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Title:
POWER GENERATION FROM WASTE HEAT IN INTEGRATED AROMATICS AND NAPHTHA BLOCK FACILITIES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/035149
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Optimizing power generation from waste heat in large industrial facilities such as petroleum refineries by utilizing a subset of all available hot source streams selected based, in part, on considerations for example, capital cost, ease of operation, economics of scale power generation, a number of ORC machines to be operated, operating conditions of each ORC machine, combinations of them, or other considerations are described. Recognizing that several subsets of hot sources can be identified from among the available hot sources in a large petroleum refinery, subsets of hot sources that are optimized to provide waste heat to one or more ORC machines for power generation are also described. Further, recognizing that the utilization of waste heat from all available hot sources in a mega-site such as a petroleum refinery and aromatics complex is not necessarily or not always the best option, hot source units in petroleum refineries from which waste heat can be consolidated to power the one or more ORC machines are identified.

Inventors:
NOURELDIN, Mahmoud Bahy Mahmoud (P.O. Box 13470, Dhahran, 31311, SA)
AL SAED, Hani Mohammed (P.O. Box 20368, Al Midra BuildingDhahran, 31311, SA)
BUNAIYAN, Ahmad Saleh (P.O. Box 18765, Dhahran, 31311, SA)
Application Number:
US2016/048210
Publication Date:
March 02, 2017
Filing Date:
August 23, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY (1 Eastern Avenue, Dhahran, 31311, SA)
ARAMCO SERVICES COMPANY (9009 West Loop South, Houston, Texas, 77210-4535, US)
International Classes:
F01K3/00; C10G59/00; C10G61/00; C10G63/00; C10G99/00; F01K27/00
Foreign References:
US20120031096A12012-02-09
EP0949318A21999-10-13
US20090225929A12009-09-10
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BRUCE, Carl E. et al. (Fish & Richardson P.C, P.O. Box 1022Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55440-1022, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A power generation system, comprising:

a first heating fluid circuit thermally coupled to a first plurality of heat sources from a first plurality of sub-units of a petrochemical refining system, the first plurality of sub-units comprising a continuous catalytic reforming (CCR), a para-xylene separation system, and an aromatics complex-benzene extraction system;

a second heating fluid circuit thermally coupled to a second plurality of heat sources from a second plurality of sub-units of the petrochemical refining system, the second plurality of sub-units comprising a para-xylene separation unit;

a power generation sub-system that comprises an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), the ORC comprising (i) a working fluid that is thermally coupled to the first and second heating fluid circuits to heat the working fluid, and (ii) an expander configured to generate electrical power from the heated working fluid; and

a control system configured to actuate a first set of control valves to selectively thermally couple the first heating fluid circuit to at least a portion of the first plurality of heat sources, and the control system is configured to actuate a second set of control valves to selectively thermally couple the second heating fluid circuit to at least a portion of the second plurality of heat sources.

2. The power generation system of claim 1, wherein the working fluid is thermally coupled to the first heating fluid circuit in a pre-heating heat exchanger of the

ORC, and the working fluid is thermally coupled to the second heating fluid circuit in an evaporator of the ORC, and an outlet of the pre-heating heat exchanger of the ORC is fluidly coupled to the evaporator of the ORC.

3. The power generation system of claim 2, wherein the first heating fluid circuit comprises a first heating fluid tank that is fluidly coupled to the first and second heating fluid circuits, and the first heating fluid tank is fluidly coupled with the preheating heat exchanger of the ORC.

4. The power generation system of claim 1, wherein the working fluid comprises isobutane.

5. The power generation system of claim 1, wherein the first or second heating fluid circuits comprises water or oil.

6. The power generation system of claim 1, wherein the ORC further comprises:

a condenser fluidly coupled to a condenser fluid source to cool the working fluid; and

a pump to circulate the working fluid through the ORC.

7. The power generation system of claim 1, wherein a first sub-set of the first plurality of heat sources comprises three para-xylene separation unit heat sources, comprising:

a first para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a raw paraxylene stream circulated through an air cooler to a storage tank, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a second para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a paraxylene purification stream circulated through an air cooler to a paraxylene purification reflux drum, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit; and

a third para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a C9+ARO stream circulated through an air cooler to a C9+ARO storage, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a second sub-set of the first plurality of heat sources comprises two para-xylene separation-xylene isomerization reaction and separation unit heat sources, comprising:

a first para-xylene separation-xylene isomerization reaction and separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a Xylene isomerization reactor outlet stream before a separator drum, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit; and

a second para-xylene separation-xylene isomerization reaction and separation unit heat source comprises a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a de- heptanizer column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a third sub-set of the first plurality of heat sources comprises at least one aromatics complex-benzene extraction unit heat source, comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to an overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit; and

a fourth sub-set of the first plurality of heat sources comprises four continuous catalytic cracking heat sources, comprising:

a first continuous catalytic cracking heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a CCR last stage reactor outlet after the feed-effluent heat exchanger stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a second continuous catalytic cracking heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a 1st stage compressor outlet stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a third continuous catalytic cracking heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a 2nd stage compressor outlet stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit; and

a fourth continuous catalytic cracking heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a CCR light reformate splitter column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit.

8. The power generation system of claim 7, wherein a first sub-set of the second plurality of heat sources comprises three para-xylene separation unit heat sources, comprising:

a first para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a para-xylene unit external column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the second heating fluid circuit;

a second para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a Raffinate column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the second heating fluid circuit; and

a third para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a heavy Raffinate splitter column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the second heating fluid circuit.

9. A method of recovering heat energy generated by a petrochemical refining system, the method comprising:

circulating a first heating fluid through a first heating fluid circuit thermally coupled to a first plurality of heat sources from a first plurality of sub-units of a petrochemical refining system, the first plurality of sub-units comprising a continuous catalytic reforming (CCR), a para-xylene separation system, and aromatics refining and an aromatics complex-benzene extraction system;

circulating a second heating fluid through a second heating fluid circuit thermally coupled to a second plurality of heat sources of a second plurality of sub-units of the petrochemical refining system, the second plurality of sub-units comprises a para- xylene separation unit;

generating electrical power through a power generation system that comprises an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), the ORC comprising (i) a working fluid that is thermally coupled to the first and second heating fluid circuits to heat the working fluid with the first and second heating fluids, and (ii) an expander configured to generate electrical power from the heated working fluid;

actuating, with a control system, a first set of control valves to selectively thermally couple the first heating fluid circuit to at least a portion of the first plurality of heat sources to heat the first heating fluid with the first plurality of heat sources; and actuating, with the control system, a second set of control valves to selectively thermally couple the second heating fluid circuit to at least a portion of the second plurality of heat sources to heat the second heating fluid with the second plurality of heat sources.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the working fluid is thermally coupled to the first heating fluid circuit in a pre-heating heat exchanger of the ORC, and the working fluid is thermally coupled to the second heating fluid circuit in an evaporator of the ORC, and an outlet of the pre-heating heat exchanger of the ORC is fluidly coupled to the evaporator of the ORC.

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the first heating fluid circuit comprises a first heating fluid tank that is fluidly coupled to the first and second heating fluid circuits, and the first heating fluid tank is fluidly coupled with the pre-heating heat exchanger of the ORC.

12. The method of claim 9, wherein the working fluid comprises isobutane.

13. The method of claim 9, wherein the first or second heating fluid circuits comprises water or oil.

14. The method of claim 9, wherein the ORC further comprises:

a condenser fluidly coupled to a condenser fluid source to cool the working fluid; and

a pump to circulate the working fluid through the ORC.

15. The method of claim 9, wherein

a first sub-set of the first plurality of heat sources comprises three para-xylene separation unit heat sources, comprising:

a first para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a raw paraxylene stream circulated through an air cooler to a storage tank, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a second para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a paraxylene purification stream circulated through an air cooler to a paraxylene purification reflux drum, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit; and

a third para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a C9+ARO stream circulated through an air cooler to a C9+ARO storage, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a second sub-set of the first plurality of heat sources comprises two para-xylene separation-xylene isomerization reaction and separation unit heat sources, comprising:

a first para-xylene separation-xylene isomerization reaction and separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a Xylene isomerization reactor outlet stream before a separator drum, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit; and

a second para-xylene separation-xylene isomerization reaction and separation unit heat source comprises a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a de- heptanizer column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a third sub-set of the first plurality of heat sources comprises at least one aromatics complex-benzene extraction unit heat source, comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to an overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit; and

a fourth sub-set of the first plurality of heat sources comprises four continuous catalytic cracking heat sources, comprising:

a first continuous catalytic cracking heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a CCR last stage reactor outlet after the feed-effluent heat exchanger stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a second continuous catalytic cracking heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a 1st stage compressor outlet stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit;

a third continuous catalytic cracking heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a 2nd stage compressor outlet stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit; and

a fourth continuous catalytic cracking heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a CCR light reformate splitter column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the first heating fluid circuit.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein a first sub-set of the second plurality of heat sources comprises three para-xylene separation unit heat sources, comprising: a first para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a para-xylene unit extract column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the second heating fluid circuit;

a second para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a Raffinate column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the second heating fluid circuit; and

a third para-xylene separation unit heat source comprising a heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled to a heavy Raffinate splitter column overhead stream, and is fluidly coupled to the second heating fluid circuit.

17. A method of recovering heat energy generated by a petrochemical refining system, the method comprising:

identifying, in a geographic layout, a first heating fluid circuit thermally coupled to a first plurality of heat sources from a first plurality of sub-units of a petrochemical refining system, the first plurality of sub-units comprising a continuous catalytic reforming (CCR), a para-xylene separation system, and aromatics refining and an aromatics complex-benzene extraction system;

identifying, in the geographic layout, a second heating fluid through a second heating fluid circuit thermally coupled to a second plurality of heat sources of a second plurality of sub-units of the petrochemical refining system, the second plurality of sub- units comprising a para-xylene separation unit;

identifying, in the geographic layout, a power generation system, comprising: an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), the ORC comprising (i) a working fluid that is thermally coupled to the first and second heating fluid circuits to heat the working fluid with the first and second heating fluids, and (ii) an expander configured to generate electrical power from the heated working fluid; and

a control system configured to actuate a first set of control valves to selectively thermally couple the first heating fluid circuit to at least a portion of the first plurality of heat sources, and the control system is configured to actuate a second set of control valves to selectively thermally couple the second heating fluid circuit to at least a portion of the second plurality of heat sources; and

identifying, in the geographic layout, a power generation system location to position the power generation system, wherein a heat energy recovery efficiency at the power generation system location is greater than a heat energy recovery efficiency at other locations in the geographic layout.

18. The method of claim 17, further comprising constructing the petrochemical refining system according to the geographic layout by positioning the plurality of sub-units at the plurality of sub-unit locations, positioning the power generation system at the power generation system location, interconnecting the plurality of sub-units with each other such that the interconnected plurality of sub-units are configured to refine petrochemicals, and interconnecting the power generation system with the sub-units in the first subset such that the power generation system is configured to recover heat energy from the sub-units in the first subset and to provide the recovered heat energy to the power generation system, the power generation system configured to generate power using the recovered heat energy.

19. The method of claim 17, further comprising:

operating the petrochemical refining system to refine petrochemicals; and operating the power generation system to:

recover heat energy from the sub-units in the first subset through the first heating fluid circuit and the second heating fluid circuit;

provide the recovered heat energy to the power generation system; and generate power using the recovered heat energy.

20. The method of claim 17, further comprising operating the power generation system to generate about 37 MW of power.

Description:
POWER GENERATION FROM WASTE HEAT IN INTEGRATED AROMATICS AND NAPHTHA BLOCK FACILITIES

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Application No. 15/087,403, filed on March 31 , 2016; U. S . Provisional Patent Application No. 62/209,217, filed on August 24, 2015; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/209,147, filed on August 24, 2015; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/209,188, filed on August 24, 2015; and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/209,223, filed on August 24, 2015. The entire contents of each of the preceding applications are incorporated herein by reference in their respective entireties.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] This specification relates to power generation in industrial facilities.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Petroleum refining processes are chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries to transform crude oil into products, for example, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oils, fuel oils, and other products. Petroleum refineries are large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities, for example, utility units, storage tanks, and other auxiliary facilities. Each refinery can have its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes determined, for example, by the refinery location, desired products, economic considerations, or other factors. The petroleum refining processes that are implemented to transform the crude oil into the products such as those listed earlier can generate heat, which may not be re-used, and byproducts, for example, greenhouse gases (GHG), which may pollute the atmosphere. It is believed that the world's environment has been negatively affected by global warming caused, in part, due to the release of GHG into the atmosphere. SUMMARY

[0004] This specification describes technologies relating to power generation from waste energy in industrial facilities. The present disclosure includes one or more of the following units of measure with their corresponding abbreviations, as shown in Table 1 :

TABLE 1

[0005] The details of one or more implementations of the subject matter described in this specification are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description later. Other features, aspects, and advantages of the subject matter will become apparent from the description, the drawings, and the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0006] FIGS. 1A-1M are schematic illustrations of a power generation system that utilizes waste heat from one or more heat sources in a petrochemical refining plant.

[0007] FIGS. 1N-1P are graphs that illustrate heat exchanger performance of heat exchangers in the power generation system shown in FIGS. 1A-1M.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0008] Industrial waste heat is a source for potential carbon-free power generation in many industrial facilities, for example, crude oil refineries, petrochemical and chemical complexes, and other industrial facilities. For example, a medium-size integrated crude oil refinery with aromatics up to 4,000 MM Btu/h can be wasted to a network of air coolers extended along the crude oil and aromatics site. Some of the wasted heat can be used to power an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) machine, which uses an organic fluid such as refrigerants or hydrocarbons (or both) instead of water to generate power. ORC machines in combination with low temperature heat sources (for example, about 232°C or less) are being implemented as power generation systems. Optimizing ORC machines, for example, by optimizing the power generation cycle (that is, the Rankine cycle) or the organic fluid implemented by the ORC machine (or both), can improve power generation from recovered waste heat.

[0009] An industrial facility such as a petroleum refinery includes several sources of waste heat. One or more ORC machines can receive the waste heat from one or more or all of such sources. In some implementations, two or more sources of low grade heat can be consolidated by transferring heat from each of the sources to a common intermediate heat transfer medium (for example, water or other fluid). The intermediate heat transfer medium can then be used to evaporate the working fluid of the ORC machine to generate power, for example, to operate a turbine or other power generator. Such consolidation of sources of low grade heat can allow the ORC machine to be sized to realize greater efficiencies and economies of scale. Further, such a consolidated operation can improve flexibility in petroleum refinery design and plot space planning, since each heat source need not be in close proximity to the power generator. The proposed consolidation of heat sources, particularly, in mega sites such as a site-wide oil refinery that includes an aromatics complex and is the size of an eco- industrial park can represent an over-simplification of the problem of improving the process of recovering waste heat to generate power.

[0010] This disclosure describes optimizing power generation from waste heat, for example, low grade heat at a temperature at or less than 160°C in large industrial facilities (for example, petroleum refineries or other large industrial refineries with several, sometimes more than 50, hot source streams) by utilizing a subset of all available hot source streams selected based, in part, on considerations for example, capital cost, ease of operation, economics of scale power generation, a number of ORC machines to be operated, operating conditions of each ORC machine, combinations of them, or other considerations. Recognizing that several subsets of hot sources can be identified from among the available hot sources in a large petroleum refinery, this disclosure describes selecting subsets of hot sources that are optimized to provide waste heat to one or more ORC machines for power generation. Further, recognizing that the utilization of waste heat from all available hot sources in a mega-site such as a petroleum refinery and aromatics complex is not necessarily or not always the best option, this disclosure identifies hot source units in petroleum refineries from which waste heat can be consolidated to power the one or more ORC machines. [001 1] This disclosure also describes modifying medium grade crude oil refining semi-conversion facilities and integrated medium grade crude oil refining semi- conversion and aromatics facilities plants' designs to improve their energy efficiencies relative to their current designs. To do so, new facilities can be designed or existing facilities can be re-designed (for example, retro-fitted with equipment) to recover waste heat, for example, low grade waste heat, from heat sources to power ORC machines. In particular, the existing design of a plant need not be significantly altered to accommodate the power generation techniques described here. The generated power can be used, in part, to power the facilities or transported to the electricity grid to be delivered elsewhere (or both).

[0012] By recovering all or part of the waste heat generated by one or more processes or facilities (or both) of industrial facilities and converting the recovered waste heat into power, carbon-free power (for example, in the form of electricity) can be generated for use by the community. The minimum approach temperature used in the waste heat recovery processes can be as low as 3°C and the generated power can be as high as 80 MW. In some implementations, higher minimum approach temperatures can be used in an initial phase at the expense of less waste heat/energy recovery, while relatively better power generation (for example, in terms of economy of scale design and efficiency) is realized in a subsequent phase upon using the minimum approach temperature for the specific hot sources uses. In such situations, more power generation can be realized in the subsequent phase without needing to change the design topology of the initial phase or the subset of the low grade waste hot sources used in the initial phase (or both).

[0013] Not only pollution associated but also cost associated with power generation can be decreased. In addition, recovering waste heat from a customized group of hot sources to power one or more ORC machines is more optimal than recovering waste heat from all available hot sources. Selecting the hot sources in the customized group instead of or in addition to optimizing the ORC machine can improve or optimize (or both) the process of generating power from recovered waste heat. If a few number of hot sources are used for power generation, then the hot sources can be consolidated into few (for example, one or two) buffer streams using fluids, for example, hot oil or high pressure hot water system, or a mixture of the two. [0014] In sum, this disclosure describes several petroleum refinery-wide separation/distillation networks, configurations, and processing schemes for efficient power generation using a basic ORC machine operating under specified conditions. The power generation is facilitated by obtaining all or part of waste heat, for example, low grade waste heat, carried by multiple, scattered low grade energy quality process streams. In some implementations, the ORC machine uses separate organic material to pre-heat the exchanger and evaporator and uses other organic fluid, for example, iso- butane, at specific operating conditions.

[0015] Examples of Petroleum Refinery Plants

[0016] Industrial waste heat is a source for potential carbon-free power generation in many industrial facilities, for example, crude oil refineries, petrochemical and chemical complexes, and other industrial facilities. For example, a medium-size integrated crude oil refinery with aromatics up to 4,000 MM Btu/h can be wasted to a network of air coolers extended along the crude oil and aromatics site. Some of the wasted heat can be used to power an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) machine, which uses an organic fluid such as refrigerants or hydrocarbons (or both) instead of water to generate power. ORC machines in combination with low temperature heat sources (for example, about or less than 232°C) are being implemented as power generation systems. Optimizing ORC machines, for example, by optimizing the power generation cycle (that is, the Rankine cycle) or the organic fluid implemented by the ORC machine (or both), can improve power generation from recovered waste heat.

[0017] An industrial facility such as a petroleum refinery includes several sources of waste heat. One or more ORC machines can receive the waste heat from one or more or all of such sources. In some implementations, two or more sources of low grade heat can be consolidated by transferring heat from each of the sources to a common intermediate heat transfer medium (for example, water or other fluid). The intermediate heat transfer medium can then be used to evaporate the working fluid of the ORC machine to generate power, for example, to operate a turbine or other power generator. Such consolidation of sources of low grade heat can allow the ORC machine to be sized to realize greater efficiencies and economies of scale. Further, such a consolidated operation can improve flexibility in petroleum refinery design and plot space planning, since each heat source need not be in close proximity to the power generator. The proposed consolidation of heat sources, particularly, in mega sites such as a site-wide oil refinery that includes an aromatics complex and is the size of an eco- industrial park can represent an over-simplification of the problem of improving the process of recovering waste heat to generate power.

[0018] This disclosure describes optimizing power generation from waste heat, for example, low grade heat at a temperature at or less than 160°C in large industrial facilities (for example, petroleum refineries or other large industrial refineries with several, sometimes more than 50, hot source streams) by utilizing a subset of all available hot source streams selected based, in part, on considerations for example, capital cost, ease of operation, economics of scale power generation, a number of ORC machines to be operated, operating conditions of each ORC machine, combinations of them, or other considerations. Recognizing that several subsets of hot sources can be identified from among the available hot sources in a large petroleum refinery, this disclosure describes selecting subsets of hot sources that are optimized to provide waste heat to one or more ORC machines for power generation. Further, recognizing that the utilization of waste heat from all available hot sources in a mega-site such as a petroleum refinery and aromatics complex is not necessarily or not always the best option, this disclosure identifies hot source units in petroleum refineries from which waste heat can be consolidated to power the one or more ORC machines.

[0019] This disclosure also describes modifying medium grade crude oil refining semi-conversion facilities and integrated medium grade crude oil refining semi- conversion and aromatics facilities plants' designs to improve their energy efficiencies relative to their current designs. To do so, new facilities can be designed or existing facilities can be re-designed (for example, retro-fitted with equipment) to recover waste heat, for example, low grade waste heat, from heat sources to power ORC machines. In particular, the existing design of a plant need not be significantly altered to accommodate the power generation techniques described here. The generated power can be used, in part, to power the facilities or transported to the electricity grid to be delivered elsewhere (or both).

[0020] By recovering all or part of the waste heat generated by one or more processes or facilities of industrial facilities (or both) and converting the recovered waste heat into power, carbon-free power (for example, in the form of electricity) can be generated for use by the community. The minimum approach temperature used in the waste heat recovery processes can be as low as 3°C and the generated power can be as high as 80 MW. In some implementations, higher minimum approach temperatures can be used in an initial phase at the expense of less waste heat/energy recovery, while relatively better power generation (for example, in terms of economy of scale design and efficiency) is realized in a subsequent phase upon using the minimum approach temperature for the specific hot sources uses. In such situations, more power generation can be realized in the subsequent phase without needing to change the design topology of the initial phase or the subset of the low grade waste hot sources used in the initial phase (or both).

[0021] Not only pollution associated but also cost associated with power generation can be decreased. In addition, recovering waste heat from a customized group of hot sources to power one or more ORC machines is more cost effective from a capital cost point-of-view than recovering waste heat from all available hot sources. Selecting the hot sources in the customized group instead of or in addition to optimizing the ORC machine can improve or optimize the process of generating power from recovered waste heat (or both). If a few number of hot sources are used for power generation, then the hot sources can be consolidated into few (for example, one or two) buffer streams using fluids, for example, hot oil or high pressure hot water system (or both).

[0022] In sum, this disclosure describes several petroleum refinery-wide separation/distillation networks, configurations, and processing schemes for efficient power generation using a basic ORC machine operating under specified conditions. The power generation is facilitated by obtaining all or part of waste heat, for example, low grade waste heat, carried by multiple, scattered low grade energy quality process streams. In some implementations, the ORC machine uses separate organic material to pre-heat the exchanger and evaporator and uses other organic fluid, for example, isobutane, at specific operating conditions.

[0023] Examples of Petroleum Refinery Plants

[0024] 1. Hydrocracking Plant

[0025] Hydrocracking is a two-stage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation. In this process heavy feedstocks are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce more desirable products. The process employs high pressure, high temperature, a catalyst, and hydrogen. Hydrocracking is used for feedstocks that are difficult to process by either catalytic cracking or reforming, since these feedstocks are characterized usually by high poly cyclic aromatic content or high concentrations of the two principal catalyst poisons, sulfur and nitrogen compounds (or both).

[0026] The hydrocracking process depends on the nature of the feedstock and the relative rates of the two competing reactions, hydrogenation and cracking. Heavy aromatic feedstock is converted into lighter products under a wide range of high pressures and high temperatures in the presence of hydrogen and special catalysts. When the feedstock has a high paraffinic content, hydrogen prevents the formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Hydrogen also reduces tar formation and prevents buildup of coke on the catalyst. Hydrogenation additionally converts sulfur and nitrogen compounds present in the feedstock to hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Hydrocracking produces isobutane for alkylation feedstock, and also performs isomerization for pour- point control and smoke-point control, both of which are important in high-quality jet fuel.

[0027] 2. Diesel Hydrotreating Plant

[0028] Hydrotreating is a refinery process for reducing sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics while enhancing cetane number, density and smoke point. Hydrotreating assists the refining industry's efforts to meet the global trend for stringent clean fuels specifications, the growing demand for transportation fuels and the shift toward diesel. In this process, fresh feed is heated and mixed with hydrogen. Reactor effluent exchanges heat with the combined feed and heats recycle gas and stripper charge. Sulphide (for example, ammonium bisulphide and hydrogen sulphide) is then removed from the feed.

[0029] 3. Aromatics Complex

[0030] A typical aromatics complex includes a combination of process units for the production of basic petrochemical intermediates of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) using the catalytic reforming of naphtha using continuous catalyst regeneration (CCR) technology.

[0031] 4. Naphtha Hydrotreating Plant and Continuous Catalytic Reformer

Plants

[0032] A Naphtha Hydrotreater (NHT) produces 101 Research Octane Number

(RON) reformate, with a maximum 4.0 psi Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP), as a blending stock in the gasoline pool. It usually has the flexibility to process blends of Naphtha from the Crude Unit, Gas Condensate Splitter, Hydrocracker, Light Straight-Run Naphtha (LSRN) and Visbreaker Plants. The NHT processes naphtha to produce desulfurized feed for the continuous catalyst regeneration (CCR) platformer and gasoline blending.

[0033] 5. Crude Distillation Plant

[0034] Normally, a two-stage distillation plant processes various crude oils that are fractionated into different products, which are further processed in downstream facilities to produce liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), Naphtha, Motor Gasoline, Kerosene, Jet Fuel, Diesel, Fuel Oil and Asphalt. The Crude Distillation plant can typically process large volumes, for example, hundreds of thousands of barrels, of crude oil per day. During the summer months the optimum processing capacity may decrease. The plant can process mixture of crudes. The plant can also have asphalt producing facilities. The products from crude distillation plant are LPG, stabilized whole naphtha, kerosene, diesel, heavy diesel, and vacuum residuum. The Atmospheric Column receives the crude charge and separates it into overhead product, kerosene, diesel, and reduced crude. The Naphtha stabilizer may receive the atmospheric overhead stream and separates it into LPG and stabilized naphtha. The reduced crude is charged to the Vacuum tower where it is further separated into heavy diesel, vacuum gas oils and vacuum residuum.

[0035] 6. Sour Water Stripping Utility Plant (SWSUP)

[0036] The SWSUP receives sour water streams from acid gas removal, sulfur recovery, and flare units, and the sour gas stripped and released from the soot water flash vessel. The SWSUP strips the sour components, primarily carbon dioxide (CC ), hydrogen sulfide (FhS) and ammonia (NFb), from the sour water stream.

[0037] One of more of the refinery plants described earlier can supply heat, for example, in the form of low grade waste heat, to the ORC machine with reasonable economics of scale, for example, tens of megawatts of power. Studies have shown that particular refinery plants, for example, a hydrocracking plant, serve as good waste heat sources to generate power. However, in a study using only the hot source from the naphtha hy drotreating (NHT) plant, for example, at about 111 °C, 1.7 MW of power was produced from about 27.6 MW of available waste heat at a low efficiency of about 6.2%. The low efficiency suggests that a hot source from the NHT plant alone is not recommended for waste heat generation due to high capital and economy of scale. In another study using one low grade hot source at about 97°C from a crude distillation plant, 3.5 MW of power was produced from about 64.4 MW of available waste heat at a low efficiency of 5.3%. In a further study using one low grade hot source at about 120°C from a sour water stripping plant, 2.2 MW of power was produced from about 32.7 MW of available waste heat at a low efficiency of 6.7%. These studies reveal that if waste heat recovery from a particular refinery plant to generate power is determined to be beneficial, it does not necessarily follow that waste heat recovery from any refinery plant will also be beneficial.

[0038] In another study, all waste heat available from all hot sources (totaling

11 hot source streams) in an aromatics complex were collected to generate about 13 MW of power from about 241 MW of available waste heat. This study reveals that using all available hot sources, while theoretically efficient, does not, in practice, necessarily translate to efficient power generation from available waste heat. Moreover, assembling power plants that can use all available hot sources can be very difficult considering the quantity of heat exchangers, pumps, and organic-based turbines (among other components and inter-connectors) involved. Not only will it be difficult to retrofit existing refineries to accommodate such power plants, but it will also be difficult to build such power plants from a grass roots stage. In the following sections, this disclosure describes combinations of hot sources selected from different refinery plants which can result in high efficiencies in generating power from available waste heat.

[0039] Even after identifying specific hot sources to be used for power generation in a mega-size site, there can be several combinations of hot sources that can be integrated for optimum generation of power using a specific ORC machine operating under specific conditions. Each of the following sections describes a specific combination of hot sources and a configuration for buffer systems which can be implemented with the specific combination to optimally generate power from waste heat with as minimum capital utilization as necessary. Also, the following sections describe two-buffer systems for low grade waste heat recovery where one-buffer systems for waste heat recovery as inapplicable. Each section describes the interconnections and related processing schemes between the different plants that make up the specific combination of hot sources, the configurations including components such as heat exchangers added in specific plants, at specific places and to specific streams in the process to optimize waste heat recovery and power generation. As described later, the different configurations can be implemented without changing the current layout or processes implemented by the different plants. The new configurations described in the sections later can generate between about 34 MW and about 80 MW of power from waste heat, enabling a proportional decrease of GHG emissions in petroleum refineries. The configurations described in the sections later demonstrate more than one way to achieve desired energy recovery using buffer systems. The configurations are related processing schemes do not impact and can be integrated with future potential in-plant energy saving initiatives, for example, low pressure steam generation. The configurations and processing schemes can render more than 10% first law efficiency for power generation from the low grade waste heat into the ORC machine.

[0040] Heat Exchangers

[0041] In the configurations described in this disclosure, heat exchangers are used to transfer heat from one medium (for example, a stream flowing through a plant in a crude oil refining facility, a buffer fluid or other medium) to another medium (for example, a buffer fluid or different stream flowing through a plant in the crude oil facility). Heat exchangers are devices which transfer (exchange) heat typically from a hotter fluid stream to a relatively less hotter fluid stream. Heat exchangers can be used in heating and cooling applications, for example, in refrigerators, air conditions or other cooling applications. Heat exchangers can be distinguished from one another based on the direction in which liquids flow. For example, heat exchangers can be parallel-flow, cross-flow or counter-current. In parallel-flow heat exchangers, both fluid involved move in the same direction, entering and exiting the heat exchanger side-by-side. In cross-flow heat exchangers, the fluid path runs perpendicular to one another. In counter- current heat exchangers, the fluid paths flow in opposite directions, with one fluid exiting whether the other fluid enters. Counter-current heat exchangers are sometimes more effective than the other types of heat exchangers.

[0042] In addition to classifying heat exchangers based on fluid direction, heat exchangers can also be classified based on their construction. Some heat exchangers are constructed of multiple tubes. Some heat exchangers include plates with room for fluid to flow in between. Some heat exchangers enable heat exchange from liquid to liquid, while some heat exchangers enable heat exchange using other media.

[0043] Heat exchangers in crude oil refining and petrochemical facilities are often shell and tube type heat exchangers which include multiple tubes through which liquid flows. The tubes are divided into two sets - the first set contains the liquid to be heated or cooled; the second set contains the liquid responsible for triggering the heat exchange, in other words, the fluid that either removes heat from the first set of tubes by absorbing and transmitting the heat away or warms the first set by transmitting its own heat to the liquid inside. When designing this type of exchanger, care must be taken in determining the correct tube wall thickness as well as tube diameter, to allow optimum heat exchange. In terms of flow, shell and tube heat exchangers can assume any of three flow path patterns.

[0044] Heat exchangers in crude oil refining and petrochemical facilities can also be plate and frame type heat exchangers. Plate heat exchangers include thin plates joined together with a small amount of space in between, often maintained by a rubber gasket. The surface area is large, and the comers of each rectangular plate feature an opening through which fluid can flow between plates, extracting heat from the plates as it flows. The fluid channels themselves alternate hot and cold liquids, meaning that the heat exchangers can effectively cool as well as heat fluid. Because plate heat exchangers have large surface area, they can sometimes be more effective than shell and tube heat exchangers.

[0045] Other types of heat exchangers can include regenerative heat exchangers and adiabatic wheel heat exchangers. In a regenerative heat exchanger, the same fluid is passed along both sides of the exchanger, which can be either a plate heat exchanger or a shell and tube heat exchanger. Because the fluid can get very hot, the exiting fluid is used to warm the incoming fluid, maintaining a near constant temperature. Energy is saved in a regenerative heat exchanger because the process is cyclical, with almost all relative heat being transferred from the exiting fluid to the incoming fluid. To maintain a constant temperature, a small quantity of extra energy is needed to raise and lower the overall fluid temperature. In the adiabatic wheel heat exchanger, an intermediate liquid is used to store heat, which is then transferred to the opposite side of the heat exchanger. An adiabatic wheel consists of a large wheel with threats that rotate through the liquids - both hot and cold - to extract or transfer heat. The heat exchangers described in this disclosure can include any one of the heat exchangers described earlier, other heat exchangers, or combinations of them.

[0046] Each heat exchanger in each configuration can be associated with a respective thermal duty (or heat duty). The thermal duty of a heat exchanger can be defined as an amount of heat that can be transferred by the heat exchanger from the hot stream to the cold stream. The amount of heat can be calculated from the conditions and thermal properties of both the hot and cold streams. From the hot stream point of view, the thermal duty of the heat exchanger is the product of the hot stream flow rate, the hot stream specific heat, and a difference in temperature between the hot stream inlet temperature to the heat exchanger and the hot stream outlet temperature from the heat exchanger. From the cold stream point of view, the thermal duty of the heat exchanger is the product of the cold stream flow rate, the cold stream specific heat and a difference in temperature between the cold stream outlet from the heat exchanger and the cold stream inlet temperature from the heat exchanger. In several applications, the two quantities can be considered equal assuming no heat loss to the environment for these units, particularly, where the units are well insulated. The thermal duty of a heat exchanger can be measured in watts (W), megawatts (MW), millions of British Thermal Units per hour (Btu/hr), or millions of kilocalories per hour (Kcal/h). In the configurations described here, the thermal duties of the heat exchangers are provided as being "about X MW," where "X" represents a numerical thermal duty value. The numerical thermal duty value is not absolute. That is, the actual thermal duty of a heat exchanger can be approximately equal to X, greater than X or less than X.

[0047] Flow Control System

[0048] In each of the configurations described later, process streams (also called "streams") are flowed within each plant in a crude oil refining facility and between plants in the crude oil refining facility. The process streams can be flowed using one or more flow control systems implemented throughout the crude oil refining facility. A flow control system can include one or more flow pumps to pump the process streams, one or more flow pipes through which the process streams are flowed and one or more valves to regulate the flow of streams through the pipes.

[0049] In some implementations, a flow control system can be operated manually. For example, an operator can set a flow rate for each pump and set valve open or close positions to regulate the flow of the process streams through the pipes in the flow control system. Once the operator has set the flow rates and the valve open or close positions for all flow control systems distributed across the crude oil refining facility, the flow control system can flow the streams within a plant or between plants under constant flow conditions, for example, constant volumetric rate or other flow conditions. To change the flow conditions, the operator can manually operate the flow control system, for example, by changing the pump flow rate or the valve open or close position.

[0050] In some implementations, a flow control system can be operated automatically. For example, the flow control system can be connected to a computer system to operate the flow control system. The computer system can include a computer-readable medium storing instructions (such as flow control instructions and other instructions) executable by one or more processors to perform operations (such as flow control operations). An operator can set the flow rates and the valve open or close positions for all flow control systems distributed across the crude oil refining facility using the computer system. In such implementations, the operator can manually change the flow conditions by providing inputs through the computer system. Also, in such implementations, the computer system can automatically (that is, without manual intervention) control one or more of the flow control systems, for example, using feedback systems implemented in one or more plants and connected to the computer system. For example, a sensor (such as a pressure sensor, temperature sensor or other sensor) can be connected to a pipe through which a process stream flows. The sensor can monitor and provide a flow condition (such as a pressure, temperature, or other flow condition) of the process stream to the computer system. In response to the flow condition exceeding a threshold (such as a threshold pressure value, a threshold temperature value, or other threshold value), the computer system can automatically perform operations. For example, if the pressure or temperature in the pipe exceeds the threshold pressure value or the threshold temperature value, respectively, the computer system can provide a signal to the pump to decrease a flow rate, a signal to open a valve to relieve the pressure, a signal to shut down process stream flow, or other signals.

[0051] FIGS. 1A-1M illustrate schematic views of an example system 100 for a power conversion network significantly contributing to carbon-free power generation using waste heat sources associated with crude oil refining-petrochemical complex naphtha block plants (Continuous Catalytic Reforming (CCR) and aromatics plants). In some implementations, the example system 100, can efficiently (for example, 12.3%) generate about 37.5 MW from novel specific portions of an entire crude oil refining- petrochemical site-wide low-low grade available waste heat sources.

[0052] The disclosure related to system 100 is concerned with power generation from low grade waste energy in industrial facilities and is related to at least the described multi-generation based gasification plant smart configurations for energy efficiency optimization and crude oil refining facilities and aromatics complex advanced energy efficient configurations also in this disclosure. In particular, the disclosure is of a novel potion of a refining-petrochemical-wide separation network's waste-heat-recovery networks and a related detailed processing scheme for efficient power generation using a basic Organic Rankine Cycle with specific operating conditions from used multiple scattered sub-set of the low grade energy quality process streams (note that not all of a refining-petrochemical-wide plant's processes are shown/described, but parts of plants typically involved in Organic Rankine Cycle power generation).

[0053] In some implementations, described process schemes related to system

100 can be considered for implementation in a single or multiple steps or in phases, where each phase can be separately implemented without hindering future phases. In some implementations, a minimum approach temperature used in the described waste heat recovery schemes can be as low as 3°C. However, higher minimum approach temperatures can be used in the beginning at the expense of less waste heat recovery, while reasonable power generation economics of scale designs (still attractive in the level of tens of MW) are used and best efficiency is realized in the future upon using a minimum approach temperature recommended for specific streams used in system design. In such future situations, more power generation can be realized without changing the initial design topology or the sub-set of low grade waste heat streams selected/utilized from an entire first-phase studied crude oil refining-petrochemical complex (or combinations of them). The described mini-power plant configuration and related process scheme(s) can be performed directly or, for safety and operability, through one system or two buffer streams, such as hot oil or high pressure hot water systems (or both), or a mix of direct and indirect means, as well as novel connections among buffer systems (or combinations of them). A low-low grade waste-heat-to- power-conversion (for example, lower than the low grade waste heat temperature defined by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as 232°C) is, in some implementations, implemented using a basic Organic Rankine Cycle system (ORC) using isobutane as an organic fluid at specific operating conditions.

[0054] The described configuration(s) and related process scheme(s) related to system 100 may not change with future energy efficiency improvement efforts inside individual crude oil refining-petrochemical complex naphtha block plants (for example, Continuous Catalytic Reforming (CCR) and aromatics plants) or improvements in plant waste heat recovery practices, such as heat integration and/or other improvements in in plant waste heat recovery practices (or combinations of them).

[0055] FIG. 1A illustrates a schematic diagram of an example system 100 for a power conversion network utilizing a modular mini-power plant and including waste heat sources associated with a medium crude semi-conversion oil refining- petrochemical complex. In this example implementation, system 100 utilizes thirteen waste heat recovery heat exchangers that receive waste heat from a working fluid (for example, typically hot water but could include hot oil or other fluid (or combinations of them)) removing heat from continuous catalytic reforming CCR separation sections, Para-Xylene separation, Xylene Isomerization and benzene extraction units' separation sections. In the illustrated example, system 100 has two separate high pressure water systems/heat-recovery circuits (102 and 103) and one Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) 104. For example, heat-recovery circuit 102 (first circuit) includes heat exchanges 102a- 102j and heat-recovery circuit 103 (second circuit) includes heat exchangers 103a-103c. The ORC 104 includes a pre-heater 106, evaporator 108, gas expander 110, condenser 112, and a pump 114.

[0056] In a general operation, a working (or heating) fluid (for example, water, oil, or other fluid (or combinations of them)) is circulated through the heat exchangers of the heat recovery circuits (first circuit 102 and second circuit 103). An inlet temperature of the working fluid that is circulated into the inlets of each of the heat exchangers may be the same or substantially the same subject to any temperature variations that may result as the heating fluid flows through respective inlets, and may be circulated directly from a fluid heating tank 116 or 118. Each heat exchanger heats the working fluid to a respective temperature that is greater than the inlet temperature. The heated working fluids from the heat exchangers are combined in their respective heat recovery circuits (for example, mixed in a main header associated with each heat recovery circuit) and circulated through one of the pre-heater 106 or the evaporator 108 of the ORC 104. Heat from the heated working fluid heats the working fluid of the ORC 104 thereby increases the working fluid temperature. The heat exchange with the heated working fluid results in a decrease in the temperature of the working fluid. The working fluid is then collected in the fluid heating tank 116 or the fluid heating tank 118 and can be pumped back through the respective heat exchangers to restart the waste heat recovery cycle.

[0057] The working fluid circuit flowing heated working fluid through the heat exchangers of system 100 can include multiple valves that can be operated manually or automatically. For example, a modulating control valve (as one example) may be positioned in fluid communication with an inlet or outlet of each heat exchanger, on the heated working fluid and heat source side. In some aspects, the modulating control valve may be a shut-off valve or additional shut-off valves may also be positioned in fluid communication with the heat exchangers. An operator can manually open each valve in the circuit to cause the heated working fluid to flow through the circuit. To cease waste heat recovery, for example, to perform repair or maintenance or for other reasons, the operator can manually close each valve in the circuit. Alternatively, a control system, for example, a computer-controlled control system, can be connected to each valve in the circuit. The control system can automatically control the valves based, for example, on feedback from sensors (for example, temperature, pressure or other sensors), installed at different locations in the circuit. The control system can also be operated by an operator.

[0058] In the manner described earlier, the heated working fluid can be looped through the heat exchangers to recover heat that would otherwise go to waste in the various described plants (for example, hydro-cracking, hydro-treating, CCR, and aromatics plants), and to use the recovered waste heat to operate the power generation system. By doing so, an amount of energy needed to operate the power generation system can be decreased while obtaining the same or substantially similar power output from the power generation system. For example, the power output from the power generation system that implements the waste heat recovery network can be higher or lower than the power output from the power generation system that does not implement the waste heat recovery network. Where the power output is less, the difference may not be statistically significant. Consequently, a power generation efficiency of the petrochemical refining system can be increased.

[0059] More specifically, in the illustrated example, each heat exchanger facilitates heat recovery from a heat source in a particular industrial unit to the working fluid. For example, heat exchangers 102a-l 02c recover heat from heat sources in a para- xylene separation unit. Heat exchangers 102d-102e recover heat from heat sources in a para-xylene isomerization reaction and separation unit(s). Heat exchanger 102f recovers heat from a heat source(s) in a benzene extraction unit. Heat exchangers 102g-102j recover heat from heat sources in a continuous catalytic reforming plant (CCR). Together, heat exchangers in the first circuit 102 recover low grade waste heat from specific streams in a "Naphtha Block" to deliver the heat using the working fluid to the ORC 104. In this example, the heat from the first circuit 102 is provided to a header/pre- heater 106 of the ORC 104.

[0060] Generally, the first circuit 102 receives (for example, from an inlet header that fluidly couples a fluid heating tank 116 to the heat exchangers 102a-102j) high pressure working fluid (for example, hot water, hot oil, or other fluid (or combinations of them)) for instance, at between about 40°C to 60°C and supplies heated working fluid (for example, at an outlet header fluidly coupled to the heat exchangers 102a-102j) at or about 100-115°C. The working fluid heats up in the heat exchangers 102a-102j. The heat exchangers 102a-102j can be distributed along the refining-petrochemical complex and be fluidly coupled to low grade waste heat sources in the refining-petrochemical complex plants. Para-Xylene products separation unit/plant streams can be used in the first hot water circuit 102, along with other plants such as the benzene extraction unit; CCR; and Xylene isomerization reaction and separation sections.

[0061] Heat exchangers 103a-103c recover heat from heat sources in a refining- petrochemicals complex portion that contains the para-xylene separation unit. Together, the heat exchangers in the second circuit 103 recover low grade waste heat to deliver the heat using the working fluid to the ORC 104. In this example, the heat from the second circuit 103 is provided to an evaporator 108 of the ORC 104.

[0062] The second circuit 103 can also use Para-Xylene products separation unit/plant streams. In some implementations, the second circuit 103 can also use other plants such as the benzene extraction unit; CCR; and Xylene isomerization reaction and separation sections. The second circuit 103 typically receives (for example, from an inlet header that fluidly couples a fluid heating tank 118 to the heat exchangers 103 a- 103c) high pressure working fluid (for example, hot water, hot oil, or other fluid (or combinations of them)) for instance, at between about 100°C to 110°C and supplies heated fluid (for example, at an outlet header fluidly coupled to the heat exchangers 103a- 103c) at or about 120-160°C. The working fluid heats up in the heat exchangers 103a- 103c. The heat exchangers 103a- 103c can be distributed along the refining- petrochemical complex and be fluidly coupled to low grade waste heat sources in the refining-petrochemical complex plants using only Para-Xylene products separation unit/plant streams.

[0063] In the example implementation of system 100, the ORC 104 includes a working fluid that is thermally coupled to the heat recovery circuits 102 and 103 to heat the working fluid. In some implementations, the working fluid can be isobutane (an isobutane storage tank is not shown). The ORC 104 can also include a gas expander 110 (for example, a turbine-generator) configured to generate electrical power from the heated working fluid. As shown in FIG. 1A, the ORC 104 can additionally include a pre-heater 106, an evaporator 108, a pump 114, and a condenser 112. In this example implementation, the first circuit 102 supplies a heated, or heating, working fluid to the pre-heater 106, while the second circuit 103 supplies a heated, or heating, working fluid to the evaporator 108.

[0064] In typical implementations, the ORC 104 uses two groups of heat exchangers to first pre-heat the ORC liquid and to second vaporize the working fluid (for example, high pressure isobutane liquid) before a fluidly coupled inlet of a gas turbine (for example, gas expander 110) of the ORC 104 system. The first circuit 102 (a lower-temperature circuit) consisting of the ten heat exchangers (102a-102j) is used for pre-heating the working fluid while the second circuit (a higher temperature circuit), consisting of three heat exchangers (103a-103c) is used to vaporize the working fluid.

[0065] In the illustrated example, in the first circuit 102, the ten illustrated heat exchangers 102a-102j are located in what is known in the refining-petrochemical business by "Naphtha Block" that consists of Naphtha Hydro-treating (NHT) plant, CCR plant and Aromatics plants. Heat exchangers 102a- 102c are located in the Para-xylene separation unit. These heat exchangers typically have thermal duties of about 13.97 MW; 5.16 MW; and 7.32 MW respectively. Heat exchangers 102d and 102e are located in the Para-xylene Isomerization reaction and separation units. These two heat exchangers have thermal duties of about 15.63 MW and 21.02 MW respectively. Heat exchanger 102f is located in the benzene extraction unit and it has a thermal duty of about 4.99 MW. Heat exchangers 102g-102j are located in the continuous catalytic reforming plant (CCR) and have thermal duties of about 38.91 MW; 7.75 MW; 9.29 MW and 24.1 MW respectively. The 10 heat exchangers are located in what is known in the refining-petrochemical business by "Naphtha Block" that consists of Naphtha Hydrotreating (NHT) plant, CCR plant and Aromatics plants.

[0066] In typical implementations, heat exchangers 102a-102j recover about 147

MW of low grade waste heat from specific streams in the "Naphtha Block" to deliver it back to the working fluid (for example, isobutane liquid) to pre-heat it in the ORC 104 system, in some implementations, from about 31°C to its vaporization temperature of about 100°C at 20 bar.

[0067] In the illustrated example, in the second circuit 103, the three illustrated heat exchangers 103 a- 103 c are located in what is known as the "Naphtha Block" portion that contains the specific Para-Xylene separation unit streams having low grade waste heat. In typical implementations, heat exchangers 103a- 103c have thermal duties of about 33 MW; 91.1 MW and 32.46 MW respectively.

[0068] In some implementations, power generated in the gas turbine (for example, gas expander 110) assuming an efficiency of about 85% is about 37.5 MW and the power consumed in the pump 114 using an assumed efficiency of about 75% is about 2.9 MW. The ORC 104 high pressure at the inlet of the turbine 110 is about 20 bar and at the outlet is about 4.3 bar. The cooling water supply temperature is assumed to be at 20°C and return temperature is assumed to be at 30°C. The evaporator 108 thermal duty is about 157 MW to vaporize about 745 Kg/s of isobutane. The ORC 104 isobutane pre- heater 106 thermal duty is about 147 MW to heat up the isobutane from about 31°C to 99°C. The condenser 112 cooling duty is 269 MW to cool down and condense the same flow of isobutane from about 52°C to 30°C.

[0069] FIG. IB is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchanger 102g in a crude oil refinery continuous catalytic reforming (CCR) plant. In an example implementation, heat exchanger 102g may cool down the CCR last stage reactor outlet after the feed-effluent heat exchanger stream from 111°C to 60°C using the high pressure working fluid stream of the heat recovery circuit 102 at 50°C to raise the working fluid temperature to 106°C. The thermal duty of heat exchanger 102g may be about 38.9 MW. The working fluid stream at 106°C is sent to the header of heat recovery circuit 102.

[0070] FIG. 1C is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchangers 102h and 102i in the crude oil refinery continuous catalytic reforming (CCR) plant. In an example implementation, heat exchangers 102h and 102i have thermal duties of about 7.75 MW and 9.29 MW, respectively. Heat exchanger 102h cools down a 1st stage compressor outlet stream from 135°C to 60°C using the working fluid stream of first circuit 102 at 50°C to raise its temperature to 130°C. The working fluid stream at 130°C is sent to the header of the first circuit 102. The heat exchanger 102i cools down a 2nd stage compressor outlet stream from 143°C to 60°C using the working fluid stream of first circuit 102 at 50°C to raise its temperature to 138°C. The working fluid stream at 138°C is sent to the header of the first circuit 102.

[0071] FIG. ID is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchanger 102j in the crude oil refinery continuous catalytic reforming (CCR) plant. In an example implementation, heat exchanger 102j cools down the CCR light reformate splitter column overhead stream from 87°C to 60°C using the working fluid stream of the first circuit 102 at 50°C to raise the working fluid stream temperature to 82°C. The thermal duty of heat exchanger 102j is about 24.1 MW. The working fluid at 82°C is sent to the header of the first circuit 102.

[0072] FIG. IE is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchanger 102f (the "Naphtha Block" benzene extraction unit waste heat recovery network heat exchanger) in the benzene extraction unit. In an example implementation, heat exchanger 102f cools down an overhead stream from 104°C to 100°C using the working fluid stream of the first circuit 102 at 50°C to raise the working fluid stream temperature to 99°C. The thermal duty of heat exchanger 102f is 4.99 MW. The working fluid at 99°C is sent to the header of the first circuit 102.

[0073] FIG. IF is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchanger 102d in the Para-Xylene separation plant. In an example implementation, heat exchanger 102d cools down the Xylene isomerization reactor outlet stream before the separator drum from 114°C to 60°C using the working fluid stream of the first circuit 102 at 50°C to raise the working fluid stream temperature to 109°C. The thermal duty of heat exchanger 102d is about 15.6 MW. The working fluid at 109°C is sent to the header of the first circuit 102.

[0074] FIG. 1G is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchanger 102e in the xylene isomerization de-heptanizer of the Para-Xylene separation plant. In an example implementation, heat exchanger 102e cools down the de-heptanizer column overhead stream from 112°C to 60°C using the working fluid stream of first circuit 102 at 50°C to raise the working fluid stream temperature to 107°C. The thermal duty of heat exchanger 102e is about 21 MW. The working fluid at 107°C is sent to the header of the first circuit 102.

[0075] FIG. 1H is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchanger 103 a in the Para-Xylene separation plant. In an example implementation, heat exchanger 103a cools down an extract column overhead stream from 156°C to 133°C using the working fluid stream of the second circuit 103 at 105°C to raise the working fluid stream temperature to 151°C. The thermal duty of heat exchanger 103a is about 33 MW. The working fluid at 151°C is sent to the header of the second circuit 103.

[0076] FIG. II is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchanger 102b in the Para-Xylene separation plant. In an example implementation, heat exchanger 102b cools down the PX purification column bottom product stream from 155°C to 60°C using the working fluid stream of the first circuit 102 at 50°C to raise the working fluid stream temperature to 150°C. The thermal duty of heat exchanger 102b is about 5.16 MW. The working fluid at 150°C is sent to the header of the first circuit 102.

[0077] FIG. 1J is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchanger 102a in the Para-Xylene separation plant. In an example implementation, heat exchanger 102a cools down the PX purification column overhead stream from 127°C to 84°C using the working fluid stream of the first circuit 102 at 50°C to raise the working fluid stream temperature to 122°C. The thermal duty of this heat exchanger 102a is about 13.97 MW. The working fluid at 122°C is sent to the header of the first circuit 102.

[0078] FIG. IK is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchanger 103b in the Para-Xylene separation plant. In an example implementation, heat exchanger 103b cools down a Raffinate column overhead stream from 162°C to 130°C using the working fluid stream of the second circuit 103 at 105°C to raise the working fluid stream temperature to 157°C. The thermal duty of heat exchanger 103b is about 91.1 MW. The working fluid at 157°C is sent to the header of the second circuit 103.

[0079] FIG. 1L is a schematic diagram that illustrates an example placement of heat exchangers 102c and 103 c in the Para-Xylene separation plant. In an example implementation, heat exchangers 102c and 103c have thermal duties of 7.23 MW and 32.46 MW, respectively. Heat exchanger 102c cools down the C9+ aromatics before the storage tank from 169°C to 60°C using the working fluid stream of the first circuit 102 at 50°C to raise its temperature to 164°C. The working fluid stream at 164°C is sent to the header of the first circuit 102. Heat exchanger 103c cools down the heavy Raffinate splitter column overhead stream from 126°C to 113°C using the working fluid stream of the second circuit 103 at 105°C to raise its temperature to 121°C. The working fluid stream at 121°C is sent to the header of the second circuit 103.

[0080] As described earlier, FIG. 1M illustrates a specific example of the system

100, including example temperatures, thermal duties, efficiencies, power inputs, and power outputs. For example, as illustrated in FIG. 1M, the CCR- Aromatics module generates a power output (with a gas turbine 110 using efficiency of 85%) of about 37.5 MW and the power consumed in the pump using efficiency of 75% is about 2.9 MW. The ORC 104 high pressure at the inlet of the turbine is about 20 bar and at the outlet is about 4.3 bar. The condenser 112 water supply temperature is assumed to be at 20°C and return temperature is assumed to be at 30°C. The evaporator 108 thermal duty is about 157 MW to vaporize about 745 Kg/s of isobutane. The ORC 104 isobutane pre- heater 106 thermal duty is about 147 MW to heat up the isobutane from about 31°C to 99°C. The condenser 112 cooling duty is 269 MW to cool down and condense the same flow of isobutane from about 52°C to 30°C.

[0081] FIG. IN is a graph that shows a tube-side fluid temperature (for example, a cooling, or condenser, fluid flow) and a shell-side fluid temperature (for example, an ORC working fluid flow) in the condenser 112 during an operation of the system 100. This graph shows a temperature difference between the fluids on the y-axis relative to a heat flow between the fluids on the x-axis. For example, as shown in this figure, as the temperature difference between the fluids decreases, a heat flow between the fluids can increase. In some aspects, the cooling fluid medium may be at or about 20°C or even higher. In such cases, a gas expander outlet pressure (for example, pressure of the ORC working fluid exiting the gas expander) may be high enough to allow the condensation of the ORC working fluid at the available cooling fluid temperature. As shown in FIG. IN, the condenser water (entering the tubes of the condenser 112) enters at about 20°C and leaves at about 30°C. The ORC working fluid (entering the shell-side of the condenser) enters as a vapor at about 52°C, and then condenses at 30°C and leaves the condensers as a liquid at about 30°C. [0082] FIG. 10 is a graph that show a tube-side fluid temperature (for example, a heating fluid flow) and a shell-side fluid temperature (for example, an ORC working fluid flow) in the pre-heater 106 during an operation of the system 100. This graph shows a temperature difference between the fluids on the y-axis relative to a heat flow between the fluids on the x-axis. For example, as shown in this figure, as the temperature difference between the fluids decreases, a heat flow between the fluids can increase. This graph shows a temperature difference between the fluids on the y-axis relative to a heat flow between the fluids on the x-axis. For example, as shown in FIG. 10, as the tube-side fluid (for example, the hot oil or water in the heating fluid circuit 102) is circulated through the pre-heater 106, heat is transferred from that fluid to the shell-side fluid (for example, the ORC working fluid). Thus, the tube-side fluid enters the pre- heater 106 at about 105°C and leaves the pre-heater 106 at about 50°C. The shell-side fluid enters the pre-heater 106 at about 30°C (for example, as a liquid) and leaves the pre-heater 106 at about 99°C (for example, also as a liquid or mixed phase fluid).

[0083] FIG. IP is a graph that shows a tube-side fluid temperature (for example, a heating fluid flow) and a shell-side fluid temperature (for example, an ORC working fluid flow) in the evaporator 108 during an operation of the system 100. This graph shows a temperature difference between the fluids on the y-axis relative to a heat flow between the fluids on the x-axis. For example, as shown in this figure, as the temperature difference between the fluids decreases, a heat flow between the fluids can increase. For example, as shown in FIG. IP, as the tube side fluid (for example, the hot oil or water in the heating fluid circuit 103) is circulated through the evaporator 108, heat is transferred from that fluid to the shell-side fluid (for example, the ORC working fluid). Thus, the tube-side fluid enters the evaporator 108 at about 141°C and leaves the evaporator 108 at about 105°C. The shell-side fluid enters the evaporator 108, from the pre-heater 106, at about 99°C (for example, as a liquid or mixed phase fluid) and leaves the evaporator 108 also at about 99°C (for example, as a vapor with some superheating).

[0084] The disclosed subject matter is beneficial at least in that it allows a medium level crude oil semi-conversion refining-petrochemical complex to be significantly more energy efficient / "greener" by converting its low-low grade waste heat in its "Naphtha Block" to net power generation (for example, by about 34.55 MW) for local utilization or export to the national electricity grid while such processing schemes allow the reduction in power-generation-based GHG emissions with desired operability due to the involvement of more than one plant in the scheme, processing schemes allow the power generation and power generation-based GHG reduction to be achieved in phases, power generation and power generation-based GHG reduction to be achieved without changing the insides of the "Naphtha Block" plants heat exchangers network streams' matching, allowing the power generation and power generation-based GHG reduction to be achieved for the "Naphtha Block" plants which are normally located together in crude oil refining-petrochemicals complexes, allowing the power generation and power generation-based GHG reduction to be achieved regardless of future energy saving inside the individual plants of the "Naphtha Block," and allowing the reduction in power-generation-based GHG emissions with desired operability due to the involvement of more than one plant in the scheme while keeping original cooling units.

[0085] The techniques to recover heat energy generated by a petrochemical refining system described above can be implemented in at least one or both of two example scenarios. In the first scenario, the techniques can be implemented in a petrochemical refining system that is to be constructed. For example, a geographic layout to arrange multiple sub-units of a petrochemical refining system can be identified. The geographic layout can include multiple sub-unit locations at which respective sub- units are to be positioned. Identifying the geographic layout can include actively determining or calculating the location of each sub-unit in the petrochemical refining system based on particular technical data, for example, a flow of petrochemicals through the sub-units starting from crude petroleum and resulting in refined petroleum. Identifying the geographic layout can alternatively or in addition include selecting a layout from among multiple previously -generated geographic layouts. A first subset of sub-units of the petrochemical refining system can be identified. The first subset can include at least two (or more than two) heat-generating sub-units from which heat energy is recoverable to generate electrical power. In the geographic layout, a second subset of the multiple sub-unit locations can be identified. The second subset includes at least two sub-unit locations at which the respective sub-units in the first subset are to be positioned. A power generation system to recover heat energy from the sub-units in the first subset is identified. The power generation system can be substantially similar to the power generation system described earlier. In the geographic layout, a power generation system location can be identified to position the power generation system. At the identified power generation system location, a heat energy recovery efficiency is greater than a heat energy recovery efficiency at other locations in the geographic layout. The petrochemical refining system planners and constructors can perform modeling and/or computer-based simulation experiments to identify an optimal location for the power generation system to maximize heat energy recovery efficiency, for example, by minimizing heat loss when transmitting recovered heat energy from the at least two heat- generating sub-units to the power generation system. The petrochemical refining system can be constructed according to the geographic layout by positioning the multiple sub- units at the multiple sub-unit locations, positioning the power generation system at the power generation system location, interconnecting the multiple sub-units with each other such that the interconnected multiple sub-units are configured to refine petrochemicals, and interconnecting the power generation system with the sub-units in the first subset such that the power generation system is configured to recover heat energy from the sub-units in the first subset and to provide the recovered heat energy to the power generation system. The power generation system is configured to generate power using the recovered heat energy.

[0086] In the second scenario, the techniques can be implemented in an operational petrochemical refining system. In other words, the power generation system described earlier can be retrofitted to an already constructed and operational petrochemical refining system.

[0087] Thus, particular implementations of the subject matter have been described. Other implementations are within the scope of the following claims.