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Title:
POLYSULFATED GLYCOSIDES AND SALTS THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2006/017726
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The invention relates to polysulfated glycosides of formula (I), the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, as well as the pharmaceutical compositions containing these compounds as active ingredients. Furthermore the invention provides a method of preventing, treating or alleviating the symptoms of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways of mammals - including asthma and asthma-related pathologies.

Inventors:
Kuszmann, Janos (Bocskai u. 24, H1114, Budapest, HU)
Kurucz, Istvan (Balzac u. 12, Budapest, H-1136, HU)
Medgyes, Gabor (Öv u. 158., Budapest, H-1147, HU)
Bodor, Nicholas (10225 Collins Avenue, Unit 1002/1004 Bal Harbour, FL, 33154, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2005/027877
Publication Date:
February 16, 2006
Filing Date:
August 05, 2005
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
IVAX DRUG RESEARCH INSTITUTE LTD (Berlini utca 47-49, Budapest, H-1045, HU)
Kuszmann, Janos (Bocskai u. 24, H1114, Budapest, HU)
Kurucz, Istvan (Balzac u. 12, Budapest, H-1136, HU)
Medgyes, Gabor (Öv u. 158., Budapest, H-1147, HU)
Bodor, Nicholas (10225 Collins Avenue, Unit 1002/1004 Bal Harbour, FL, 33154, US)
International Classes:
C07H15/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO1995034313A11995-12-21
WO1994014849A11994-07-07
WO2003104473A22003-12-18
Foreign References:
US5403927A1995-04-04
Other References:
FRENCH, DEXTER ET AL: "Constitution of stachyose" JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY ( 1953 ), 75, 3664 -6 CODEN: JACSAT; ISSN: 0002-7863, 1953, XP002368241
TAKEO, KENICHI ET AL: "Partial benzoylation of methyl .beta.-kojibioside and methyl .beta.-sophoroside" CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH ( 1980 ), 86(2), 297 - 301 CODEN: CRBRAT; ISSN: 0008-6215, 1980, XP002368242
TORGOV, V. I. ET AL: "Structural studies of the O-specific polysaccharide from Salmonella kentucky strain 98/39 (O:8, H:i,Z6)" CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH ( 1990 ), 208, 293 - 300 CODEN: CRBRAT; ISSN: 0008-6215, 1990, XP002368243
NELSON, T. E. ET AL: "Separation and characterization of the soluble and insoluble components of insoluble laminaran" CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH ( 1974 ), 33(1), 63 - 74 CODEN: CRBRAT; ISSN: 0008-6215, 1974, XP002368244
GOLDSTEIN, I. J. ET AL: "The synthesis and characterization of 4-0-(.alpha.,D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O- (.beta.-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucose" ACTA CHEMICA SCANDINAVICA ( 1962 ), 16, 383 -6 CODEN: ACHSE7; ISSN: 0904-213X, 1962, XP009062135
BAILEY, R. W. ET AL: "Immunopolysaccharides. IX. The enzymic synthesis of trisaccharides containing the .alpha.-1,2-glucosidic linkage" JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY 1895 -902 CODEN: JCSOA9; ISSN: 0368-1769, 1958, XP009062083
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Foley, Shawn P. (Lerner, David Littenberg, Krumholz & Mentlik, LLP, 600 South Avenue Wes, Westfield NJ, 07090, US)
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Claims:
What we claim is:
1. A compound of formula (I)5 (I) wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6 independently of each other, stand for C14 alkyl, SO3H, polysulfated glycosyl or polysulfated diglycosyl group with the proviso, that the meaning of at least one of R'R6 is a polysulfated glycosyl or polysulfated diglycosyl group or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or isomer thereof.
2. The compound of claim (1), wherein R1 stands for a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group and R2— R6 represent — SO3H groups or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or isomer thereof.
3. The compound of claim (1), wherein R1, R2, R4, R5 and R6 stand for SO3H groups and R3 represents a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or isomer thereof.
4. The compound of claim (1), wherein R1, R2, R3, R5 and R6 stand for SO3H groups and R4 represents a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or isomer thereof.
5. The compound of claim (1) wherein R1 and R3 stand for polysulfated glycosyl groups and R2, R4, R5 and R6 represent SO3H groups or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or isomers thereof.
6. The compound of claim (1) wherein R1 and R6 stand for polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group and R2, R3, R4 and R5 represent SO3H groups or pharmaceutically salts or isomers thereof.
7. A compound of formula (I) according to claim 1, wherein R1 stands for a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group, R3 and R4 represent Cu alkyl groups and R2, R5 and R6 are SO3H groups or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or isomers thereof.
8. A compound of formula (I) wherein R1 and R6 stand for polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group, R3 and R4 represent C 1.4 alkyl groups and R2 and R5 are SO3H groups or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or isomers thereof.
9. A compound of formula (I) according to claim 1 selected from the group consisting of: 2,3 ,4,5,6pentaOsulfato 1 O(2,3 ,4,6tetra0sulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dmannitol nona potassium salt, l,2,3,4,5penta0sulfato60(2,334,6tetra0sulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dglucitol nona potassium salt, 2,3,4,5,6penta0sulfatol0(2,3,4,6tetra0sulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dglucitol nona potassium salt, l,2,4,5,6pentaOsulfato3O(2,3,4,6tetraOsulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dglucitol nona potassium salt, l,2,3,5,6pentaOsulfato4O(2,3,4,6tetraOsulfatoαDglucopyranosyl)Dglucitol nona potassium salt, l,2,3,5,6penta0sulfato40(2,3,4,6tetra0sulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dglucitol nona potassium salt, 1 ,2,3 ,5,6pentaOsulfato4O(2,3 ,4,6tetraOsulfatoβDgalactopyranosyl)Dglucitol nona potassium salt, 2,4,5,6tetraOsulfatol,3bisO(2,3,4,6tetraOsulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dglucitol dodeca potassium salt, 2,4,5,6tetraOsulfatol,6bisO(2,3,4,6tetraOsulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dmannitol dodeca potassium salt, 2,4,5,6tetraOsulfatol,6bisO(2,3,4,2',3',4',6'heptaOsulfatoβgentiobiopyranosyl)Dmannitol octadeca potassium salt, 2,3,4,5,6pentaOsulfatolO(2,3,4,2',3',4',6'heptaOsulfatoβgentiobiopyranosyl)Dmannitol dodeca potassium salt, 3,4diOmethyl2,5,6triOsulfatolO(2,3,4,6tetraOsulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dmannitol hepta potassium salt, 3,4di0methyl2,5di0sulfatol,6bis0(2,3,4,6tetra0sulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dmannitol deca potassium salt, 3?4.diOmethyl2,5,6triOsulfatolO(2,3,4,2',3',4',6'heptaOsulfatoβgentiobiopyranosyl)D mannitol deca potassium salt, 3,4diOmethyl2,5diOsulfatol,6bisO(2,3,6,2',3',4536'heptaOsulfatoβlactosyl)Dmannitol hexadeca potassium salt, 2,3,4,5, 6penta0sulfatol0(2,3,4tri0sulfatoαDarabinopyranosyl)Dmannitolocta potassium salt, 2,3,4,5,6penta0sulfatol0(2,3,4tri0sulfatoβDxylopyranosyl)Dmannitol octa potassium salt, 2,4,5,6tetraOsulfato 1 ,6bisO(2,3 ,4,6tetraOsulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)galactitol dodeca potassium salt, l,2,4,5,6penta0sulfato30(2,3,4,6tetra0sulfatoβDglucopyranosyl)Dglucitol nona sodium salt.
10. A pharmaceutical composition, comprising a compound as claimed in claim 1, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier therefor.
11. Use of a compound according to claim 1 for the preparation of drugs suitable for treating inflammatory disorders of airways of mammals.
12. The use according to claim 11 for the preparation of drugs suitable for treating allergic inflammatory disorders of airways.
13. The use according to claim 12, wherein the allergic inflammatory disorder of the airways is selected from the group consisting of asthma, allergic rhinitis, intrinsic or extrinsic asthma bronciale, acute or chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, and pulmonary fibrosis.
14. A method for treating an acute or chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways of mammals, comprising administering to a mammal in need of such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of claim 1.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein the inflammatory disorder of the airways is an allergic inflammatory disorder.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the allergic inflammatory disorder of airways is selected from the group consisting of asthma, allergic rhinitis, intrinsic or extrinsic asthma bronciale, acute or chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, and pulmonary fibrosis.
17. The method of claim 14, wherein the allergic inflammatory disorder of airways is selected from the group consisting of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and autoimmune lung disease.
18. The method of claim 14, comprising administering the compound as a single or multiple dose.
19. A compound of formula (II) (II) wherein R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, and R12, independently of each other, stand for hydrogen atom, C^4 alkyl, glycosyl or diglycosyl group, and at least one of R7R12 is a glycosyl or diglycosyl group.
Description:
POLYSULFATEB GLYCOSIDES ANB SALTS THEREOF INVENTORS: Janos KUSZMANN, Istvan KURUCZ, Gabor MEDGYES AND Nicholas BODOR (Attorney Docket No.: IDROl 17-PCT)

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention

[0001] The present invention relates to glycosides, the salts thereof and pharmaceutical compositions containing these glycosides as active ingredients. Furthermore the invention provides a method of preventing, treating or alleviating the symptoms of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways of mammals - including asthma and asthma-related pathologies.

Summary of Related Art

[0002] Inflammation is a multi-step cascade process, any part of which may be the subject of potential therapeutic intervention. Briefly, inflammation entails the infiltration of immunologically competent cells (for example eosinophils, mast cells, activated T-lymphocytes) into the injury site where they, together with resident cells, release bioactive mediator substances (e.g., histamine, proteases, a host of cytokines and chemokines), which increase the permeability of nearby blood vessels, attract and stimulate bystander cells. The altered permeability of vessels results in a fluid exudate forming at the injury site followed by a further influx of reactive leukocytes and their eventual efflux into the damaged area. (For an overview see, Trowbridge and Emling, Inflammation: A Review of the Process Quintessence Pub. Co., 1997). Secretion of collagen and mucus by, and proliferation of, resident cells (smooth muscle and epithelial cells or fibroblasts stimulated by the released mediators) establish the extension of pathological alterations (e.g., airway obstruction) and contribute to their development.

[0003] Inflammation is associated with a variety of pulmonary conditions including e.g., intrinsic or extrinsic asthma bronchiale, any inflammatory lung disease, acute or chronic bronchitis, pulmonary inflammatory reactions secondary to chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, as well as any pulmonary condition in which white blood cells may play a role including, but not limited to, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and any other autoimmune lung disease. Asthma is one of the most common forms of pulmonary inflammation affecting the large and small airways of the lung. It impacts on 5% to 10% of the human population, resulting in an estimated 27 million patient visits, 6 million lost workdays, and 90.5 million days of restricted activity per year. The morbidity and mortality rates for asthma are growing worldwide (Plaut and Zimmerman, "Allergy and Mechanisms of Hypersensitivity" in Fundamental Immunology, 3rd Ed., Paul (ed.), Raven Press, New York, NY, at 1399 (1993)).

Conventional anti-asthma treatments have been predicated on the strict avoidance of all triggering allergens, which is inherently difficult to achieve, and on therapeutic regimens based on pharmacological agents having unfortunate side effects and suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties. β2- adrenergic agonists used to treat bronchospasm have no effect on airway inflammation or bronchial hyperreactivity (Palmer et ah, New Engl. J. Med. 331:1314 (1994)). Also, regular or prolonged use of β2- adrenergic agonists is associated with poor control of asthma, increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to allergen, and reduced bronchoconstriction protection (Bhagat et ah, Chest 108:1235 (1995)). Moreover, chronic use of β2-adrenergic agents alone, by causing down regulation of β2-adrenergic receptors, is suspected to worsen bronchial hyperreactivity. Theophylline (an anti-asthma methylxanthine) is characterized by substantial variability in its absorbance and clearance. Corticosteroids, while relatively safe in adult patients, are toxic for children, resulting in adrenal suppression and reduced bone density and growth (Woolock et al, am. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 153:1481 (1996)). Cromolyn, used to prevent asthmatic episodes, is effective in preventing an asthmatic reaction only if given prior to an attack (Volcheck et ah, Postgrad Med. 104(3): 127 (1998)). Antihistamines occasionally prevent or abort allergic asthmatic episodes, particularly in children, but often are only partially effective because histamines are only one of many inflammation associated mediators (Cuss, "The Pharmacology of Antiasthma Medications", in Asthma as an Inflammatory Disease. O'Byrne, Ed., Dekker, Inc., New York, at 199 (1990)) and O'Byrne, "Airway Inflammation and Asthma", in Asthma as an Inflammatory Disease, O'Byrne, Ed., Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 143 (1990)).

[0005] Thus, current drug modalities suffer from a number of drawbacks. In general, conventional agents have a relatively short duration of action and may be partially or wholly ineffective when administered after antigen challenge occurs. Moreover, because of serious adverse effects associated with the use of agents such as β2-adrenergic agonists and corticosteroids, therapeutic margins of safety with such agents are relatively narrow and patients using such agents must be carefully monitored (see e.g., WO 94/06783, WO 99/06025, U.S. Patent Nos. 5,690,910 and 5,980,865). In a recent clinical study, of inhaled corticosteroids, only transient improvement occurred in the airways function of 5-11-year-old asthmatic children after the first year of therapy, with regression to that observed with placebo over the next 3 years (The Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group, N. Engl. J. Med., 343:1054 (2000)). This regression can best be explained by remodeling changes (characteristic feature of asthma) occurring in the airways that are refractory to corticosteroids (Davies, Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1:67 (2001)).

[0006] It is known from relevant literature, that certain mixtures of polysulfated disaccharides - having structures closely related to those of the present invention and which were synthesized by nitrous acid treatment of such natural products as for example heparin or heparin sulfate, followed by reduction with borohydride and subsequent sulfation of the partially purified samples (US 5,690,910; US 5,980,865 and WO 02/083700) - displayed remarkable anti-inflammatory effect in different asthma models.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0007] The present invention relates to novel glycosides and processes to make such compounds and pharmaceutical compositions containing such compounds, with well-defined chemical structures, which have more favourable pharmacological properties and less undesirable side-effects, than the known anti-asthmatics. The invention further relates to methods of treating patients in need of treatment comprising administering the novel glycosides and compositions of said glycosides to said patients.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0008] According to the facts mentioned above the invention relates to novel polysulfated glycosides of formula (I),

(I)

wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6 independently of each other, stand for -H5C1-4 alkyl, -SO3H, sulfated or unsulfated glycosyl or sulfated or unsulfated or unsulfated diglycosyl group - with the proviso, that at least one of Rx-R6 is a sulfated or unsulfated glycosyl or sulfated or unsulfated diglycosyl group - as well as the possible isomers and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" includes, for example, alkali salts and alkaline earth metal salts and any other pharmaceutically acceptable counterion or counterions associated with one or more of the sulfate groups on the modecule.

[0009] As all of the four secondary carbon atoms of the sugaralcohol represent chiral centers, obviously all possible stereoisomers (allitol, galactitol, iditol, mannitol, glucitol and talitol) as well as the D- and L-enantiomers thereof are covered by formula (I). The term "isomer" herein includes all such compounds and variants thereof in the compound of formula (1)

[0010] The meaning of sulfated glycosyl group can be any pentopyranose or hexopyranose molecule with optional configuration, one or more of the hydroxyl groups of which are present as an O- sulfate ester and the sugar moiety is attached to the aglycon with its anomeric carbon atom via an α- or β- linkage. The unsulfated glycosyl group contains all hydroxyl groups or protected versions thereof. The unsulfated compounds are useful as intermediates to produce the sulfated compounds receited herein.

[0011] The meaning of polysulfated diglycosyl group can be any pentopyranose or hexopyranose molecule with optional configuration, one of the hydroxyl group of which is glycosylated with a further pentopyranose or hexopyranose molecule with optional configuration, and all of the hydroxyl groups of the so formed diglycosyl unit are present as O-sulfate esters and the sugar moiety is attached to the aglycon with its anomeric carbon via α- or β-linkage.

[0012] All possible stereoisomers (arabino-, lyxo-, ribo- and xylo-) are included in the structure of pentoses, as well as D- and L-enantiomers thereof. Similarly all posible stereoisomers (allo-, altro-, galacto-, gluco-, gulo-, ido-, manno- and tallo-) are included in the structure of hexoses, as well as D- and L-enantiomers thereof. The term "isomer" includes all such compounds and variations thereof in the compound at fomula (1).

[0013] The meaning of Ci-4 alkyl group, is a methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl group, preferably methyl group.

[0014] Alkali metal salts of the compounds of the invention mean Na, K or Li salts, while alkaline-earth metal salts preferably are Mg and Ca salts.

[0015] Those compounds of formula (I), as well as alkali metal and alkaline-earth metal salts thereof, wherein the meaning of R1 is a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group and the meaning of R2- R6 is -SO3H, represent a preferred group of the compounds of the invention.

[0016] Those compounds of formula (I), as well as alkali metal and alkaline-earth metal salts thereof, wherein the meaning of R1, R2, R4, R5 and R6 is -SO3H and the meaning of R3 is a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group, represent a further preferred group of the compounds of the invention.

[0017] Those compounds of formula (I), as well as alkali metal and alkaline-earth metal salts thereof, wherein the meaning of R1, R2, R3, R5 and R6 is -SO3H and the meaning of R4 is a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group, represent a further preferred group of the compounds of the invention. [0018] Those compounds of formula (I), as well as alkali metal and alkaline-earth metal salts thereof, wherein the meaning of R1 and R3 is a polysulfated glycosyl group and the meaning of R2, R4, R5 and R2 is -SO3H5 represent a further preferred group of the compounds of the invention.

[0019] Those compounds of formula (I), as well as alkali metal and alkaline-earth metal salts thereof, wherein the meaning of R1 and R6 is a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group and the meaning of R2, R3, R4 and R5 is -SO3H, represent a further preferred group of the compounds of the invention.

[0020] Those compounds of formula (I), as well as alkali metal and alkaline-earth metal salts thereof, wherein the meaning of R1 is a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group, the meaning of R3 and R4 is a Ci-4 alkyl group, while the meaning of R2, R5 and R6 is -SO3H, represent a further preferred group of the compounds of the invention.

[0021] Those compounds of formula (I), as well as alkali metal and alkaline-earth metal salts thereof, wherein the meaning of R1 and R6 is a polysulfated glycosyl or diglycosyl group, the meaning of R3 and R4 is a C1-4 alkyl group, while the meaning of R2 and R5 is -SO3H, represent a further preferred group of the compounds of the invention.

[0022] Especially preferred representatives of the compounds of formula (I) of the present invention are - without limitation - the following:

2,3,4,5,6-penta-O-sulfato-l-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β -D-glucopyranosyl)-D-mannitol nona potassium salt,

l,2,3,4,5-penta-O-sulfato-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β -D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitol nona potassium salt,

2,3,4,5,6-penta-O-sulfato-l-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β -D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitol nona potassium salt,

l,2,4,5,6-penta-O-sulfato-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β -D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitol nona potassium salt,

1,2,3, 5,6-penta-O-sulfato-4-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-α-D-glucop yranosyl)-D-glucitol nona potassium salt,

l,2,3,5,6-penta-0-sulfato-4-0-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-sulfato-β -D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitol nona potassium salt, l,2,3,5,6-penta-0-sulfato-4-0-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-sulfato-β-D- galactopyranosyl)-D-glucitol nona potassium salt,

2,4,5,6-tetra-0-sulfato-l,3-bis-0-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-sulfat o-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitol dodeca potassium salt,

2,4,5,6-tetra-O-sulfato-l,6-bis-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfat o-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-mannitol dodeca potassium salt,

2,4,5,6-tetra-O-sulfato-l,6-bis-O-(2,3,4,2',3',4',6'-hept a-O-sulfato-β-gentiobiopyranosyl)-D- mannitol octadeca potassium salt,

2,3,455,6-penta-0-sulfato-l-0-(2,3,4,2',3',4',63-hepta-0- sulfato-β-gentiobiopyranosyl)-D- mannitol dodeca potassium salt,

3,4-di-O-methyl-2,5,6-tri-O-sulfato-l-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O- sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D- mannitol hepta potassium salt,

3,4-di-O-methyl-2,5-di-O-sulfato-l,6-bis-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra -O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D- mannitol deca potassium salt,

3 ,4-di-O-methyl-2, 5 ,6-tri-O-sulfato- 1 -O-(2,3 ,4,2 ' ,3 ' ,4' ,6 ' -hepta-O-sulfato-β- gentiobiopyranosyl)-D-mannitol deca potassium salt,

3,4-di-0-methyl-2,5-di-0-sulfato-l,6-bis-0-(2,3,6,2',3',4 ',6'-hepta-0-sulfato-β-lactosyl)-D- mannitol hexadeca potassium salt,

2,3,4,5,6-penta-0-sulfato-l-0-(2,3,4-tri-0-sulfato-α-D-a rabinopyranosyl)-D-mannitol octa potassium salt,

2,3,4,5,6-penta-O-sulfato-l-O-(2,3,4-tri-O-sulfato-β-D-x ylopyranosyl)-D-mannitol octa potassium salt,

2,4,5,6-tetra-O-sulfato-l,6-bis-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfat o-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-galactitol dodeca potassium salt,

l,2,4,5,6-penta-0-sulfato-3-0-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-sulfato-β -D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitol nona sodium salt.

[0023] Compounds of formula (I) of the present invention can be synthesized from compounds of formula (II) (H)

- wherein R7, R,8 R9, R10, R11 and R12 independently of each other, stand for hydrogen atom, Ci-4 alkyl, glycosyl or diglycosyl group, and at least one of R7-R12 is a glycosyl or diglycosyl group - by transforming its free hydroxyl groups into sulfate esters using known methods.

[0024] Sulfur trioxide or an adduct thereof formed with an organic base (for example triethylamine or pyridine) or with dimethylformamide can be used as reagent for the preparation of O- sulfate esters.

[0025] Optionally monofunctional acidic esters obtained by the above methods can be transformed into salts for example with alkali metal or alkali earth-metal acetates. After purification, salts can be obtained by freeze drying, precipitation or crystallization.

[0026] Some of the compounds of formula (II), used as starting materials in the above process for the synthesis of compounds of formula (I) of the present invention can be synthesized for example by the following, known methods:

[0027] Those compounds of formula (II), wherein one from among R7 and R8 represents a glycosyl group and the other represents hydrogen atom, as well as the meaning of R9-R12 is hydrogen atom, can be synthesized for example by using a compound of formula (III) or (FV)

(III) (IV) - wherein X stands for a halogen atom, trichloroacetimidate or phenylthio group and R13-R19 represent an aliphatic or aromatic ester or an ether group - as donor molecule and a compound of formula (V)5

(V)

- wherein R20 and R21 stand for hydrogen atom, R22-R25 represent ether type protective groups, as acceptor and the glycosylation is carried out in the presence of appropriate activators. Then the protective groups are cleaved from the so obtained compound of formula (V) — wherein R22— R25 stand for an ether type protective group, while one of R20 and R21 represents a protected glycosyl group and the other is hydrogen atom.

[0028] According to another process a compound of formula (V) is used as acceptor in the above reaction, in which R20 and R22 stand for hydrogen atom, while R21, R23, R24 and R25 represent ether type protective groups, then the protective groups are cleaved from the so obtained compound of formula (V) - wherein R21, R23, R24 and R25 are ether type protective groups, R20 represents a protected glycosyl group and R22 is hydrogen atom.

[0029] Those compounds of formula (II), wherein R7 and R9 stand for a glycosyl group, while R8, R10, R11 and R12 represent hydrogen atom, can be synthesized for example by carrying out the glycosylation according to process b) but using the donor molecule in excess and the protective groups are cleaved from the so obtained compound of the general formula (V) - wherein R20 and R22 represent protected glycosyl groups and R21, R23, R24 and R25 are ether type protective groups.

[0030] Those compounds of formula (II), wherein one from among R7 and R8 represents a diglycosyl group, the other is hydrogen atom, and R9-R12 stand for hydrogen atom, can be synthesized for example by using a compound of formula (VI) or (VII)

- wherein X stand for a halogen atom, trichloroacetimidate or phenylthio group and R26-R32 represent an aliphatic or aromatic ester or ether group - as donor molecule and a compound of formula (V), wherein R20 and R21 stand for hydrogen atom, R22-R25 represent ether type protective groups, as acceptor and the glycosylation is carried out in the presence of appropriate activators. Then the protective groups are cleaved from the so obtained compound of the general formula (V) - wherein R22-R25 are ether type protective groups, while one from among R20 and R21 represents a protected glycosyl group and the other is hydrogen atom.

[0031] Those compounds of formula (II), wherein R7 stands for a diglycosyl group, can be synthesized for example by using a compound of formula (V), wherein R20 and R25 are hydrogen atom, R21 and R24 represent ester type protective groups, while R22 and R23 are ether type protective groups, as acceptor in the above reaction, then the protective groups are cleaved from the so obtained compound of formula (V) — wherein R21 and R24 represent ester type protective groups, while R22 and R23 are ether type protective groups, R20 represents a protected diglycosyl group and the meaning of R25 is hydrogen atom.

[0032] Those compounds of formula (II), wherein R7 and R12 stand for a diglycosyl group, and R8— R11 represent hydrogen atom, can be synthesized for example by using a compound of formula (VI) or (VII), - wherein X stands for a halogen atom, trichloroacetimidate or phenylthio group and R26-R32 represent aliphatic or aromatic ester or ether groups - as donor molecule in excess and a compound of formula (V), wherein R20 and R25 stand for hydrogen atom, R21 and R24 represent ester type protective groups, while R22 and R23 are ether type protective groups, as acceptor and the glycosylation is carried out in the presence of appropriate activators. Then the protective groups are cleaved from the so obtained compound of formula (V) - wherein R21 and R24 are ester type protective groups, R22 and R23 represent ether type protective groups, while R20 and R25 are protected diglycosyl groups.

[0033] In the above glycosylation reactions mercury or silver salts, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, N-iodosuccinimide and trifluorometlianesulfonic acid or the mixture of the latter two can be used as activator. [0034] The cleavage of the protective groups can be carried out by acid hydrolysis or reduction in the presence of a catalyst in the case of ethers and acetals, while in the case of esters Zemplen's method (base catalysed trans-esterification) or hydrolysis in the presence of a base can be used.

Abbreviations and expressions used in the description:

Ac = acetyl

Bz = benzoyl

Me = methyl

Ph = phenyl

NIS = N-iodosuccinimide

TfOH = trifluoromethanesulfonic acid

[0035] As used in this specification, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" specifically also encompass the plural forms of the terms to which they refer, unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. For example, reference to "a modulator" includes mixtures of modulators.

[0036] As used in this specification, whether in a transitional phrase or in the body of the claim, the terms "comprise(s)" and "comprising" are to be interpreted as having an open-ended meaning. That is, the terms are to be interpreted synonymously with the phrases "having at least" or "including at least". When used in the context of a process, the term "comprising" means that the process includes at least the recited steps, but may include additional steps. When used in the context of a compound or composition, the term "comprising" means that the compound or composition includes at least the recited features or components, but may also include additional features or components.

[0037] The term "about" is used herein to mean approximately, in the region of, roughly, or around. When the term "about" is used in conjunction with a numerical range, it modifies that range by extending the boundaries above and below the numerical values set forth. In general, the term "about" is used herein to modify a numerical value above and below the stated value by a variance of 20%.

[0038] As used herein, unless specifically indicated otherwise, the word "or" is used in the "inclusive" sense of "and/or" and not the "exclusive" sense of "either/or."

[0039] As used herein, the terms "treating" or "treatment" are used to indicate reducing, alleviating, preventing, inhibiting the develpment of and/or reversing the symptoms of a condition. Conditions to be treated by the methods and compositions of the invention include any condition characterized by, or including, acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways. Hence, the terms "inflammatory disorder" or "inflammatory disorders of the airways" encompass any inflammatory lung disease, including asthma, intrinsic or extrinsic asthma bronchiale, acute chronic bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, pulmonary inflammatory and structural reactions secondary to chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis. The invention is also useful for pulmonary condition in which white blood cells and airway remodeling may play a role including but not limited to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and any other autoimmune lung disease.

[0040] By "asthma" is meant a condition of allergic origins, the symptoms of which include continuous or paroxysmal labored breathing accompanied by wheezing, a sense of constriction in the chest, and often attacks of coughing or gasping. By "asthma-related pathology" is meant a condition whose symptoms are predominantly inflammatory in nature with associated bronchospasm. Hence, both asthma and asthma-related pathologies are characterized by symptoms that include narrowing of airways, due in varying degrees to contraction (spasm) of smooth muscle, edema of the mucosa, including that of the upper airways and mucus in the lumen of the bronchi and bronchioles. Non-limiting representative examples of "asthma-related pathologies" include non-asthmatic conditions characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (e.g., chronic bronchitis, emphysema, cystic fibrosis and respiratory distress).

[0041] Compositions and methods taught herein are exemplified, for asthma. However, the invention should not be construed as limited to this particular pulmonary disease. Asthma offers the advantage of having been studied extensively and provides several accepted models to evaluate the invention. It is known that sensitization and allergen challenge leads to airway hyperresponsiveness to various agonists. Hence, acetylcholine, known as a spasmogenic agent, is capable of inducing larger contractions of the muscle cells in tissues obtained from the trachea of sacrificed animals (which had been sensitized to provoke airway hyper-responsiveness) than from control animals following allergen challenge (see, e.g. Tokuoka et al, Br. J. Pharmacol 134: 1580 (2001); Nakata et al, Int. Immunol. 13:329 (2001); Emala and Hirshman, Monogr. Allergy 33:35 (1996)).

[0042] The most prominent characteristic of asthma is bronchospasm, or narrowing of the airways. Asthmatic patients have prominent contraction of the smooth muscles of large and small airways, increased mucus production, and increased inflammation (Plaut and Zimmerman, supra). The inflammatory response in asthma is typical for tissues covered by a mucosa and is characterized by vasodilation, plasma exudation, recruitment of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and eosinophils to the sites of inflammation, and the release of inflammatory mediators by resident tissue cells (e.g., mast cells or airways epithelial cells) or by migrating inflammatory cells (Hogg, "Pathology of Asthma", in Asthma as an Inflammatory Disease. O'Byrne (ed.), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, at 1 (1990)). Asthma may be triggered by a variety of causes such as allergic reactions, a secondary response to infections, industrial or occupational exposures, ingestion of certain chemicals or drugs, exercise (Hargreave et al, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 83:1013 (1986)).

[0043] The compounds of formula (I) according to the invention have also been found effective to decrease mucus production of bronchial epithelial cells and to inhibit growth factor mediated proliferation of smooth muscle cells.

[0044] An increase in bronchial hyperreactivity (AHR), the hallmark of a more severe form of asthma, can be induced by both airway antigenic and non-antigenic stimuli. Late phase response and persistent hyperresponsiveness in allergen-induced asthma have been associated with the recruitment of leukocytes, and particularly eosinophils, to inflamed lung tissue (Abraham et al, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 138:1565 (1988)). Eosinophils release several inflammatory mediators including 15-HETE, leukotriene C4, PAF, cationic proteins, eosinophil peroxidase.

[0045] The terms "antigen" and "allergen" are used interchangeably to describe those molecules, such as dust or pollen that can induce an allergic reaction and/or induce asthmatic symptoms in an individual suffering from asthma. Thus, an asthmatic individual "challenged" with an allergen or an antigen is exposed to a sufficient amount of the allergen or antigen to induce an asthmatic response. The compounds of formula (I) according to the invention have been found effective to treat AHR subsequent to ovalbumin sensitization and antigen challenge.

[0046] The biological activity of the compounds of formula (I) of the present invention in different animal models is demonstrated below:

Model 1

Examination of the effect of locally administered polysulfated glycosides on airways ' hyper¬ responsiveness ex vivo

[0047] Inflammation of the airways may lead to bronchial hyper-responsiveness, which is a characteristic feature of asthma.

[0048] Brown Norway (BN) rats were actively sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) by a subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml of OA/A1(OH)3 gel mixture (2 mg OA + 10 g Al(OH)3AOO ml saline) on day 1 with subsequent subcutaneous injections (10 mg OA + 1O g Al(OH)3AOO ml saline) given on days 14 and 21. On day 28, animals received the compound described in example 4 intratracheally (0.01; 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg dose) 2 hours before antigen challenge. Antigen challenge was performed by inhalation of nebulised ovalbumin (1% antigen solution administered in a TSE inhalation system for 1 hour). Animals were sacrificed 48 hours post antigen challenge wherein the tracheas were removed to an organ bath. Dissected tracheas were allowed to equilibrate for 30 minutes before measuring tracheal spasmogenic response curves to acetylcholine (Ach).

[0049] As shown in Table 1 ovalbumin challenge of sensitized animals in this model caused a significant tracheal hyper-reactivity to acetylcholine, when the response to the spasmogenic agent was determined 48 h after antigen challenge. The compound described in example 4 in a dose of 0.01 mg/kg, brought this elevation back almost to control level.

TABLE l

Effect of antigen challenge and intratracheal pretreatment with compound of Example 4 on the tracheal contraction to acetylcholine in BN-rate

* -log M acetylcholine (Ach), causing 50% contraction relative to control (mean + SEM)

** Contraction at maximal Ach concentration relative to control (mean + SEM)

Model 2.

Examination of the effect of polysulfated glycosides on the allergen stimulated mucus production of airways epithelial cells.

[0050] In a sensitized animal antigenic challenge results in mucus production of airways epithelial cells, which is a characteristic feature of allergic asthma.

[0051] Sensitized BN rats were treated intratracheally with varying (0.01-1.0 mg/kg) dose of compound described in example 4, two hours before antigenic challenge, using a similar protocol described in Model 1. Lungs were collected 48 hours after challenge and were fixed in 8% phosphate buffered formaldehyde. Samples were then processed for histochemistry routinely. 5 μm thick sections were stained with periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS) reagents and were counterstained with haematoxylin- eosine. On the sections each epithelial cells of the airways were counted in the whole preparation at a magnification of 40Ox. The number of PAS(+) [mucus producing] epithelial cells was expressed as the ratio of the total number of epithelial cells.

[0052] As it is shown in Table 2, allergen challenge stimulates the mucus production of airways epithelial cells (control vs. challenge). The compound significantly decreased the number of PAS(+), mucus producing cells at the applied higher dose.

TABLE 2

Effect of antigen challenge and intratracheal treatment with compound of Example 4, on the allergen induced mucus production of airways epithelial cells in BN rats

* - number of PAS(+) cells as percent of total number of cells (average ± SEM)

Model 3.

Examination of the effect of polysulfated glycosides on the extent of perivascular oedema developed in asthmatic lung tissue.

[0053] In a sensitized animal antigen challenge, as a result of the developing inflammatory processes, increases the permeability of the blood vessels resulting in plasma excudation around the periphery of the vasculature.

[0054] Sensitized BN rats were treated intratracheally with varying (0.01-1.0 mg/kg) dose of compound described in example 4, two hours before antigenic challenge, using a similar protocol described in Model 1. Lungs were collected 48 hours after challenge and were fixed in 8% phosphate buffered formaldehyde. Samples were then processed for histochemistry routinely. 5 μm thick sections were stained with periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS) reagents and were counterstained with haematoxylin- eosine. On the 5 μm sections, the area of the connective tissue around the vasculare was determined and expresssed as a ratio of the area of the corresponding blood vessel itself.

[0055] As it is shown in Table 3, allergen challenge causes aedema around the vasculature, the extent of which was significantly decreased even at the smallest dose of the examined compound.

TABLE 3

Effect of antigenic challenge and intratracheal treatment with compound of Example 4, on the extent of developing oedema in BN rats

* -area of oedema relative to area of vasculature (average ± SEM)

Model 4.

IP-3 receptor antagonistic effect of polysulfated glycosides

[0056] Glycosides of the present invention, depending on their chemical structure, inhibit the binding of inositol-l,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to its receptor in microsomal membrane preparations. As IP3 is a messenger molecule playing distinguished role in the activation of different cells, interfering with this function can explain the anti-asthmatic effect of these polysulfated glycosides.

[0057] The IP3 antagonist effect of the polysulfated glycosides were determined using rat cerebellum membrane preparations according to Worley et al. (JBC 262, 12132, 1987). As is shown in Table 4, all the compounds described in Examples 1-16 possess varying EP3 antagonist activity. TABLE 4 EP-3 receptor antagonistic effect of polysulfated glycosides

[0058] The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention are intended for use with any mammal that may experience the benefits of the methods of the invention. Foremost among such mammals are humans, although the invention is not intended to be so limited, and is applicable to veterinary uses. Thus, in accordance with the invention, "mammal" or "mammal in need" include humans as well as non-human mammals, particularly domesticated animals including, without limitation, cats, dogs, and horses. [0059] The term "therapeutically effective amount55 is used to denote treatments at dosages effective to achieve the therapeutic result sought. Furthermore, one of skill will appreciate that the therapeutically effective amount of the compound of the invention may be lowered or increased by fine- tuning and/or by administering more than one compound of the invention, or by administering a compound of the invention with another anti-asthmatic compound (e.g., corticosteroid). The invention therefore provides a method to tailor the administration/treatment to the particular exigencies specific to a given mammal. As illustrated in the following examples, therapeutically effective amounts may be easily determined for example empirically by starting at relatively low amounts and by step-wise increments with concurrent evaluation of beneficial effect. Clinical changes relevant to assess the therapeutic effect of treatment according to the invention include reduction in the characteristic symptoms and signs of asthma and related pathologies (e.g., dyspnea, wheezing, cough, bronchial hypersensitivity airway remodeling) and improvement of pulmonary function tests. These are based upon patient's symptoms and physician's observations.

[0060] As used herein, the recitation of a numerical range for a variable is intended to convey that the invention may be practiced with the variable equal to any of the values within that range. Thus, for a variable which is inherently discrete, the variable can be equal to any integer value of the numerical range, including the end-points of the range. Similarly, for a variable which is inherently continuous, the variable can be equal to any real value of the numerical range, including the end-points of the range. As an example, a variable which is described as having values between 0 and 2, can be 0, 1 or 2 for variables which are inherently discrete, and can be 0.0, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, or any other real value for variables which are inherently continuous.

[0061] For local administration by inhalation for example, contemplated therapeutically effective amounts are from about 0.1 μg/kg/day to about 1000 μg/kg/day when administered systemically (e.g., orally administered). In an embodiment of the invention, when systemically administered, therapeutically effective amounts are from about 0.5 μg/kg/day to about 200 μg/kg/day.

[0062] Dosage forms and frequency of administration of the same, will depend on conventional factors routinely considered by one of skill in the field to obtain therapeutically effective amounts as discussed above in a given mammal. Hence, a practitioner will consider the condition being treated, the particular compound of the invention being administered, route of administration, and other clinical factors such as age, weight and condition of the mammal as well as convenience and patient compliance.

[0063] It will be appreciated by those of skill in the art that the number of administrations of the compounds according to the invention will vary from patient to patient based on the particular medical status of that patient at any given time. [0064] When applicable (such as for the treatment of asthma, for example) the compound according to this aspect of the invention, may be administered prior to, at the same time, or after the mammal has been exposed to an antigen. In addition, the timing of the administration of the compound of the invention with relation to the exposure to an antigen will vary from mammal to mammal depending on the particular situation. A skilled practitioner will optimize administration by careful monitoring the patient while altering the timing and/or the order of administration of the compound of the invention. Hence, it will be understood that the mammal need not suffer from a pulmonary inflammation to benefit from the invention. The compounds of the invention may be administered prophylactically to individuals predisposed to develop asthma and/or an asthma-related pathology. For example, an individual allergic to pollen may be administered a compound of the invention (e.g., by oral administration) on a daily basis and/or prior to going to a pollen-rich area (e.g., a garden). Likewise, an individual with only a family history of asthmatic attacks may be administered the compounds of the invention prophylactically - to prevent or inhibit possible onset of such an asthmatic attack.

[0065] Based on the above facts, the present invention also provides a method of treating acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways of mammals -including asthma and asthma-related pathologies. This method comprises administering to a mammal in need of such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I)

[0066] The compounds according to the invention are optimally formulated in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle with any of the well-known pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, including diluents and excipients (see Remington's Phannaceutical Sciences, 18th Ed., Gennaro, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, PA 1990 and Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1995). While the type of pharmaceutically acceptable carrier/vehicle employed in generating the compositions of the invention will vary depending upon the mode of administration of the composition to a mammal, generally pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are physiologically inert and non-toxic. Formulations of compositions according to the invention may contain more than one type of compound of the invention, as well as any other pharmacologically active ingredient useful for the treatment of the particular pulmonary inflammation being treated. Such compounds may include without limitation, β-andrenoceptor antagonists: albuterol, metaproteranol, levalbuterol, pirbuterol, salmeterol, bitolterol; glucocorticoids: beclomethasone, triamcinolone, flunisolide, budesonide, fluticasone; leukotriene-receptor antagonists and leukotriene-synthesis inhibitors: zafirlukast, montelukast, zileutin; other anti-asthmatics: cromolyn, nedocromil, theophylline; anti-cholinergic agents: ipatropium, oxitropium, tiotropium; Hi receptor antagonist anti-histamines: diphenydramine, pyrilamine, promethazine, loratidine, chlorocyclizine, chlorophemiramine, fexofenadine and adrenocorticosteroids.

[0067] The compositions of the invention can be administered by standard routes (e.g. oral, inhalation, rectal, nasal, topical, including buccal and sublingual, or parenteral, including subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intradermal, transdermal, and intratracheal). In addition, polymers may be added according to standard methodologies in the art for sustained release of a given compound.

[0068] Formulations suitable for administration by inhalation include formulations that can be dispensed by inhalation devices known to those in the art. Such formulations may include carriers such as powder and aerosols. The present invention encompasses liquid and powdered compositions suitable for nebulization and intrabronchial use, or aerosol compositions administered via an aerosol unit dispensing metered doses ("MDI"). Particularly preferred devices contemplated are described in U.S. Patent No.: 5,447,150.

[0069] The active ingredient may be formulated in an aqueous pharmaceutically acceptable inhalant vehicle, such as, for example, isotonic saline or bacterostatic water and other types of vehicles that are well known in the art. The solutions are administered by means of a pump or squeeze-actuated nebulized spray dispenser, or by any other conventional means for causing or enabling the requisite dosage amount of the liquid composition to be inhaled into the patient's lungs.

[0070] Powder compositions containing the anti-inflammatory compounds of the present invention include, by way of illustration, pharmaceutically acceptable powdered preparations of the active ingredient thoroughly intermixed with lactose or other inert powders acceptable for intrabronchial administration. The powder compositions can be administered via a dispenser, including, but not limited to, an aerosol dispenser or encased in a breakable capsule, which may be inserted by the patient into a device that punctures the capsule and blows the powder out in a steady stream.

[0071] Aerosol formulations for use in the subject method typically include propellants, surfactants, and co-solvents and may be filled into conventional aerosol containers that are closed by a suitable metering valve.

[0072] For oral administration, the anti-inflammatory compositions of the invention may be presented as discrete units such as capsules, caplets, gelcaps, cachets, pills, or tablets each containing a predetermined amount of the active ingredient as a powder or granules; as a solution or a suspension in an aqueous liquid or a non-aqueous liquid; or as an oil-in-water liquid emulsion or a water-in-oil emulsion and as a bolus, etc. Alternately, administration of a composition of all of the aspects of the present invention may be effected by liquid solutions, suspensions or elixirs, powders, lozenges, micronized particles and osmotic delivery systems.

[0073] Formulations of compositions of the present invention suitable for nasal administration, wherein the carrier is a solid, include a coarse powder having a particle size, for example, in the range of 20 to 500 microns which is administered in the manner in which snuff is administered, i.e. by rapid inhalation through the nasal passage from a container of the powder held close up to the nose. Suitable formulations, wherein the carrier is a liquid, for administration, for example via a nasal spray, aerosol, or as nasal drops, include aqueous or oily solutions of the compound of the invention. Semi-liquid formulations, such as a nasal gel, are also suitable.

Formulations of compositions suitable for parenteral administration include aqueous and non-aqueous sterile injection solutions which may contain antioxidants, stabilizers, buffers, bacteriostats and solutes which render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient; and aqueous and non-aqueous sterile suspensions which may include suspending agents and thickening agents.

[0075] The process for the synthesis of compounds of the general formula (IA), (IB) and (IC), which are stereochemically defined representatives of compounds of the general formula (I) of the present invention, is illustrated by the following examples.

(IA) (IB) (IC)

Compounds. of foπnula VIII, EK, XIV, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI, XXIV, XXIX, XXXIII, XXXVII, XLIII, XLV, XLVπ, IL, LIII, LVII and LXI used as starting compounds in the examples, are concrete, stereochemically defined, isomerically pure representatives of formula (II). Chemical structures thereof are demonstrated below:

(VIII)

(IX) (XIV) (XVIII)

(XIX) (XX) •79

(XXI) (XXIV)

(XXXIII)

(XXXVII)

(XLVII) (IL)

(LIII)

(LXI)

Compounds of formula XI, XII, XIII5 XV, XVI, XVII, XXII, XXIII, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXI, XXXII3 XXXIV5 XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVm, XLI, XLII, XLIV5 XLVI, XLVIII, LI, LII, LV, LVI, LVIII, LIX and LX, which are used in the synthesis of the new starting materials of formula (II), are concrete, stereochemically defined, isomerically pure representatives of formula (V). Chemical structures thereof are demonstrated below:

(Xl) (XII)

(XIII)

(XV) (XVI)

(XVII)

(XXII)

(XXIII)

(XXVII)

(XXXI)

(XXXII)

(XXXIV)

(XLII)

(Ll)

(LII)

(LV)

(LVI)

The donor molecules used in the glycosylation reactions are either commercially available, for example the compound of formula (X)

or can be synthesized by known methods (see experimental part), for example compounds of formula (XXX), (L) and (LIV).

(XXX)

(L) (LlV)

[0076] The Rf values given in the examples were determined by thin layer chromatography using silica gel (DC-Alufolien Kieselgel 60 F254, Merck, Darmstadt) and the following mixtures of solvents:

(A) Ethyl acetate - hexane 1 : 1

(B) Ethyl acetate - hexane 1 :2

(C) Ethyl acetate - hexane 2: 1

(D) Ethyl acetate - hexane 3 : 1

(E) Ethyl acetate - methanol 1:1

(F) Ethyl acetate - methanol 3:1

(G) Ethyl acetate - methanol 5:1

[0077] The spots were detected either in UV light or by spraying the plates with a 1 : 1 mixture of 0.1 M KMnθ4 - 1 M H2SO4 followed by heating to 200 0C. Column chromatography was performed on Kieselgel 60. Optical rotations were measured at 20 0C. NMR spectra were recorded with Bruker Avance 500 MHz spectrometer using Mβ4Si as the internal standard. The assignments of the protons were based on COSY, 2D and selective ID TOCSY as well as selective ID NOESY experiments. Multiplicities of the 13C spectra were obtained from DEPT experiments. Connectivities between identified protons and protonated carbons were observed by means of HMQC and HMBC experiments. [0078] In the case of acylation reactions carried out in the presence of pyridine the uusual work¬ up" means that if the product is not crystalline after pouring the reaction mixture into ice-water, it is extracted with an organic solvent, the organic layer is washed with water, 1 M ice-cold aqueous sulfuric acid solution until permanent acidity, water, 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and water, dried, filtered and the solvent is evaporated in vacuum.

[0079] Starting material for a compound of formula (XIV) is synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

2, 4-O-benzylidene-5, 6-O-isopropylidene-D-glucitol (XI)

[0080] To a stirred suspension of 27 g (0.1 mol) of 2,4-O-benzylidene-D-glucitol (L. Vargha, Ber. 68 (1935) 18-24) in 150 ml of dimethylformamide 20 ml (0.26 mol) of 2,2-dimethoxypropane and 100 mg of p-toluenesulfonic acid were added at room temperature. After stirring for 10 min a clear solution was obtained and 1 ml of triethylamine was added after 1 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated, the residue was dissolved in chloroform, the insoluble starting material was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated and residue was recrystallized from 200 ml of benzene to yield 14 g (45%) of the title compound. Mp.: 178 0C, Rf 0.4 (solvent C).

Step b)

l-O-(2, 3, 4, 6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2, 4-O-benzylidene-5, 6-O-isopropylidene-D-glucitol (XII)

[0081] To a solution of 3.1 g (10 mmol) of the product of formula (XI) obtained in the previous step in 50 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 4.5 g (11 mmol) of acetobromo-D-glucose (X) and 3 g (12 mmol) of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 100 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue is purified by column chromatography (solvent C) to yield 2.7 g (42 %) of the title compound, Rf 0.7, [α]D +5° (c 1, chloroform).

Step c)

l-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2, 4-O-benzylidene-5, 6-O-isopropylidene-D-glucitol (XIII)

[0082] To a solution of 4.1 g of the product of formula (XII) obtained in the previous step in 40 ml of methanol 0.5 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added at room temperature. After 2 h sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent G) to yield 2.2 g (73%) of the title compound, Rf 0.6, [α]D -8° (c 1, chloroform).

Step d)

l-O-φ-D-glucopyranosylj-D-glucitol (XTV)

[0083] To a stirred solution of 3 g of the product of formula (XIII) obtained in the previous step in 80 ml of methanol, 3 ml of water, 1 ml of acetic acid and 2 g of 10% Pd/C catalyst was added and the mixture was hydrogenated at atmospheric pressure. When according to TLC the reaction was complete (~4 h), the catalyst was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated, the residue was dissolved in 20 ml of 0.05 M sulfuric acid and stirred at 60 0C for 90 min. The cooled solution was neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin, filtered, concentrated to a volume of 15 ml and freeze-dried to yield 1.9 g (86%) of the title compound, Rf 0.1 (solvent E), [α]D -105° (c 1, water).

[0084] The starting material of formula (XVIII) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

2, 4-0-benzylidene-l-0-benzoyl-5, 6-O-isopropylidene-D-glucitol (XV)

[0085] To a stirred solution of 3.1 g (10 mmol) of 2,4-O-benzylidene-5,6-O-isopropylidene-D- glucitol (L. Vargha, Ber. 68 (1935) 18-24 and 1377-1384) in 10 ml of pyridine 1.3 ml (11 mmol) of benzoylchloride was added dropwise at -20 0C. The reaction mixture was stirred at this temperature for 15 min and at room temperature for 30 min, then worked up the usual way. The residue obtained after concentration of organic phase was purified by column chromatography (solvent B) to yield 2.5 g (60%) of the title compound as colourless syrup, Rf 0.6, [α]D -24° (c 1, chloroform).

Step b)

3-O-(2, 3, 4, 6-tetra~O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2, 4-O-benzylidene-l-O-benzoyl-5, 6-O-isopropylidene- D-glucitol (XVI)

[0086] To a stirred solution of 2.5 g (6 mmol) of the product of formula (XV) obtained in the previous step in 20 ml of acetonitrile 5 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 2.5 g (6 mmol) of acetobromo-D-glucose (X) and 1.6 g (6.5 mmol) of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 40 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue is purified by column chromatography (solvent A) to yield 2.45 g (55 %) of the title compound, Rf 0.5, [α]D -4° (c 1, chloroform).

Step c)

3-0-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitol QζNTΑ)

[0087] To a solution of 4.46 g (6 mmol) of the product of formula (XVI) obtained in the previous step in 20 ml of methanol 0.2 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added at room temperature. After 1 h, when according to TLC the deacylation was complete, sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue, which contained the deacylated product (XVII) and methyl benzoate, was dissolved in 50 ml of methanol, 3 ml of water, 1 ml of acetic acid and 2 g of 10% Pd/C catalyst were added and the mixture was hydrogenated at atmospheric pressure. When according to TLC the reaction was complete (~15 h), the catalyst was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated, the residue was dissolved in a mixture of chloroform and water and separated. 1.5 ml of sulfuric acid was added to the aqueous phase and stirred at 60 0C for 1 h. The cooled solution was neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin, filtered, concentrated to a volume of 15 ml and freeze-dried to yield 2 g (97%) of the title compound as hygroscopic powder, which was used in the next step without further purification. [α]D -14° (c 1, water).

[0088] The starting material of formula (XXIV) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

1, 3-bis-O-(2, 3, 4, 6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2, 4-O-benzylidene-5, 6-O-isopropylidene-D- glucitol (XXII)

[0089] To a solution of 6.2 g (20 mmol) of 2,4-O-benzylidene-5,6-O-isopropylidene-D-glucitol (XI) in 200 ml of acetonitrile 24 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 18 g (44 mmol) of acetobromo-D-glucose (X) and 12 g (48 mmol) of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 400 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue is recrystallized from 150 ml of methanol to yield 1.8 g (9.3 %) of the title compound. Mp.: 168- 170 0C, Rf 0.7 (solvent C), [α]D -5° (c 1, chloroform). Step b)

1, 3-bis-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2, 4-O-benzylidene-5, 6-O-isopropylidene-D-glucitol (XXIII)

[0090] To a solution of 2.65 g of the product of formula (XXII) obtained in the previous step in 30 ml of methanol 0.5 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added at room temperature. After 2 h sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to yield 1.7 g (97%) of the title compound, Rf 0.3 (solvent F), [<X]D -8° (c 1, chloroform).

Step c)

/, 3-bis-0-(β-D-glucopyrmosyl)-D-glucitol (XXIV)

[0091] To a stirred solution of 1.7 g of the product of formula (XXHI) obtained in the previous step in 50 ml of methanol 3 ml of water, 1 ml of acetic acid and 1 g of 10% Pd/C catalyst were added and the mixture was hydrogenated at atmospheric pressure. When according to TLC the reaction was complete (~4 h), the catalyst was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated, the residue was dissolved in 20 ml of 0.05 M sulfuric acid and stirred at 60 0C for 90 min. The cooled solution was neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin, filtered, concentrated to a volume of 15 ml and freeze-dried to yield 1.25 g (92%) of the title compound. Rf 0.1 (solvent E), [α]D -20° (c 1, water).

[0092] The starting material of formula (XXIX) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

2,5-di-O-benzoyl-3,4-O-isopropylidene-l,6-di-O-trityl-D-m annitol (XXV)

[0093] To a stirred solution of 11.1 g (50 mmol) of 3,4-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (T. Horvath and L. Vargha, Carbohydr. Res., 16 (1971) 253-259) in 50 ml of pyridine 33.4 g (120 mmol) of trityl chloride was added at room temperature. After 2 days 14 ml of benzoyl chloride was added dropwise to the reaction mixture below 20 0C. After 2 h the reaction mixture was poured into ice-water, the water was decanted from the precipitated syrupy material and the residue was crystallized with 400 ml of ethanol. The crystalline material was filtered off, washed with ethanol and dried. The so obtained product was recrystallized from 2.5-fold ethyl acetate to yield 36.1 g (79%) of the title compound. Mp.: 165-167 0C, [α]D +7° (c 1, chloroform). Step b)

2, 5-di-O-benzoyl-3, 4-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (XXVI)

[0094] To a solution of 30 g (33 mmol) of the product of formula (XXV) obtained in the previous step in 300 ml of dioxane 50 ml of 0.1 M sulfuric acid was added and the solution was stirred at 90 0C for 6 h. The cooled solution was neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent A) and the obtained crude product was recrystallized from ether-hexane to yield 3.3 g (23.6%) of the title compound. Mp.: 97-99 0C5 Rf 0.45, [α]D-20° (c I3 chloroform).

Step c)

1, 6-bis-O-(2, 3, 4, 6-tet}-a-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2, 5-di-O-ben∑oyl-3, 4-O-isopropylidene-D- mannitol (XXVII)

[0095] To a solution of 3 g (7 mmol) of the product of formula (XXVI) obtained in the previous step in 65 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 6.5 g (16 mmol) of acetobromo-D-glucose (X) and 4.4 g (18 mmol) of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 130 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent C) and the obtained crude product was recrystallized from ethanol to yield 2.75 g (36%) of the title compound. Mp.: 193-195 0C, Rf 0.4, [α]D - 28° (c 1, chloroform).

Step d)

1, 6-bis-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-mannitol (XXIX)

[0096] To a stirred solution of 2.6 g (2.4 mmol) of the product of formula (XXVII) obtained in the previous step in 40 ml of methanol 0.5 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added at room temperature. After 1 h sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in water and extracted with chloroform in order to remove methyl benzoate. The aqueous solution containing the compound of formula (XXVIII) was concentrated to a volume of 15 ml and 1.5 ml of 1 M sulfuric acid was added. The solution was stirred at 60 0C for 90 min, then cooled and neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin. The filtered solution was freeze-dried to yield 1.15 g (95%) of the title compound as amorphous powder. [α]D -23.4° (c l, water). [0097] The starting material of formula (XXXIII) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

1, 6-his-O-(2, 3, 4,2 ',3 ',4 ',6 '-hepta-O-acetyl-β-gentiohiopyranosyl)-2, 5-di-O-benzoyl-4, 5-0- isopropylidene-D-mannitol (XXXI)

[0098] To a stirred solution of 1.72 g (4 mmol) of 2,5-dibenzoyl-3,4-O-isopropylidene-D- mannitol (XXVI, described above) in 60 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 6 g (8.6 mmol) of acetobromo gentiobiose (XXX) (K. Takiura, S. Honda, T. Endo, K. Kakehi. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 20 (1972) 438-442) and 4.4 g (18 mmol) Of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 120 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent D) and the obtained crude product was recrystallized from ethanol to yield 1.3 g (22%) of the title compound. Mp.: >220 0C, Rf 0.5, [α]D -16° (c 1, chloroform).

Step b)

1, 6-bis-O-(β-D-gentiohiopyranosyl)-D-mannitol (XXXIII)

[0099] To a solution of 1.3 g (0.78 mmol) of the product of formula (XXXI) obtained in the previous step in 25 ml of methanol 0.25 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 45 0C for 2 h. After cooling sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in water and extracted with chloroform in order to remove methyl benzoate. The aqueous solution containing the compound of formula (XXXII) was concentrated to a volume of 15 ml and 1.5 ml of M sulfuric acid was added. The solution was stirred at 60 0C for 90 min, then cooled and neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin. The filtered solution was freeze-dried to yield 0.65 g (~100%) of the title compound as amorphous powder. [α]D -3.5° (c 1, water).

[0100] The starting material of formula (XXXVII) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

l-0-(2,3,4,2 ',3 ',4',6'-hepta-0-acetyl-β-gentiobiopyranosyl)-3,4:5,6-di-0-i sopropylidene-D-mannitol (XXXV) [0101] To a solution of 2.4 g (9.2 mmol) of l,2:354-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (XXXIV) (L.F. Wiggins, J. Chem. Soc (1946) 13-14) in 60 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 6.3 g (9 mmol) of acetobromo gentiobiose (XXX) (K. Takiura, S. Honda, T. Endo, K. Kakehi. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 20 (1972) 438-442) and 2.5 g (10 mmol) of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 120 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent C) to yield 4.1 g (52%) of the title compound. Rf 0.4, [α]D +2° (c 1, chloroform).

Step b)

l-O-β-gentiobiopyranosyl-3, 4:5, 6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mamιitol (XXXVI)

[0102] To a stirred solution of 3.9 g (4.4 mmol) of the product of formula (XXXV) obtained in the previous step in 50 ml of methanol 0.5 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added at room temperature. After 2 h sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent F) to yield 1.6 g (62%) of the title compound. Rf 0.4, [α]D -5.5° (c 1, water).

Step c)

1-O-β-gentiobiopyranosyl-D-mannitol (XXXVII)

[0103] A solution of 1.4 g (2.4 mmol) of the product of formula (XXXVI) obtained in the previous step in 20 ml of 0.01 M sulfuric acid was stirred at 60 0C for 1.5 h. The cooled solution was neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin, filtered and freeze-dried to yield 1.15 g (95%) of the title compound. [α]D -17° (c 1, water).

[0104] The starting material of formula (XLIII) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

2, 5-di-O-benzoyl-S, 4-di-O-methyl-l, 6-di-O-trityl-D-mannitol (XL).

[0105] To stirred solution of 6.3 g (20 mmol) of 3,4-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol (XLI) (J. Kuszmann, Carbohydr. Res., 71 (1979) 123-134) in 60 ml of pyridine 20.1 g (72 mmol) of trityl chloride was added. The reaction mixture was kept at room temperature for 2 days, then 8.4 ml of benzoyl chloride was added dropwise to the stirred and cooled solution. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h, then poured into ice-water, extracted with dichloromethane and the organic layer was processed the usual way. The residue obtained after concentration was dissolved in 150 ml of hot ethanol, cooled, the precipitated product was filtered and washed with ethanol. The so obtained crude product was dissolved in 40 ml of ethyl acetate and 120 ml of ethanol was added. The precipitated product was filtered off and washed with ethanol to yield 20.25 g (75%) of the title compound. Mp.: 128- 130 0C, [α]D+45° (c 1, chloroform).

Step b)

2, 5-di-O-ben∑oyl-3, 4-di-O-mβthyl-D-mannitol (XLI)

[0106] To a stirred solution of 20 g of the product of formula (XL) obtained in the previous step in 300 ml of hot acetic acid 100 ml of water was added in small portions and the mixture was stirred at 80-90 0C for 30 min. After cooling the precipitated trityl alcohol was filtered off and filtrate was extracted with chloroform. The organic layer was washed with water, 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, water, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent E) to yield 7.0 g (75.5%) of the title compound as syrup. Rf 0.2, [α]D +33° (c 1, chloroform)

Step c)

l-O-(2, 3, 4, 6-teU'a-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2, 5, 6-tri-O-benzoyl-3, 4-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol (XLII)

[0107] To a stirred solution of 6.3 g (15 mmol) of 2,5-di-O-benzoyl-3,4-di-O-methyl-D- mannitol (XLI) obtained in the previous step in 65 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 6.2 g (15 mmol) of acetobromo- D-glucose (X) and 4.2 g (16 mmol) of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 130 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in 50 ml of pyridine and 4 ml of benzoyl chloride was added dropwise to the stirred solution at room temperature. After 2 h the reaction mixture was poured into ice-water, extracted with dichloromethane and processed the usual way. The residue obtained on concentration was purified by column chromatography (solvent A) to yield 3.5 g (27%) of the title compound as syrup. Rf 0.6, [α]D 0° (c 1, chloroform).

Step d)

l-O-(β-D~glucopyranosyl)-3, 4-di-O-metJτyl-D-mannitol (XLIII) [0108] To a stirred solution of 3.3 g (2.87 mmol) of the product of formula (XLII) obtained in the previous step in 40 ml of methanol 0.5 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 2 h. After cooling sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in water and extracted with chloroform in order to remove methyl benzoate. The aqueous solution was concentrated to a volume of 20 ml and freeze-dried to yield 1.4 g (97%) of the title compound as amorphous powder. [α]o +10° (c 1, water).

[0109] The starting material of formula (XLV) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

l,6-bis-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2, 5-di-O-benzoyl-3,4-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol (XLTV)

[0110] To a stirred solution of 3.34 g (8 mmol) of 2,5-di-O-benzoyl-3,4-di-O-methyl-D- mannitol (XLI, described above) in 65 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 8.2 g (20 mmol) of acetobromo-D-glucose (X) and 5.5 g (22 mmol) Of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 130 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent C) and the obtained crude product was recrystallized from ethanol to yield 3.4 g (39%) of the title compound. Mp.: 138-140 0C, Rf 0.35, [α]D +38° (c 1, chloroform).

Step b)

1, 6 bis-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3, 4-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol (XLV)

[0111] To a stirred solution of 3.1 g (2.87 mmol) of the product of formula (XLIV) obtained in the previous step in 40 ml of methanol 0.5 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added at room temperature. After 2 h sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in water and extracted with chloroform in order to remove methyl benzoate. The aqueous solution was concentrated to a volume of 15 ml and freeze-dried to yield 1.56 g (~100%) of the title compound as amorphous powder. [α]D -4° (c 1, water).

[0112] The starting material of formula (XLVII) can be synthesized for example by the following method: Step a)

l-O-(2, 3, 4,2 ',3 ',4 ',6 '-hepta-O-acetyl-β-gentiobiopyranosyl)-2, 5, 6-tri-O-benzoyl-3,4-di-O-methyl-D- mannitol (XLVI)

[0113] To a stirred solution of 5.0 g (12 mmol) of 2,5-di-O-benzoyl-334-di-O-methyl-D- mannitol (XLI, described above) in 70 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 8.4 g (12 mmol) of acetobromo gentiobiose (XXX) (K. Takiura, S. Honda, T. Endo, K. Kakehi. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 20 (1972) 438-442) and 3.3 g (12 mmol) of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 140 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in 50 ml of pyridine and 4 ml of benzoyl chloride was added dropwise to the stirred solution at room temperature. After 2 h the reaction mixture was poured into ice- water, extracted with dichloromethane and processed the usual way. The residue obtained on concentration was purified by column chromatography (solvent A) to yield 5.2 g (38%) of crude product, which was recrystallized from 10-fold methanol to yield the pure title compound. Mp.: 166-168 ° C, Rf 0.6, [α]D +8° (c 1, chloroform).

Step b)

l-O-β-gentiobiopyranosyl-3,4-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol (XLVII)

[0114] To a stirred solution of 2.3 g (2.03 mmol) of the product of formula (XLVI) obtained in the previous step in 40 ml of methanol 0.5 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 2 h. After cooling sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in water and extracted with chloroform in order to remove methyl benzoate. The aqueous solution was concentrated to a volume of 20 ml and freeze-dried to yield 1.05 g (97%) of the title compound as amorphous powder. [α]D -11° (c 1, water).

[0115] The starting material of formula (IL) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

1, 6-bis-O-(2, 3, 6,2 ',3 ',4 ',6 '-hepta-O-acetyl-β-lactosyl)-2, 5-di-O-benzoyl-3, 4-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol (XLVπi) [0116] To a stirred solution of 3.15 g (7.5 mmol) of 2,5-di-O-benzoyl-3,4-di-O-methyl-D- mannitol (XLI, described above) in 100 ml of acetonitrile 14 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 12 g (17.25 mmol) of acetobromo lactose (CS. Hudson, J.M. Johnson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 37 (1915) 1270-1275) and 5 g (20 mmol) Of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 200 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent C) to yield 4.2 g (34%) of the title compound. Rf 0.2, [α]D -1.5° (c 1, chloroform).

Step b)

1, 6-bis-O-β-lactosyl-3, 4-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol (DL)

[0117] To a stirred solution of 4.2 g (2.4 mmol) of the product of formula (XLVIII) obtained in the previous step in 50 ml of methanol 1.0 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 2 h. After cooling sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in water and extracted with chloroform in order to remove methyl benzoate. The aqueous solution was concentrated to a volume of 15 ml and freeze-dried to yield 1.9 g (92%) of the title compound as amorphous powder. [α]D +28° (c 1, water).

[0118] The starting material of formula (LIU) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

l-O-(2, 3, 4-tri-O-acetyl-a-D-arabinopyranosyl)-3, 4:5, 6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (LI)

[0119] To a stirred solution of 3.9 g (15 mmol) of l,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (XXXIV) (L.F. Wiggins, J. Chem. Soc (1946) 13-14) in 60 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 5 g of acetobromo-D- arabinose (L) (M. Barczai-Martos and F. Kδrδsy, Nature. 165 (1950) 369) and 4 g (16 mmol) Of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 120 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent C) to yield 3.1 g (40%) of the title compound. Rf 0.5, [α]D -2° (c 1, chloroform). Step b)

l-O-a-D-arabinopyranosyl-3, 4:5, 6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (LII)

[0120] To a stirred solution of 2.9 g (5.6 mmol) of the product of formula (LI) obtained in the previous step in 30 ml of methanol 0.3 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added at room temperature. After 2 h sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent G) to yield 1.3 g (59%) of the title compound. Rf 0.5, [α]D +8° (c 1, water).

Step c)

1-O-a-D-arabinopyranosyl-D-mannitol (LIII)

[0121] A solution of 1.15 g (2.92 mmol) of the product of formula (LII) obtained in the previous step in 20 ml of 0.05 M sulfuric acid was stirred at 60 0C for 1.5 h. The cooled solution was neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin, filtered and freeze-dried to yield 0.9 g (98%) of the title compound. [α]D -8° (c 1, water).

[0122] The starting material of foπnula (LVII) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

l-O-(2, 3, 4-tri-O-acetyl-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-3, 4:5, 6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (LV)

[0123] To a stirred solution of 4.2 g (16 mmol) of l,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (XXXrV) (L.F. Wiggins, J. Chem. Soc (1946) 13-14) in 65 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 6.5 g (19 mmol) of acetobromo-D-xylose (LIV) (M. Barczai-Martos and F. Kδrδsy, Nature. 165 (1950) 369) and 5.5 g (22 mmol) of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 130 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent C) to yield 4.8 g (56%) of the title compound. Rf 0.6, [α]D -22° (c 1, chloroform).

Step b)

l-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-3, 4:5, 6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (LVI) Al [0124] To a stirred solution of 4.6 g (8.84 mmol) of the product of formula (LV) obtained in the previous step in 50 ml of methanol 0.3 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added at room temperature. After 2 h sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (solvent F) to yield 2.2 g (63%) of the title compound. Rf 0.6, [α]D +1.5° (c 1, water).

Step c)

1-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-D-rnannitol (LVII)

[0125] A solution of 2.0 g (5.08 mmol) of the product of formula (LVI) obtained in the previous step in 20 ml of 0.05 M sulfuric acid was stirred at 60 0C for 1.5 h. The cooled solution was neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin, filtered and freeze-dried to yield 1.35 g (85%) of the title compound. [α]D -21.5° (c 1, water).

[0126] The starting material of formula (LXI) can be synthesized for example by the following method:

Step a)

1, 6-bis-O-(2, 3, 4, 6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2, 3:4, 5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactitol (LIX)

[0127] To a stirred solution of 2.62 g (10 mmol) of 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactitol (LVIII) (R.M. Honn, W.D. Maclay, CS. Hudson J. Am. Chem. Soc 61 (1939) 2438) in 60 ml of acetonitrile 7 g of molecular sieves (4 A) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then 8.5 g (21 mmol) of acetobromo-D-glucose (X) and 5.0 g (20 mmol) of Hg(CN)2 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h. Then the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with 120 ml of chloroform, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 10% aqueous potassium bromide solution and water, dried and concentrated. The residue was recrystallized from 5-fold ethanol to yield 4.9 g (53%) of the title compound. Mp.: 164-166 0C, [α]D-25° (c 1, chloroform).

Step b)

1, 6-bis-O-(β-D-glucopyrωiosyl)-galactitol (LXI)

[0128] To a stirred solution of 4.65 g (5.04 mmol) of the product of formula (LIX) obtained in the previous step in 50 ml of methanol 0.5 ml of 2 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was added at room temperature. After 2 h sodium ions were removed by addition of cation exchange resin, the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue (LX) was dissolved in 40 ml of 0.05 M sulfuric acid and the solution was stirred at 60 0C for 1.5 h. The cooled solution was neutralized by addition of ion-exchange resin, filtered and freeze-dried to yield 2.5 g (98%) of the title compound. [α]D- 29° (c 1, water).

EXAMPLES

Esample 1

2)3,4,5,6-penta-0-sulfato-l-0-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-sulfato-β -D-glucopyranosyl)-D-mannitolnona potassium salt (LXII) (IA, R1 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 = R6 ^ SO3K),

(LXIT)

[0129] 5.1 g (48%, 30 mmol) of sulfur trioxide - dimethylformamide complex was suspended in 5 ml of dry dimethylformamide with stirring, the mixture was cooled to -20 0C and 0.69 g (2 mmol) of 1- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannitol (VIII, Lindberg, Acta Chim, Scand. 7 (1953) 1218) in 5 ml of dimethylformamide was gradually added at such a rate to keep the temperature below -15 0C. After 15 min the temperature of the mixture was raised to -5 0C and kept there for 45 min. Thereafter the reaction mixture was again cooled to -20 0C and 1 ml of ethanol was gradually added at such a rate to keep the temperature below -15 0C. Then the reaction mixture was poured into a stirred and cooled (-5 0C) solution of 5 g of potassium acetate and 40 ml of methanol. The precipitate was filtered off and washed with 3x40 ml of methanol. The solid residue was dissolved in 40 ml of water and the pH of the solution was adjusted to 8 with M potassium hydroxide solution, then concentrated to a volume of 20 ml and cooled to +4 0C. The crystals were filtered off and washed with cold water to yield 2.3 g (78 %) of the title compound. Mp.: > 220 0C; [α]D +10° (c 1, water). Ci2Hi5O38S9K9 Calculated: C 10.22; H 1.06; S 20.45; K 24.30. Found: C 9.95; H 1.27; S 20.27; K 23.92. E∑ample 2

l,2,3,4,5-penta-0-sulfato-6-0-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-sulfato-β -B-glucopyτanosyl)-I}-gludtolnonapotmsiunι salt (LXπi) (IB, R6 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyrωιosyl tetra potassium salt, R1 =K2 = K3 = R4 = R5 = SO3K)

(LXΠI)

[0130] The title compound (LXIII) was prepai'ed according to the method described in Example 1 using β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucitol (IX, M.L. Wolfrom and T.G. Gardner, J. Am Chem. Soc 65 (1943) 750-752) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 76%, [α]D -6° (c 1, water). C12H15O38S9K9 Calculated: C 10.22; H 1.06; S 20.45; K 24.30. Found: C 10.17; H 1.27; S 20.37; K 24.70.

Example 3

2,3,4,5,6-penta-O-sulfato-l-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β -D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitolnona potassium salt (LXIV) (IB, R1 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 = R6 = SO3K)

(LXΓV)

[0131] The title compound (LXIV) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucitol (XIV) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 90%, [α]D- 3.5° (c 1, water). C12Hi5O38S9K9 Calculated: C 10.22; H 1.06; S 20.45; K 24.30. Found: C 10.09; H 1.35; S 20.20; K 29.70.

Example 4

1,2,4, 5, 6-penta-Osulfato-3-0-(2,3,4, 6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-gludtol nona potassium salt (LXV) (IB, R3 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R1 =R2 =R4 = R5 = R6 = SO3K)

(LXV) [0132] The title compound (LXV) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucitol (XVIII) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 87%, [α]D +5° (c 1, water). C12Hi5O39S9K9 Calculated: C 10.22; H 1.06; S 20.45; K 24.30. Found: C 10.10; H 1.45; S 20.31; K 24.67.

Example 5

l,2,3,5,6ψenta-0-sulfato-4-0-(2J^6-Mm-0-sulfato-a-B-gluc opyranϋsyl)-D-glucitolnonapotmsiutn salt (LXVI) (IB, R4 = 2,3,4,6-tetraO-sulfato-a-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R1 =R2 =R3 = R5 = R6 = SO3K)

(LXVI)

[0133] The title compound (LXVI) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucitol (XIX, M.L. Wolfram et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62 (1940) 2553; E. Dryselius et al. Acta Chem. Scand. 11 (1957) 663-667) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 73%, [α]D +40° (c 1, water). C12H15O39S9K9 Calculated: C 10.22; H 1.06; S 20.45; K 24.30. Found: C 9.84; H 1.40; S 19.98; K 23.99.

Example 6

1,2,3,5, 6-penta-O-sιdfato-4-O-(2,3,4, 6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-gludtol nona potassium salt (LXVH) (IB, R4 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-a-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R1 = R2 = R3 = R5 = R6 ^ SO3K) (Lxvπ)

[0134] The title compound (LXVII) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucitol (XX, M.L. Wolfrom et al.5 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74 (1952) 1105) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 41%, [α]D +5° (c 1, water). C12H15O39S9K9 Calculated: C 10.22; H 1.06; S 20.45; K 24.30. Found: C 9.89; H 1.42; S 19.99; K 23.87.

Example 7

1,2,3, 5, 6-penta-O-sulfato-4-O-(2,3,4, ό-tetra-O-sulfato-a-D-galactopyranosylJ-D-glucitol nona potassium salt (LXV ILL) (IB, R4 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-a-D-galactopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R1 = R2 = R3 = R5 = R6 = SO3K)

(Lxvm) [0135] The title compound (LXVIII) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucitol (XXI, WJ. Whelan and K. Morgan, Chem. and Ind. (1955) 1449-1450) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C3 yield 40%, [α]D 0° (c 1, water). C12H15O39S9K9 Calculated: C 10.22; H 1.06; S 20.45; K 24.30. Found: C 9.99; H 1.29; S 19.88; K 23.87.

Example §

2,4,5,6-tetfa-O-sulfato-l,3-Ms-O-(2,3,4,6'tetra-O-sulfato -β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitoldodeca potassium salt (LXIX) (IB, R1 =R3 = 2,3, 4, 6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R2 = B4 = R5 = R6 = SO3K)

(Lxrx)

[0136] The title compound (LXIX) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 1,3-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucitol (XXIV) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 82%, [α]D -6.5° (c 1, water). C18H22O52Si2K12 Calculated: C 11.24; H 1.15; S 19.99; K 24.38. Found: C 11.01; H 1.32; S 19.07; K 23.99.

Example 9

2,3,4,5-tetra-0-sulfato-l,6-bis-0-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-sulfat o-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-mannitol dodeca potassium salt (LXX) (IA, R1 =R6 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 = SO3K)

(LXX)

[0137] The title compound (LXX) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 1,6-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannitol (XXIX) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 83%, [α]D +1.5° (c 1, water). C18H22O52SnK12 Calculated: C 11.24; H 1.14; S 19.98; K 24.35. Found: C 10.93; H 1.55; S 19.26; K 23.99.

Example 10

2,3,4,5-tetra-0-sulfato-l,6-bis-0-(2,3,4,2',3',4\6>-he pta-0-sulfato-β-gentiobiopyranosyl)-D-mannitol octadeca potassium salt (LXXI) (IA, R1 =R6 = 2,3,4,2',3',4',6'-hepta-O-β-gentiobiopyranosyl hepta potassium salt, R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 = SO3K)

(LXXI) [0138] The title compound (LXXI) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 1,6-bis-O-β-gentiobiopyranosyl-D-mannitol (XXXIII) as starting material, with the difference that 20 ml of ethanol was added to the very thixotropic aqueous solution concentrated to 20 ml, then the mixture was cooled to +4 0C. The precipitated product was filtered off and washed with ethanol. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 99%, [α]D +0° (c 1, water). C30H36O80S18K18 Calculated: C 12.18; H 1.33; S 19.51; K 23.80. Found: C 11.88; H 1.65; S 19.92; K 24.16.

Example 11

2,3,4,5,6-penta-O-sulfato-l-O-(2,3,4,2',3',4',6'-hepta-O- sulfato-β-gentiobiopyranosyl)-D-tnannitol dodeca potassium salt (LXXII) (IA, R1 = 2,3,4,2',3',4',6'-hepta-O-sulfato-β-gentiobiopyranosyl hepta potassium salt, R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 = R6 = SO3K)

(LXXII)

[0139] The title compound (LXXII) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 1-O-β-gentiobiopyranosyl-D-mannitol (XXXVII) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 79%, [α]D +6° (c 1, water). C18H22O52Si2K12 Calculated: C 11.24; H 1.14; S 19.98; K 24.38. Found: C 10.98; H 1.51; S 19.37; K 24.02. Esample 12

3,4-di-O-methyl-2,5,6-tri-O-sulfato-l-O-(2,3,4,6-MFa-O-su lfato-βΦ-glucopyranosyl)Φ-ιnannitol hepta potassium salt (LXXDH) (IA, R1 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R3 = R4 = Me, R2 = R5 =R6 = SO3B)

(Lxxm)

[0140] The title compound was (LXXIII) prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannitol (XLVI) as starting material, with the difference that crude product, which was precipitated with methanol and filtered, was dissolved in water and the pH of the so obtained solution was adjusted to 8 with 1 N potassium hydroxide solution. Thereafter 3 ml of 1 N aqueous strontium acetate solution was added to the solution until no more precipitate (SrSO4) is formed. The precipitate was filtered off and the filtrate was submitted to a column loaded with CHELX 100 resin (potassium form) (10 mL) in order to remove strontium ions. The column was eluted with distilled water and the eluate was concentrated. The residue was treated with ethanol, filtered and washed with ethanol. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 94%, [α]D 0° (c 1, water). C14H2IO32S7K7 Calculated: C 14.02; H 1.76; S 18.71; K 22.82. Found: C 14.06; H 2.02; S 18.31; K 22.67.

Example 13

3,4-di-O-methyl-2,5-di-O-sulfato-l,6-his-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra -O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-mannitol deca potassium salt (LXXIV) (IA, R1 =R6 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R3 = R4 = Me, R2 = R5 = SO3K)

(LXXΓV)

[0141] The title compound was (LXXIV) prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using l,6-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3,4-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol (XLVIII) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 85%, [<x]D-6.5° (c 1, water). C20H28O46S10K10 Calculated: C 14.00; H 1.63; S 18.68; K 22.78. Found: C 13.85; H 1.99; S 18.06; K 21.97.

Example 14

3,4-di-O-methyl-2,5,6-tri-O-sulfato-l-O-(2,3,4,2',3',4',6 '-hepta-O-sulfato-β-gentiobiopyranosyl)-D- mannitol deca potassium salt (LXXV) (IA, R1 = 2,3,4,2',3',4',6'-hepta-O-sulfato-β-gentiohiopyranosyl hepta potassium salt, R3 = R4 = Me, R2 = R5 = R6 = SO3K)

(LXXV)

[0142] The title compound (LXXV) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 1-0-β-gentiobiopyranosy 1-3,4-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol (XLVII) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 99%, [α]D -5° (c 1, water). C20H28O46S10K10 Calculated: C 14.00; H 1.64; S 18.68; K 22.78. Found: C 13.87; H 1.99; S 19.24; K 22.43.

Example 15

3,4-di-0-nmthyl-2,5-di-0-sulfato-l,6-bis-0-(2,3,6,2\3\4%6 '4ιepta-0-sulfato-β4actosyl-D-maιιnitol hexadeca potassium salt (LXXVI) (IA, R1 = R6 = 2,3,6,2', 3\4',6'-hepta-O-sιdfato-β-lactosyl hepta potassium salt, R3 = R4 = Me, R2 = R5 = SO3K) (LXXVI)

[0143] The title compound (LXXVI) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using l,6-bis-lactopyranosyl-3,4-dimethyl-D-mannitol (LII) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 44%, [α]D +2° (c 1, water). C32H42O74Si6K16 Calculated: C 13.98; H 1.53; S 18.65; K 22.75. Found: C 13.51; H 1.73; S 17.98; K 21.15.

Example 16

2,3)4,5,6-penta-0-sulfato-l-0-(2,3,4-tή-0-sulfato-a-D-ar abinopyranosyl)-D-mannitol octa potassium salt (LXXVH) (IA, R1 = 2,3,4-tri-O-sulfato-β-D-arabinopyranosyltri potassium salt, R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 = R6 = SO3K)

(LXXVΠ) The title compound (LXXVII) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 1-O-α-D-arabinopyranosyl-D-mannitol (LV) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 99%, [αfo +19° (c 1, water). CnHi4O34S8K8 Calculated: C 10.49; H 1.12; S 20.36; K 24.83. Found: C 10.06; H 1.40; S 19.56; K 24.04.

Esample 17

2,3 ',4,5,6-penta-O-sulfato-l-O-(2 ,3,4-tri-0-sulfato-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-D-mannitol octa potassium salt (LKXVW) (IA, R1 = 2,3,4-tή-O-sulfato-β-D-xylopyranosyl tri potassium salt, R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 = R6 =

(LXXVIII)

[0145] The title compound (LXXVIII) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using 1-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-D-mannitol (LVII) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 85%, [α]D -6° (c 1, water). CnHi4O32S8K8 Calculated: C 10.49; H 1.12; S 20.36; K 24.83. Found: C 10.05; H 1.29; S 19.98; K 14.52.

Example 18

2,3,4,5-tetra-0-sulfato-l,6-bis-0-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-sulfat o-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-galactitol dodeca potassium salt (LXXIX) (IC, R1 =R6 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R2 =R3 =R4 =RS = SO3K) (LAKIX.)

[0146] The title compound (LXXIX) was prepared according to the method described in Example 1 using ljό-bis-glucopyranosyl-galactitol (LXII) as starting material. Mp.: > 220 0C, yield 83%, [α]D -10° (c 1, water). C18H22O52S12Kn Calculated: C 11.24; H 1.15; S 19.99; K 24.38. Found: C 10.98; H 1.35; S 19.28; K 24.07.

Example 19

1,2,4, 5, 6-penta-Osulfato-3-0-(2,3,4, 6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopymnosyl)-D-gludtol nona sodium salt (LXXX) (IB, R3 = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-sulfato-β-D-glucopyranosyl tetra potassium salt, R1 = R2 = R4 = R5 = R6 = SO3Na)

(LXXX) [0147] 5.1 g (48%, 30 mmol) of sulfur trioxide - dimethylformamide complex was suspended in 5 ml of dry dimethylformamide with stirring, the mixture was cooled to -20 0C and 0.52 g (1.5 mmol) of S-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucitol (XVII) in 5 ml of dimethylformamide was gradually added at such a rate to keep the temperature below -15 0C. The mixture was stirred at 5 0C for 1 h. Thereafter the reaction mixture was again cooled to -15 0C and 1.5 ml of ethanol was gradually added at such a rate to keep the temperature below -10 0C. Then the reaction mixture was poured into a stirred and cooled (0 0C) solution of 5 g of sodium acetate and 40 ml of methanol. The precipitate was filtered off and washed with 3x40 ml of methanol. The solid residue is dissolved in 30 ml of water and the pH of the solution was adjusted first to 8 with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution, then 3 ml of 1 M aqueous strontium acetate solution was added to the solution. After 30 min the precipitate was filtered off and washed with cold water. The filtrate was submitted to a column loaded with CHELX 100 resin (sodium form) (15 mL) in order to remove strontium ions. The column was eluted with distilled water and the eluate was concentrated. The residue was treated with ethanol, filtered and washed with ethanol to yield 1.9 g (99 %) of the title compound. Mp.: > 220 0C; [α]D +1-5° (c 1, water). C12Hi5O38S9Na9 Calculated: C 11.41; H 1.20; S 22.85; Na 24.39. Found: C 11.74; H 1.57; S 22.25; Na 16.09. [0148] While the claimed invention has been described in detail and with reference to specific embodiments thereof, it will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that various changes and modifications can be made to the claimed invention without departing from the spirit and scope thereof. Thus, for example, those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain, using no more than routine experimentation, numerous equivalents to the specific substances and procedures described herein. Such equivalents are considered to be within the scope of this invention, and are covered by the following claims.