecular weight of the polymeric photoactive agent can affect its degree of migration in cured ink. For clarity, unless otherwise noted, molecular weights for polymers are weight average molecular weights (Mw). In accordance with this, a polymeric photoactive agent with a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of about 500 Mw or more can have reduced migration in cured ink compared with a small molecule photo initiator or sensitizer. Migration can be further reduced by increasing the molecular weight of the polymeric photoactive agent to about 1000 Mw or more. In one example, the polymeric photoactive agent can have a molecular weight from about 500 Mw to about 5000 Mw.

Polyethers of various molecular weights are available, allowing for the production of polymeric photoactive agents with various weight average molecular weights. In some examples, the polyether chain can be selected from PEG 550, PEG 600, and PEG 1000. In polymeric photoactive agents having multiple xanthone analog moieties, a smaller molecular weight polyether chain can be used while still maintaining a high overall molecular weight of the polymeric photoactive agents. The molecular weight of the polymeric photoactive agent can also be changed by adding R groups to the xanthone analog. It is noted that when referring to "R groups" generically herein, this term is defined to include at least H and organic side chain side groups and other specific constituents described and defined elsewhere herein, e.g., R, Ri , R2, R3, R4, Rs, R6, Rd, Re, Rf, etc.

[0025] The molecular weight (Mw) of the polymeric photoactive agent can also affect its solubility in water. In some cases, the polyether chain can be a water soluble polyether. Although the xanthone analog alone can be insoluble in water, adding the soluble polyether chain can make the entire polymeric photoactive agent soluble. In such cases, the soluble polyether can have a sufficient molecular weight so that its solubility properties overcome the insolubility of the xanthone analog. In other cases, water soluble R groups can be added to the xanthone analog to increase the solubility of the polymeric photoactive agent. In one example, the polymeric photoactive agent can have a water solubility of at least 0.5 wt%.

[0026] Typical aqueous ink jet inks can have a pH in the range of 7 to 12. Some commercially available photo initiators and sensitizers with ester linkages can break down in such basic conditions. The ether linkage in the polymeric photoactive agents according to the present disclosure can be stable under these conditions. In some examples, the polymeric photoactive agent can be stable in water up to a pH from 7 to 12. In other examples, the polymeric photoactive agent can be stable in water up to a pH of 8 or higher. As used herein, "stable" refers to the ability of the polymeric photoactive agent to have a shelf life of at least 1 year. Typically, aqueous ink jet inks can have a shelf life of greater than 1 year, greater than 2 years, or longer.

[0027] The polymeric photoactive agents described above can be formed using a multi-step process involving a reaction with sodium hydroxide. A reaction pathway for one example of this process is shown in Formula 12:

(12)

[0028] In the pathway shown in Formula 12, Ri to R 5 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group or a group selected from a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-R d , -CO-R d , - CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NR d R e , - NR d -CO-R e , -NR d -CO-O-R e , -NR d - CO-NReRf, -SR d , -SO-Rd, -SO 2 -R d , -SO 2 -O-R d , -SO 2 NR d R e or a perfluoroalkyl group. R d , R e and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be -O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR- where R is CH 3 , CH 2 CH 3 , or CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 . The group Y can be a leaving group such as -CI, -Br, -I, -OTs, or -OTf.

[0029] As shown in Formula 12, a monosubstituted polyethylene glycol ether (1 ) is reacted with a leaving group to form a leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (2). Various reagents can be used to add the leaving group. For example, a halogenation reagent can be used to add -CI, -Br, or -I leaving groups; a tosylation reagent can be used to add a -OTs leaving group; and a inflating reagent can be used to add a -OTf leaving group. A hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) is reacted with NaOH to form a corresponding sodium salt (4). The sodium salt is then reacted with the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (2) to form the polymeric photoactive agent. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3), the sodium salt (4), and the final polymeric photoactive agent signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

[0030] The reaction pathway shown in Formula 12 is complex and can result in low yields, due to the steps of reacting the xanthone analog with NaOH to form the sodium salt, followed by reacting the sodium salt with the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol. This pathway typically results in yields ranging from 10% to 50%. The leaving group modified polyethylene glycol cannot be reacted with the xanthone analog and the NaOH simultaneously, because the hydroxyl (OH " ) produced from the NaOH would replace the leaving group on the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol. The polyethylene glycol would then not be able to connect to the xanthone analog. For this reason, NaOH is reacted with the xanthone analog first to form a sodium salt of the xanthone analog, and then in a separate step the sodium salt is reacted with the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol to from the final polymeric photoactive agent.

[0031]To reduce the complexity of the synthesis process and increase the yield of polymeric photoactive agent, a different reaction pathway can involve reacting the xanthone analog directly with the leaving group modified

polyethylene glycol in a single step. An example of such a pathway is shown in Formula 13:

(13)

[0032] In the pathway shown in Formula 13, Ri to R 5 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group or a group selected from a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-R d , -CO-R d , - CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NR d R e , - NR d -CO-R e , -NR d -CO-O-R e , -NR d - CO-NR e Rf, -SR d , -SO-Rd, -SO 2 -R d , -SO 2 -O-R d , -SO 2 NR d R e or a perfluoroalkyl group. R d , R e and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be -O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR- where R is CH 3 , CH 2 CH 3 , or CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 . The group Y can be a leaving group such as -CI, -Br, -I, -OTs, or -OTf.

[0033] According to this pathway, a monosubstituted polyethylene glycol ether (1 ) is reacted with a leaving group to form a leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (2). Then, a hydroxyl -modified xanthone analog (3) is reacted directly with the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (2) in the presence of a base and dimethylformamide (DMF) at reflux conditions. The base used in this reaction is a base other than NaOH, which does not replace the leaving group of the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (2). Without being bound to a particular mechanism, it is believed that the base can be a base that does not produce a hydroxyl group that would replace the leaving group on the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (2). In certain examples, the base can be a carbonate base, such as sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ) or cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ). In this reaction, the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) becomes bonded directly to the polyethylene glycol through an ether linkage.

[0034] Thus, the step of reacting the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog with NaOH to form a sodium salt can be eliminated, simplifying the process for synthesizing the polymeric photoactive agent. This pathway can also provide a higher yield. In some examples, the yield of the polymeric photoactive agent can be from 75% to 95%.

[0035] In more general terms, a method of making a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with the present disclosure can include: reacting a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, a polyether modified with a leaving group, and a carbonate base in a single reaction step to yield a polymeric photoactive agent that is a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. The polymeric photoactive agent can have any of the structures described above.

[0036] In some examples, the xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group can have a general formula according to Formula 14:

[0037] In Formula 14, the hydroxyl group can be bonded to any of the available carbon atoms in the right side ring by replacing a hydrogen atom. The groups Ri, R 2 , R 2 , and R 4 can be independently selected from: a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO 2 , -O-R d , -CO-R d , -CO-O-R d , -O-CO-R d , - CO-NR d R e , -NR d R e , -NR d -CO-R e , -NR d -CO-O-R e , -NR d -CO-NR e R f , -SR d , -SO-R d , -SO2-R d , -SO2-O-R d , -SO2NR d R e , and a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein R d , R e , and R f are independently selected from: a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, and a substituted aralkyl. In one specific example, Ri to R 4 can each be a hydrogen atom. The group X can be - O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR- where R is CH 3 , CH 2 CH 3 , or CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 .

[0038] In some examples, the carbonate base used in the method can be sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, cesium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, cesium bicarbonate, or a combination thereof. In one specific example, the carbonate base can include sodium carbonate or a mixture of sodium carbonate and another base.

[0039] The carbonate base can generally be added to the reaction in an amount that is effective for bonding the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog to the leaving group modified polyether. In some examples, the amount of carbonate base used can be 1 equivalent or more of the carbonate base, relative to the amount of the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog present in the reaction. In further examples, the amount of carbonate base can be from about 1 equivalent to about 2 equivalents, relative to the amount of the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog. In a specific example, the amount of carbonate base can be from about 1 .1 equivalents to about 1 .2 equivalents, relative to the amount of the hydroxyl- modified xanthone analog.

[0040] Although the reaction pathway shown in Formula 13 uses DMF as a solvent in the reaction between the xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group and the polyether modified with a leaving group, other solvents can also be used. Suitable solvents for this reaction can include DMF, THF, ethyl acetate, toluene, xylene, and mixtures thereof.

[0041]The polyether modified with a leaving group used in the reaction can be formed by reacting a leaving group with a polyether chain. In some examples, the polyether chain can include polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, or a copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol. In further examples, the polyether chain can be PEG 550, PEG 600, or PEG 1000.

[0042] In additional examples, the polyether modified with the leaving group can have a general formula according to one of Formulas 15-18:

(15)

[0043] In each of Formulas 15-18, the group R 5 can be a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO 2 , -O-R d , -CO-R d , -CO-O-R d , -O-CO-R d , - CO-NR d R e , -NR d R e , -NR d -CO-R e , -NR d -CO-O-R e , -NR d -CO-NR e R f , -SR d , -SO-R d , -SO2-R d , -SO2-O-R d , -SO2NR d R e , or a perfluoroalkyl group. In these examples, R d , R e , and R f can independently be a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, or a substituted aralkyl. In one specific example, R 5 can be a hydrogen atom. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group Y can be chloride, bromide, iodide, tosylate, or triflate. [0044] Another example of a general pathway for forming a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 19:

[0045] In the pathway shown in Formula 19, Ri to R 4 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group or a group selected from a halogen atom, -NO 2 , -O-R d , -CO-R d , - CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NR d R e , - NR d -CO-R e , -NR d -CO-O-R e , -NR d - CO-NReRf, -SR d , -SO-Rd, -SO 2 -R d , -SO 2 -O-R d , -SO 2 NR d R e or a perfluoroalkyl group. R d , R e and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be -O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR- where R is CH 3 , CH 2 CH 3 , or CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 . The group Y can be a leaving group such as -CI, -Br, -I, -OTs, or -OTf.

[0046] According to this pathway, polyethylene glycol (4) is reacted with a leaving group reagent to form a leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (5). A hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) is reacted with the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol and a carbonate base to form the polymeric photoactive agent. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) and the final polymeric photoactive agent signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

[0047] A further example of a general pathway for forming a polymeric photoactive agent keeping with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 20:

(20)

[0048] In the pathway shown in Formula 20, Ri to R 5 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group or a group selected from a halogen atom, -NO 2 , -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, - CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NR d R e , - NR d -CO-R e , -NR d -CO-O-R e , -NR d - CO-NReRf, -SR d , -SO-Rd, -SO 2 -R d , -SO 2 -O-R d , -SO 2 NR d R e or a perfluoroalkyl group. R d , R e and R f independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be -O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR- where R is CH 3 , CH 2 CH 3 , or CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 . The group Y can be a leaving group such as -CI, -Br, -I, -OTs, or -OTf.

[0049] According to this pathway, a glycerol polyethylene glycol derivative (6) is reacted with a leaving group reagent to form a leaving group modified glycerol polyethylene glycol derivative (7). A hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) is reacted with the leaving group modified glycerol polyethylene glycol derivative and a carbonate base to form the polymeric photoactive agent. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) and the final polymeric photoactive agent signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

[0050] Yet another example of a general pathway for forming a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula

(21 )

[0051] In the pathway shown in Formula 21 , Ri to R 4 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group or a group selected from a halogen atom, -NO 2 , -O-R d , -CO-R d , - CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NR d R e , - NR d -CO-R e , -NR d -CO-O-R e , -NR d - CO-NReRf, -SR d , -SO-Rd, -SO 2 -R d , -SO 2 -O-R d , -SO 2 NR d R e or a perfluoroalkyl group. Rd, R e and R f independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyi group. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be -O-, -S-, -NH-, or -NR- where R is CH 3 , CH 2 CH 3 , or CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 . The group Y can be a leaving group such as -CI, -Br, -I, -OTs, or -OTf.

[0052] According to this pathway, a pentaerythritol polyethylene glycol derivative (8) is reacted with a leaving group to form a leaving group modified pentaerythritol polyethylene glycol derivative (9). A hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) is reacted with the leaving group modified pentaerythritol polyethylene glycol derivative and a carbonate base to form the polymeric photoactive agent. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) and the final polymeric photoactive agent signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

[0053] Formula 22 illustrates a detailed synthetic pathway for one example of a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with the present

disclosure:

10 11 12

[0054] According to this pathway, 2-thiosalicylic acid (10) and phenol (1 1 ) undergo a condensation reaction in concentrated sulfuric acid under heated conditions to yield 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one (12). Polyethylene glycol (4) is reacted with thionyl chloride in the presence of DMF to give dichloro polyethylene glycol (13). Finally, reaction of the 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one (12) with the dichloro polyethylene glycol (13) in DMF under reflux in the presence of a carbonate base gives the desired polymeric photoactive agent (14) in high yield.

[0055] An alternative pathway for synthesizing the same polymeric photoactive agent is shown in Formula 23:

12

(23)

[0056] In this pathway, polyethylene glycol (4) is reacted with

toluenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of pyridine to give polyethylene glycol di- tosylate (15). Then, 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one (12) is reacted with the polyethylene glycol di-tosylate (15) in DMF under reflux in the presence of a carbonate base to give the desired polymeric photoactive agent (14) in high yield.

[0057] A detailed synthetic pathway for forming another example of a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 24:

16 17

18

(24)

[0058] In this pathway, mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (16) is reacted with thionyl chloride in the presence of DMF to give chloro mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (17). Then, 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one (12) is reacted with the chloro mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (17) in DMF under reflux in the presence of a carbonate base to give the desired polymeric photoactive agent (18) in high yield.

[0059] Formula 25 illustrates an alternate pathway for forming the same polymeric photoactive agent:

Ts-CI

'..0, ,.OTs

10, ,,ΟΗ MeX

O ' n

16 19

11

(25)

[0060] According to this pathway, mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (16) is reacted with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of pyridine to give mono-methyl polyethylene glycol tosylate (19). Then, 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9- one (12) is reacted with the mono-methyl polyethylene glycol tosylate (19) in DMF under reflux in the presence of a carbonate base to give the desired polymeric photoactive agent (18) in high yield.

[0061]As mentioned, the present disclosure also extends to reaction product mixtures made using the reaction pathways described above. Generally, a reaction product mixture prepared by performing the reaction described above can include a polymeric photoactive agent set forth herein. The reaction product mixture can also include excess reactants, such as a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, a polyether modified with a leaving group, a carbonate base, or a combination thereof. In some examples, the reaction product mixture can include a polymeric photoactive agent that is a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connected to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage, and either a xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, or a carbonate base. In examples including the xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group, the xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group can be the same compound used as a reactant to form the polymeric photoactive agent.

[0062] In further examples, the reaction product mixture can include a carbonate base. In some cases, the carbonate base can be sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, cesium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, cesium bicarbonate, or a combination thereof. The amount of carbonate base in the reaction product mixture can depend on the amount of carbonate base added at the beginning of the reaction and the amount that is consumed during the reaction. In some cases, one mole of a carbonate base can react with one mole of the xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group during the reaction to form the polymeric photoactive agent. Thus, one mole of the carbonate base is equal to 1 equivalent for a single mole of xanthone analog modified with a hydroxyl group. In some examples, the amount of carbonate base used in the reaction can be 1 equivalent or more of the carbonate base, relative to the amount of the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog present in the reaction. In further examples, the amount of carbonate base can be from about 1 equivalent to about 2 equivalents, relative to the amount of the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog. In a specific example, the amount of carbonate base can be from about 1 equivalent to about 1 .2 equivalents or from about 1 .1 equivalents to about 1 .2 equivalents, relative to the amount of the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog. In examples where all the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog reacts to form the polymer photoactive agent, the amount of carbonate base left in the reaction product mixture can be, for example, up to about 1 equivalent, from about 0.1 equivalent to about 1 equivalent, up to about 0.2 equivalent, or from about 0.1 equivalent to about 0.2 equivalent, with respect to the amount of hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog used in the reaction.

[0063] The present disclosure also extends to photo curable inks. In some examples, a UV curable ink or an LED curable ink can be used, e.g., UV and/or LED curable ink. These inks can include a photo reactive binder, e.g., UV and/or LED, a polymeric photoactive agent, co-photo initiator or a synergist, a colorant, and a liquid vehicle including a co-solvent and water. The polymeric photoactive agent can be a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. In various aspects, the polymeric photo active agent can act as a photo initiator with the synergist, or it can act as a sensitizer for a co-photo initiator, for example.

[0064] In some cases, the photo reactive binder can include a UV curable polyurethane and hydrophobic radiation-curable monomers. In one example, the photo reactive binder can include a water dispersible (meth)acrylated

polyurethane, such as NeoRad® R-441 by NeoResins (Avecia). Other examples of photo (UV) reactive binders can include Ucecoat® 7710, Ucecoat® 7655 (available from Cytec), Neorad® R-440, Neorad® R-441 , Neorad® R-447, Neorad® R-448 (available from DSM NeoResins), Bayhydrol® UV 2317,

Bayhydrol® UV VP LS 2348 (available from Bayer), Lux 430, Lux 399, Lux 484 (available from Alberdingk Boley), Laromer® LR 8949, Laromer® LR 8983, Laromer® PE 22WN, Laromer® PE 55WN, Laromer® UA 9060 (available from BASF), or combinations thereof.

[0065] The polymeric photoactive agents of the present disclosure can act as type II photo initiators. The photo curable ink can include a synergist so that the photo initiator and synergist together can generate radicals during photo curing, e.g., UV curing or LED curing or UV LED curing. In some examples, the synergist can be an amine synergist. The amine synergist can be a tertiary amine compound. In one example, the amine synergist can be a polymeric amine synergist such as a derivative of aniline and a polyether amine such as

Jeffamine® 900. In other examples, the amine synergist can be trimethylamine, triethanolamine, methyldiethanolamine, phenyldiethanolamine, Ν,Ν,Ν',Ν'- tetra(hydroxylethyl)ethylenediamine, dimethylaminoethyl acrylate,

dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, ethyl dimethylaminobenzoate, or combinations thereof.

[0066] The polymeric photoactive agents of the present disclosure can act as the primary photo initiator in the photo curable ink, or they can act as a sensitizer for another co-photo initiator. Therefore, the photo curable ink can in some cases include a second photo initiator in addition to the polymeric photoactive agents disclosed herein, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent can act as a sensitizer in some respects. Examples of radical co-photo initiators include, by way of illustration and not limitation, 1 -hydroxy- cyclohexylphenylketone, benzophenone, 2,4,6-trimethylbenzo-phenone, 4- methylbenzophenone, diphenyl-(2, 4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide, phenyl bis(2, 4,6thmethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide, 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1 -phenyl-1 - propanone, benzyl-dimethyl ketal, 2-methyl-l-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]-2- morpholinopropan-l-one, or combinations thereof. Non-limiting examples of additional photo initiators include alpha amino ketone UV photo initiators such as Ciba® Irgacure® 907, Ciba® Irgacure® 369, and Ciba® Irgacure® 379; bis acylphosphine oxide (BAPO) UV photo initiators such as Irgacure® 819,

Darocur® 4265, and Darocur® TPO; alpha hydroxy ketone UV photo initiators such as Irgacure® 184 and Darocur® 1 173; including photo initiators with or without sensitizers such as Darocur® ITX (2-isopropyl thioxanthone).

[0067] The colorant in the photo curable ink can be a pigment, a dye, or a combination thereof. In some examples, the colorant can be present in an amount from 0.5 wt% to 10 wt% in the photo curable ink. In one example, the colorant can be present in an amount from 1 wt% to 5 wt%. In another example, the colorant can be present in an amount from 5 wt% to 10 wt%.

[0068] In some examples, the colorant can be a dye. The dye can be nonionic, cationic, anionic, or a mixture of nonionic, cationic, and/or anionic dyes. Specific examples of dyes that can be used include, but are not limited to, Sulforhodamine B, Acid Blue 1 13, Acid Blue 29, Acid Red 4, Rose Bengal, Acid Yellow 17, Acid Yellow 29, Acid Yellow 42, Acridine Yellow G, Acid Yellow 23, Acid Blue 9, Nitro Blue Tetrazolium Chloride Monohydrate or Nitro BT,

Rhodamine 6G, Rhodamine 123, Rhodamine B, Rhodamine B Isocyanate, Safranine O, Azure B, and Azure B Eosinate, which are available from Sigma- Aldrich Chemical Company (St. Louis, Mo.). Examples of anionic, water-soluble dyes include, but are not limited to, Direct Yellow 132, Direct Blue 199, Magenta 377 (available from llford AG, Switzerland), alone or together with Acid Red 52. Examples of water-insoluble dyes include azo, xanthene, methine, polymethine, and anthraquinone dyes. Specific examples of water-insoluble dyes include Orasol® Blue GN, Orasol® Pink, and Orasol® Yellow dyes available from Ciba- Geigy Corp. Black dyes may include, but are not limited to, Direct Black 154, Direct Black 168, Fast Black 2, Direct Black 171 , Direct Black 19, Acid Black 1 , Acid Black 191 , Mobay Black SP, and Acid Black 2. [0069] In other examples, the colorant can be a pigment. The pigment can be self-dispersed with a polymer, oligomer, or small molecule; or can be dispersed with a separate dispersant. Suitable pigments include, but are not limited to, the following pigments available from BASF: Paliogen® Orange, Heliogen® Blue L 6901 F, Heliogen® Blue NBD 7010, Heliogen® Blue K 7090, Heliogen® Blue L 7101 F, Paliogen® Blue L 6470, Heliogen® Green K 8683, and Heliogen® Green L 9140. The following black pigments are available from Cabot: Monarch® 1400, Monarch® 1300, Monarch® 1 100, Monarch® 1000, Monarch® 900, Monarch® 880, Monarch® 800, and Monarch® 700. The following pigments are available from CIBA: Chromophtal® Yellow 3G, Chromophtal® Yellow GR, Chromophtal® Yellow 8G, Igrazin® Yellow 5GT, Igralite® Rubine 4BL,

Monastral® Magenta, Monastral® Scarlet, Monastral® Violet R, Monastral® Red B, and Monastral® Violet Maroon B. The following pigments are available from Degussa: Printex® U, Printex® V, Printex® 140U, Printex® 140V, Color Black FW 200, Color Black FW 2, Color Black FW 2V, Color Black FW 1 , Color Black FW 18, Color Black S 160, Color Black S 170, Special Black 6, Special Black 5, Special Black 4A, and Special Black 4. The following pigment is available from DuPont: Tipure® R-101 . The following pigments are available from Heubach: Dalamar® Yellow YT-858-D and Heucophthal Blue G XBT-583D. The following pigments are available from Clariant: Permanent Yellow GR, Permanent Yellow G, Permanent Yellow DHG, Permanent Yellow NCG-71 , Permanent Yellow GG, Hansa Yellow RA, Hansa Brilliant Yellow 5GX-02, Hansa Yellow-X, Novoperm® Yellow HR, Novoperm® Yellow FGL, Hansa Brilliant Yellow 10GX, Permanent Yellow G3R-01 , Hostaperm® Yellow H4G, Hostaperm® Yellow H3G,

Hostaperm® Orange GR, Hostaperm® Scarlet GO, and Permanent Rubine F6B. The following pigments are available from Mobay: Quindo® Magenta, Indofast® Brilliant Scarlet, Quindo® Red R6700, Quindo® Red R6713, and Indofast® Violet. The following pigments are available from Sun Chemical : L74-1357 Yellow, L75-1331 Yellow, and L75-2577 Yellow. The following pigments are available from Columbian: Raven® 7000, Raven® 5750, Raven® 5250, Raven® 5000, and Raven® 3500. The following pigment is available from Sun Chemical: LHD9303 Black. Any other pigment and/or dye can be used that is useful in modifying the color of the UV curable ink. Additionally, the colorant can include a white pigment such as titanium dioxide, or other inorganic pigments such as zinc oxide and iron oxide.

[0070] The components of the photo curable ink can be selected to give the ink good ink jetting performance. Besides the curable binder, photo reactive photoactive agents, and the colorant, the photo curable ink can also include a liquid vehicle. Liquid vehicle formulations that can be used in the photo curable ink can include water and one or more co-solvents present in total at from 1 wt% to 50 wt%, depending on the jetting architecture. Further, one or more non-ionic, cationic, and/or anionic surfactant can be present, ranging from 0.01 wt% to 20 wt% (if present). In one example, the surfactant can be present in an amount from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The liquid vehicle can also include dispersants in an amount from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The balance of the formulation can be purified water, or other vehicle components such as biocides, viscosity modifiers, materials for pH adjustment, sequestering agents, preservatives, and the like. In one example, the liquid vehicle can be more than 50 wt% water.

[0071] Classes of co-solvents that can be used can include organic co- solvents including aliphatic alcohols, aromatic alcohols, diols, glycol ethers, polyglycol ethers, caprolactams, formamides, acetamides, and long chain alcohols. Examples of such compounds include primary aliphatic alcohols, secondary aliphatic alcohols, 1 ,2-alcohols, 1 ,3-alcohols, 1 ,5-alcohols, ethylene glycol alkyl ethers, propylene glycol alkyl ethers, higher homologs (C6-C12) of polyethylene glycol alkyl ethers, N-alkyl caprolactams, unsubstituted

caprolactams, both substituted and unsubstituted formamides, both substituted and unsubstituted acetamides, and the like. Specific examples of solvents that can be used include, but are not limited to, 2-pyrrolidinone, N-methylpyrrolidone, 2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone, 2-methyl-1 ,3-propanediol, tetraethylene glycol, 1 ,6- hexanediol, 1 ,5-hexanediol and 1 ,5-pentanediol.

[0072] One or more surfactants can also be used, such as alkyl polyethylene oxides, alkyl phenyl polyethylene oxides, polyethylene oxide block copolymers, acetylenic polyethylene oxides, polyethylene oxide (di)esters, polyethylene oxide amines, protonated polyethylene oxide amines, protonated polyethylene oxide amides, dimethicone copolyols, substituted amine oxides, and the like. The amount of surfactant added to the formulation of this disclosure may range from 0.01 wt% to 20 wt%. Suitable surfactants can include, but are not limited to, liponic esters such as Tergitol™ 15-S-12, Tergitol™ 15-S-7 available from Dow Chemical Company, LEG-1 and LEG-7; Triton™ X-100; Triton™ X-405 available from Dow Chemical Company; LEG-1 , and sodium dodecylsulfate.

[0073] Consistent with the formulation of this disclosure, various other additives can be employed to optimize the properties of the ink composition for specific applications. Examples of these additives are those added to inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms. These additives may be biocides, fungicides, and other microbial agents, which are routinely used in ink formulations.

Examples of suitable microbial agents include, but are not limited to, NUOSEPT® (Nudex, Inc.), UCARCIDE™ (Union carbide Corp.), VANCIDE® (R.T. Vanderbilt Co.), PROXEL® (ICI America), and combinations thereof.

[0074] Sequestering agents, such as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), may be included to eliminate the deleterious effects of heavy metal impurities, and buffer solutions may be used to control the pH of the ink. From 0.01 wt% to 2 wt%, for example, can be used if present. Viscosity modifiers and buffers may also be present, as well as other additives to modify properties of the ink as desired. Such additives can be present at from 0.01 wt% to 20 wt% if present.

[0075] Table 1 shows the composition of an example of a photo curable ink, e.g., UV LED curable ink, formulation example in accordance with the present disclosure. The ink can be formulated by mixing these ingredients or by other formulations. The pH of the ink can then be adjusted. In one example, the ingredients can be stirred for 30 minutes, and then aqueous potassium hydroxide can be added to adjust the pH to 7 to 12, or in one example, about 8.5. It is noted that though water concentrations are listed as "balance," it is understood that the balance of components can include other liquid vehicle components or minor amounts of solids often present in inkjet ink compositions. Table 1

Component Weight Percent

Photo reactive binder 1 -20% (UV reactive polymer)

Polymeric photoactive agent 0.15-5%

(sensitizer or photo initiator)

Co-photo initiator *0-10%

Synergist *0-5%

Surfactant 0-20%

Anti-kogation agent 0-5%

Colorant 0.5-10%

Organic Co-solvent 0.1 - 50%

Water Balance

*As noted, when the polymeric photo active agent is included as a sensitizer, the co-photo initiator is at greater than 0%. When the polymeric photo active agent is included as a photo initiator, the synergist is at greater than 0%. All three components can likewise be present, i.e. the polymeric photo active agent, the co-photo initiator, and the synergist.

[0076] The photo curable ink can be used to print on a broad selection of substrates including untreated plastics, flexible as well as rigid, porous substrates such as paper, cardboard, foam board, textile, and others. The ink has a good adhesion on a variety of substrates. The photo curable ink also has a good viscosity, enabling good printing performances and enables the ability to formulate inks suitable for inkjet application. In some examples, the ink can be formulated for thermal inkjet printing. The photo curable ink composition of the present disclosure enables high printing speed and is very well suited for a use in digital inkjet printing.

[0077] The polymeric photoactive agents of the present disclosure can be stable in aqueous environments at pH from 7 to 12 or higher. Thus, the photo curable ink can be formulated to have a pH from 7 to 12. In some examples, the photo curable ink can have a pH of 8 to 12. In one specific example, the photo curable ink can have a pH of about 8.5.

[0078] The polymeric photoactive agent can exhibit less migration in cured ink compared with small molecule photo initiators. The photo curable binder in the ink can include polymers or monomers that polymerize or cross-link during the curing process. As the binder cures, the polymeric photoactive agent can become locked into the cured binder due to the long polyether chain of the polymeric photoactive agent. Therefore, the photo curable ink can be formulated so that there is little or no migration of the polymeric photoactive agent in the ink after curing.

[0079] The present disclosure also extends to a method of making a photo curable ink. The method includes mixing a photo reactive binder; a polymeric photoactive agent including a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage; a co-photo initiator, a synergist, or combination thereof; a colorant; and a liquid vehicle including co- solvent and water. The photo curable ink can be UV curable, and in one specific example, UV LED curable. In one example, the method can also include adjusting the pH of the ink to be from 7 to 12. In another example, the method can include adjusting the pH of the ink to be 8 or higher.

[0080] It is to be understood that this disclosure is not limited to the particular process steps and materials disclosed herein because such process steps and materials may vary somewhat. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is used for the purpose of describing particular examples only. The terms are not intended to be limiting because the scope of the present disclosure is intended to be limited only by the appended claims and equivalents thereof.

[0081] It is noted that, as used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0082] As used herein, "photoactive agent" refers to materials that participate in the initiation of photo polymerization, particularly materials that act as a photo initiator or a sensitizer for a photo initiator. The polymeric photoactive agents disclosed herein can be used either as a photo initiator or as a sensitizer for another photo initiator. In some systems, the polymeric photoactive agent can act as both a photo initiator and a sensitizer.

[0083]As used herein, "UV curable" refers to compositions that can be cured by exposure to ultraviolet light from any UV source such as a mercury vapor lamp, UV LED source, or the like. Mercury vapor lamps emit high intensity light at wavelengths from 240 nm to 270 nm and 350 nm to 380 nm. "LED curable" refers to compositions that can be cured either by ultraviolet light from an ultraviolet LED. Ultraviolet LEDs emit light at specific wavelengths. For example, ultraviolet LEDs are available at 365 nm and 395 nm wavelengths, among others. The term "photo curable" refers generally to compositions that can be cured by exposure to light from any wavelength suitable for the composition being cured. Typically, the photo curable composition will be UV curable, and in some cases UV LED curable.

[0084]As used herein, "liquid vehicle" or "ink vehicle" refers to a liquid fluid in which colorant is placed to form an ink. A wide variety of ink vehicles may be used with the systems and methods of the present disclosure. Such ink vehicles may include a mixture of a variety of different agents, including, surfactants, solvents, co-solvents, anti-kogation agents, buffers, biocides, sequestering agents, viscosity modifiers, surface- active agents, water, etc.

[0085]As used herein, "colorant" can include dyes and/or pigments.

[0086]As used herein, "dye" refers to compounds or molecules that absorb electromagnetic radiation or certain wavelengths thereof. Dyes can impart a visible color to an ink if the dyes absorb wavelengths in the visible spectrum.

[0087]As used herein, "pigment" generally includes pigment colorants, magnetic particles, aluminas, silicas, and/or other ceramics, organo-metallics or other opaque particles, whether or not such particulates impart color. Thus, though the present description primarily exemplifies the use of pigment colorants, the term "pigment" can be used more generally to describe not only pigment colorants, but other pigments such as organometallics, ferrites, ceramics, etc. In one specific example, however, the pigment is a pigment colorant.

[0088]As used herein, "ink-jetting" or "jetting" refers to compositions that are ejected from jetting architecture, such as ink-jet architecture. Ink-jet architecture can include thermal or piezo architecture. Additionally, such architecture can be configured to print varying drop sizes such as less than 10 picoliters, less than 20 picoliters, less than 30 picoliters, less than 40 picoliters, less than 50 picoliters, etc.

[0089] The term "residual" when referring to remaining components after carrying out methods of the present disclosure can be up to 5 wt%, up to 3 wt%, up to 1 wt%, or up to 0.1 wt%, for example. To be clear, residual amounts of components are not necessarily present when reactants are fully consumed in a chemical reaction and such examples are included in the context of the present disclosure, but in practicality in many instances, some residual components can remain.

[0090]As used herein, the term "substantial" or "substantially" when used in reference to a quantity or amount of a material, or a specific characteristic thereof, refers to an amount that is sufficient to provide an effect that the material or characteristic was intended to provide. The exact degree of deviation allowable may in some cases depend on the specific context.

[0091]As used herein, the term "about" is used to provide flexibility to a numerical range endpoint by providing that a given value may be "a little above" or "a little below" the endpoint. The degree of flexibility of this term can be dictated by the particular variable and determined based on the associated description herein.

[0092]As used herein, a plurality of items, structural elements,

compositional elements, and/or materials may be presented in a common list for convenience. However, these lists should be construed as though each member of the list is individually identified as a separate and unique member. Thus, no individual member of such list should be construed as a de facto equivalent of any other member of the same list solely based on their presentation in a common group without indications to the contrary.

[0093] Concentrations, amounts, and other numerical data may be expressed or presented herein in a range format. It is to be understood that such a range format is used merely for convenience and brevity and thus should be interpreted flexibly to include not only the numerical values explicitly recited as the limits of the range, but also to include individual numerical values or subranges encompassed within that range as if each numerical value and sub-range is explicitly recited. As an illustration, a numerical range of "about 1 wt% to about 5 wt%" should be interpreted to include not only the explicitly recited values of about 1 wt% to about 5 wt%, but also include individual values and sub-ranges within the indicated range. Thus, included in this numerical range are individual values such as 2, 3.5, and 4 and sub-ranges such as from 1 -3, from 2-4, and from 3-5, etc. This same principle applies to ranges reciting only one numerical value. Furthermore, such an interpretation should apply regardless of the breadth of the range or the characteristics being described. EXAMPLES

[0094] The following illustrates several examples of the present disclosure. However, it is to be understood that the following are only illustrative of the application of the principles of the present disclosure. Numerous modifications and alternative compositions, methods, and systems may be devised without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure. The appended claims are intended to cover such modifications and arrangements.

Example 1

[0095] Synthesis of 2-hydroxythioxanthone: 2-Mercaptobenzoic acid (61 .6 g, 0.4 mol) was added to concentrated sulfuric acid (600 ml_) and stirred until uniformly dispersed. Then phenol (188.2 g, 2 mol) was added slowly and proportionwise with stirring, maintaining the temperature below 60 °C. After the addition, the mixture was stirred for 1 hr. at room temperature and then for 2 hours at 95-100 °C. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room

temperature and then carefully poured into 4.5 L of boiling water. The mixture was stirred and filtered. The filter cake was then washed with water and dried in vacuum, which was then further purified by flash chromatography to give the desired 2-hydroxythioxanthone (60 g, 60% yield).

Example 2

[0096] Synthesis of dichloro-polyethylene glycol -1000: A mixture of polyethylene glycol-1000 (100 grams, 0.1 mol), thionyl chloride (60 grams, 0.5 mol) and 0.1 grams of N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was heated to reflux for 5 hours. After cooling down to room temperature, 20 ml of methanol was added slowly to the solution and stirred for 1 hour. Then the methanol and unreacted thionyl chloride were removed by vacuum to give the desired dichloro- polyethylene glycol (100 grams, 97% yield). Example 3

[0097] Synthesis of dichloro-polyethylene glycol -600: A mixture of polyethylene glycol-600 (100 grams, 0.1 mol), thionyl chloride (60 grams, 0.5 mol) and 0.1 grams of N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was heated to reflux for 5 hours. After cooling down to room temperature, 20 ml of methanol was added slowly to the solution and stirred for 1 hour. Then the methanol and unreacted thionyl chloride were removed by vacuum to give the desired dichloro- polyethylene glycol (102 grams, 96% yield).

Example 4

[0098] Synthesis of polyethylene glycol di-tosylate: To a solution of polyethylene glycol-1000 (100 grams, 0.1 mol) in 250 ml of dichloromethane was added pyridine (14 ml, 0.16 mol). The above solution was cooled to 0 °C and then p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (22.88 grams, 0.12 mol) portion at 0 °C under N 2 . The resulting solution was poured into ice-water. The organic layer was separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with chloroform (2 X 50 ml). The combined organic layer was washed with water, dried over sodium sulfate.

Sodium sulfate was filtered off and evaporation of solvent gave the desired polyethylene glycol di-tosylate (65 grams, 100% yield).

Example 5

[0099] Synthesis of chloro mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether 550: A mixture of mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether 550 (100 grams, 0.18 mol), thionyl chloride (60 grams, 0.5 mol) and 0.1 grams of N-dimethylformamide

(DMF) was heated to reflux for 5 hours. After cooling down to room temperature, 20 ml of methanol was added slowly to the solution and stirred for 1 hour. Then the methanol and unreacted thionyl chloride were removed by vacuum to give the desired chloro mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether 750 (100 grams, 97% yield). Example 6

[0100] Synthesis of bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 1000: A mixture of 2-hydroxythioxanthone (25.55 g, 0.1 12 mol), dichloro-polyethylene glycol -1000 (58 g, 0.056 mol) and potassium carbonate (15.48 g, 0.1 12 mol) in 100 ml of DMF was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Then DMF was removed by distillation to give a residue, which was further purified by flash chromatography, giving rise to the desired bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 1000 (70 g, 87.5% yield). Example 7

[0101] Synthesis of bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 600: A mixture of 2-hydroxythioxanthone (28.5 g, 0.125 mol), dichloro-polyethylene glycol -600 (40 g, 0.0625 mol) and cesium carbonate (40.73 g, 0.125 mol) in 100 ml of DMF was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Then DMF was removed by distillation to give a residue, which was further purified by flash chromatography, giving rise to the desired bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 600 (51 g, 80% yield).

Example 8

[0102] Synthesis of bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 600: A mixture of 2-hydroxythioxanthone (28.5 g, 0.125 mol), polyethylene glycol-600 ditosylate (56.75 g, 0.0625 mol) and cesium carbonate (40.73 g, 0.125 mol) in 100 ml of DMF was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Then DMF was removed by distillation to give a residue, which was further purified by flash chromatography, giving rise to the desired bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 600 (51 g, 80% yield).

Example 9

[0103] Synthesis of mono-(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 550 from chloride: A mixture of 2-hydroxythioxanthone (28.5 g, 0.125 mol), chloro mono- methyl polyethylene glycol ether 550 (71 .06 g, 0.125 mol) and cesium carbonate (40.73 g, 0.125 mol) in 100 ml of DMF was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Then DMF was removed by distillation to give a residue, which was further purified by flash chromatography, giving rise to the desired mono-(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 550 (76 g, 80% yield).

Example 10

[0104] Synthesis of mono-(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 550 from tosylate: A mixture of 2-hydroxythioxanthone (28.5 g, 0.125 mol), mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether 550 tosylate (88 g, 0.125 mol) and cesium carbonate (40.73 g, 0.125 mol) in 100 ml of DMF was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Then DMF was removed by distillation to give a residue, which was further purified by flash chromatography, giving rise to the desired mono-(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 550 (80.75 g, 85% yield).

Example 1 1

[0105] Inkjet inks are prepared in accordance with the Table 1 above, each using one of polymeric photoactive agent additives prepared in Examples 6- 10. Specifically, inks are prepare that include the polymeric photoactive agent; a photo reactive binder; a co-photo initiator, a synergist, or combination thereof,; a colorant; and a liquid vehicle including co-solvent and water. [0106] While the present technology has been described with reference to certain examples, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various

modifications, changes, omissions, and substitutions can be made without departing from the spirit of the disclosure. It is intended, therefore, that the disclosure be limited only by the scope of the following claims.