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Title:
POLYMERISABLE COMPOUNDS AND THE USE THEREOF IN LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAYS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/063585
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a mixture comprising a not fully aromatic polymerisabe compound and a polymerisable photoinitiator, to liquid-crystal (LC) media comprising them, and to the use of the polymerisable compounds and LC media for optical, electro-optical and electronic purposes, in particular in LC displays, especially in LC displays of the polymer sustained alignment type.

Inventors:
TONG, Qiong (Elisabeth-Hattemer-Strasse 29, DARMSTADT, 64289, DE)
USHAKOV, Dmitry (Friedrich-Ebert-Strasse 67, MUENSTER, 64839, DE)
HAAS, Helga (Rosenweg 18, LAMPERTHEIM, 68623, DE)
GNAUCK, Steffen (Frankfurter Landstrasse 23, DARMSTADT, 64291, DE)
RACHOR, Thorsten (Goethestrasse 74, KLEINOSTHEIM, 63801, DE)
SCHUEPFER, Sven (Falkenweg 21 A, ASCHAFFENBURG, 63741, DE)
MUNDINGER, Simon (Grundelbachstrasse 112C, WEINHEIM, 69469, DE)
Application Number:
EP2018/076057
Publication Date:
April 04, 2019
Filing Date:
September 26, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
MERCK PATENT GMBH (Frankfurter Strasse 250, Darmstadt, 64293, DE)
International Classes:
C09K19/54; C09K19/04; C09K19/12; C09K19/30; C09K19/34
Foreign References:
CN104710990B2016-09-21
JP2011099974A2011-05-19
US20150247090A12015-09-03
EP2161264A12010-03-10
EP1170626A22002-01-09
US6861107B22005-03-01
US7169449B22007-01-30
US20040191428A12004-09-30
US20060066793A12006-03-30
US20060103804A12006-05-18
US6177972B12001-01-23
US20130182202A12013-07-18
US20140138581A12014-05-22
US20150166890A12015-06-18
US20150252265A12015-09-10
EP1378557A12004-01-07
EP1306418A12003-05-02
DE10224046A12003-01-02
DE2209127A11973-09-06
DE2240864A11974-02-28
DE2321632A11974-11-21
DE2338281A11974-02-21
DE2450088A11976-04-29
DE2637430A11978-02-23
DE2853728A11980-07-17
EP0364538A11990-04-25
DE2636684A11978-02-16
DE3321373A11984-12-20
Other References:
S.H. JUNG ET AL., JPN. J. APPL. PHYS., vol. 43, no. 3, 2004, pages 1028
S.H. LEE ET AL., APPL. PHYS. LETT., vol. 73, no. 20, 1998, pages 2882 - 2883
S.H. LEE ET AL., LIQUID CRYSTALS, vol. 39, no. 9, 2012, pages 1141 - 1148
T.-J-CHEN ET AL., JPN. J. APPL. PHYS., vol. 45, 2006, pages 2702 - 2704
S. H. KIM; L.-C-CHIEN, JPN. J. APPL. PHYS., vol. 43, 2004, pages 7643 - 7647
APPL. PHYS. LETT., vol. 75, no. 21, 1999, pages 3264
OPTICS EXPRESS, vol. 12, no. 7, 2004, pages 1221
PURE APPL. CHEM., vol. 73, no. 5, 2001, pages 888
C. TSCHIERSKE; G. PELZL; S. DIELE, ANGEW. CHEM., vol. 116, 2004, pages 6340 - 6368
HALLER ET AL., MOL. CRYST. LIQ. CRYST., vol. 24, 1973, pages 249 - 258
"Merck Liquid Crystals, Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals", November 1997, MERCK KGAA
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Claims:
Claims

A mixture comprising one or more compounds of formula I and more compounds of formula II

P-Sp-(A1-Z1 )a-(A2-Z2)b-(A3-Z3)c-(A4-Z4)d-R I

wherein the individual radicals, independently of each other and on each occurrence identically or differently, have the following meanings

R P, P-Sp-, H, F, CI, Br, I, -CN, -NO2, -NCO, -NCS, -OCN, -SCN, SF5 or straight-chain or branched alkyl having 1 to 25 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced, independently of one another, by

-C(R°)=C(R00)-, -C≡C-, -N(R00)-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO- , -O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another, and in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F, CI, Br, I, CN, P or P-Sp-,

P a polymerisable group,

Sp a spacer group or a single bond,

A1 , A3 straight-chain, branched or cyclic alkylene with 1 to 20,

preferably 1 to 12 C atoms, wherein one or more non-adjacent CH -groups are optionally replaced by -CR°=CR00-, -C≡C-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a manner that O- and/or S-atoms are not directly connected with each other, and wherein one or more H atoms are each optionally replaced by F or CI, A2, A4 arylene or heteroarylene having 5 to 20 ring atoms, which optionally contains fused rings, preferably selected from benzene, pyridine and thiophene, all of which are optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-,

Z1"4 -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O-, -OCH2-, -CH2O-, -SCH2-, -CH2S-, -CF2O-, -OCF2-, -CF2S-, -SCF2-, -(CH2)ni-, -CF2CH2-, -CH2CF2-, -(CF2)ni-, -CH=CH-, -CF=CF-, -CH=CF-, -CF=CH-, -C≡C-, -CH=CH-CO-O-, -O-CO-CH=CH-, -CH2-CH2- CO-O-, -O-CO-CH2-CH2-, -CR°R00-, or a single bond,

R°, R00 H or alkyl having 1 to 12 C atoms,

F, CI, -CN, P-Sp- or straight chain, branched or cyclic alkyl having 1 to 25 C atoms, wherein one or more non-adjacent CH -groups are optionally replaced by -CR°=CR00-, -C≡C-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a manner that O- and/or S-atoms are not directly connected with each other, and wherein one or more H atoms are each optionally replaced by P-Sp-, F or CI,

R1, R2 straight-chain or branched alkyl with 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably methyl, R3 OH, methyl, methoxy, phenyl that is optionally substituted by one or more groups L, R, P or P-Sp-, or morpholine-1 -yl, a, b, c, d 0, 1 , 2 or 3, with a+c>1 , g 1 , 2, 3 or 4, n1 1 , 2, 3 or 4, r 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4, p 1 , 2 or 3, with p+r≤5, and wherein in formula II in case of g≥2 the groups (P-Sp)p and - C(=O)-CR1R2R3 are linked to different terminal benzene rings, and in case of g≥3 all benzene rings are connected with each other via para- positions.

The mixture according to Claim 1 , wherein in formula I Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 are a single bond.

The mixture according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein in formula I A1 and A3 are trans-1 ,4-cyclohexylene which is optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-, and A2 and A4 are selected from 1 ,4- phenylene, pyridine and thiophene which is optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-.

The mixture according to one or more of Claims 1 to 3, wherein in formula I and II all groups Sp are a single bond.

The mixture according to one or more of Claims 1 to 4, wherein in formula I -(A1-Z1)a-(A2-Z2)b-(A3-Z3)c-(A4-Z4)d- is selected from the following formulae

— (CH2),- A4 wherein i is an integer from 1 to 12, and the cydohexylene and bezene rings are optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-.

6. The mixture according to one or more of Claims 1 to 5, wherein the compounds of formula I are selected from the following subformulae

P-Sp— (Ch — Sp-P I5 wherein P, Sp and L have independently of each other, and on each occurrence identically or differently, one of the meanings given in Claim 1 , i is as defined in Claim 5, r is 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4, and s is 0, 1 , 2 or 3.

The mixture according to one or more of Claims 1 to 6, wherein the compounds of formula II are selected from the following formulae

wherein P, Sp, L, R1~3 and r have the meanings given in Claim 1 , h is 0, 1 or 2, p1 is 0 or 1 , p2 is 0, 1 or 2, with p1 +p2 > 1 and p1 +p2+r <5.

8. The mixture according to one or more of Claims 1 to 7, wherein in the compounds of formula II, IIA and MB the group -C(=O)-CR1R2R3 is selected from the following groups

he linkage to the benzene ring in formula II, IIA or MB, and P and Sp have the meanings given in Claim 1 .

The mixture according to one or more of Claims 1 to 8, wherein the compounds of formula II, IIA and MB are selected from the following formulae

wherein P, Sp, L, R1"3, r and h have the meanings given in Claim 7.

10. The mixture according to one or more of Claims 1 to 9, wherein the compounds of formula II, IIA, MB, IIA1 -IIA3 and IIB1 -IIB5 are selected from the following subformulae

35

35 wherein P, Sp, L and r have the meanings given in Claim 1 and Me is methyl.

A liquid crystal (LC) medium comprising one or more polymensable compounds of formula I and one or more polymerisable compounds of formula II as defined in any one of Claims 1 to 10.

The LC medium of Claim 10, characterized in that it comprises

- a polymerisable component A) comprising one or more compounds of formula I and one or more compounds of formula II as defined in any one of Claims 1 to 10, and

- a liquid-crystalline LC component B) comprising one or more mesogenic or liquid-crystalline compounds. The LC medium of Claim 1 1 or 12, characterized in that it one or more compounds of the formulae CY and/or PY:

in which the individual radicals have the following meanings: a denotes 1 or 2, b denotes 0 or 1 ,

R1 and R2 each, independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1 to

12 C atoms, where, in addition, one or two non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO-, -O-CO- or -CO-O- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another,

Zx denotes -CH=CH-, -CH2O-, -OCH2-, -CF2O-, -OCF2-, -O-,

-CH2-, -CH2CH2- or a single bond, preferably a single bond,

|_1-4 each, independently of one another, denote F, CI, OCF3,

CF3, CH3, CH2F, CHF2.

14. The LC medium according to any one of Claims 1 1 to 13, characterized in that it comprises one or more compounds selected from the following formulae:

alkenyl having 2 to 9 C atoms or, if at least one of the rings X, Y and Z denotes cyclohexenyl, also one of the meanings of RA2, RA2 alkyl having 1 to 12 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or two non- adjacent Ch groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO- , -OCO- or -COO- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another,

Zx -CH2CH2-, -CH=CH-, -CF2O-, -OCF2-, -CH2O-, -OCH2-,

-CO-O-, -O-CO-, -C2F4-, -CF=CF-, -CH=CH-CH2O-, or a single bond, preferably a single bond,

L1"4 each, independently of one another, H, F, CI, OCF3, CF3, CH3, CH2F or CHF2H, preferably H, F or CI, x 1 or 2, z 0 or 1 .

The LC medium according to any one of Claims 1 1 to 14, characterized in that it comprises one or more compounds of the following formula: in which the individual radicals have the following meanings:

R3 and R4 each, independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1 to

12 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or two non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO-, -O-CO- or -CO-O- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another,

Zy denotes -CH2CH2-, -CH=CH-, -CF2O-, -OCF2-, -CH2O-,

-OCH2-, -COO-, -OCO-, -C2F4-, -CF=CF- or a single bond.

The LC medium according to any one of Claims 1 1 to 15, characterized in that the polymerisable compounds of formula I and II are

polymerised.

A process of preparing an LC medium of any one of Claims 10 to 16, comprising the steps of mixing one or more mesogenic or liquid- crystalline compounds, or a liquid-crystalline component B) as defined in Claim 12, with one or more compounds of formula I and II as defined in one or more of Claims 1 to 10, and optionally with further liquid- crystalline compounds and/or additives.

An LC display comprising one or more compounds of formula I and one or more compounds of formula II as defined in one or more of Claims 1 to 10 or comprising an LC medium as defined in any one of Claims 1 1 to 16.

The LC display of Claim 18, which is a PSA display or a polymer stabilised SA-VA display.

The LC display of Claim 19, which is a PS-VA, PS-OCB, PS-IPS, PS- FFS, PS-UB-FFS, PS-posi-VA, PS-TN, SA-VA or SA-FFS display.

The LC display of Claim 19 or 20, characterized in that it comprises two substrates, at least one which is transparent to light, an electrode provided on each substrate or two electrodes provided on only one of the substrates, and located between the substrates a layer of an LC medium comprising one or more polymerisable compounds of formula II and II as defined in any one of Claims 1 to 10, wherein the polymerisable compounds are polymerised between the substrates of the display.

22. The LC display of any one of Claims 19 to 21 , characterized in that it comprises

a first substrate including a pixel electrode defining pixel areas, the pixel electrode being connected to a switching element disposed in each pixel area and optionally including a micro-slit pattern, and optionally a first alignment layer disposed on the pixel electrode,

a second substrate including a common electrode layer, which may be disposed on the entire portion of the second substrate facing the first substrate, and optionally a second alignment layer,

an LC layer disposed between the first and second substrates and including an LC medium as defiend in any one of Claims 1 1 to 16.

The LC display of Claim 22, characterized in that it comprises a first and/or second alignment layer that imparts to the LC molecules homeotropic alignment.

The LC display according to Claim 23, characterized in that it comprises a first and/or second alignment layer comprising a polyimide which is optionally rubbed or is prepared by a photoalignment method.

A process for the production of an LC display according to any one of Claims 21 to 24, comprising the steps of providing an LC medium comprising one or more polymerisable compounds of formula I and II as defined in any one of Claims 1 to 10, between the substrates of the display, and polymerising the polymerisable compounds, optionally while a voltage is applied to the electrodes at least partially during the polymerisation.

The process according to Claim 25, wherein the polymerisation is carried out in one step.

27. The process according to Claim 26, wherein the polymerisation is carried out in a first polymerisation step while applying a voltage, and

subsequently in a second polymerisation step without an applied voltage.

Description:
Polymerisable Compounds and the Use thereof in Liquid-Crystal

Displays

The present invention relates to a mixture comprising a not fully aromatic polymerisabe compound and a polymerisable photoinitiator, to liquid-crystal (LC) media comprising them, and to the use of the polymerisable compounds and LC media for optical, electro-optical and electronic purposes, in particular in LC displays, especially in LC displays of the polymer sustained alignment type. Background of the Invention

One of the liquid-crystal display (LCD) modes used at present is the TN

("twisted nematic") mode. However, TN LCDs have the disadvantage of a strong viewing-angle dependence of the contrast.

In addition, so-called VA ("vertically aligned") displays are known which have a broader viewing angle. The LC cell of a VA display contains a layer of an LC medium between two transparent electrodes, where the LC medium usually has a negative dielectric anisotropy. In the switched -off state, the molecules of the LC layer are aligned perpendicular to the electrode surfaces

(homeotropically) or have a tilted homeotropic alignment. On application of an electrical voltage to the two electrodes, a realignment of the LC molecules parallel to the electrode surfaces takes place. Furthermore, OCB ("optically compensated bend") displays are known which are based on a birefringence effect and have an LC layer with a so-called "bend" alignment and usually positive dielectric anisotropy. On application of an electrical voltage, a realignment of the LC molecules perpendicular to the electrode surfaces takes place. In addition, OCB displays normally contain one or more birefringent optical retardation films in order to prevent

undesired transparency to light of the bend cell in the dark state. OCB displays have a broader viewing angle and shorter response times compared with TN displays. Also known are so-called IPS ("in-plane switching") displays, which contain an LC layer between two substrates, where the two electrodes are arranged on only one of the two substrates and preferably have intermeshed, comb- shaped structures. On application of a voltage to the electrodes, an electric field which has a significant component parallel to the LC layer is thereby generated between them. This causes realignment of the LC molecules in the layer plane.

Furthermore, so-called FFS ("fringe-field switching") displays have been reported (see, inter alia, S.H. Jung et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Volume 43, No. 3, 2004, 1028), which contain two electrodes on the same substrate, one of which structured in a comb-shaped manner and the other is unstructured. A strong, so-called "fringe field" is thereby generated, i.e. a strong electric field close to the edge of the electrodes, and, throughout the cell, an electric field which has both a strong vertical component and also a strong horizontal component. FFS displays have a low viewing-angle dependence of the con- trast. FFS displays usually contain an LC medium with positive dielectric anisotropy, and an alignment layer, usually of polyimide, which provides planar alignment to the molecules of the LC medium.

FFS displays can be operated as active-matrix or passive-matrix displays. In the case of active-matrix displays, individual pixels are usually addressed by integrated, non-linear active elements, such as, for example, transistors (for example thin-film transistors ("TFTs")), while in the case of passive-matrix displays, individual pixels are usually addressed by the multiplex method, as known from the prior art.

Furthermore, FFS displays have been disclosed (see S.H. Lee et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 1998, 2882-2883 and S.H. Lee et al., Liquid Crystals 39(9), 2012, 1 141 -1 148), which have similar electrode design and layer thickness as FFS displays, but comprise a layer of an LC medium with negative dielectric anisotropy instead of an LC medium with positive dielectric anisotropy. The LC medium with negative dielectric anisotropy shows a more favourable director orientation that has less tilt and more twist orientation compared to the LC medium with positive dielectric anisotropy, as a result of which these displays have a higher transmission. The displays further comprise an alignment layer, preferably of polyimide provided on at least one of the substrates that is in contact with the LC medium and induces planar alignment of the LC molecules of the LC medium. These displays are also known as "Ultra Brightness FFS (UB- FFS)" mode displays. These displays require an LC medium with high reliability.

The term "reliability" as used hereinafter means the quality of the performance of the display during time and with different stress loads, such as light load, temperature, humidity, voltage, and comprises display effects such as image sticking (area and line image sticking), mura, yogore etc. which are known to the skilled person in the field of LC displays. As a standard parameter for categorising the reliability usually the voltage holding ration (VHR) value is used, which is a measure for maintaining a constant electrical voltage in a test display. Among other factors, a high VHR is a prerequisite for a high reliability of the LC medium.

In VA displays of the more recent type, uniform alignment of the LC mole- cules is restricted to a plurality of relatively small domains within the LC cell. Disclinations may exist between these domains, also known as tilt domains. VA displays having tilt domains have, compared with conventional VA

displays, a greater viewing-angle independence of the contrast and the grey shades. In addition, displays of this type are simpler to produce since

additional treatment of the electrode surface for uniform alignment of the molecules in the switched-on state, such as, for example, by rubbing, is no longer necessary. Instead, the preferential direction of the tilt or pretilt angle is controlled by a special design of the electrodes. In so-called MVA ("multidomain vertical alignment") displays, this is usually achieved by the electrodes having protrusions which cause a local pretilt. As a consequence, the LC molecules are aligned parallel to the electrode surfaces in different directions in different, defined regions of the cell on application of a voltage. "Controlled" switching is thereby achieved, and the formation of interfering disclination lines is prevented. Although this

arrangement improves the viewing angle of the display, it results, however, in a reduction in its transparency to light. A further development of MVA uses protrusions on only one electrode side, while the opposite electrode has slits, which improves the transparency to light. The slitted electrodes generate an inhomogeneous electric field in the LC cell on application of a voltage, meaning that controlled switching is still achieved. For further improvement of the transparency to light, the separations between the slits and protrusions can be increased, but this in turn results in a lengthening of the response times. In so-called PVA ("patterned VA") displays, protrusions are rendered completely superfluous in that both electrodes are structured by means of slits on the opposite sides, which results in increased contrast and improved transparency to light, but is technologically difficult and makes the display more sensitive to mechanical influences ("tapping", etc.). For many applications, such as, for example, monitors and especially TV screens, however, a shortening of the response times and an improvement in the contrast and luminance (transmission) of the display are demanded.

A further development are displays of the so-called PS ("polymer sustained") or PSA ("polymer sustained alignment") type, for which the term "polymer stabilised" is also occasionally used. In these, a small amount (for example 0.3% by weight, typically < 1 % by weight) of one or more polymerisable, compound(s), preferably polymerisable monomeric compound(s), is added to the LC medium and, after filling the LC medium into the display, is

polymerised or crosslinked in situ, usually by UV photopolymerisation, optionally while a voltage is applied to the electrodes of the display. The polymerisation is carried out at a temperature where the LC medium exhibits a liquid crystal phase, usually at room temperature. The addition of polymerisable mesogenic or liquid-crystalline compounds, also known as reactive mesogens or "RMs", to the LC mixture has proven particularly suitable. Unless indicated otherwise, the term "PSA" is used hereinafter when referring to displays of the polymer sustained alignment type in general, and the term "PS" is used when referring to specific display modes, like PS-VA, PS-TN and the like. Also, unless indicated otherwise, the term "RM" is used hereinafter when referring to a polymerisable mesogenic or liquid-crystalline compound.

In the meantime, the PS(A) principle is being used in various conventional LC display modes. Thus, for example, PS-VA, PS-OCB, PS-IPS, PS-FFS, PS- UB-FFS and PS-TN displays are known. The polymerisation of the RMs preferably takes place with an applied voltage in the case of PS-VA and PS- OCB displays, and with or without, preferably without, an applied voltage in the case of PS-IPS displays. As can be demonstrated in test cells, the PS(A) method results in a pretilt in the cell. In the case of PS-OCB displays, for example, it is possible for the bend structure to be stabilised so that an offset voltage is unnecessary or can be reduced. In the case of PS-VA displays, the pretilt has a positive effect on response times. For PS-VA displays, a standard MVA or PVA pixel and electrode layout can be used. In addition, however, it is also possible, for example, to manage with only one structured electrode side and no protrusions, which significantly simplifies production and at the same time results in very good contrast and in very good transparency to light.

Furthermore, the so-called posi-VA displays ("positive VA") have proven to be a particularly suitable mode. Like in classical VA displays, the initial orientation of the LC molecules in posi-VA displays is homeotropic, i.e.

substantially perpendicular to the substrates, in the initial state when no voltage is applied. However, in contrast to classical VA displays, in posi-VA displays LC media with positive dielectric anisotropy are used. Like in the usually used IPS displays, the two electrodes in posi-VA displays are arranged on only one of the two substrates, and preferably exhibit

intermeshed and comb-shaped (interdigital) structures. By application of a voltage to the interdigital electrodes, which create an electrical field that is substantially parallel to the layer of the LC medium, the LC molecules are transferred into an orientation that is substantially parallel to the substrates. In posi-VA displays polymer stabilisation, by addition of RMs to the LC medium which are polymerised in the display, has also proven to be advantageous, as a significant reduction of the switching times could thereby be realised. PS-VA displays are described, for example, in EP 1 170 626 A2, US

6,861 ,107, US 7,169,449, US 2004/0191428 A1 , US 2006/0066793 A1 and US 2006/0103804 A1 . PS-OCB displays are described, for example, in T.-J- Chen et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2006, 2702-2704 and S. H. Kim, L.-C- Chien, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2004, 7643-7647. PS-IPS displays are described, for example, in US 6,177,972 and Appl. Phys. Lett. 1999, 75(21 ), 3264. PS-TN displays are described, for example, in Optics Express 2004, 12(7), 1221 .

Below the layer formed by the phase-separated and polymerised RMs which induce the above mentioned pretilt angle, the PSA display typically contains an alignment layer, for example of polyimide, that provides the initial alignment of the LC molecules before the polymer stabilisation step.

Rubbed polyimide layers have been used for a long time as alignment layers. However, the rubbing process causes a number of problems, like mura, contamination, problems with static discharge, debris, etc. Therefore instead of rubbed polyimide layers it was proposed to use polyimide layers prepared by photoalignment, utilizing a light-induced orientational ordering of the alignment surface. This can be achieved through photodecomposition, photodimerisation or photoisomerisation by means of polarised light.

However, still a suitably derivatised polyimide layer is required that comprises the photoreactive group. Generally the effort and costs for production of such a polyimide layer, treatment of the poylimide and improvement with bumps or polymer layers are relatively great.

In addition, it was observed that unfavourable interaction of the polyimide alignment layer with certain compounds of the LC medium often leads to a reduction of the electrical resistance of the display. The number of suitable and available LC compounds is thus significantly reduced, at the expense of display parameters like viewing-angle dependence, contrast, and response times which are aimed to be improved by the use of such LC compounds. It was therefore desired to omit the polyimide alignment layers. For some display modes this was achieved by adding a self-aligning agent or additive to the LC medium that induces the desired alignment, for example homeotropic or planar, in situ by a self assembling mechanism. Thereby the alignment layer can be omitted on one or both of the substrates. These display modes are also known as "self-aligned" or "self-aligning" (SA) modes. In SA displays a small amount, typically 0.1 to 2.5 %, of a self-aligning additive is added to the LC medium. Suitable self-aligning additives are for example compounds having an organic core group and attached thereto one or more polar anchor groups, which are capable of interacting with the substrate surface, causing the additives on the substrate surface to align and induce the desired alignment also in the LC molecules. Preferred self- aligning additives comprise for example a mesogenic group and a straight- chain or branched alkyl side chain that is terminated with one or more polar anchor groups, for example selected from hydroxy, carboxy, amino or thiol groups. The self-aligning additives may also contain one or more

polymerisable groups that can be polymerised under similar conditions as the RMs used in the PSA process.

Hitherto SA-VA displays and SA-FFS displays haven been disclosed.

Suitable self-aligning additives to induce homeotropic alignment, especially for use in SA-VA mode displays, are disclosed for example in US

2013/0182202 A1 , US 2014/0838581 A1 , US 2015/0166890 A1 and US 2015/0252265 A1 . The SA mode can also be used in combination with the PSA mode. An LC medium for use in a display of such a combined mode thus contains both one or more RMs and one or more self-aligning additives.

Like the conventional LC displays described above, PSA displays can be operated as active-matrix or passive-matrix displays. In the case of active- matrix displays, individual pixels are usually addressed by integrated, nonlinear active elements, such as, for example, transistors (for example thin-film transistors or "TFTs"), while in the case of passive-matrix displays, individual pixels are usually addressed by the multiplex method, as known from the prior art.

The PSA display may also comprise an alignment layer on one or both of the substrates forming the display cell. The alignment layer is usually applied on the electrodes (where such electrodes are present) such that it is in contact with the LC medium and induces initial alignment of the LC molecules. The alignment layer may comprise or consist of, for example, a polyimide, which may also be rubbed, or may be prepared by a photoalignment method.

In particular for monitor and especially TV applications, optimisation of the response times, but also of the contrast and luminance (thus also transmission) of the LC display continues to be demanded. The PSA method can provide significant advantages here. In particular in the case of PS-VA, PS- IPS, PS-FFS and PS-posi-VA displays, a shortening of the response times, which correlate with a measurable pretilt in test cells, can be achieved without significant adverse effects on other parameters.

Prior art has suggested biphenyl diacrylates or dimethacrylates, which are optionally fluorinated as RMs for use in PSA displays However, the problem arises that not all combinations consisting of an LC mixture and one or more RMs are suitable for use in PSA displays because, for example, an inadequate tilt or none at all becomes established or since, for example, the VHR is inadequate for TFT display applications. In addition, it has been found that, on use in PSA displays, the LC mixtures and RMs known from the prior art do still have some disadvantages. Thus, not every known RM which is soluble in LC mixtures is suitable for use in PSA displays. In addition, it is often difficult to find a suitable selection criterion for the RM besides direct measurement of the pretilt in the PSA display. The choice of suitable RMs becomes even smaller if polymerisation by means of UV light without the addition of photoinitiators is desired, which may be advantageous for certain applications.

In addition, the selected combination of LC host mixture/RM should have the lowest possible rotational viscosity and the best possible electrical properties. In particular, it should have the highest possible VHR. In PSA displays, a high VHR after irradiation with UV light is particularly necessary since UV exposure is a requisite part of the display production process, but also occurs as normal exposure during operation of the finished display. In particular, it would be desirable to have available novel materials for PSA displays which produce a particularly small pretilt angle. Preferred materials here are those which produce a lower pretilt angle during polymerisation for the same exposure time than the materials known to date, and/or through the use of which the (higher) pretilt angle that can be achieved with known materials can already be achieved after a shorter exposure time. The production time ("tact time") of the display could thus be shortened and the costs of the production process reduced.

A further problem in the production of PSA displays is the presence or removal of residual amounts of unpolymerised RMs, in particular after the polymerisation step for production of the pretilt angle in the display. For example, unreacted RMs of this type may adversely affect the properties of the display by, for example, polymerising in an uncontrolled manner during operation after finishing of the display. Thus, the PSA displays known from the prior art often exhibit the undesired effect of so-called "image sticking" or "image burn", i.e. the image produced in the LC display by temporary addressing of individual pixels still remains visible even after the electric field in these pixels has been switched off or after other pixels have been addressed.

This "image sticking" can occur on the one hand if LC host mixtures having a low VHR are used. The UV component of daylight or the backlighting can cause undesired decomposition reactions of the LC molecules therein and thus initiate the production of ionic or free-radical impurities. These may accumulate, in particular, at the electrodes or the alignment layers, where they may reduce the effective applied voltage. This effect can also be observed in conventional LC displays without a polymer component.

In addition, an additional "image sticking" effect caused by the presence of unpolymerised RMs is often observed in PSA displays. Uncontrolled polymerisation of the residual RMs is initiated here by UV light from the environment or by the backlighting. In the switched display areas, this changes the tilt angle after a number of addressing cycles. As a result, a change in transmission in the switched areas may occur, while it remains unchanged in the unswitched areas. It is therefore desirable for the polymerisation of the RMs to proceed as completely as possible during production of the PSA display and for the presence of unpolymerised RMs in the display to be excluded as far as possible or reduced to a minimum. Thus, RMs and LC mixtures are required which enable or support highly effective and complete polymerisation of the RMs. In addition, controlled reaction of the residual RM amounts would be desirable. This would be simpler if the RM polymerised more rapidly and effectively than the compounds known to date. A further problem that has been observed in the operation of PSA displays is the stability of the pretilt angle. Thus, it was observed that the pretilt angle, which was generated during display manufacture by polymerising the RM as described above, does not remain constant but can deteriorate after the display was subjected to voltage stress during its operation. This can negatively affect the display performance, e.g. by increasing the black state transmission and hence lowering the contrast.

Another problem to be solved is that the RMs of prior art do often have high melting points, and do only show limited solubility in many currently common LC mixtures, and therefore frequently tend to spontaneously crystallise out of the mixture. In addition, the risk of spontaneous polymerisation prevents the LC host mixture being warmed in order to dissolve the polymerisable component, meaning that the best possible solubility even at room temperature is necessary. In addition, there is a risk of separation, for example on introduction of the LC medium into the LC display (chromatography effect), which may greatly impair the homogeneity of the display. This is further increased by the fact that the LC media are usually introduced at low temperatures in order to reduce the risk of spontaneous polymerisation (see above), which in turn has an adverse effect on the solubility.

Another problem observed in prior art is that the use of conventional LC media in LC displays, including but not limited to displays of the PSA type, often leads to the occurrence of mura in the display, especially when the LC medium is filled in the display cell manufactured using the one drop filling (ODF) method. This phenomenon is also known as "ODF mura". It is therefore desirable to provide LC media which lead to reduced ODF mura. Another problem observed in prior art is that LC media for use in PSA displays do often exhibit high viscosities and, as a consequence, high switching times. In order to reduce the viscosity and switching time of the LC medium, it has been suggested in prior art to add LC compounds with an alkenyl group. However, it was observed that LC media containing alkenyl compounds often show a decrease of the reliability and stability, and a decrease of the VHR especially after exposure to UV radiation. Especially for use in PSA displays this is a considerable disadvantage, because the photo- polymerisation of the RMs in the PSA display is usually carried out by exposure to UV radiation, which may cause a VHR drop in the LC medium.

In order to overcome the above-mentioned problems caused by the residual, unreacted RMs that are still present in the display after the UV photo- polymerisation step under applied voltage to generate the pretilt angle, the commercial display manufacturing process usually includes a second UV exposure step where any remaining residual RMs are polymerised, typically without applying a voltage. Since additional process steps do significantly increase the production cost, it would be desirable to omit the second UV exposure step. However, this would require the use of an RM of which the presence of residual amounts after the first UV exposure step does not have a significant negative effect on the LC mixture performance parameters.

There is thus still a great demand for PSA displays and LC media and polymerisable compounds for use in such displays, which do not show the drawbacks as described above, or only do so to a small extent, and have improved properties.

In particular, there is a great demand for PSA displays, and LC media and polymerisable compounds for use in such PSA displays, which enable a high specific resistance at the same time as a large working-temperature range, short response times, even at low temperatures, and a low threshold voltage, a low pretilt angle, a multiplicity of grey shades, high contrast and a broad viewing angle, have high reliability and high values for the VHR after UV exposure, and, in case of the polymerisable compounds, have low melting points and a high solubility in the LC host mixtures. In PSA displays for mobile applications, it is especially desired to have available LC media that show low threshold voltage and high birefringence.

State-of-the-art commercial PS-VA mixtures are usually composed of a LC host mixture with negative dielectric anisotropy and an RM, typically with an aromatic core, to afford sufficient absorption in the UV-A range for initiating photopolymerization. The RM should fulfil the following requirements:

1 . It should be reactive after exposure to UV-light (typically UV-A light with a wavelength ranging from 315-400 nm as used in current LC display production process), also in absence of any photoinitiator.

2. After UV exposure, it should be capable to generate a stable pre-tile

angle in a desired range and time span.

3. After the first and second UV exposure step, residual RM should not

have any negative effects on the LC mixture performance parameters, such as VHR, tilt generation or tilt stability.

4. It should exhibit good solubility and stability in the LC host mixture at a

broad temperature range, typically from -40 to approx. 120°C.

Also, it is desirable to have available RMs and LC media which enable to omit the second UV exposure step in the display manufacturing process, and wherein residual amounts of RM after the first UV exposure step do not have a significant negative effect on the performance parameters of the LC

medium in the display, such as VHR, tilt generation or tilt stability.

The invention is based on the object of providing novel suitable materials for use in PSA displays, in particular RMs and LC media comprising the same, which do not have the disadvantages indicated above or do so to a reduced extent.

In particular, the invention is based on the object of providing RMs, and LC media comprising them, for use in PSA displays, which enable very high specific resistance values, high VHR values, high reliability, low threshold voltages, short response times, high birefringence, show good UV absorption especially at longer wavelengths, enable quick and complete polymerisation of the RMs, allow the generation of a low pretilt angle, preferably as quickly as possible, enable a high stability of the pretilt even after longer time and/or after UV exposure, reduce or prevent the occurrence of "image sticking" and "ODF mura" in the display, and in case of the RMs polymerise as rapidly and completely as possible, show a high solubility in the LC media which are typically used as host mixtures in PSA displays A further object of the invention is to provide RMs for use in PSA displays which exhibit both fast polymerisation speed and good reliability parameters, like high VHR or tilt stability.

A further object of the invention is the provision of novel RMs, in particular for optical, electro-optical and electronic applications, and of suitable processes and intermediates for the preparation thereof.

A further object of the invention is to provide RMs and LC media for use in PSA displays which enable to omit the second UV exposure step in the display manufacturing process, and wherein residual amounts of RM after the first UV exposure step do not have a significant negative effect on the performance parameters of the LC medium in the display, such as VHR, tilt generation or tilt stability. A further object of the invention is to provide RMs and LC media for use in

PSA displays which fulfil one or more of the requirements 1 -4 as listed above.

It was surprisingly found that the above aims could be achieved by using an LC mixture which contains a non-aromatic RM that is not reactive under UV- A light, and further contains a UV-A sensitive polymerisable photoinitiator that enables the polymerization of the non-aromatic RM.

Summary of the Invention The invention relates to a mixture comprising one or more compounds of formula I and one or more compounds of formula II

P-Sp-(A 1 -Z 1 )a-(A 2 -Z 2 )b-(A 3 -Z 3 ) c -(A 4 -Z 4 )d-R I wherein the individual radicals, independently of each other and on each occurrence identically or differently, have the following meanings

R P, P-Sp-, H, F, CI, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -NCO, -NCS, -OCN, -SCN,

SF5 or straight-chain or branched alkyl having 1 to 25 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced, independently of one another, by

-C(R°)=C(R 00 )-, -C≡C-, -N(R 00 )-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another, and in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F, CI, Br, I, CN, P or P-Sp-,

P a polymerisable group,

Sp a spacer group or a single bond,

A 1 , A 3 straight-chain, branched or cyclic alkylene with 1 to 20, preferably

1 to 12 C atoms, wherein one or more non-adjacent Ch -groups are optionally replaced by -CR°=CR 00 -, -C≡C-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a manner that O- and/or S-atoms are not directly connected with each other, and wherein one or more H atoms are each optionally replaced by F or CI, and which is optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-,

A 2 , A 4 arylene or heteroarylene having 5 to 20 ring atoms, which

optionally contains fused rings, and which is optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-, -4 _o_ _ s _ -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -Ο-CO-O-, -OCH 2 -, -CH2O-,

-SCH2-, -CH2S-, -CF2O-, -OCF2-, -CF2S-, -SCF2-, -(CH 2 )ni-, -CF2CH2-, -CH2CF2-, -(CF 2 )ni-, -CH=CH-, -CF=CF-, -CH=CF-, -CF=CH-, -C≡C-, -CH=CH-CO-O-, -O-CO-CH=CH-,

-CH2-CH2-CO-O-, -O-CO-CH 2 -CH 2 -, -CR°R 00 -, or a single bond,

H or alkyl having 1 to 12 C atoms,

F, CI, -CN, P-Sp- or straight chain, branched or cyclic alkyl having 1 to 25 C atoms, wherein one or more non-adjacent Ch -groups are optionally replaced by -CR°=CR 00 -, -C≡C-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, - O-CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a manner that O- and/or S-atoms are not directly connected with each other, and wherein one or more H atoms are each optionally replaced by P-Sp-, F or CI,

R 1 , R 2 straight-chain or branched alkyl with 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably methyl, R 3 OH, methyl, methoxy, phenyl that is optionally substituted by one or more groups L, R, P or P-Sp-, or morpholine-1 -yl, a, b, c, d 0, 1 , 2 or 3, with a+c>1 , and preferably a+b+c+d<4, g 1 , 2, 3 or 4, n1 1 , 2, 3 or 4, r 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4, p 1 , 2 or 3, with p+r≤5, wherein in formula II in case of g≥2 the groups (P-Sp) p and -C(=O)-CR 1 R 2 R 3 are linked to different terminal benzene rings, and in case of g≥3 all benzene rings are connected with each other via para-positions.

The invention further relates to the use of a mixture as described above and below in LC media and LC displays, especially in the LC medium, active layer or alignment layer of an LC display, wherein the LC displays are

preferably PSA displays. The invention furthermore relates to an LC medium comprising one or more compounds of formula I and one or more compounds of formula II.

The invention furthermore relates to an LC medium comprising

- a polymerisable component A) comprising, preferably consisting of, one or more polymerisable compounds, and comprising one or more compounds of formula I and one or more compounds of formula II,

- a liquid-crystalline component B), hereinafter also referred to as "LC host mixture", comprising, preferably consisting of, one or more mesogenic or liquid-crystalline compounds.

The liquid-crystalline component B) of an LC medium according to the present invention is hereinafter also referred to as "LC host mixture", and preferably comprises one or more, preferably at least two mesogenic or LC compounds selected from low-molecular-weight compounds which are unpolymerisable.

The invention furthermore relates to an LC medium as described above and below, wherein the LC host mixture or component B) comprises at least one mesogenic or LC compound comprising an alkenyl group.

The invention furthermore relates to an LC medium or LC display as described above, wherein the compounds of formula I and II, or the polymerisable compounds of component A), are polymerised.

The invention furthermore relates to a process for preparing an LC medium as described above and below, comprising the steps of mixing one or more mesogenic or LC compounds, or an LC host mixture or LC component B) as described above and below, with one or more compounds of formula I and one or more compounds of formula II, and optionally with further LC compounds and/or additives.

The invention furthermore relates to the use of compounds of formula I and II and the mixtures and LC media according to the invention in PSA displays, in particular the use in PSA displays containing an LC medium, for the production of a tilt angle in the LC medium by in-situ polymerisation of the compound(s) of the formula I and II in the PSA display, preferably in an electric or magnetic field. The invention furthermore relates to an LC display comprising one or more compounds of formula I and II, or an LC medium according to the invention, in particular a PSA display, particularly preferably a PS-VA, PS-OCB, PS- IPS, PS-FFS, PS-UB-FFS, PS-posi-VA or PS-TN display. The invention furthermore relates to the use of compounds of formula I and II and the LC media according to the invention in polymer stabilised SA-VA displays, and to a polymer stabilised SA-VA display comprising one or more compounds of formula I and II or an LC medium according to the invention, preferably a polymer stabilised SA-VA or SA-FFS display.

The invention furthermore relates to an LC display comprising a polymer obtainable by polymerisation of one or more compounds of formula I and II or of a polymerisable component A) as described above, or comprising an LC medium according to the invention, which is preferably a PSA display, very preferably a PS-VA, PS-OCB, PS-IPS, PS-FFS, PS-UB-FFS, PS-posi-VA or PS-TN display, or a polymer stabilised SA-VA or SA-FFS display.

The invention furthermore relates to an LC display of the PSA type

comprising two substrates, at least one which is transparent to light, an electrode provided on each substrate or two electrodes provided on only one of the substrates, and located between the substrates a layer of an LC medium that comprises one or more polymerisable compounds and an LC component as described above and below, wherein the polymerisable compounds are polymerised between the substrates of the display.

The invention furthermore relates to a process for manufacturing an LC display as described above and below, comprising the steps of filling or otherwise providing an LC medium, which comprises one or more polymerisable compounds as described above and below, between the substrates of the display, and polymerising the polymerisable compounds. The PSA displays according to the invention have two electrodes, preferably in the form of transparent layers, which are applied to one or both of the substrates. In some displays, for example in PS-VA, PS-OCB, PS-TN or SA- VA displays, one electrode is applied to each of the two substrates. In other displays, for example in PS-posi-VA, PS-IPS, PS-FFS, PS-UB-FFS or SA- FFS displays, both electrodes are applied to only one of the two substrates.

In a preferred embodiment the polymerisable component is polymerised in the LC display while a voltage is applied to the electrodes of the display at least partialy during polymerisation.

The polymerisable compounds of the polymerisable compoment are preferably polymerised by photopolymerisation, very preferably by UV photopolymerisation .

Detailed Description of the Invention

An LC medium containing a compound of formula I and a compound of formula II shows the following advantageous properties when used in PSA or polymer stabilised SA-VA displays:

- a suitable tilt generation which is inside a certain process window,

- fast polymerization leading to minimal residues of RM after the UV- process,

- a high voltage-holding-ratio after the UV-process,

- good tilt stability,

- sufficient stability against heat,

- sufficient solubility in organic solvents typically used in display

manufacture.

Also the LC medium according to the present invention enables the use of non-aromatic RMs in PSA technology, which provides the following advantages:

- since non-aromatic RMs are not reactive under current standard UV-A exposure, the presence of residue RMs after processing does not have negative effects on the LC mixture performance parameters, such as VHR, tilt generation or tilt stability,

- it is possible to reduce, and preferably eliminate, the second UV exposure step which is commonly applied to remove residue RMs after the first UV exposure step,

- the rate of polymerization and tilt generation can be easily controlled by varying the amount of polymerisable photoinitiator, for example in the range from 10 to 500 ppm,

- the non-aromatic RMs usually have better solubility in LC-mixture than aromatic RMs.

Unless stated otherwise, the compounds of formula I and II are preferably selected from achiral compounds.

As used herein, the terms "active layer" and "switchable layer" mean a layer in an electrooptical display, for example an LC display, that comprises one or more molecules having structural and optical anisotropy, like for example LC molecules, which change their orientation upon an external stimulus like an electric or magnetic field, resulting in a change of the transmission of the layer for polarized or unpolarized light.

As used herein, the terms "tilt" and "tilt angle" will be understood to mean a tilted alignment of the LC molecules of an LC medium relative to the surfaces of the cell in an LC display (here preferably a PSA display). The tilt angle here denotes the average angle (< 90°) between the longitudinal molecular axes of the LC molecules (LC director) and the surface of the plane-parallel outer plates which form the LC cell. A low value for the tilt angle (i.e. a large deviation from the 90° angle) corresponds to a large tilt here. A suitable method for measurement of the tilt angle is given in the examples. Unless indicated otherwise, tilt angle values disclosed above and below relate to this measurement method.

As used herein, the terms "reactive mesogen" and "RM" will be understood to mean a compound containing a mesogenic or liquid crystalline skeleton, and one or more functional groups attached thereto which are suitable for polymerisation and are also referred to as "polymerisable group" or "P".

Unless stated otherwise, the term "polymerisable compound" as used herein will be understood to mean a polymerisable monomeric compound.

As used herein, the term "low-molecular-weight compound" will be understood to mean to a compound that is monomeric and/or is not prepared by a polymerisation reaction, as opposed to a "polymeric compound" or a "polymer".

As used herein, the term "unpolymerisable compound" will be understood to mean a compound that does not contain a functional group that is suitable for polymerisation under the conditions usually applied for the polymerisation of the RMs.

The term "mesogenic group" as used herein is known to the person skilled in the art and described in the literature, and means a group which, due to the anisotropy of its attracting and repelling interactions, essentially contributes to causing a liquid-crystal (LC) phase in low-molecular-weight or polymeric substances. Compounds containing mesogenic groups (mesogenic compounds) do not necessarily have to have an LC phase themselves. It is also possible for mesogenic compounds to exhibit LC phase behaviour only after mixing with other compounds and/or after polymerisation. Typical mesogenic groups are, for example, rigid rod- or disc-shaped units. An overview of the terms and definitions used in connection with mesogenic or LC compounds is given in Pure Appl. Chem. 2001 , 73(5), 888 and C. Tschierske, G. Pelzl, S. Diele, Angew. Chem. 2004, 1 16, 6340-6368.

The term "spacer group", hereinafter also referred to as "Sp", as used herein is known to the person skilled in the art and is described in the literature, see, for example, Pure Appl. Chem. 2001 , 73(5), 888 and C. Tschierske, G. Pelzl, S. Diele, Angew. Chem. 2004, 1 16, 6340-6368. As used herein, the terms "spacer group" or "spacer" mean a flexible group, for example an alkylene group, which connects the mesogenic group and the polymerisable group(s) in a polymerisable mesogenic compound. H

Above and below, — ' denotes a trans-1 ,4-cyclohexylene ring,

O

and — ' denotes a 1 ,4-phenylene ring.

In a group €—> or ' T— '> the single bond shown between the two ring atoms can be attached to any free position of the ring.

Above and below "organic group" denotes a carbon or hydrocarbon group.

"Carbon group" denotes a mono- or polyvalent organic group containing at least one carbon atom, where this either contains no further atoms (such as, for example, -C≡C-) or optionally contains one or more further atoms, such as, for example, N, O, S, B, P, Si, Se, As, Te or Ge (for example carbonyl, etc.). The term "hydrocarbon group" denotes a carbon group which

additionally contains one or more H atoms and optionally one or more

heteroatoms, such as, for example, N, O, S, B, P, Si, Se, As, Te or Ge.

"Halogen" denotes F, CI, Br or I, preferably F or CI.

O

I I

-CO-, -C(=O)- and -C(O)- denote a carbonyl group, i.e. .

A carbon or hydrocarbon group can be a saturated or unsaturated group.

Unsaturated groups are, for example, aryl, alkenyl or alkynyl groups. A carbon or hydrocarbon radical having more than 3 C atoms can be straight-chain, branched and/or cyclic and may also contain spiro links or condensed rings.

The terms "alkyl", "aryl", "heteroaryl", etc., also encompass polyvalent groups, for example alkylene, arylene, heteroarylene, etc.

The term "aryl" denotes an aromatic carbon group or a group derived therefrom. The term "heteroaryl" denotes "aryl" as defined above, containing one or more heteroatoms, preferably selected from N, O, S, Se, Te, Si and Ge.

Preferred carbon and hydrocarbon groups are optionally substituted, straight- chain, branched or cyclic, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxy, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxy- carbonyl, alkylcarbonyloxy and alkoxycarbonyloxy having 1 to 40, preferably 1 to 20, very preferably 1 to 12, C atoms, optionally substituted aryl or aryloxy having 5 to 30, preferably 6 to 25, C atoms, or optionally substituted alkylaryl, arylalkyl, alkylaryloxy, arylalkyloxy, arylcarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl,

arylcarbonyloxy and aryloxycarbonyloxy having 5 to 30, preferably 6 to 25, C atoms, wherein one or more C atoms may also be replaced by hetero atoms, preferably selected from N, O, S, Se, Te, Si and Ge.

Further preferred carbon and hydrocarbon groups are C1-C20 alkyl, C2-C20 alkenyl, C2-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 allyl, C 4 -C2o alkyldienyl, C 4 -C2o polyenyl, C6- C20 cycloalkyl, C 4 -Cis cycloalkenyl, C6-C30 aryl, C6-C30 alkylaryl, C6-C30 arylalkyl, C6-C30 alkylaryloxy, C6-C30 arylalkyloxy, C2-C30 heteroaryl, C2-C30 heteroaryloxy. Particular preference is given to C1-C12 alkyl, C2-C12 alkenyl, C2-C12 alkynyl, C6-C25 aryl and C2-C25 heteroaryl.

Further preferred carbon and hydrocarbon groups are straight-chain, branched or cyclic alkyl having 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 12, C atoms, which are unsubstituted or mono- or polysubstituted by F, CI, Br, I or CN and in which one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced, independently of one another, by -C(R X )=C(R X )-, -C≡C-, -N(R X )-, -O-, -S-, - CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another.

R x preferably denotes H, F, CI, CN, a straight-chain, branched or cyclic alkyl chain having 1 to 25 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent C atoms may be replaced by -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O- and in which one or more H atoms may be replaced by F or CI, or denotes an optionally substituted aryl or aryloxy group with 6 to 30 C atoms, or an optionally substituted heteroaryl or heteroaryloxy group with 2 to 30 C atoms.

Preferred alkyl groups are, for example, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, s-butyl, t-butyl, 2-methylbutyl, n-pentyl, s-pentyl, cydopentyl, n-hexyl, cyclohexyl, 2-ethylhexyl, n-heptyl, cycloheptyl, n-octyl, cyclooctyl, n-nonyl, n-decyl, n-undecyl, n-dodecyl, dodecanyl, trifluoromethyl, perfluoro- n-butyl, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, perfluorooctyl, perfluorohexyl, etc.

Preferred alkenyl groups are, for example, ethenyl, propenyl, butenyl, pentenyl, cyclopentenyl, hexenyl, cyclohexenyl, heptenyl, cycloheptenyl, octenyl, cyclooctenyl, etc.

Preferred alkynyl groups are, for example, ethynyl, propynyl, butynyl,

pentynyl, hexynyl, octynyl, etc. Preferred alkoxy groups are, for example, methoxy, ethoxy, 2-methoxy- ethoxy, n-propoxy, i-propoxy, n-butoxy, i-butoxy, s-butoxy, t-butoxy, 2- methylbutoxy, n-pentoxy, n-hexoxy, n-heptoxy, n-octoxy, n-nonoxy, n- decoxy, n-undecoxy, n-dodecoxy, etc. Preferred amino groups are, for example, dimethylamino, methylamino, methylphenylamino, phenylamino, etc.

Aryl and heteroaryl groups can be monocyclic or polycyclic, i.e. they can contain one ring (such as, for example, phenyl) or two or more rings, which may also be fused (such as, for example, naphthyl) or covalently bonded (such as, for example, biphenyl), or contain a combination of fused and linked rings. Heteroaryl groups contain one or more heteroatoms, preferably selected from O, N, S and Se. Particular preference is given to mono-, bi- or tricyclic aryl groups having 6 to 25 C atoms and mono-, bi- or tricyclic heteroaryl groups having 5 to 25 ring atoms, which optionally contain fused rings and are optionally substituted. Preference is furthermore given to 5-, 6- or 7-membered aryl and heteroaryl groups, in which, in addition, one or more CH groups may be replaced by N, S or O in such a way that O atoms and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another.

Preferred aryl groups are, for example, phenyl, biphenyl, terphenyl, [1 ,1 ':3',1 "] terphenyl-2'-yl, naphthyl, anthracene, binaphthyl, phenanthrene, 9,10-dihydro- phenanthrene, pyrene, dihydropyrene, chrysene, perylene, tetracene, penta- cene, benzopyrene, fluorene, indene, indenofluorene, spirobifluorene, etc. Preferred heteroaryl groups are, for example, 5-mennbered rings, such as pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, 1 ,2,3-triazole, 1 ,2,4-triazole, tetrazole, furan, thiophene, selenophene, oxazole, isoxazole, 1 ,2-thiazole, 1 ,3-thiazole, 1 ,2,3- oxadiazole, 1 ,2,4-oxadiazole, 1 ,2,5-oxadiazole, 1 ,3,4-oxadiazole, 1 ,2,3- thiadiazole, 1 ,2,4-thiadiazole, 1 ,2,5-thiadiazole, 1 ,3,4-thiadiazole, 6-membered rings, such as pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, 1 ,3,5-triazine, 1 ,2,4- triazine, 1 ,2,3-triazine, 1 ,2,4,5-tetrazine, 1 ,2,3,4-tetrazine, 1 ,2,3,5-tetrazine, or condensed groups, such as indole, isoindole, indolizine, indazole,

benzimidazole, benzotriazole, purine, naphthimidazole, phenanthrimidazole, pyridimidazole, pyrazinimidazole, quinoxalinimidazole, benzoxazole, naphthoxazole, anthroxazole, phenanthroxazole, isoxazole, benzothiazole, benzofuran, isobenzofuran, dibenzofuran, quinoline, isoquinoline, pteridine, benzo-5,6-quinoline, benzo-6,7-quinoline, benzo-7,8-quinoline, benzoisoquin- oline, acridine, phenothiazine, phenoxazine, benzopyridazine, benzopyrimi- dine, quinoxaline, phenazine, naphthyridine, azacarbazole, benzocarboline, phenanthridine, phenanthroline, thieno[2,3b]thiophene, thieno[3,2b]thiophene, dithienothiophene, isobenzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzothiophene, benzothiadiazothiophene, or combinations of these groups. The aryl and heteroaryl groups mentioned above and below may also be substituted by alkyl, alkoxy, thioalkyl, fluorine, fluoroalkyl or further aryl or heteroaryl groups.

The (non-aromatic) alicyclic and heterocyclic groups encompass both saturated rings, i.e. those containing exclusively single bonds, and also partially unsaturated rings, i.e. those which may also contain multiple bonds. Heterocyclic rings contain one or more heteroatoms, preferably selected from Si, O, N, S and Se. The (non-aromatic) alicyclic and heterocyclic groups can be monocyclic, i.e. contain only one ring (such as, for example, cyclohexane), or polycyclic, i.e. contain a plurality of rings (such as, for example, decahydronaphthalene or bicyclooctane). Particular preference is given to saturated groups. Preference is furthermore given to mono-, bi- or tricyclic groups having 5 to 25 ring atoms, which optionally contain fused rings and are optionally substituted. Preference is furthermore given to 5-, 6-, 7- or 8-membered carbocyclic groups, in which, in addition, one or more C atoms may be replaced by Si and/or one or more CH groups may be replaced by N and/or one or more non-adjacent Ch groups may be replaced by -O- and/or -S-. Preferred alicyclic and heterocyclic groups are, for example, 5-membered groups, such as cyclopentane, tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydrothiofuran, pyrrolidine, 6-membered groups, such as cyclohexane, silinane, cyclohexene, tetrahydropyran, tetrahydrothiopyran, 1 ,3-dioxane, 1 ,3-dithiane, piperidine, 7-membered groups, such as cycloheptane, and fused groups, such as tetrahydronaphthalene, decahydronaphthalene, indane, bicyclo[1 .1 .1]- pentane-1 ,3-diyl, bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1 ,4-diyl, spiro[3.3]heptane-2,6-diyl, octahydro-4,7-methanoindane-2,5-diyl.

Preferred substituents are, for example, solubility-promoting groups, such as alkyl or alkoxy, electron-withdrawing groups, such as fluorine, nitro or nitrile, or substituents for increasing the glass transition temperature (Tg) in the polymer, in particular bulky groups, such as, for example, t-butyl or optionally substituted aryl groups. Preferred substituents, hereinafter also referred to as "L s ", are, for example, F, CI, Br, I, -CN, -NO 2 , -NCO, -NCS, -OCN, -SCN, -C(=O)N(R x ) 2 , -C(=O)Y 1 , - C(=O)R x , -N(R X )2, straight-chain or branched alkyl, alkoxy, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, alkylcarbonyloxy or alkoxycarbonyloxy each having 1 to 25 C atoms, in which one or more H atoms may optionally be replaced by F or CI, optionally substituted silyl having 1 to 20 Si atoms, or optionally substituted aryl having 6 to 25, preferably 6 to 15, C atoms, wherein R x denotes H, F, CI, CN, or straight chain, branched or cyclic alkyl having 1 to 25 C atoms, wherein one or more non-adjacent Ch -groups are optionally replaced by -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a manner that O- and/or S-atoms are not directly connected with each other, and wherein one or more H atoms are each optionally replaced by F, CI, P- or P-Sp-, and Y 1 denotes halogen. "Substituted silyl or aryl" preferably means substituted by halogen, -CN,

R°, -OR 0 , -CO-R 0 , -CO-O-R 0 , -O-CO-R 0 or -O-CO-O-R 0 , wherein R° denotes H or alkyl with 1 to 20 C atoms.

Particularly preferred substituents L s are, for example, F, CI, CN, NO2, CH3, C2H5, OCH3, OC2H5, COCH3, COC2H5, COOCH3, COOC2H5, CF 3 , OCF3, OCHF2, OC2F5, furthermore phenyl.

in which L has one of the meanings indicated above.

The polymerisable group P is a group which is suitable for a polymerisation reaction, such as, for example, free-radical or ionic chain polymerisation, polyaddition or polycondensation, or for a polymer-analogous reaction, for example addition or condensation onto a main polymer chain. Particular preference is given to groups for chain polymerisation, in particular those containing a C=C double bond or -C≡C- triple bond, and groups which are suitable for polymerisation with ring opening, such as, for example, oxetane or epoxide groups.

Preferred groups P are selected from the group consisting of

CW 1 =CH-CO-NH-, CH 2 =CW 1 -CO-NH-, CH 3 -CH=CH-O-,

(CH 2 =CH) 2 CH-OCO-, (CH 2 =CH-CH 2 ) 2 CH-OCO-, (CH 2 =CH) 2 CH-O-,

(CH 2 =CH-CH 2 ) 2 N-, (CH 2 =CH-CH 2 ) 2 N-CO-, HO-CW 2 W 3 -, HS-CW 2 W 3 -, HW 2 N- , HO-CWW-NH-, CH 2 =CW 1 -CO-NH-, CH 2 =CH-(COO)ki-Phe-(O) k 2-,

CH 2 =CH-(CO)ki-Phe-(O) k 2-, Phe-CH=CH-, HOOC-, OCN- and W 4 W 5 W 6 Si-, in which W 1 denotes H, F, CI, CN, CF3, phenyl or alkyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, in particular H, F, CI or CH3, W 2 and W 3 each, independently of one another, denote H or alkyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, in particular H, methyl, ethyl or n-propyl, W 4 , W 5 and W 6 each, independently of one another, denote CI, oxaalkyl or oxacarbonylalkyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, W 7 and W 8 each, independently of one another, denote H, CI or alkyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, Phe denotes 1 ,4-phenylene, which is optionally substituted by one or more radicals L as defined above which are other than P-Sp-, ki , k2 and k3 each, independently of one another, denote 0 or 1 , k3 preferably denotes 1 , and k 4 denotes an integer from 1 to 10.

Very preferred groups P are selected from the group consisting of

CH 2 =CW 1 -CO-O-, CH 2 =CW 1 -CO-, W HC CH - , 0 CH 2 =CW 2 -O-, CH 2 =CW 2 -,

CW 1 =CH-CO-(O)k3-, CW 1 =CH-CO-NH-, CH 2 =CW 1 -CO-NH-,

(CH 2 =CH) 2 CH-OCO-, (CH 2 =CH-CH 2 ) 2 CH-OCO-, (CH 2 =CH) 2 CH-O-,

(CH 2 =CH-CH 2 ) 2 N-, (CH 2 =CH-CH 2 ) 2 N-CO-, CH 2 =CW 1 -CO-NH-,

CH 2 =CH-(COO)ki-Phe-(O) k2 -, CH 2 =CH-(CO) k i-Phe-(O) k2 -, Phe-CH=CH- and W 4 W 5 W 6 Si-, in which W 1 denotes H, F, CI, CN, CF 3 , phenyl or alkyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, in particular H, F, CI or Chb, W 2 and W 3 each, independently of one another, denote H or alkyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, in particular H, methyl, ethyl or n-propyl, W 4 , W 5 and W 6 each, independently of one another, denote CI, oxaalkyl or oxacarbonylalkyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, W 7 and W 8 each, independently of one another, denote H, CI or alkyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, Phe denotes 1 ,4-phenylene, ki, k 2 and k3 each, independently of one another, denote 0 or 1 , k3 preferably denotes 1 , and k 4 denotes an integer from 1 to 10.

Very particularly preferred groups P are selected from the group consisting of CH 2 =CW 1 -CO-O-, in particular CH 2 =CH-CO-O-, CH 2 =C(CH 3 )-CO-O- and CH 2 =CF-CO-O-, fu O-,

(CH 2 =CH) 2 CH-O-, Further preferred polymerisable groups P are selected from the group consisting of vinyloxy, acrylate, methacrylate, fluoroacrylate, chloroacrylate, oxetane and epoxide, most preferably from acrylate and methacrylate. If the spacer group Sp is different from a single bond, it is preferably of the formula Sp"-X", so that the respective radical P-Sp- conforms to the formula P-Sp"-X"-, wherein

Sp" denotes linear or branched alkylene having 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 12, C atoms, which is optionally mono- or polysubstituted by F, CI, Br, I or CN and in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent Ch groups may each be replaced, independently of one another, by -O-, -S-, -NH- , -N(R 0 )-, -Si(R°R 00 )-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O-, -S-CO-, -CO-S- , -N(R 00 )-CO-O-, -O-CO-N(R 0 )-, -N(R°)-CO-N(R 00 )-, -CH=CH- or -C≡C- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another,

X" denotes -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O-, -CO-N(R 0 )-, -N(R 0 )- CO-, -N(R°)-CO-N(R 00 )-, -OCH2-, -CH2O-, -SCH2-, -CH2S-, -CF2O-, - OCF2-, -CF2S-, -SCF2-, -CF2CH2-, -CH2CF2-, -CF2CF2-, -CH=N-, -

N=CH-, -N=N-, -CH=CR 0 -, -CY 2 =CY 3 -, -C≡C-, -CH=CH-CO-O-, -O-CO- CH=CH- or a single bond,

R° and R 00 each, independently of one another, denote H or alkyl having 1 to 20 C atoms, and

Y 2 and Y 3 each, independently of one another, denote H, F, CI or CN.

X" is preferably -O-, -S-, -CO-, -COO-, -OCO-, -O-COO-, -CO-NR 0 -, -NR°- CO-, -NR°-CO-NR 00 - or a single bond.

Typical spacer groups Sp and -Sp"-X"- are, for example, -(CH2) P i-, -(CH2) P i-O-, -(CH 2 ) P i-O-CO-, -(CH 2 ) P i-CO-O-, -(CH 2 ) P i-O-CO-O-, -(Ch CH OJqi-Ch CH -, - CH2CH2-S-CH2CH2-, -CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2- or -(SiR°R 00 -O)pi-, in which p1 is an integer from 1 to 12, q1 is an integer from 1 to 3, and R° and R 00 have the meanings indicated above. Particularly preferred groups Sp and -Sp"-X"- are -(CH2) P i-, -(CH2) P i-O-, - (CH 2 ) P i-O-CO-, -(CH 2 ) P i-CO-O-, -(CH 2 ) P i-O-CO-O-, in which p1 and q1 have the meanings indicated above.

Particularly preferred groups Sp" are, in each case straight-chain, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentylene, hexylene, heptylene, octylene, nonylene, decylene, undecylene, dodecylene, octadecylene, ethyleneoxyethylene, methyleneoxybutylene, ethylenethioethylene, ethylene-N-methylimino- ethylene, 1 -methylalkylene, ethenylene, propenylene and butenylene.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention the compounds of formula I and II and their subformulae contain a spacer group Sp that is substituted by one or more polymerisable groups P, so that the group Sp-P corresponds to Sp(P) s , with s being >2 (branched polymerisable groups).

Preferred compounds of formula I and II according to this preferred

embodiment are those wherein s is 2, i.e. compounds which contain a group Sp(P) 2 . Very preferred compounds of formula I according to this preferred embodiment contain a group selected from the following formulae:

-X-alkyl-CHPP S1

-X-alkyl-CH((CH 2 )aaP)((CH 2 )bbP) S2

-X-N((CH 2 ) aa P)((CH 2 )bbP) S3

-X-alkyl-CHP-CH 2 -CH 2 P S4

-X-alkyl-C(CH 2 P)(CH 2 P)-CaaH 2a a + i S5

-X-alkyl-CHP-CH 2 P S6

-X-alkyl-CPP-CaaH 2aa+ i S7

-X-alkyl-CHPCHP-CaaH 2aa+ i S8 in which P is as defined in formula I, alkyl denotes a single bond or straight-chain or branched alkylene having

1 to 12 C atoms which is unsubstituted or mono- or polysubstituted by F, CI or CN and in which one or more non-adjacent Ch groups may each, independently of one another, be replaced

by -C(R°)=C(R 0 )-, -C≡C-, -N(R 0 )-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO- , -O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another, where R° has the meaning indicated above, aa and bb each, independently of one another, denote 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6,

X has one of the meanings indicated for X", and is preferably O, CO,

SO 2 , O-CO-, CO-O or a single bond.

Preferred spacer groups Sp(P)2 are selected from formulae S1 , S2 and S3.

Very peferred spacer groups Sp(P)2 are selected from the following

subformulae:

-CHPP S1 a

-O-CHPP S1 b

-CH2-CHPP S1 c

-OCH2-CHPP S1 d -CH(CH 2 -P)(CH 2 -P) S2a

-OCH(CH 2 -P)(CH 2 -P) S2b

-CH 2 -CH(CH 2 -P)(CH 2 -P) S2c

-OCH 2 -CH(CH 2 -P)(CH 2 -P) S2d -CO-NH((CH 2 )2P)((CH 2 )2P) S3a

In the compounds of formula I and II and their subformulae as described above and below, P is preferably selected from the group consisting of vinyloxy, acrylate, methacrylate, fluoroacrylate, chloroacrylate, oxetane and epoxide, most preferably from acrylate and methacrylate.

Further preferred are compounds of formula I and II and their subformulae as described above and below, wherein all polymerisable groups P that are present in the compound have the same meaning, and very preferably denote acrylate or methacrylate, most preferably methacrylate.

In the compounds of formula I and its subformulae as described above and below, R preferably denotes P-Sp-.

Further preferred are compounds of formula I wherein R is selected from F, CI or CN. Further preferred are compounds of formula I wherein R is selected from straight-chain or branched alkyl having 1 to 25 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent CH 2 groups may each be replaced, independently of one another, by (R°)=C(R 00 )-, -C≡C-, -N(R 0 )-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O- CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another, and in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F, and very preferably R is selected from straight-chain or branched, optionally mono- or polyfluorinated alkyl, alkoxy, alkenyl, alkynyl,

alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, alkylcarbonyloxy or alkoxycarbonyloxy having 1 to 12 C atoms (where the alkenyl and alkynyl radicals have at least 2 C atoms and the branched radicals have at least 3 C atoms).

Further preferred are compounds of formula I and II and their subformulae as described above and below, wherein Sp denotes a single bond or -(CH2) P i-, - O-(CH 2 ) P i-, -O-CO-(CH 2 ) P i, or -CO-O-(CH 2 ) p i, wherein p1 is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, and, if Sp is -O-(CH 2 ) p i-, -O-CO-(CH 2 ) p i or -CO-O-(CH 2 ) p i the O-atom or CO- group, respectively, is linked to the benzene ring. Further preferred are compounds of formula I and II and their subformulae as described above and below, wherein at least one group Sp is a single bond. Further preferred are compounds of formula I and II and their subformulae as described above and below, wherein at least one group Sp is different from a single bond, and is preferably selected from -(CH2) P i-, -O-(CH2) P i-, -O-CO- (CH 2 ) P i, or -CO-O-(CH 2 ) P i, wherein p1 is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, and, if Sp is -O- (CH 2 ) P i-, -O-CO-(CH 2 ) P i or -CO-O-(CH 2 ) p i the O-atom or CO-group, respectively, is linked to the benzene ring.

Very preferred groups -(A 1 -Z 1 ) a -(A 2 -Z 2 )b-(A 3 -Z 3 ) c -(A 4 -Z 4 )d- in formula I are selected from the following formulae

-(CH 2 ), A4 wherein i is an integer from 1 to 12, and the cyclohexlene and bezene rings are optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-.

Preferred compounds of formula I are selected from the following

subformulae

 wherein P, Sp and L have independently of each other, and on each occurrence identically or differently, one of the meanings given in formula I or one of the preferred meanings as given above and below, i is as defined in formula A4, r is 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0, 1 or 2, and s is 0, 1 , 2 or 3, preferably 0 or 1 .

Very preferred compounds of formula I are selected from the following formulae







 wherein i is as defined above and is preferably 3, 4, 5 or 6.

The compounds of formula II are preferably selected from the following formulae

wherein P, Sp, L, R 1~3 and r have the meanings given in formula II, h is 0, 1 or 2, p1 is 0 or 1 , p2 is 0, 1 or 2, preferably 0 or 1 , with p1 +p2≥ 1 and p1 +p2+r≤5.

In the compounds of formula II, IIA and MB the group -C(=O)-CR 1 R 2 R 3 is preferably selected from the following groups

, wherein Me is methyl, the asterisk * denotes the linkage to the terminal benzene ring in formula II, IIA and MB, P and Sp have the meanings given above and below, P is preferably acrylate or methacrylate, very preferably methacrylate, and Sp is preferably a single bond.

Preferred compounds of formula II, IIA and MB are selected from the following formulae

wherein P, Sp, L, R 1~3 , r and h have the meanings given in formula II.

Preferred compounds of formula II, IIA, MB, IIA1 -IIA3 and IIB1 -IIB5 are selected from the following subformulae

35

 wherein P, Sp, L and r have the meanings given in formula II and Me is methyl, P is preferably acrylate or methacrylate, very preferably methacrylate, and Sp is preferably a single bond.

Very preferred compounds of formula II, IIA, MB, IIA1 -IIA3 and IIB1 -IIB5 selected from the following formulae





 wherein Me is methyl.

Preferred compounds of formula I, II, IIA, MB, IIA1 -IIA3 and IIB1 -IIB5 and their subformulae are selected from the following preferred embodiments, including any combination thereof:

a, b, c and d are 0, 1 or 2, preferably 0 or 1 , with a+c≥1 and a+b+c+d≤3,

a+b+c+d≤4, preferably≤3,

a+b+c+d is 1 or 2,

a is 1 or 2 and c is 0,

b=d=0, b+d=1 ,

c=d=0,

A 1 is straight-chain or branched alkylene with 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 12 C atoms, wherein one or more non-adjacent Ch -groups are optionally replaced by -CR°=CR 00 -, -C≡C-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O- CO-O- in such a manner that O- and/or S-atoms are not directly connected with each other, and wherein one or more H atoms are each optionally replaced by F or CI, and which is optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-, a is 1 and b=c=d=0,

Z 1 , Z 2 , Z 3 and Z 4 are a single bond,

A 1 and A 3 are trans-1 ,4-cyclohexylene, which is optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-,

A 2 and A 4 are selected from 1 ,4-phenylene, pyridine and thiophene, all of which are optionally substituted by one or more groups L or P-Sp-,

R is P-Sp-,

R 1 and R 2 are methyl or methoxy,

R 3 is OH, phenyl that is optionally substituted by L or P-Sp-, preferably in para-position, or N-morpholine,

i is 3, 4, 5 or 6, preferably 3,

g is 1 ,

g is 2 or 3,

h is 0,

h is 1 ,

p is 1 ,

P is 2,

one of p1 and p2 is 0 and the other is 1 ,

p1 is 1 and p2 is 1 ,

All groups P in the compound have the same meaning,

the compounds contain exactly two polymerizable groups (represented by P), the compounds contain exactly three polymerizable groups (represented by P),

P is selected from the group consisting of acrylate, methacrylate and oxetane, very preferably acrylate or methacrylate,

P is methacrylate,

all groups Sp are a single bond,

at least one of the groups Sp is a single bond and at least one of the groups Sp is different from a single bond,

Sp, when being different from a single bond, is -(CH2) P 2-, -(CH2) P 2-O-, -(CH 2 ) P 2-CO-O-, -(CH 2 ) P 2-O-CO-, wherein p2 is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, and the O-atom or the CO-group, respectively, is connected to the benzene ring,

5 - Sp is a single bond or denotes -(CH 2 ) P 2-, -(CH 2 ) P 2-O-, -(CH 2 ) P 2-CO-O-, - (CH 2 ) P 2-O-CO-, wherein p2 is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, and the O-atom or the CO- group, respectively, is connected to the benzene ring,

Sp(P)2 is selected from subformulae S1 1 -S31 ,

^ The compounds and intermediates of the formulae I and II and sub-formulae thereof can be prepared analogously to processes known to the person skilled in the art and described in standard works of organic chemistry, such as, for example, in Houben-Weyl, Methoden der organischen Chemie

[Methods of Organic Chemistry], Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart.

5

For example, acrylic or methacrylic esters can be prepared by esterification of the corresponding alcohols with acid derivatives like, for example,

(meth)acryloyl chloride or (meth)acrylic anhydride in the presence of a base like pyridine or triethyl amine, and 4-(/V,/V-dimethylamino)pyhdine (DMAP). ^ Alternatively the esters can be prepared by esterification of the alcohols with (meth)acrylic acid in the presence of a dehydrating reagent, for example according to Steglich with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), N-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)-/V -ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) or N-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)-/V -ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and DMAP. Compounds with fluoro substituents can be prepared according to or in analogy to the following synthesis scheme.

Further suitable synthesis methods are shown in the examples.

For the production of PSA displays, the polymerisable compounds contained in the LC medium are polymerised or crosslinked (if one compound contains two or more polymerisable groups) by in-situ polymerisation in the LC medium between the substrates of the LC display, optionally while a voltage is applied to the electrodes.

The structure of the PSA displays according to the invention corresponds to the usual geometry for PSA displays, as described in the prior art cited at the outset. Geometries without protrusions are preferred, in particular those in which, in addition, the electrode on the colour filter side is unstructured and only the electrode on the TFT side has slots. Particularly suitable and preferred electrode structures for PS-VA displays are described, for example, in US 2006/0066793 A1 .

A preferred PSA type LC display of the present invention comprises:

a first substrate including a pixel electrode defining pixel areas, the pixel electrode being connected to a switching element disposed in each pixel area and optionally including a micro-slit pattern, and optionally a first alignment layer disposed on the pixel electrode,

- a second substrate including a common electrode layer, which may be disposed on the entire portion of the second substrate facing the first substrate, and optionally a second alignment layer,

an LC layer disposed between the first and second substrates and including an LC medium comprising a polymerisable component A and a liquid crystal component B as described above and below, wherein the polymerisable component A may also be polymerised.

The first and/or second alignment layer controls the alignment direction of the LC molecules of the LC layer. For example, in PS-VA displays the alignment layer is selected such that it imparts to the LC molecules homeotropic (or vertical) alignment (i.e. perpendicular to the surface) or tilted alignment. Such an alignment layer may for example comprise a polyimide, which may also be rubbed, or may be prepared by a photoalignment method. The LC layer with the LC medium can be deposited between the substrates of the display by methods that are conventionally used by display

manufacturers, for example the so-called one-drop-filling (ODF) method. The polymerisable component of the LC medium is then polymerised for example by UV photopolymerisation. The polymerisation can be carried out in one step or in two or more steps.

The PSA display may comprise further elements, like a colour filter, a black matrix, a passivation layer, optical retardation layers, transistor elements for addressing the individual pixels, etc., all of which are well known to the person skilled in the art and can be employed without inventive skill. The electrode structure can be designed by the skilled person depending on the individual display type. For example for PS-VA displays a multi-domain orientation of the LC molecules can be induced by providing electrodes having slits and/or bumps or protrusions in order to create two, four or more different tilt alignment directions.

In another preferred embodiment at least one of the substrates, preferably both substrates, are not equipped with an alignment layer. Preferably the LC medium according to this preferred embodiment contains a self-aligning (SA) additive, preferably in a concentration of 0.1 to 2.5 %.

Preferred displays according to this preferred embodiment are SA-VA and SA- FFS displays. Preferred SA additives for use in this preferred embodiment are selected from compounds comprising a mesogenic group and a straight-chain or branched alkyl side chain that is terminated with one or more polar anchor groups selected from hydroxy, carboxy, amino or thiol groups. Further preferred SA additives contain one or more polymerisable groups which are attached, optionally via spacer groups, to the mesogenic group. These polymerisable SA additives can be polymerised in the LC medium under similar conditions as applied for the RMs in the PSA process.

Suitable SA additives to induce homeotropic alignment, especially for use in SA-VA mode displays, are disclosed for example in US 2013/0182202 A1 , US 2014/0838581 A1 , US 2015/0166890 A1 and US 2015/0252265 A1 .

Upon polymerisation the polymerisable compounds form a crosslinked polymer, which causes a certain pretilt of the LC molecules in the LC medium. Without wishing to be bound to a specific theory, it is believed that at least a part of the crosslinked polymer, which is formed by the

polymerisable compounds, will phase-separate or precipitate from the LC medium and form a polymer layer on the substrates or electrodes, or the alignment layer provided thereon. Microscopic measurement data (like SEM and AFM) have confirmed that at least a part of the formed polymer

accumulates at the LC/substrate interface. The polymerisation can be carried out in one step. It is also possible firstly to carry out the polymerisation, optionally while applying a voltage, in a first step in order to produce a pretilt angle, and subsequently, in a second polymerisa- tion step without an applied voltage, to polymerise or crosslink the

compounds which have not reacted in the first step ("end curing").

Suitable and preferred polymerisation methods are, for example, thermal or photopolymerisation, preferably photopolymerisation, in particular UV induced photopolymerisation, which can be achieved by exposure of the polymerisable compounds to UV radiation.

The compounds of formula II act as photoinitator which can absorb UV light, especially in the UV-A range, and which can initiate polymerisation of the polymerisable compounds of formula I which show now or only low

absorption in the UV-A range.

Due to the presence of polymerisable groups the photoinitiators of formula II can also form a part of the polymer formed by the compounds of formula II. Thereby the presence of free cleavage products of the photoinitiator in the LC medium after polymerisation is reduced and negative effects on the LC mixture performance parameters, such as VHR, tilt generation or tilt stability are suppressed or even avoided. In addition to the polymeriabe initiators of formula II, optionally one or more further polymerisation initiators can be added to the LC medium. Suitable conditions for the polymerisation and suitable types and amounts of initiators are known to the person skilled in the art and are described in the literature. Suitable for free-radical polymerisation are, for example, the commercially available photoinitiators Irgacure651®, Irgacure184®, Irgacure907®,

Irgacure369® or Darocurel 173® (Ciba AG). If a polymerisation initiator is employed, its proportion is preferably 0.001 to 5% by weight, particularly preferably 0.001 to 1 % by weight. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the LC medium does not contain any photoinitiator other than those of formula II. The the LC medium may also comprise one or more stabilisers in order to prevent undesired spontaneous polymerisation of the RMs, for example during storage or transport. Suitable types and amounts of stabilisers are known to the person skilled in the art and are described in the literature.

Particularly suitable are, for example, the commercially available stabilisers from the Irganox® series (Ciba AG), such as, for example, Irganox® 1076. If stabilisers are employed, their proportion, based on the total amount of RMs or the polymerisable component (component A), is preferably 10-500,000 ppm, particularly preferably 50-50,000 ppm.

The polymerisable compounds of formula I do in particular show good UV absorption in, and are therefore especially suitable for, a process of preparing a PSA display including one or more of the following features:

- the polymerisation is carried out only in one step ("UV-1 step") to generate the tilt angle, and a second UV exposure step ("UV-2 step") to complete polymerisation is not needed and is preferably omitted,

- the polymerisable LC medium is exposed to UV light in the display generated by a UV lamp emitting radiation in the UV-a range.

UV radiation energy is in general from 6 to 100 J, depending on the

production process conditions.

Preferably the LC medium according to the present invention does essentially consist of a polymerisable component A), or one or more polymerisable compounds of formula I and II, and an LC component B), or LC host mixture, as described above and below. However, the LC medium may additionally comprise one or more further components or additives, preferably selected from the list including but not limited to co-monomers, chiral dopants, polymerisation initiators, inhibitors, stabilizers, surfactants, wetting agents, lubricating agents, dispersing agents, hydrophobing agents, adhesive agents, flow improvers, defoaming agents, deaerators, diluents, reactive diluents, auxiliaries, colourants, dyes, pigments and nanoparticles. Particular preference is given to LC media comprising one, two or three polymerisable compounds of formula I and II. Preference is furthermore given to LC media in which the polymerisable component A) comprises exclusively polymerisable compounds of formula I and II.

Preference is furthermore given to LC media in which the liquid-crystalline component B) or the LC host mixture has a nematic LC phase, and preferably has no chiral liquid crystal phase. The LC component B), or LC host mixture, is preferably a nematic LC mixture.

Preference is furthermore given to achiral compounds of formula I and II, and to LC media in which the compounds of component A and/or B are selected exclusively from the group consisting of achiral compounds.

Preferably the proportion of the polymerisable component A) in the LC medium is from > 0 to < 5%, very preferably from > 0 to < 1 %, most preferably from 0.01 to 0.5%.

Preferably the proportion of compounds of formula I in the LC medium is from >0 to < 5%, very preferably from >0 to < 1 %, most preferably from 0.01 to 0.5%. Preferably the proportion of compounds of formula II in the LC medium is from 10 to 500 ppm, very preferably from 50 to 200 ppm.

Preferably the proportion of the LC component B) in the LC medium is from 95 to < 100%, very preferably from 99 to <100%.

In a preferred embodiment the polymerisable compounds of the

polymerisable component B) are exclusively selected from formula I and II.

In another preferred embodiment the polymerisable component B) comprises, in addition to the compounds of formula I and II, one or more further polymerisable compounds ("co-monomers"), preferably selected from RMs.

Suitable and preferred mesogenic comonomers are selected from the following formulae:



35 in which the individual radicals have the following meanings:

P 1 , P 2 and P 3 each, independently of one another, denote an acrylate or methacrylate group,

Sp 1 , Sp 2 and Sp 3 each, independently of one another, denote a single bond or a spacer group having one of the meanings indicated above and below for Sp, and particularly preferably denote -(CH2) P i-, -(CH 2 ) P i-O-, -(CH 2 ) P i-CO-O-, -(CH 2 ) P i-O-CO- or -(CH 2 ) P i-O-CO-

O-, in which p1 is an integer from 1 to 12, where, in addition, one or more of the radicals P 1 -Sp 1 -, P 1 -Sp 2 - and P 3 -Sp 3 - may denote R aa , with the proviso that at least one of the radicals P 1 -Sp 1 -, P 2 -Sp 2 and P 3 -Sp 3 - present is different from R aa ,

R aa denotes H, F, CI, CN or straight-chain or branched alkyl having

1 to 25 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent Ch groups may each be replaced, independently of one another, by C(R°)=C(R 00 )-, -C≡C-, -N(R 0 )-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another, and in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F, CI, CN or P 1 -Sp 1 -, particularly preferably straight-chain or branched, optionally mono- or polyfluorinated alkyl, alkoxy, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, alkylcarbonyloxy or alkoxycarbonyloxy having 1 to 12 C atoms (where the alkenyl and alkynyl radicals have at least two C atoms and the branched radicals have at least three C atoms),

R°, R 00 each, independently of one another and identically or differently on each occurrence, denote H or alkyl having 1 to 12 C atoms, Rv and R z each, independently of one another, denote H, F, Chb or CF3,

X 1 , X 2 and X 3 each, independently of one another, denote -CO-O-, -O-CO- or a single bond,

Z 1 denotes -O-, -CO-, -C(R y R z )- or -CF2CF2-,

Z 2 and Z 3 each, independently of one another, denote -CO-O-,

-O-CO-, -CH2O-, -OCH2-, -CF2O-, -OCF2- or -(CH 2 ) n -, where n is 2, 3 or 4,

L on each occurrence, identically or differently, denotes F, CI, CN or straight-chain or branched, optionally mono- or polyfluorinated alkyl, alkoxy, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, alkylcarbonyloxy or alkoxycarbonyloxy having 1 to 12 C atoms, preferably F,

L' and L" each, independently of one another, denote H, F or CI, r denotes 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4,

s denotes 0, 1 , 2 or 3, denotes 0, 1 or 2

x denotes 0 or 1 .

Especially preferred are compounds of formulae M2, M13, M17, M22, M23, M24 and M30.

Further preferred are trireactive compounds M15 to M30, in particular M17, M18, M19, M22, M23, M24, M25, M26, M30 and M31 .

In the compounds of formulae M1 to M31 the group

wherein L on each occurrence, identically or differently, has one of the meanings given above or below, and is preferably F, CI, CN, NO2, CH3, C2H5, C(CH 3 ) 3 , CH(CH 3 ) 2 , CH 2 CH(CH3)C 2 H5, OCH 3 , OC2H5, COCH3, COC2H5, COOCH3, COOC2H5, CF 3 , OCF3, OCHF2, OC2F5 or P-Sp-, very preferably F, CI, CN, CH3, C2H5, OCH3, COCH3, OCF3 or P-Sp-, more preferably F, CI, CH3, OCH3, COCH3 Oder OCF 3 , especially F or CH 3 .

Besides the polymerisable compounds described above, the LC media for use in the LC displays according to the invention comprise an LC mixture ("host mixture") comprising one or more, preferably two or more LC compounds which are selected from low-molecular-weight compounds that are

unpolymerisable. These LC compounds are selected such that they stable and/or unreactive to a polymerisation reaction under the conditions applied to the polymerisation of the polymerisable compounds.

In principle, any LC mixture which is suitable for use in conventional displays is suitable as host mixture. Suitable LC mixtures are known to the person skilled in the art and are described in the literature, for example mixtures in VA displays in EP 1 378 557 A1 and mixtures for OCB displays in EP 1 306 418 A1 and DE 102 24 046 A1 .

The polymerisable compounds of formula I and II are especially suitable for use in an LC host mixture that comprises one or more mesogenic or LC compounds comprising an alkenyl group (hereinafter also referred to as "alkenyl compounds"), wherein said alkenyl group is stable to a polymerisation reaction under the conditions used for polymerisation of the compounds of formula I and II and of the other polymerisable compounds contained in the LC medium. Compared to RMs known from prior art the compounds of formula I and II do in such an LC host mixture exhibit improved properties, like solubility, reactivity or capability of generating a tilt angle.

Thus, in addition to the polymerisable compounds of formula I and II, the LC medium according to the present invention comprises one or more mesogenic or liquid crystalline compounds comprising an alkenyl group, ("alkenyl compound"), where this alkenyl group is preferably stable to a polymerisation reaction under the conditions used for the polymerisation of the polymerisable compounds of formula I and II or of the other polymerisable compounds contained in the LC medium.

The alkenyl groups in the alkenyl compounds are preferably selected from straight-chain, branched or cyclic alkenyl, in particular having 2 to 25 C atoms, particularly preferably having 2 to 12 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent Ch groups may be replaced by -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O- , -O-CO-, -O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another, and in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F and/or CI. Preferred alkenyl groups are straight-chain alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms and cyclohexenyl, in particular ethenyl, propenyl, butenyl, pentenyl, hexenyl, heptenyl, 1 ,4-cyclohexen-1 -yl and 1 ,4-cyclohexen-3-yl.

The concentration of compounds containing an alkenyl group in the LC host mixture (i.e. without any polymerisable compounds) is preferably from 5% to 100%, very preferably from 20% to 60%. Especially preferred are LC mixtures containing 1 to 5, preferably 1 , 2 or 3 compounds having an alkenyl group. The mesogenic and LC compounds containing an alkenyl group are

preferably selected from formulae AN and AY as defined below.

Besides the polymerisable component A) as described above, the LC media according to the present invention comprise an LC component B), or LC host mixture, comprising one or more, preferably two or more LC compounds which are selected from low-molecular-weight compounds that are unpolymerisable. These LC compounds are selected such that they stable and/or unreactive to a polymerisation reaction under the conditions applied to the polymerisation of the polymerisable compounds.

In a first preferred embodiment the LC medium contains an LC component B), or LC host mixture, based on compounds with negative dielectric anisotropy. Such LC media are especially suitable for use in PS-VA and PS-UB-FFS displays. Particularly preferred embodiments of such an LC medium are those of sections a)-z3) below: a) LC medium wherein the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds selected from formulae CY and PY:

wherein a denotes 1 or 2, b denotes 0 or 1 ,

R 1 and R 2 each, independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1 to ^ Q 12 C atoms, where, in addition, one or two non-adjacent Ch groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO-, -OCO- or -COO- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another, preferably alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 6 C atoms,

15

Z x and Z y each, independently of one another, denote -CH2CH2-,

-CH=CH-, -CF2O-, -OCF2-, -CH2O-, -OCH2-, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -C 2 F 4 -, -CF=CF-, -CH=CH-CH 2 O- or a single bond, preferably a single bond,

20

each, independently of one another, denote F, CI, OCF3 CF 3 , CH 3 , CH 2 F, CHF 2 .

Preferably, both L 1 and L 2 denote F or one of L 1 and L 2 denotes F and the other denotes CI, or both L 3 and L 4 denote F or one of L 3 and L 4 denotes F and the other denotes CI.

The compounds of the formula CY are preferably selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

35



 in which a denotes 1 or 2, alkyl and alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, and alkenyl denotes a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-6 C atoms, and (O) denotes an oxygen atom or a single bond. Alkenyl preferably denotes CH 2 =CH-, CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -.

The compounds of the formula PY are preferably selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

in which alkyl and alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, and alkenyl denotes a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-6 C atoms, and (O) denotes an oxygen atom or a single bond. Alkenyl preferably denotes CH2=CH-, CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-,

CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -. LC medium wherein the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more mesogenic or LC compounds comprising an alkenyl group (hereinafter also referred to as "alkenyl compounds"), wherein said alkenyl group is stable to a polymerisation reaction under the conditions used for polymerisation of the polymerisable compounds contained in the LC medium.

Preferably the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more alkenyl compounds selected from formulae AN and AY

A1 A2

R' X Y R AN

in which the individual radicals, on each occurrence identically or differently, and each, independently of one another, have the following meaning:

R A1 alkenyl having 2 to 9 C atoms or, if at least one of the rings X, Y and Z denotes cyclohexenyl, also one of the meanings of R A2 , R A2 alkyl having 1 to 12 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or two non- adjacent Ch groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO- , -OCO- or -COO- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another,

-CH2CH2-, -CH=CH-, -CF2O-, -OCF2-, -CH2O-, -OCH2-,

-CO-O-, -O-CO-, -C 2 F 4 -, -CF=CF-, -CH=CH-CH 2 O-, or a single bond, preferably a single bond,

L 1 ' 2 H, F, CI, OCF3, CF 3 , CH 3 , CH 2 F or CHF 2 H, preferably H, F or CI, x 1 or 2, z 0 or 1 . Preferred compounds of formula AN and AY are those wherein R A2 is selected from ethenyl, propenyl, butenyl, pentenyl, hexenyl and heptenyl.

In a preferred embodiment the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula AN selected from the following sub-formulae:

a

alkyl— ( O ) O )— alkenyl AN3

in which alkyl and alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, and alkenyl and alkenyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-7 C atoms. Alkenyl and alkenyl * preferably denote CH 2 =CH-, CH2=CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-,

CH 3 -(CH 2 )2-CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 )3-CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -. Preferably the the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds selected from formulae AN1 , AN2, AN3 and AN6, very preferably one or more compounds of formula AN1 .

In another preferred embodiment the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula AN selected from the following sub-formulae:

in which m denotes 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, i denotes 0, 1 , 2 or 3, and R' denotes H, Chb or C2H5.

In another preferred embodiment the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds selected from the following sub- formulae:

Most preferred are compounds of formula AN1 a2 and AN1 a5.

In another preferred embodiment the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula AY selected from the following sub-formulae:

F F alkenyl— ( H >— ( O — alkyl AY1

AY2

F F

AY3 alkenyl— O )— O — alkyl

F F

AY4 alkenyl— O )— O )— O-alkyl

F F alkenyl— H H O >— alkyl AY5

35 alkenyl AY30

F F alkenyl (O)alkyl * AY31

in which alkyl and alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, "(O)" denotes an O- atom or a single bond, and alkenyl and alkenyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-7 C atoms. Alkenyl and alkenyl * preferably denote CH2=CH-,

CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-,

CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -.

In another preferred embodiment the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula AY selected from the following sub-formulae:

in which m and n each, independently of one another, denote 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, and alkenyl denotes CH 2 =CH-, CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -.

Preferably the proportion of compounds of formula AN and AY in the LC medium is from 2 to 70% by weight, very preferably from 5 to 60% by weight, most preferably from 10 to 50% by weight.

Preferably the LC medium or LC host mixture contains 1 to 5, preferably 1 , 2 or 3 compounds selected from formulae AN and AY.

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the LC medium comprises one or more compounds of formula AY14, very preferably of AY14a. The proportion of compounds of formula AY14 or AY14a in the LC medium is preferably 3 to 20% by weight.

The addition of alkenyl compounds of formula AN and/or AY enables a reduction of the viscosity and response time of the LC medium. LC medium wherein the component B) or LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds of the following formula: in which the individual radicals have the following meanings:

C /

denotes— ( H — or — ( o

R 3 and R 4 each, independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1 to

12 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or two non-adjacent CH 2 groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO-, -O-CO or -CO-O- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another,

Ζν denotes -CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CH-, -CF 2 O-, -OCF 2 -, -CH 2 O-,

-OCH 2 -, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -C 2 F 4 -, -CF=CF-, -CH=CH-CH 2 O- or a single bond, preferably a single bond.

The compounds of the formula ZK are preferably selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

alkyl H H alkyl * ZK1

ZK2

in which alkyl and alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, and alkenyl denotes a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-6 C atoms. Alkenyl preferably denotes CH 2 =CH-, CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH- CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -.

Especially preferred are compounds of formula ZK1 Particularly preferred compounds of formula ZK are selected from the following sub-formulae:

H C,H ZK1 c

wherein the propyl, butyl and pentyl groups are straight-chain groups.

Most preferred are compounds of formula ZK1 a.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more compounds of the following formula: in which the individual radicals on each occurrence, identically or differently, have the following meanings:

R 5 and R 6 each, independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1 to 12 C atoms, where, in addition, one or two non-adjacent Ch groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO-, -OCO- or -COO- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another, preferably alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 6 C atoms, , and e denotes 1 or 2.

The compounds of the formula DK are preferably selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

alkenyl^ H O >— ( O >— alkyl DK6 alkyl— ( H O )— < O alkyl * DK7

alkyl H O W o V O-alkyr DK8

in which alkyl and alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, and alkenyl denotes a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-6 C atoms. Alkenyl preferably denotes CH 2 =CH-, CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH- CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -. LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more compounds of the following formula: in which the individual radicals have the following meanings:

with at least one ring F being different from cyclohexylene, f denotes 1 or 2,

R 1 and R 2 each, independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1 to

12 C atoms, where, in addition, one or two non-adjacent CH 2 groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO-, -OCO- or -COO- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another, denotes -CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CH-, -CF 2 O-, -OCF 2 -, -CH 2 O-, -OCH 2 -, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -C 2 F 4 -, -CF=CF-, -CH=CH- CH 2 O- or a single bond, preferably a single bond,

L 1 and L 2 each, independently of one another, denote F, CI, OCF3,

CF 3 , CH 3 , CH 2 F, CHF 2 .

Preferably, both radicals L 1 and L 2 denote F or one of the radicals L 1 and L 2 denotes F and the other denotes CI.

The compounds of the formula LY are preferably selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

 in which R 1 has the meaning indicated above, alkyl denotes a straight- chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, (O) denotes an oxygen atom or a single bond, and v denotes an integer from 1 to 6. R 1 preferably denotes straight-chain alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms or straight-chain alkenyl having 2 to 6 C atoms, in particular CH 3 , C2H5, n-C 3 H 7 , n-C 4 H9, n-CsHn , CH 2 =CH-, CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 - CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or

CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of the following formulae:

in which alkyl denotes Ci-6-alkyl, L x denotes H or F, and X denotes F, CI, OCF 3 , OCHF 2 or OCH=CF 2 . Particular preference is given to compounds of the formula G1 in which X denotes F. LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of the following formulae:

Y7 in which R 5 has one of the meanings indicated above for R 1 , alkyl denotes Ci-6-alkyl, d denotes 0 or 1 , and z and m each, independently of one another, denote an integer from 1 to 6. R 5 in these compounds is particularly preferably Ci-6-alkyl or -alkoxy or C2-6-alkenyl, d is preferably 1 . The LC medium according to the invention preferably comprises one or more compounds of the above-mentioned formulae in amounts of > 5% by weight.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more biphenyl compounds selected from the group consisting of the following formulae:

in which alkyl and alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, and alkenyl and alkenyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-6 C atoms. Alkenyl and alkenyl * preferably denote

CH 2 =CH-, CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-,

CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -.

The proportion of the biphenyls of the formulae B1 to B3 in the LC host mixture is preferably at least 3% by weight, in particular > 5% by weight. The compounds of the formula B2 are particularly preferred.

The compounds of the formulae B1 to B3 are preferably selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

in which alkyl * denotes an alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms. The medium according to the invention particularly preferably comprises one or more compounds of the formulae B1 a and/or B2c.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more terphenyl compounds of the following formula: in which R 5 and R 6 each, independently of one another, have one of the meanings indicated above, and each, independently of one another, denote

in which L 5 denotes F or CI, preferably F, and L 6 denotes F, CI, OCF3, CF 3 , CH3, CH 2 F or CHF 2 , preferably F.

The compounds of the formula T are preferably selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

F F F F

in which R denotes a straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy radical having 1 -7 C atoms, R * denotes a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-7 C atoms, (O) denotes an oxygen atom or a single bond, and m denotes an integer from 1 to 6. R * preferably denotes CH 2 =CH-, CH2=CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-,

CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -.

R preferably denotes methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy or pentoxy.

The LC host mixture according to the invention preferably comprises the terphenyls of the formula T and the preferred sub-formulae thereof in an amount of 0.5-30% by weight, in particular 1 -20% by weight.

Particular preference is given to compounds of the formulae T1 , T2, T3 and T21 . In these compounds, R preferably denotes alkyl, furthermore alkoxy, each having 1 -5 C atoms.

The terphenyls are preferably employed in LC media according to the invention if the Δη value of the mixture is to be > 0.1 . Preferred LC media comprise 2-20% by weight of one or more terphenyl compounds of the formula T, preferably selected from the group of compounds T1 to T22.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more quaterphenyl compounds selected from the group consisting of the following formulae:

wherein

R Q is alkyl, alkoxy, oxaalkyl or alkoxyalkyl having 1 to 9 C atoms or alkenyl or alkenyloxy having 2 to 9 C atoms, all of which are optionally fluorinated,

X Q is F, CI, halogenated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 6 C atoms or halogenated alkenyl or alkenyloxy having 2 to 6 C atoms,

I_ Q I† 0 |_ Q 6 independently of each other are H or F, with at least one of

I_QI T0 |_Q6 being p

Preferred compounds of formula Q are those wherein R Q denotes straight-chain alkyl with 2 to 6 C-atoms, very preferably ethyl, n-propyl or n-butyl.

Preferred compounds of formula Q are those wherein L Q3 and L Q4 are F. Further preferred compounds of formula Q are those wherein L Q3 , L Q4 and one or two of L Q1 and L Q2 are F.

Preferred compounds of formula Q are those wherein X Q denotes F or OCF3, very preferably F. The compounds of formula Q are preferably selected from the following subformulae

wherein R Q has one of the meanings of formula Q or one of its preferred meanings given above and below, and is preferably ethyl, n-propyl or n- butyl.

Especially preferred are compounds of formula Q1 , in particular those wherein R Q is n-propyl.

Preferably the proportion of compounds of formula Q in the LC host mixture is from >0 to <5% by weight, very preferably from 0.1 to 2% by weight, most preferably from 0.2 to 1 .5% by weight.

Preferably the LC host mixture contains 1 to 5, preferably 1 or 2 compounds of formula Q.

The addition of quaterphenyl compounds of formula Q to the LC host mixture enables to reduce ODF mura, whilst maintaining high UV absorption, enabling quick and complete polymerisation, enabling strong and quick tilt angle generation, and increasing the UV stability of the LC medium.

Besides, the addition of compounds of formula Q, which have positive dielectric anisotropy, to the LC medium with negative dielectric anisotropy allows a better control of the values of the dielectric constants ε and ε±, and in particular enables to achieve a high value of the dielectric constant ε while keeping the dielectric anisotropy Δε constant, thereby reducing the kick-back voltage and reducing image sticking. LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more compounds of formula C:

wherein

R c denotes alkyl, alkoxy, oxaalkyl or alkoxyalkyl having 1 to 9 C atoms or alkenyl or alkenyloxy having 2 to 9 C atoms, all of which are optionally fluorinated,

X c denotes F, CI, halogenated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 6 C atoms or halogenated alkenyl or alkenyloxy having 2 to 6 C atoms, l_ci ^ |_C2 independently of each other denote H or F, with at least one of L C1 and L C2 being F.

Preferred compounds of formula C are those wherein R c denotes straight-chain alkyl with 2 to 6 C-atoms, very preferably ethyl, n-propyl or n-butyl.

Preferred compounds of formula C are those wherein L C1 and L C2 are F. Preferred compounds of formula C are those wherein X c denotes F or

OCF3, very preferably F. Preferred compounds of formula C are selected from the following formula

wherein R c has one of the meanings of formula C or one of its preferred meanings given above and below, and is preferably ethyl, n-propyl or n- butyl, very preferably n-propyl.

Preferably the proportion of compounds of formula C in the LC host mixture is from >0 to < 10% by weight, very preferably from 0.1 to 8% by weight, most preferably from 0.2 to 5% by weight.

Preferably the LC host mixture contains 1 to 5, preferably 1 , 2 or 3 compounds of formula C.

The addition of compounds of formula C, which have positive dielectric anisotropy, to the LC medium with negative dielectric anisotropy allows a better control of the values of the dielectric constants ε and ε±, and in particular enables to achieve a high value of the dielectric constant ε while keeping the dielectric anisotropy Δε constant, thereby reducing the kick-back voltage and reducing image sticking. Besides, the addition of compounds of formula C enables to reduce the viscosity and the response time of the LC medium. LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of the following formulae: -116-

in which R 1 and R 2 have the meanings indicated above and preferably each, independently of one another, denote straight-chain alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms or straight-chain alkenyl having 2 to 6 C atoms.

Preferred media comprise one or more compounds selected from the formulae 01 , 03 and 04. LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more compounds of the following formula:

R 9 denotes H, Chb, C2H5 or n-CsHz, (F) denotes an optional fluorine substituent, and q denotes 1 , 2 or 3, and R 7 has one of the meanings indicated for R 1 , preferably in amounts of > 3% by weight, in particular > 5% by weight and very particularly preferably 5-30% by weight. Particularly preferred compounds of the formula Fl are selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

in which R 7 preferably denotes straight-chain alkyl, and R 9 denotes CH3, C2H5 or n-C3H 7 . Particular preference is given to the compounds of the formulae FI1 , FI2 and FI3. LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of the following formulae:

in which R 8 has the meaning indicated for R 1 , and alkyl denotes a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more compounds which contain a tetrahydronaphthyl or naphthyl unit, such as, for example, the compounds selected from the group consisting of the following formulae:

10

15

20

25

each, independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1

30

to 12 C atoms, where, in addition, one or two non-adjacent Ch groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO-, -OCO- or -COO- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another, preferably alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 6 C atoms,

35 and R 10 and R 11 preferably denote straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 6 C atoms or straight-chain alkenyl having 2 to 6 C atoms, and

Z 1 and Z 2 each, independently of one another, denote -C2H 4 -,

-CH=CH-, -(CH 2 ) 4 -, -(CH 2 ) 3 O-, -O(CH 2 ) 3 -,

-CH=CH-CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH 2 CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 O-, -OCH 2 -, -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -C 2 F 4 -, -CF=CF-, -CF=CH-, -CH=CF-, -CH 2 - or a single bond.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more difluorodibenzochromans and/or chromans of the following formulae:

in which

R 11 and R 12 each, independently of one another, have one of the

meanings indicated above for R 11 ,

ring M is trans-1 ,4-cyclohexylene or 1 ,4-phenylene, Z m -C 2 H 4 -, -CH 2 O-, -OCH 2 -, -CO-O- or -O-CO-, c is 0, 1 or 2,

preferably in amounts of 3 to 20% by weight, in particular in amounts of 3 to 15% by weight. Particularly preferred compounds of the formulae BC, CR and RC are selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae: in which alkyl and alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, (O) denotes an oxygen atom or a single bond, c is 1 or 2, and alkenyl and alkenyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-6 C atoms. Alkenyl and alkenyl * preferably denote CH2=CH-, CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-,

CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -. Very particular preference is given to LC host mixtures comprising one, two or three compounds of the formula BC-2.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more fluorinated phenanthrenes and/or dibenzofurans of the following formulae:

in which R 11 and R 12 each, independently of one another, have one of the meanings indicated above for R 11 , b denotes 0 or 1 , L denotes F, and r denotes 1 , 2 or 3.

Particularly preferred compounds of the formulae PH and BF are selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

in which R and R' each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy radical having 1 -7 C atoms. LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture additionally comprises one or more monocyclic compounds of the following formula

wherein

R 1 and R 2 each, independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1 to

12 C atoms, where, in addition, one or two non-adjacent Ch groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO-, -OCO- or -COO- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another, preferably alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 6 C atoms,

L 1 and L 2 each, independently of one another, denote F, CI, OCF3,

CF 3 , CH 3 , CH 2 F, CHF 2 .

Preferably, both L 1 and L 2 denote F or one of L 1 and L 2 denotes F and the other denotes CI,

The compounds of the formula Y are preferably selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae: Alkenyl-0 O-Alkenyl* Y10,

in which, Alkyl and Alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, Alkoxy denotes a straight-chain alkoxy radical having 1 -6 C atoms, Alkenyl and Alkenyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-6 C atoms, and O denotes an oxygen atom or a single bond. Alkenyl and Alkenyl * preferably denote CH2=CH-,

CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-,

CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -.

Particularly preferred compounds of the formula Y are selected from the group consisting of the following sub-formulae:

wherein Alkoxy preferably denotes straight-chain alkoxy with 3, 4, or 5 C atoms.

LC medium which, apart from the polymerisable compounds as described above and below, does not contain a compound which contains a terminal vinyloxy group (-O-CH=CH 2 ).

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture comprises 1 to 8, preferably 1 to 5, compounds of the formulae CY1 , CY2, PY1 and/or PY2. The proportion of these compounds in the LC host mixture as a whole is preferably 5 to 60%, particularly preferably 10 to 35%.

The content of these individual compounds is preferably in each case 2 to 20%. LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture comprises 1 to 8, preferably 1 to 5, compounds of the formulae CY9, CY10, PY9 and/or PY10. The proportion of these compounds in the LC host

mixture as a whole is preferably 5 to 60%, particularly preferably 10 to 35%. The content of these individual compounds is preferably in each case 2 to 20%.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture comprises 1 to 10, preferably 1 to 8, compounds of the formula ZK, in particular

compounds of the formulae ZK1 , ZK2 and/or ZK6. The proportion of these compounds in the LC host mixture as a whole is preferably 3 to 25%, particularly preferably 5 to 45%. The content of these individual compounds is preferably in each case 2 to 20%.

LC medium in which the proportion of compounds of the formulae CY, PY and ZK in the LC host mixture as a whole is greater than 70%, preferably greater than 80%.

LC medium in which the LC host mixture contains one or more

compounds containing an alkenyl group, preferably selected from formulae AN and AY, very preferably selected from formulae AN1 , AN3, AN6 and AY14, most preferably from formulae AN 1 a, AN3a, AN6a and AY14. The concentration of these compounds in the LC host mixture is preferably from 2 to 70%, very preferably from 3 to 55%.

LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture contains one or more, preferably 1 to 5, compounds selected of formula PY1 -PY8, very preferably of formula PY2. The proportion of these compounds in the LC host mixture as a whole is preferably 1 to 30%, particularly preferably 2 to 20%. The content of these individual compounds is preferably in each case 1 to 20%. LC medium wherein component B) or the LC host mixture contains one or more, preferably 1 , 2 or 3, compounds selected from formulae T1 , T2 and T5, very preferably from formula T2. The content of these compounds in the LC host mixture as a whole is preferably 1 to 20%.

LC medium in which the LC host mixture contains one or more compounds selected from formulae CY and PY, one or more

compounds selected from formulae AN and AY, and one or more compounds selected from formulae T and Q.

LC medium in which the LC host mixture contains one or more, preferably 1 , 2 or 3, compounds of formula BF1 , and one or more, preferably 1 , 2 or 3, compounds selected from formulae AY14, AY15 and AY16, very preferably of formula AY14. The proportion of the compounds of formula AY14-AY16 in the LC host mixture is preferably from 2 to 35%, very preferably from 3 to 30%. The proportion of the compounds of formula BF1 in the LC host mixture is preferably from 0.5 to 20%, very preferably from 1 to 15%. Further preferably the LC host mixture according to this preferred embodiment contains one or more, preferably 1 , 2 or 3 compounds of formula T, preferably selected from formula T1 , T2 and T5, very preferably from formula T2 or T5. The proportion of the compounds of formula T in the LC host mixture medium is preferably from 0.5 to 15%, very preferably from 1 to 10%.

In a second preferred embodiment the LC medium contains an LC host mixture based on compounds with positive dielectric anisotropy. Such LC media are especially suitable for use in PS-OCB-, PS-TN-, PS-Posi-VA-, I IPS- or PS-FFS-displays.

A in which the individual radicals have, independently of each other and on each occurrence identically or differently, the following meanings: each, independently

of one another, and on each occurrence, identically or differently

R 21 , R 31 each, independently of one another, alkyl, alkoxy, oxaalkyl or alkoxyalkyl having 1 to 9 C atoms or alkenyl or alkenyloxy having 2 to 9 C atoms, all of which are optionally fluorinated,

X° F, CI, halogenated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 6 C atoms or halogenated alkenyl or alkenyloxy having 2 to 6 C atoms,

731 -CH2CH2-, -CF2CF2-, -COO-, trans-CH=CH-, trans- CF=CF-, -CH2O- or a single bond, preferably -CH2CH2-, -COO-, trans-CH=CH- or a single bond, particularly preferably -COO-, frans-CH=CH- or a single bond,

L 21 , L 22 , L 31 , L 32 each, independently of one another, H or F, q 0, 1 , 2 or 3. In the compounds of formula A and B, X° is preferably F, CI, CF3, CHF2, OCF3, OCHF2, OCFHCF3, OCFHCHF2, OCFHCHF2, OCF2CH3, OCF2CHF2, OCF2CHF2, OCF2CF2CHF2, OCF2CF2CHF2, OCFHCF2CF3, OCFHCF2CHF2, OCF2CF2CF3, OCF2CF2CCIF2, OCCIFCF2CF3 or CH=CF 2 , very preferably F or OCF3, most preferably F.

In the compounds of formula A and B, R 21 and R 31 are preferably selected from straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy with 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 C atoms, and straight-chain alkenyl with 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 C atoms.

In the compounds of formula A and B, g is preferably 1 or 2.

In the compounds of formula B, Z 31 is preferably COO, trans-CH=CH or a single bond, very preferably COO or a single bond.

Preferably component B) of the LC medium comprises one or more compounds of formula A selected from the group consisting of the following formulae:

A1

in which A 21 , R 21 , X°, L 21 and L 22 have the meanings given in formula A, L 23 and L 24 each, independently of one another, are H or F, and X° is preferably F. Particularly preferred are compounds of formulae A1 and A2.

Particularly preferred compounds of formula A1 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 21 , X°, L 21 and L 22 have the meaning given in formula A1 , L 23 , L 24 , L 25 and L 26 are each, independently of one another, H or F, and X° is preferably F.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula A1 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

In which R 21 is as defined in formula A1 .

Particularly preferred compounds of formula A2 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:



in which R 21 , X°, L 21 and L 22 have the meaning given in formula A2, L 23 , L 24 , L 25 and L 26 each, independently of one another, are H or F, and X° is preferably F.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula A2 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

 in which R 21 and X° are as defined in formula A2.

Particularly preferred compounds of formula A3 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae: in which R 21 , X°, L 21 and L 22 have the meaning given in formula A3, and X° is preferably F.

Particularly preferred compounds of formula A4 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 21 is as defined in formula A4.

Preferably component B) of the LC medium comprises one or more compounds of formula B selected from the group consisting of the following formulae:

in which g, A 31 , A 32 , R 31 , X°, L 31 and L 32 have the meanings given in formula B, and X° is preferably F. Particularly preferred are compounds of formulae B1 and B2.

Particularly preferred compounds of formula B1 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 31 , X°, L 31 and L 32 have the meaning given in formula B1 , and X° is preferably F.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B1 a are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 31 is as defined in formula B1 .

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B1 b are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae: in which R 31 is as defined in formula B1 .

Particularly preferred compounds of formula B2 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

- 145-

in which R 31 , X°, L 31 and L 32 have the meaning given in formula B2, L : L 35 and L 36 are each, independently of one another, H or F, and X° is preferably F.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 31 is as defined in formula B2.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2b are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae

n which R 31 is as defined in formula B2. Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2c are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 31 is as defined in formula B2.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2d and B2e are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 31 is as defined in formula B2.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2f are selected from the Λ n group consisting of the following subformulae:

35 in which R 31 is as defined in formula B2. Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2g are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 31 is as defined in formula B2.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2h are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae: in which R 31 is as defined in formula B2.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2i are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 31 is as defined in formula B2.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2k are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae: in which R 31 is as defined in formula B2.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula B2I are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 31 is as defined in formula B2.

Alternatively to, or in addition to, the compounds of formula B1 and/or B2 component B) of the LC medium may also comprise one or more compounds of formula B3 as defined above.

Particularly preferred compounds of formula B3 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae: in which R 31 is as defined in fornnula B3.

Preferably component B) of the LC medium comprises, in addition to the compounds of formula A and/or B, one or more compounds of formula C in which the individual radicals have the following meanings: each, independently of one another, and

on each occurrence, identically or differently

R41 R 42 each, independently of one another, alkyl, alkoxy, oxaalkyl or alkoxyalkyl having 1 to 9 C atoms or alkenyl or alkenyloxy having 2 to 9 C atoms, all of which are optionally fluorinated, Z 41 Z 42 each, independently of one another, -CH2CH2-, -COO-, trans- CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF-, -CH2O-, -CF2O-, -C≡C- or a single bond, preferably a single bond,

0, 1 , 2 or 3.

In the compounds of formula C, R 41 and R 42 are preferably selected from straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy with 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 C atoms, and straight- chain alkenyl with 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 C atoms.

In the compounds of formula C, h is preferably 0, 1 or 2.

In the compounds of formula C, Z 41 and Z 42 are preferably selected from

COO, trans-CH=CH and a single bond, very preferably from COO and a single bond.

Preferred compounds of formula C are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

wherein R 41 and R 42 have the meanings given in formula C, and preferably denote each, independently of one another, alkyi, alkoxy, fluorinated alkyi or fluorinated alkoxy with 1 to 7 C atoms, or alkenyl, alkenyloxy, alkoxyalkyl or fluorinated alkenyl with 2 to 7 C atoms.

Further preferably component B) of the LC medium comprises, in addition to the compounds of formula A and/or B, one or more compounds of formula D in which A 41 , A 42 , Z 41 , Z 42 , R 41 , R 42 and h have the meanings given in formula C or one of the preferred meanings given above.

Preferred compounds of formula D are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

in which R 41 and R 42 have the meanings given in formula D and R 41 preferably denotes alkyi bedeutet, and in formula D1 R 42 preferably denotes alkenyl, particularly preferably -(CH 2 )2-CH=CH-CH 3 , and in formula D2 R 42 preferably denotes alkyi, -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH 2 or -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-CH 3 . Further preferably component B) of the LC medium comprises, in addition to the compounds of formula A and/or B, one or more compounds of formula E containing an alkenyl group in which the individual radicals, on each occurrence identically or differently, each, independently of one another, have the following meaning:

A1 alkenyl having 2 to 9 C atoms or, if at least one of the rings X, Y and Z denotes cyclohexenyl, also one of the meanings of R A2 ,

R A2 alkyl having 1 to 12 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or two non- adjacent Ch groups may be replaced by -O-, -CH=CH-, -CO- , -OCO- or -COO- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another,

1 or 2.

R A2 is preferably straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 8 C atoms or straight-chain alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms.

Preferred compounds of formula E are selected from the following sub- formulae: in which alkyl and alkyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkyl radical having 1 -6 C atoms, and alkenyl and alkenyl * each, independently of one another, denote a straight-chain alkenyl radical having 2-7 C atoms. Alkenyl and alkenyl * preferably denote CH2=CH-, CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 -, CH 3 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH=CH-, CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH=CH- or CH 3 -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -.

Very preferred compounds of the formula E are selected from the following sub-formulae:

in which m denotes 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, i denotes 0, 1 , 2 or 3, and R b1 denotes H, CH 3 or C 2 H 5 .

Very particularly preferred compounds of the formula E are selected from the following sub-formulae:

E1 a1

Most preferred are compounds of formula E1 a2, E1 a5, E3a1 and E6a1 .

Further preferably component B) of the LC medium comprises, in addition to the compounds of formula A and/or B, one or more compounds of formula F

in which the individual radicals have, independently of each other and on each occurrence identically or differently, the following meanings: each, independently of one another, alkyl, alkoxy, oxaalkyi or alkoxyalkyl having 1 to 9 C atoms or alkenyl or alkenyloxy having 2 to 9 C atoms, all of which are optionally fluorinated,

F, CI, halogenated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 6 C atoms or halogenated alkenyl or alkenyloxy having 2 to 6 C atoms,

-CH2CH2-, -CF2CF2-, -COO-, frans-CH=CH-, trans- CF=CF-, -CH2O- or a single bond, preferably -CH2CH2-, -COO-, trans-CH=CH- or a single bond, particularly preferably -COO-, frans-CH=CH- or a single bond,

L 21 , L 22 , L 23 , L 24 each, independently of one another, H or F, g 0, 1 , 2 or 3.

Particularly preferred compounds of formula F are selected from the group consisting of the following formulae:

L 21

X u F1 in which R 21 , X°, L 21 and L 22 have the meaning given in formula F, L 25 and L 26 are each, independently of one another, H or F, and X° is preferably F.

Very particularly preferred compounds of formula F1 -F3 are selected from the group consisting of the following subformulae:

In which R 21 is as defined in formula F1 .

The concentration of the compounds of formula A and B in the LC host mixture is preferably from 2 to 60%, very preferably from 3 to 45%, most preferably from 4 to 35%.

The concentration of the compounds of formula C and D in the LC host mixture is preferably from 2 to 70%, very preferably from 5 to 65%, most preferably from 10 to 60%.

The concentration of the compounds of formula E in the LC host mixture is preferably from 5 to 50%, very preferably from 5 to 35%.

The concentration of the compounds of formula F in the LC host mixture is preferably from 2 to 30%, very preferably from 5 to 20%.

Further preferred embodiments of this second preferred embodiment of the present invention are listed below, including any combination thereof. The LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula A and/or B with high positive dielectric anisotropy, preferably with Δε > 15.

The LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of formulae A1 a2, A1 b1 , A1d1 , A1f1 , A2a1 , A2h1 , A2I2, A2k1 , B2h3, B2I1 , F1 a. The proportion of these compounds in the LC host mixture is preferably from 4 to 40%, very preferably from 5 to 35%.

2c) The LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of formulae B2c1 , B2c4, B2f4, C14. The proportion of these compounds in the LC host mixture is preferably from 4 to 40%, very preferably from 5 to 35%.

2d) The LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of formulae C3, C4, C5, C9 and D2. The proportion of these compounds in the LC host mixture is preferably from 8 to 70%, very preferably from 10 to 60%.

2e) The LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of formulae G1 , G2 and G5, preferably G1 a, G2a and G5a. The proportion of these compounds in the LC host mixture is preferably from 4 to 40%, very preferably from 5 to 35%.

2f) The LC host mixture comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of formulae E1 , E3 and E6, preferably E1 a, E3a and E6a, very preferably E1 a2, E1 a5, E3a1 and E6a1 . The proportion of these compounds in the LC host mixture is preferably from 5 to 60%, very preferably from 10 to 50%.

The combination of compounds of the preferred embodiments mentioned above with the polymerised compounds described above causes low threshold voltages, low rotational viscosities and very good low-temperature stabilities in the LC media according to the invention at the same time as constantly high clearing points and high HR values, and allows the rapid establishment of a particularly low pretilt angle in PSA displays. In particular, the LC media exhibit significantly shortened response times, in particular also the grey-shade response times, in PSA displays compared with the media from the prior art. The LC media and LC host mixtures of the present invention preferably have a nematic phase range of at least 80 K, particularly preferably at least 100 K, and a rotational viscosity < 250 mPa s, preferably < 200 mPa s, at 20°C.

In the VA-type displays according to the invention, the molecules in the layer of the LC medium in the switched -off state are aligned perpendicular to the electrode surfaces (homeotropically) or have a a tilted homeotropic alignment. On application of an electrical voltage to the electrodes, a realignment of the LC molecules takes place with the longitudinal molecular axes parallel to the electrode surfaces.

LC media according to the invention based on compounds with negative dielectric anisotropy according to the first preferred embodiment, in particular for use in displays of the PS-VA and PS-UB-FFS type, have a negative dielectric anisotropy Δε, preferably from -0.5 to -10, in particular from -2.5 to -7.5, at 20°C and 1 kHz.

The birefringence Δη in LC media according to the invention for use in displays of the PS-VA and PS-UB-FFS type is preferably below 0.16, particularly preferably from 0.06 to 0.14, very particularly preferably from 0.07 to 0,12.

In the OCB-type displays according to the invention, the molecules in the layer of the LC medium have a "bend" alignment. On application of an electrical voltage, a realignment of the LC molecules takes place with the longitudinal molecular axes perpendicular to the electrode surfaces.

LC media according to the invention for use in displays of the PS-OCB, PSTN, PS-IPS, PS-posi-VA and PS-FFS type are preferably those based on compounds with positive dielectric anisotropy according to the second preferred embodiment, and preferably have a positive dielectric anisotropy Δε from +4 to +17 at 20°C and 1 kHz. The birefringence Δη in LC media according to the invention for use in displays of the PS-OCB type is preferably from 0.14 to 0.22, particularly preferably from 0.16 to 0.22.

The birefringence Δη in LC media according to the invention for use in displays of the PS-TN-, PS-posi-VA-, PS-IPS- Oder PS-FFS-type is preferably from 0.07 to 0.15, particularly preferably from 0.08 to 0.13. LC media according to the invention, based on compounds with positive dielectric anisotropy according to the second preferred embodiment, for use in displays of the PS-TN-, PS-posi-VA-, PS-IPS- Oder PS-FFS-type, preferably have a positive dielectric anisotropy Δε from +2 to +30, particularly preferably from +3 to +20, at 20°C and 1 kHz.

The LC media according to the invention may also comprise further additives which are known to the person skilled in the art and are described in the literature, such as, for example, polymerisation initiators, inhibitors, stabilisers, surface-active substances or chiral dopants. These may be polymerisable or non-polymerisable. Polymerisable additives are accordingly ascribed to the polymerisable component or component A). Non- polymerisable additives are accordingly ascribed to the non-polymerisable component or component B). In a preferred embodiment the LC media contain one or more chiral dopants, preferably in a concentration from 0.01 to 1 %, very preferably from 0.05 to 0.5%. The chiral dopants are preferably selected from the group consisting of compounds from Table B below, very preferably from the group consisting of R- or S-101 1 , R- or S-201 1 , R- or S-301 1 , R- or S-401 1 , and R- or S-501 1 .

In another preferred embodiment the LC media contain a racemate of one or more chiral dopants, which are preferably selected from the chiral dopants mentioned in the previous paragraph. Furthermore, it is possible to add to the LC media, for example, 0 to 15% by weight of pleochroic dyes, furthermore nanoparticles, conductive salts, preferably ethyldimethyldodecylammonium 4-hexoxybenzoate, tetrabutyl- ammoniunn tetraphenyl borate or complex salts of crown ethers (cf., for example, Haller et al., Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 24, 249-258 (1973)), for improving the conductivity, or substances for modifying the dielectric anisotropy, the viscosity and/or the alignment of the nematic phases. Substances of this type are described, for example, in DE-A 22 09 127,

22 40 864, 23 21 632, 23 38 281 , 24 50 088, 26 37 430 and 28 53 728.

The individual components of the preferred embodiments a)-z) of the LC media according to the invention are either known or methods for the preparation thereof can readily be derived from the prior art by the person skilled in the relevant art, since they are based on standard methods described in the literature. Corresponding compounds of the formula CY are described, for example, in EP-A-0 364 538. Corresponding compounds of the formula ZK are described, for example, in DE-A-26 36 684 and DE-A-33 21 373.

The LC media which can be used in accordance with the invention are prepared in a manner conventional per se, for example by mixing one or more of the above-mentioned compounds with one or more polymerisable compounds as defined above, and optionally with further liquid-crystalline compounds and/or additives. In general, the desired amount of the components used in lesser amount is dissolved in the components making up the principal constituent, advantageously at elevated temperature. It is also possible to mix solutions of the components in an organic solvent, for example in acetone, chloroform or methanol, and to remove the solvent again, for example by distillation, after thorough mixing. The invention furthermore relates to the process for the preparation of the LC media according to the invention.

It goes without saying to the person skilled in the art that the LC media according to the invention may also comprise compounds in which, for example, H, N, O, CI, F have been replaced by the corresponding isotopes like deuterium etc. The following examples explain the present invention without restricting it. However, they show the person skilled in the art preferred mixture concepts with compounds preferably to be employed and the respective concentrations thereof and combinations thereof with one another. In addition, the examples illustrate which properties and property combinations are accessible.

Preferred mixture components are shown in Tables A1 and A2 below. The compounds shown in Table A1 are especially suitable for use in LC mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropy. The compounds shown in Table A2 are especially suitable for use in LC mixtures with negative dielectric anisotropy.

Table A1 In Table A1 , m and n are independently of each other an integer from 1 to 12, preferably 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, k is 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, and (O)C m H2m+i means

F F BCH-n.Fm CFU-n-F

CBC-nm

CBC-nmF

CCOC-n-m

C-n-V C-n-XF

C-n-m CC-n-V

CC-n-Vm CC-n-kVm

CC-nV-Vm CCP-nV-m

CCP-Vn-m CCG-V-F

( -'n H 2n+1 C n H 2n+1 → H H O ^ C m H 2m+1 CCVC-n-V CCP-n-m

CP-nV-m CP-Vn-m

CPPC-nV-Vm

CLP-n-T CLP-n-OT

CLP-nV-T CLP-nV-OT

CLP-Vn-T CLP-Vn-OT

CLP-nVm-T CLP-nVm-OT

CPGP-n-m

CCP-nOCFs CCP-nF.F.F

CGG-n-F CGU-n-F

CDU-n-F DCU-n-F

CCGU-n-F CPGU-n-F

CCPU-n-F CPGU-n-OT

CCQU-n-F CCQG-n-F

CUQU-n-F CQU-n-F

CCCQU-n-F

CDUQU-n-F

CLUQU-n-F

CPPQU-n-F

CGUQU-n-F

CCZU-n-F CGZP-n-OT

CPTU-n-F GPTU-n-F

DPGU-n-F DPGU-n-OT

DGUQU-n-F

ECCP-nm ECCP-nOCFs

GGP-n-F PGIGI-n-F PGU-n-F PPGU-n-F

PGUQU-n-F

PGP-n-m PGP-n-kVm

C H 2n+1 o O V(CH 2 2)',k

w < -'m H 2m+

PP-nV-Vm PP-n-kVm

PCH-nOm PCH-nCI

PYP-nF

Table A2

In Table A2, m and n are independently of each other an integer from 1 to 12, preferably 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, k is 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, and (O)C m H2m+i means

C m H2m+1 Or OC m H2m+1.

AIK-n-F

AIY-n-Om F F B(S)-nO-Om

CB-n-m

CB-n-Om

PB-n-m

PB-n-Om

BCH-nm

BCH-nmF

BCN-nm

C-1V-V1

CY-n-Om

CY(F,Cl)-n-Om

CY(Cl,F)-n-Om

CCY-n-Om

CCY(F,Cl)-n-Om

CCY(Cl,F)-n-Om

CCY-n-m

CCY-V-m

CCY-Vn-m

CCY-n-OmV

CBC-nmF

CBC-nm

CCP-V-m

CCP-Vn-m

CCP-nV-m

CCP-n-m

CPYP-n-(0)m

CYYC-n-m

CCYY-n-(0)m

CCY-n-02V

C n H 2n+1 ^ H H ^ OC m H 2m+1

CCH-nOm

CCC-n-m

CCC-n-V

CY-n-m

CCH-nm

CC-n-V

CC-n-Vl

CC-n-Vm

CC-V-V

CC-V-V1

CC-2V-V2

CVC-n-m

CC-n-mV

CCOC-n-m

CP-nOmFF

CH-nm

CEY-n-Om

F F

^^ H^C 2 H 4 -^O ^ C n H 2n+1

CEY-V-n

CVY-V-n

CY-V-On

10

CY-n-OC(CH 3 )=CH 2

20

CCPC-nm

35 F F

C N H 2N+1 → H H W O CH 2 ) K -OC M H 2m+1

CCY-n-kOm

CPY-n-Om

CPY-n-m

CPY-V-Om

F F

C n H 2n+1 M H V CF 2 0M O M(0)C m H

CQY-n-(0)m

F F

C n H 2n+1 M H V 0CF 2 M O M(0)C m H 2m+1

CQIY-n-(0)m

F F

C n H 2n+1 M H H V CF 2 0M O M(0)C m H 2m+1

CCQY-n-(0)m

CCQIY-n-(0)m

CPQY-n-(0)m

CPQIY-n-(0)m

F F

C n H 2n+ H O O O O)C m H 2m+1

CPYG-n-(0)m

CCY-V-Om

CCY-V2-(0)m

CCY-lV2-(0)m

CCVC-n-V

ccvc-v-v

F F F

C n H 2n+ H O O O (0)C m H

CPYG-n-(0)m

F

C n H 2n+1 - H O O O VC m mH" "2m+1

CPGP-n-m

CY-nV-(0)m

CENaph-n-Om

COChrom-n-Om

COChrom-n-m

CCOChrom-n-Om

CCOChrom-n-m

CONaph-n-Om

CCONaph-n-Om

CCNaph-n-Om

CNaph-n-Om

CETNaph-n-Om

CTNaph-n-Om

CK-n-F

CLY-n-Om

CLY-n-m

LYLI-n-m

CYLI-n-m

LY-n-(0)m

COYOICC-n-m

COYOIC-n-V

CCOY-V-02V

CCOY-V-03V

COY-n-Om

CCOY-n-Om

D-nOmFF

PCH-nm

C n H 2n+1 - H O V0C m H 2m + 1

PCH-nOm

PGIGI-n-F

c n H 2n+ H o o o c m mH 2m+1 PGP-n-m

PP-n-m

PP-n-2Vl

PYP-n-mV

PYP-n-m

F F

C nH 2n+1 o λ" o >— o )— OC m H 2m+1

PGIY-n-Om

F F

C nH 2n+1 O o o )— OC m mH" "2m+1

PYP-n-Om

PPYY-n-m

5

YPY-n-m

PY-V2-Om

DFDBC-n(0)-(0)m F F iO-( o oc m H '2m+1

Y-nO-Om

Y-nO-OmV

F F 2n + 1° O OC k H 2k -

~ C m H 2m+1

Y-nO-OkVm

YG-n-Om

YG-nO-Om

F F F

C n H 2n+1 O >— ( O OC m H 2m+1

YGI-n-Om

YGI-nO-Om

YY-n-Om

YY-nO-Om

In a first preferred embodiment of the present invention, the LC media according to the invention, especially those with positive dielectric anisotropy, comprise one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of compounds from Table A1 .

In a second preferred embodiment of the present invention, the LC media according to the invention, especially those with negative dielectric

anisotropy, comprise one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of compounds from Table A2.

Table B

Table B shows possible chiral dopants which can be added to the LC media according to the invention.

CM 21 R/S-811

R/S-1011

The LC media preferably comprise 0 to 10% by weight, in particular 0.01 to 5% by weight, particularly preferably 0.1 to 3% by weight, of dopants. The LC media preferably comprise one or more dopants selected from the group consisting of compounds from Table B.

Table C Table C shows possible stabilisers which can be added to the LC media according to the invention. Therein n denotes an integer from 1 to 12, preferably 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8, and terminal methyl groups are not shown.

- 197-

- 198-

- 199-

-200-

The LC media preferably comprise 0 to 10% by weight, in particular 1 ppm to 5% by weight, particularly preferably 1 ppm to 1 % by weight, of stabilisers. The LC media preferably comprise one or more stabilisers selected from the group consisting of compounds from Table C.

Table D

Table D shows illustrative reactive mesogenic compounds which can be used in the LC media in accordance with the present invention. RM-1

35

RM-12

35 RM-55

RM-56 TEP2018/076057

-209-

35

RM-90

35

RM-97

30

35



35

30

35



In a preferred embodiment, the mixtures according to the invention comprise one or more polymerisable compounds, preferably selected from the polymerisable compounds of the formulae RM-1 to RM-131 . Of these, compounds RM-1 , RM-4, RM-8, RM-17, RM-19, RM-35, RM-37, RM-43, RM- 47, RM-49, RM-51 , RM-59, RM-69, RM-71 , RM-83, RM-97, RM-98, RM-104, RM-1 12, RM-1 15 and RM-1 16 are particularly preferred. Examples

The following examples explain the present invention without restricting it. However, they show the person skilled in the art preferred mixture concepts with compounds preferably to be employed and the respective concentrations thereof and combinations thereof with one another. In addition, the examples illustrate which properties and property combinations are accessible.

In addition, the following abbreviations and symbols are used:

Vo threshold voltage, capacitive [V] at 20°C,

n e extraordinary refractive index at 20°C and 589 nm,

n 0 ordinary refractive index at 20°C and 589 nm,

Δη optical anisotropy at 20°C and 589 nm,

ε± dielectric permittivity perpendicular to the director at 20°C and 1 kHz,

ε | | dielectric permittivity parallel to the director at 20°C and 1 kHz,

Δε dielectric anisotropy at 20°C and 1 kHz,

cl.p., T(N,l) clearing point [°C],

γι rotational viscosity at 20°C [mPa s],

Ki elastic constant, "splay" deformation at 20°C [pN],

K2 elastic constant, "twist" deformation at 20°C [pN],

K3 elastic constant, "bend" deformation at 20°C [pN].

Unless explicitly noted otherwise, all concentrations in the present application are quoted in per cent by weight and relate to the corresponding mixture as a whole, comprising all solid or liquid-crystalline components, without solvents. Unless explicitly noted otherwise, all temperature values indicated in the present application, such as, for example, for the melting point T(C,N), the transition from the smectic (S) to the nematic (N) phase T(S,N) and the clearing point T(N,I), are quoted in degrees Celsius (°C). M.p. denotes melting point, cl.p. = clearing point. Furthermore, C = crystalline state, N = nematic phase, S = smectic phase and I = isotropic phase. The data between these symbols represent the transition temperatures. All physical properties are and have been determined in accordance with "Merck Liquid Crystals, Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals", Status Nov. 1997, Merck KGaA, Germany, and apply for a temperature of 20°C, and Δη is determined at 589 nm and Δε at 1 kHz, unless explicitly indicated otherwise in each case.

The term "threshold voltage" for the present invention relates to the capa- citive threshold (Vo), also known as the Freedericks threshold, unless explicitly indicated otherwise. In the examples, the optical threshold may also, as generally usual, be quoted for 10% relative contrast (Vio).

Unless stated otherwise, the process of polymerising the polymerisable compounds in the PSA displays as described above and below is carried out at a temperature where the LC medium exhibits a liquid crystal phase, preferably a nematic phase, and most preferably is carried out at room temperature.

Unless stated otherwise, methods of preparing test cells and measuring their electrooptical and other properties are carried out by the methods as

described hereinafter or in analogy thereto.

The display used for measurement of the capacitive threshold voltage consists of two plane-parallel glass outer plates at a separation of 25 μιτι, each of which has on the inside an electrode layer and an unrubbed poly- imide alignment layer on top, which effect a homeotropic edge alignment of the liquid-crystal molecules.

The display or test cell used for measurement of the tilt angles consists of two plane-parallel glass outer plates at a separation of 4 μιτι, each of which has on the inside an electrode layer and a polyimide alignment layer on top, where the two polyimide layers are rubbed antiparallel to one another and effect a homeotropic edge alignment of the liquid-crystal molecules.

The polymerisable compounds are polymerised in the display or test cell by irradiation with UV light of defined intensity for a prespecified time, with a voltage simultaneously being applied to the display (usually 10 V to 30 V alternating current, 1 kHz). In the examples, unless indicated otherwise, a metal halide lamp and an intensity of 100 mW/cm 2 is used for polymerisation. The intensity is measured using a standard meter (Hoenle UV-meter high end with UV sensor).

The tilt angle is determined using the Mueller Matrix Polarimeter "AxoScan" from Axometrics. A low value (i.e. a large deviation from the 90° angle) corresponds to a large tilt here. Unless stated otherwise, the term "tilt angle" means the angle between the LC director and the substrate, and "LC director" means in a layer of LC molecules with uniform orientation the preferred orientation direction of the optical main axis of the LC molecules, which corresponds, in case of calamitic, uniaxially positive birefringent LC molecules, to their molecular long axis.

Example 1 : Polvmerisable Compound of formula I

Polymerisable compound RM1 is prepared as follows

RM1

RM1 : Methacrylic acid (9.98 g, 1 16.0 mmol) and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (0.616 g, 5.04 mmol) is added to a suspension of bicycloheyl-4,4'-diol (10.0 g, 50.4 mmol) in 150 ml DCM. The reaction mixture is treated dropwise at 0 °C with a solution of N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (18.02 g, 1 16.0 mmol) in 50 ml DCM and stirred for 20 hrs at room temperature. The reaction mixture is concentrated in vacuo, and the oily residue is purified by column chromatography on silica gel with DCM as eluent and further recrystallized from acetonitrile to afford RM1 as white crystal (4.50 g, m.p.1 14°C).

The following compounds were prepared analogously:

Example 2: Polymerisable Photoinitiator of formula II

Polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-1 is prepared as follows

Pln-1 b Pln-1c

Pln-1 Pln-1d

Pln-1a: To a solution of 4-hydroxylphenylboronic acid pinacol ester (50.0 g, 0.23 mol) in 320 ml dry dichloromethane(DCM) trimethylamine (37.8 ml, 0.27 mol) and 4-(dimethylamino)-pyridine (1 .47 g, 12.0 mmol) are added at 0°C. A solution of chlorotriisopropylsilane (53.5 ml, 0.25 mol) in 80 ml dry DCM is added carefully at below 5°C. The reaction mixture is then allowed to warmed up to RT and stirred overnight. After aqueous work-up, the crude product is purified by column chromatography on silica gel with DCM as eluent to afford Pln-1a as colorless oil (76.2 g).

Pln-1 b: To a solution of Pln-1a (16.56 g, 44.0 mmol) and 1 -(3-bromo- phenyl)-2-methyl-propan-1 -one (10.0 g, 44.0 mmol) in 160 ml THF is added the solution of sodium metaborate tetrahydrate (9.19 g, 66.0 mmol) in 60 ml distilled water. After degassing carefully with argon, bis(triphenylphosphine)- palladium(ll) chloride (1 .40 g, 1 .96 mmol) is then added, followed by hydrazinium hydroxide (0.057 ml, 1 .17 mmol). The reaction mixture is heated to reflux overnight. After cooling to room temperature and aqueous work-up, the crude product is purified by column chromatography on silica gel with heptane/chlorobutane solvent mixture as eluent to provide Pln-1 b as colorless oil (14.0 g).

Pln-1c: To a suspension of Pln-1 b (7.00 g, 17.6 mmol) in 60 ml toluene and 30 ml tetrachlorocarbon is added tetra-n-butylammoniumbromide (0.89 ml, 3.2 mmol). After warmed up to 50°C potassium hydroxide (2.23 g, 1 .96 mmol) is added very carefully to keep temperature below 75°C. After exotherm ceased, the reaction mixture is stirred at 65°C overnight. After cooling to room temperature, neutralized carefully with 1 M aqueous HCI and aqueous work-up, the crude product is purified by column chromatography on silica gel with chlorobutane/ethyl acetate solvent mixture as eluent to provide Pln-1c as colorless oil (1 .2 g).

Pln-1d: A solution of Pln-1c (1 .20 g, 2.91 mmol) in 18 ml dry toluene is cooled to -5°C, then tetrabutylammonium floride solution in THF (1 M, 3.3 ml) is added dropwise. After stirring at -5°C for 30 min, the reaction mixture is neutralized carefully with 1 M aqueous HCI. After aqueous work-up the crude product is purified by column chromatography on silica gel with

chlorobutane/ethyl acetate solvent mixture as eluent to provide Pln-1d as colorless oil (0.8 g). Pln-1 : Methacrylic acid (0.40 g, 4.7 mmol) and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (0.038 g, 0.30 mmol) is added to a suspension of Pln-1d (0.8 g, 3.1 mmol) in 30 ml dichloromethane. The reaction mixture is treated dropwise at 0 °C with a solution of N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (0.73 g, 4.7 mmol) in 5 ml DCM and stirred for 20 hrs at room temperature. The reaction mixture is concentrated in vacuo, and the oily residue is purified by column chromatography on silica gel with heptane/ethyl acetate as eluent and further recrystallized from methyl t-butyl ether/acetonitrile mixture to afford Pln-1 as white crystal (0.45 g, m.p. 88°C).

In analogy to Example Pln-1 , the following polymerisable photoinitiators are obtained.

Mixture Examples

The nematic LC host mixture N1 is formulated as follows:

CCH-35 10.00% cl .p. 79.4

CCH-501 5.00% Δη 0.0909

CCY-2-1 10.00% Δε -3.8

CCY-3-1 10.00% ε ΙΙ 3.5

CCY-3-O2 10.00% Κ 3 /Κι 0.96

CCY-5-O2 10.00% γι 176

CPY-2-O2 12.00% Vo 2.1 1

CY-3-O4 10.00%

CY-5-O4 10.00%

PCH-53 13.00%

The nematic LC host mixture N2 is formulated as follows:

BCH-32 6.50% cl .p. 74.7 CC-3-V1 8.00% Δη 0.1039 CCH-23 17.00% Δε -3.0

CCH-34 6.50% S|| 3.4

CCY-3-O1 3.50% K3/K1 1 .07

CCY-3-O2 12.50% 106

CPY-2-O2 5.50% Vo 2.43

CPY-3-O2 10.00%

CY-3-O2 15.50%

PCH-301 4.50%

PP-1 -2V1 5.00%

PY-3-O2 5.50%

The nematic LC host mixture N3 is formulated as follows:

CCH-35 9.00% cl.p.

CCH-501 4.50% Δη

CCY-2-1 9.00% Δε

CCY-3-1 9.00% ε ΙΙ

CCY-3-O2 9.00% Κ 3 /Κι

CCY-5-O2 9.00% γι

CPY-2-O2 10.80% Vo

CY-3-O4 9.00%

CY-5-O4 9.00%

PCH-53 1 1 .70%

BCH-32 10.00%

Polymerisable mixtures are prepared by adding 0.3% of polymerisable non- aromatic monomer RM1 , RM2 or RM3, respectively, and optionally 100ppm of polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-1 , Pn-2 or Pln-3, respectively, to each of nematic LC host mixtures N1 , N2 and N3. For comparison purpose, polymerisable mixtures are prepared by adding 0.3% of polymerisable aromatic monomer RMC1 and optionally 100ppm of polymerisable photonitiator Pln-1 , Pln-2 or Pln-3, respectively, to each of nematic LC host mixtures N1 , N2 and N3.

The compositions of the individual polymensable mixtures are shown in Table 1 a and 1 b below. Therein "P" denotes polymerisable mixtures according to the present invention and "C" denote comparison mixtures.

Table 1 a - Polymerisable mixture composition

Table 1 b - Polymerisable mixture composition

Use Example A

The individual polymerisable mixtures from Table 1 a are filled into PSA test cells, the RM is polymerised under application of a voltage, and several properties like residual RM content, VHR under UV stress, tilt angle generation and tilt angle stability are measured. RM1 , which is unreactive under standard PS-VA processing condition, is used together with a very low amount of a photoinitiator Pln-3 (Mixture P1 ) to generate tilt under exposure to standard metal-halide lamp. RMC1 is a monomer which is commonly used in PS-VA displays and is therefore used for comparison.

Surprisingly the mixture P1 with non-aromatic monomer RM1 and

polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3 shows comparable or even better properties than mixtures C2 and C3 with aromatic monomer RMC1 (eithr with or without the polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3). The characterizations of the most relevant parameters for PS-VA processing, including tilt generation, tilt stability, residue RM and VHR after processing, are described below respectively.

During the PS-VA process a tilt angle is generated by a UV-initiated polymerization of the reactive mesogenes. The test cells used for tilt generation were PSVA- cells with a specific VA-PI. The cell gaps varied between 3.6 μιτι and 4.1 μιτι. After the cells were filled with the desired mixtures they were annealed for 10 min at 120°C. Afterwards the cells were irradiated for 1 , 2, 3 or 5 minutes while being stressed with a 200 Hz 40 V pp square wave. The irradiation was done in a Honle UVACube 2000 UV- chamber. The lamp used was a Honle Lamp-FOZFR 100 D24 U280 E2S9. The Test Cells were set at a height in the UV Chamber where the UV light had an intensity of 100 mW/cm 2 . This intensity was measured before every measurement with a Honle UVA Sensor attached to a Honle UV meter.

Afterwards the test cells were again annealed for 10 min at 120°C. The test cells were given at least 12 hours to relax before the final tilt angle was measured and calculated with an Axometrics AxoScan®. The results are shown in Table 2.

Table 2 - Tilt angle

Mixture UV Time / min 0 1 2 3 5

C1 90 89.8 89.0 86.9 84.0

Tilt / °

P1 90 83.7 80.8 76.4 74.2 C2 90 87.4 80.2 77.5 74.4

C3 90 84.3 77.1 75.3 74.3

It can be seen that the tilt angle generated in polymerisable mixture C1 , which contains the non-aromatic monomer RM1 but does not contain the polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3, is significantly lower than in polymerisable mixture P1 which contains the non-aromatic monomer RM1 and the polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3. It can also be seen that mixture P1 can generate a tilt angle in the same degree as mixtures C2 and 3 with the aromatic monomer RMC1 .

The accelerating effect of the poymerisable photoinitiator is also confirmed by the residual RM analysis. For the residual RM analysis specific test cells were used. The test cells are filled with the desired mixture. They were irradiated in an UV chamber with an UVFL lamp source which is comparable to state of the art lamp sources for the LCD mass production. The irradiation duration was 60min at -2.0 mW/cm 2 . To measure the remaining monomer after processing the test cells were cut off and rinsed by using 500 μΙ of ethyl methyl ketone for each glass substrate of the cell. The residual amount of RM in the rinsed LC-mixture is determined using an HPLC. The results are shown in Table 3.

Table 3 - Residual RM content

It can be seen that in polymerisable mixture C1 , which contains non-aromatic monomer RM1 but does not contain polymerisable photoinititator Pln-3, after UV-exposure for 60 mins only about half (54.1 %) of the originally added amount of the monomer RM1 has reacted, and the other half of RM1 still remains unreacted. In contrast thereto, in the polymerisable mixture P1 with non-aromatic monomer RM1 and polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3, the residual amount of RM1 is reduced significantly to 7.9% of the original amount. The accelerating effect of the poymensable photoinitiator is also confirmed by analysis of both residual reactants (RM and photoinitiator) in the mixture. For this purpose the analysis of residual amounts of RM and photoinitiator analysis was carried out in analogy to the method described above, but wherein an MH lamp was used for UV irradiation. The results are shown in Table 4.

Table 4 - Residual content of RM and photoinitiator

It can be seen that, with the complete consumption of photoinitiator Pln3, the concentration of monomer P remains nearly constant, which strongly indicates the the polymerization reaction of the remaining monomer does not proceed further.

A high VHR value is usually desired to avoid occurrence of imaging sticking in LC display. The VHR value is measured as follows: desired LC-mixtures are introduced into VA-VHR test cells which comprise an unrubbed VA- polyimide alignment layer. The LC-layer thickness d is approx. 6 μιτι, unless stated otherwise. The VHR value is determined after 5 min at 100°C before and after UV exposure at 1 V, 60 Hz, 64 s pulse (measuring instrumet: Autronic-Melchers VHRM-105). The results are shown in Table 5.

Table 5 - VHR values

It can be seen that surprisingly the polymerisable mixture P1 , which contains the non-aromatic monomer RM1 and the polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3, after UV-processing shows even slightly higher VHR than mixture C2 with the aromatic RMC1 and the polymerisable photoinitiator.

Tilt stability is also a very important parameter because any change in tilt after processing leads to an immediate change of transmission in display. The test cells filled with the desired mixtures are processed according to the tilt generation process. Afterwards a high voltage of 60V PP square wave is applied to the test cells to stress the test cells for more than 48 hours. Directly after the stress period the tilt angle is measured and compared to the tilt angle before stress. The change in tilt angle is recorded as a Atilt. Usually the lower the Atilt, the better is the tilt stability. The results are shown in Table 6.

Table 6 - Tilt Stability

It can be seen that surprisingly the polymerisable mixture P1 , which contains the non-aromatic monomer RM1 and the polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3, after voltage stress shows even better tilt stability than mixture C2 with the aromatic RMC1 and the polymerisable photoinitiator.

Use Example B

The individual polymerisable mixtures from Table 1 b are filled into PSA test cells, the RM is polymerised under application of a voltage, and several properties like residual RM content, VHR under UV stress, tilt angle generation and tilt angle stability are measured as described in Use Example A. The results are shown in Tables 7-10 below. Table 7: Tilt angle, tilt stability and VHR after back light test (BLT) with shortened second UV step in mixture P1

In current commercial PS-VA display manufacturing process, the duration of the second UV processing step is usually applied for 90 to 120 min. It can be seen that in mixture P1 with shortened second UV step, the generated tilt angle is relatively stable. By applying second UV step even only for 30 min, the Atilt can be kept clearly below 1 °. In addition, the VHR value after 8 days back light stress remains at high level. These results strongly indicate that the new system consisting of a non-aromatic monomer with a polymerisable photoinitiator can be applied to shorten the overall UV processing time during LC display panel production.

Table 8: Tilt angle in mixture P2. P3 and P4

* iven here relative to the direction er endicular to the substrate

Table 9: Tilt stability in mixture P2 and P3

Mixture

P3 0.2

P4 ATilt / ° 0.3

C4 0.1 In mixture P2 containing host N2 and 100 ppm polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3, the tilt generation was found to be significantly reduced. However, by increasing the polymerisable photoinitiator concentration and slightly modifying the structure from Pln-3 to Pln-2, the tilt generation in mixture P3 and P4 recovered to comparable levels as in the reference mixture C4, without negative influence on the tilt stability. The Atilt in all three mixtures are kept clearly below 1 °. These results showed that with this new system it is possible to tune the speed of tilt angle generation by tuning the polymerisable photoinitiator, without necessity to change the monomer.

Table 10: Tilt angle with RM2 and RM3

In mixture P3 containing host N3 and 100 ppm polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3, slower tilt generation was observed for RM1 and RM3. However, by using RM2 tilt generation can be enhanced to an acceptable level.

Further Mixture Examples

Example P7

The nematic LC host mixture N4 is formulated as follows:

CC-3-V1 9.00 % cl.p. 74.7

CCH-23 18.00 % Δη 0.0982

CCH-34 3.00 % Δε -3.4

CCH-35 7.00 % S|| 3.5

CCP-3-1 5.50 % Ki 14.9

CCY-3-O2 1 1 .50 % K 3 15.9

CPY-2-O2 8.00 % yi 108 CPY-3-O2 1 1 .00 % Vo 2.28

CY-3-O2 15.50 %

PY-3-O2 1 1 .50 % Polymerisable mixture P7 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM1 and 200 ppm of polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3 to host mixture N4.

Example P8

The nematic LC host mixture N5 is formulated as follows

CC-3-V1 9.00 % cl.p. 75.4

CCH-23 14.00 % Δη 0.1055

CCH-34 6.00 % Δε -2.8

CCH-35 6.00 % S|| 3.3

CCP-3-1 7.00 % Ki 16.2

CCY-3-O1 5.00 % K 3 17.3

CCY-3-O2 10.00 % yi 102

CPY-3-O2 12.00 % Vo 2.67

CY-3-O2 9.00 %

PP-1 -2V1 8.00 %

PY-3-O2 12.00 %

PY-4-O2 1 .00 %

Polymerisable mixture P8 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM1 and 200 ppm of polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-1 to host mixture N5.

Example P9

The nematic LC host mixture N6 is formulated as follows

CC-3-V1 8.00 cl.p 74.6

CCH-23 15.00 Δη 0.0899

CCH-34 5.00 Δε -3.3

CCH-35 6.00 S|| 3.5

CCP-3-1 3.00 Ki 13.9 CCY-3-O1 8.00 % K 3 14.6

CCY-3-O2 10.00 % 1 14

CCY-3-O3 6.00 % Vo 2.22

CCY-4-O2 6.00 %

CY-3-O2 12.00 %

CY-3-O4 3.75 %

PCH-301 3.00 %

PY-3-O2 2.75 %

PY-4-O2 6.50 %

PYP-2-3 5.00 %

Polymerisable mixture P9 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM1 and 100 ppm of polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3 to host mixture N6. Example P10

The nematic LC host mixture N7 is formulated as follows:

BCH-32 6.00 % cl.p. 74.2

CCH-13 8.50 % Δη 0.1 107

CCH-34 8.00 % Δε -3.3

CCH-35 6.00 % S|| 3.5

CCOC-3-3 0.25 % Ki 14.4

CCY-3-O1 4.50 % K 3 15.4

CCY-3-O2 13.50 % yi 125

CPY-2-O2 6.50 % Vo 2.28

CPY-3-O2 13.50 %

CY-3-O2 15.50 %

CY-3-O4 4.50 %

PCH-301 2.25 %

PP-1 -3 1 1 .00

Polymerisable mixture P10 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM2 and 200 ppm of polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-1 to host mixture N7.

Example P1 1 The nematic LC host mixture N8 is formulated as follows:

CC-3-V1 8.00 % cl.p. 75.5

CCH-23 18.00 % Δη 0.0978

CCH-34 4.00 % Δε -3.5

CCH-35 7.00 % ειι 3.5

CCP-3-1 5.00 % Κι 14.9

CCY-3-O2 12.50 % κ 3 15.8

CPY-2-O2 8.00 % γι 1 1 1

CPY-3-O2 1 1 .00 % Vo 2.26

CY-3-O2 15.50 %

PY-3-O2 1 1 .00 %

Polymehsable mixture Ρ1 1 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM1 and 200 ppm of polymehsable photoinitiator Pln-3 to host mixture N8.

Example P 2

The nematic LC host mixture N9 is formulated as follows:

CC-3-V1 8.00 % cl.p. 75.3

CCH-23 16.00 % Δη 0.0904

CCH-34 6.00 % Δε -3.3

CCH-35 6.00 % 8|| 3.5

CCP-3-1 3.50 % Ki 14.4

CCY-3-O1 7.00 % K 3 15.2

CCY-3-O2 9.00 % γι 1 12

CCY-3-O3 6.00 % Vo 2.24

CPY-3-O2 7.00 %

CY-3-O2 15.00 %

CY-3-O4 7.00 %

PY-3-O2 4.00 %

PYP-2-3 5.00 % Polymerisable mixture P12 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM1 to and 100 ppm of polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3 host mixture N9.

Example P13

The nematic LC host mixture N10 is formulated as follows:

BCH-32 6.00 % cl.p. 74.8

CC-3-V1 6.00 % Δη 0.1066

CCH-34 9.00 % Δε -3.3

CCH-35 7.00 % S|| 3.6

CCP-3-1 8.00 % Ki 14.2

CCP-3-3 3.00 % K 3 16.5

CCY-3-1 2.00 % yi 1 18

CCY-3-O2 10.50 % Vo 2.35

CCY-4-O2 5.00 %

CPY-3-O2 3.50 %

CY-3-O2 14.00 %

PCH-301 5.50 %

PY-1 -O4 6.50 %

PY-3-O2 14.00 %

Polymerisable mixture P13 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM1 and 200 ppm of polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-1 to host mixture N10.

Example P14

The nematic LC host mixture N1 1 is formulated as follows: CC-3-V 15.00 % cl.p 74.4

CC-3-V1 9.00 % Δη 0.1086

CCH-23 8.00 % Δε -3.2

CCH-34 7.50 % ε,| 3.5

CCY-3-O2 10.00 % Ki 14.3

CCY-5-O2 8.00 % Κ 3 15.7

CPY-2-O2 3.00 % γι 102 CPY-3-O2 8.50 %

CY-3-O2 7.00 %

PY-3-O2 16.00 %

PYP-2-3 8.00 %

Polymerisable mixture P14 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM3 and 100 ppm of polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3 to host mixture N1 1 .

Example P15

The nematic LC host mixture N12 is formulated as follows:

CCH-23 15.00 % cl.p. 84.8

CCH-34 10.00 % Δη 0.1025

CCP-3-1 7.00 % Δε -3

CCP-3-3 6.00 % S|| 3.4

CCY-2-1 4.00 % Ki 14.6

CY-3-O2 15.00 % K 3 15.7

CY-3-O4 8.50 % yi 134

CCY-3-O2 9.00 % Vo 2.4

CPY-2-O2 8.00 %

CPY-3-O2 8.00 %

PYP-2-3 5.00 %

BCH-32 4.50 %

Polymerisable mixture P15 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM3 and 100 ppm of polymerisable photoinitiator Pln-3 to host mixture N12.

Example P16

The nematic LC host mixture N13 is formulated as follows:

B-2O-O5 4.00 % cl.p. 74.2

BCH-32 8.00 % Δη 0.1091

CC-3-V1 9.00 % Δε -3.1

CCH-301 2.00 % ειι 3.6 CCH-34 8.00 % Ki 14.5

CCH-35 7.00 % K 3 16.5

CCP-3-1 8.00 % yi 108

CCP-V2-1 5.00 % Vo 2.41

CCY-3-O2 10.50 %

CLY-3-O2 1 .00 %

CPY-3-O2 2.50 %

CY-3-O2 1 1 .50 %

PCH-301 5.50

PY-3-O2 18.00

Polymehsable mixture P16 is formulated by adding 0.3% of RM2 and 200 ppm of polymehsable photoinitiator Pln-1 to host mixture N13.