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Title:
POWER GENERATOR AND RELATED ENGINE SYSTEMS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2013/016138
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Systems and methods are disclosed for a two-part system with a gas generator and a driven engine system. In the two-part system, the first part of the system is the gas generator which produces power to operate and drive an engine. The driven engine is considered the second part of this two-part system. This method includes operating a gas generator combustion chamber that receives fuel, oxidizer, and water; an igniter coupled to the combustion chamber; and a computer controller that includes sensors to sense pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber, wherein the computer controller controls the amount of fuel, oxidizer, and water in the chamber, and actuates the igniter. The combustion of the fuel and oxidizer combined with the steam that is produced are used to drive an engine. The system may also use an auxiliary unit to assist in the functions of the gas generator and the driven engine.

Inventors:
PARENTI, Richard, Anthony (313 Walton Way, Roseville, California, 95678-1215, US)
Application Number:
US2012/047422
Publication Date:
January 31, 2013
Filing Date:
July 19, 2012
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
PARENTI, Richard, Anthony (313 Walton Way, Roseville, California, 95678-1215, US)
International Classes:
F02G3/02; F02B71/06; F02B75/00
Foreign References:
US20110126549A12011-06-02
US7506569B12009-03-24
US20100107602A12010-05-06
JPS57212350A1982-12-27
US20070022977A12007-02-01
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
TRAN, Bao (PO Box 68, 13562 Toni AnnSaratoga, California, 95071, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

A two-part engine system consisting of a gas generator and a driven engine system. a gas generator, including a combustion chamber that receives fuel, oxidizer, and water; an igniter coupled to the combustion chamber; and a controller including sensors to sense pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber, wherein the controller controls the amount of fuel, oxidizer, and water in the chamber, and actuates the igniter to produce hot gasses and steam to drive an engine(s), the controller: pressurizing and controlling the amount of water at a predetermined water injection pressure; injecting oxygen, or air, and hydrogen, or other fuels, into a combustion chamber in a coddler and firing an ignition system and; spraying pressurized water into the combustion chamber to create expansive gasses from the products of combustion and steam; and applying the products of combustion and steam to drive an engine and an auxiliary unit, if needed; and controlling the throttle valve in some cases, or if no valve is needed, controlling the gas generator output; one or more driven engine(s) powered by products of combustion and steam produced by the gas generator; an auxiliary unit controlled by the controller to provide system support for the operation of the complete gas generator and driven engine system; wherein the gas generator and driven engine system are used in a mobile, stationary or portable application and a construction of the gas generators may be in a modular form or as a single unit.

2. The system of claim 1 , comprising fuels and oxidizers injected into the combustion chamber to produce high pressure gases.

3. The system of claim 2, wherein the oxidizers comprise oxygen, and or air.

4. The system of claim 1, wherein the gas generator combustion chamber including a coddler to protect the fuel and oxidizer during combustion and the coddler also introduces spray to produce steam in addition to the products of combustion with a water spray assembly (spray tree).

5. The system of claim 1 , wherein the generator comprises an internally fired pressure vessel.

6. The engine of claim 1 , wherein the generator comprises a boiler with combustion products and steam.

7. The system of claim 1 , comprising a throttle valve permitting the combustion chamber to build up and store a predetermined working pressure of hot gasses and steam.

8. The system of claim 1, comprising a pressure regulator.

9. The system of claim 1 , comprising a computer control system to control the gas

generator(s) and driven engine(s) system including the auxiliary unit operation according to a predetermined engine operating sequence..

10. The system of claim 1, wherein the generator encloses products of combustion and steam after ignition and produces them in a useable and manageable form.

11. The system of claim 1 , comprising a rocket engine and a cover over the rocket engine.

12. The system of claim 1 , comprising gas generator that produces power as high pressure gasses and then routes the high pressure gasses to drive an engine.

13. The system of claim 1 , comprising one or more valves to route the high pressure gases.

14. The system of claim 1 , wherein the driven engine is closely-coupled or remote.

15. The system of claim 1 , comprising a plurality of engines driven from the gas

generator(s).

16. The method of claim 1 , comprising an auxiliary unit driving one or more of a water pump, a fuel pump, an oxidizer pump, an exhaust vacuum pump, an engine oil pump, an air conditioning compressor, if needed, and an electric motor/generator.

17. The method of claim 1 , comprising driving a vehicle and producing additional pressure (a reserve) continuously or intermittently depending on engine demand based on vehicle speed and the power setting.

18. A method for operating an engine having a combustion chamber that receives fuel, oxidizer, and water; an igniter coupled to the combustion chamber; and a controller including sensors to sense pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber, wherein the controller controls the amount of fuel, oxidizer, and water in the chamber, and actuates the igniter to drive an engine, the method comprising: pressurizing water at a predetermined water injection pressure; firing an ignition system and injecting oxygen and hydrogen into a combustion chamber in a coddler; spraying pressurized water into the combustion chamber to create an expansive steam; and applying steam to drive an auxiliary unit.

19. The method of claim 18, comprising driving one or more of a water pump, a fuel pump, an oxidizer pump, an exhaust vacuum pump, an engine oil pump, an air conditioning compressor, and an electric motor/generator.

20. The method of claim 18, comprising driving a vehicle and producing additional pressure (a reserve) continuously or intermittently depending on engine demand based on vehicle speed and the power setting.

Description:
POWER GENERATOR AND RELATED ENGINE SYSTEMS

The present application claims priority to Provisional Application Serial 61/572,857, filed on 7/23/2011, the content of which is incorporated by reference.

BACKGROUND

The present invention relates generally to a generator to provide power, and more specifically to a high efficiency generator and related engine systems.

DESCRIPTION OF RELATED ART

[0002] Internal combustion engines are commonly used to perform work. At times engines must turn at high speeds in order to provide power or energy to carry out the desired task. They tend to be extremely complex, inefficient, and costly and release high levels of pollution. For example, internal combustion piston engines can expect at best 35% efficiency under optimum conditions and engineering. Rotary, turbines, diesel, and so on, will typically have a lower efficiency rate. It is understandable that these methods are inadequate with many shortcomings, such as expensive maintenance, high fuel consumption, limited fuel options, and cause substantial pollution. These drawbacks with commonly used engines and power generating systems are of grave concern to the global community and are causing severe political upheaval.

[0003] The use of certain prior art products such as steam engines, steam turbines and their auxiliary units provide power to do work, however, boilers are even less efficient and slower to generate work potential. The use of boilers makes it difficult to maintain work potential. They are large, heavy, and overly complex, with high operation and maintenance costs.

[0004] Hybrid engines partly address the problems associated with internal combustion engines, steam engines, and the like, however, they tend to be more complex, require space consuming batteries (most of which contain heavy metal toxins), add weight if used in a vehicle, and have overall higher maintenance costs.

[0005] Another approach to addressing present day energy shortages is the conversion of internal combustion engines to run on alcohol, methane, and natural gas. Most can be converted to run on any other multitude of fuels, some of which are less expensive than gasoline, but all of which are less efficient.

[0006] A generator and engine system that overcomes the numerous problems associated with prior art would be valuable in many aspects worldwide.

SUMMARY

[0007] In one aspect, the system includes a combustion chamber that receives fuel, oxidizer, and water. A controller or a computer senses the pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber through sensors. The controller controls the amount of fuel, oxidizer, and water in the chamber, and actuates an igniter to drive an engine.

[0008] In another aspect, a gas generator and driven engine system forms a two-part system. Some versions may operate as a one-part system, but not as the general rule. In the two-part system the first part of the system is the gas generator which produces power to operate and drive an engine. The driven engine is considered the second part of this two-part system. The gas generator may stop, start, run fast or slow, somewhat independently of the driven engine system. The throttle valve and or pressure regulator, if they are used control the output of the gas generator to the driven engine. One implementation of the Parenti gas generator (Generator) and (driven) engine system includes three primary components:

1. The gas generator (the combustion chamber), including the coddler, if one is used, and water spray assembly. The generator may classify as an internally fired pressure vessel; a boiler of sorts with the fire (combustion products and steam) inside;

2. A throttle valve may be used, with or without a pressure regulator. The valve permits the combustion chamber (generator) to build up and store a high working pressure of gas and steam. A throttle valve may not be used in some applications where the computer control system may be used to control the generator and engine system output. This option may be used with or without a pressure regulator;

3. The driven engine completes this engine system as shown in Fig. 5 for the Parenti gas generator driven engine system. The driven engine will be used to produce motion when powered by the gas generator. The driven engine may be a prior art engine(s), or future engine(s). The system may be supported by the computer control system, a fuel tank, oxidizer tank, water tank, auxiliary unit, and so on, all of which are prior art. [0009] In another aspect, methods are disclosed for operating an engine having a combustion chamber that receives fuel, oxidizer, and water; an igniter coupled to the combustion chamber; and a controller including sensors to sense pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber, wherein the controller controls the amount of fuel, oxidizer, and water in the chamber, and actuates the igniter to drive an engine. In another aspect, the engine can be operated by pressurizing water at a predetermined water injection pressure; firing an ignition system and injecting oxygen and hydrogen into a combustion chamber in a coddler; spraying pressurized water into the combustion chamber to create an expansive steam; and applying steam to drive an auxiliary unit.

[0010] The generator and engine system of the preferred embodiment overcomes the problems associated with prior art. Given the generator and system's high efficiency, it uses fuels and oxidizers (pure oxygen, air, 0 2 and so on) in a unique process to produce high pressure gases that are utilized to do work in such a way as to substantially, and at times wholly, alleviate the problems of pollution, inefficiency, large size, heavy weight, high fuel cost and high fuel consumption, caused by all prior art engines and power plants or power producing systems. The preferred embodiment is a simple, unique concept that may be designed with a multitude of variations based on the type of application, the fuel type, oxidizer, water supply and raw materials and so on.

[0011] The generator uses a combustion system similar to a rocket engine, but not the same type of propulsion system. There are several differences between a rocket engine and the various embodiments of the generator that is the subject of this application. A rocket engine

(prior art) is strictly a thrust only engine. The generator in this application encloses (or contains) the products of combustion plus steam after ignition and produces them in a more useable and manageable form. It may be viewed as a cover over a rocket engine. The generator uses these high pressure gasses to operate various types of driven engines. A rocket engine is not very useable in most settings, in that the thrust produces a hot powerful exhaust, including fire, and is not very useable in the average setting for an engine. This gas generator makes the system more useable (user friendly). Rocket engines would not be used in a typical automobile or truck. The coddler, and or spray tree(s), which may be ceramic or metal, introduces a water spray to produce steam in addition to the products of combustion. The coddler with the fuel injection, oxidizer injection and water injection are different from a rocket engine operating system.

[0012] This gas generator and driven engine system may also be described as a two-part system. The gas generator produces the power in the form of high pressure gasses and then routes the high pressure gasses to the driven engine, this may be through a valve(s). The driven engine produces the desired motion, either rotating or longitudinal and so on as desired. The driven engine(s) may be close-coupled (the most energy efficient) or remote. Numerous engines may be driven from the same gas generator(s).

Most other internal combustion engines have the combustion occur within the engine itself; these would include the normal reciprocating piston gas engines that are currently in use, and also includes diesel engines, jet engines, or rocket engine driven axial flow turbine(s), Wankel rotary engines and so on.

[0013] This invention consists of a pressure vessel made from a high strength, high temperature thermal resistant material, such as stainless steel, molybdenum, titanium, ceramics and so on. It utilizes any number of available fuels, gas, liquid, solid, or powder, and oxidizers to generate intense heat. Unlike rocket, jet, and gas turbine technology, the preferred embodiment utilizes the intense heat and can quickly convert an internal medium, such as water, into steam, which results in a high pressure output. For example, water injected into the vessel provides steam that expands to produce high pressure gas. This high pressure may be used in a multitude of applications to provide power, much like any prior art engine or power generating unit. For example, it may propel a vehicle, generate electricity, power air compressors, jack hammers, and provide a heat source, for example to heat a building, and so on. It may even be used as a power generator in a water treatment plant.

[0014] Additional benefits to the preferred embodiment include a highly compact, lightweight and low maintenance design, which requires little maintenance and, if low grade fuels are used, any pollutants may be easily contained. There are numerous potential applications due to the simplicity of its design and its superior power/output ratio. It is believed that the efficiency will exceed 40% and may even be as great as 50% to 60%. [0015] The numerous applications of the gas generator include systems whose applications are potentially unlimited. This is made possible through various auxiliary components which may be added on to augment the preferred embodiment's utility. Thus, converting the generator's power production to electricity, heat, kinetic energy and so on. Given the systems versatile design it may eliminate the need for a transmission, or could be adapted to be used with any type of transmission, electrical generator, air compressor and so on. The auxiliary components are easily affixed and adapted to the generator to convert it into the desired system.

[0016] The preferred embodiment can be used in the following systems:

1. A high power gas generator and related engine system;

2. A high efficiency output system;

3. A fuel efficient generator and power system;

4. An internal combustion engine system with a variable cycling system;

5. An internal combustion engine with a computer controlled cycling system;

6. A power unit that may use a wide variety of fuels;

7. A lightweight generator and power source;

8. A power source that has a reduced number of components;

9. A power source that substantially reduces pollution;

10. The use of water injection to cool the combustion chamber and yet increase the

amount of high pressure gas;

1 1. A power source that requires low maintenance;

12. A power source adaptable to any number of systems for any number of uses.

13. A power plant used to generate electricity for large commercial/industrial facilities or residential single or multiple family dwellings. [0017] Furthermore, it is an object of this application to illustrate the preferred applications and broadly state the methods that may be used in order to create an efficient power generator and related engine systems.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0018] Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the power system and generator of the preferred embodiment.

[0019] Fig. 2 is a cutaway view of the power system and generator in Fig. 1 showing the combustion chamber, coddler, fuel and oxidizer intakes, a fluid injector, and a pressure regulator. The function is also described.

[0020] Fig. 3a is a front perspective view of the coddler, illustrating its unique qualities.

[0021] Fig. 3b is a rear perspective view of the coddler, illustrating its unique qualities.

[0022] Fig. 4 is a block diagram illustrating the process used in the generator in Figs. 1 , 2, 3a, 3b, 5, 6 and 7a and 7b, including the combustion chamber, fuel supply, oxidizer supply, ignition system, fluid supply (water), auxiliary unit, engine, and computer control unit, and how these components provide a high volume flow of hot gases to perform the desired task.

[0023] Fig. 5 a perspective view with partial cutaway showing the generator in Fig. 1 and 2 being used in a system with auxiliary components, including a pressure regulator, a throttle valve, a pressure probe, a temperature probe, fuel tank, oxidizer tank, fuel injector, oxidizer injector, ignition system, a computer control system, an auxiliary unit, also referred to as a starter/generator, a fluid tank and fluid injector. A battery and condenser may also be used (not shown).

[0024] Fig. 6 is a perspective view of a variation of the preferred embodiment that utilizes a supercharger (or turbocharger)

[0025] Fig. 7a is a perspective view of a variation of the preferred embodiment that utilizes a supercharger and a partial-purge tube pressurizing the combustion chamber.

[0026] Fig. 7b is a perspective view of a variation of the preferred embodiment that utilizes a supercharger and a partial-purge tube in a recharge disposition. [0027] Fig. 8a is a perspective view of a variation of the preferred embodiment as used in a water (or fluid) treatment plant.

[0028] Fig. 8b is a perspective view of a variation of the dual chamber piping.

[0029] Fig. 8c is a perspective view of a variation of the single chamber piping.

[0030] Fig. 9 is a partial sectional view of the waste filtration system including a spray tree, coddler, igniter, waste collector and dual valve assembly.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

A. Description of the preferred embodiment

[0031] In Fig. 1 the central component in the generator system 10 is a combustion chamber 20, fuel injector system 30, oxidizer injector system 32, ignition system 34, and fluid injector system 40, which fluid injector is supplied by an external fluid supply and pump (not shown). Fuel injector system 30, oxidizer injector system 32, ignition system 34, and fluid injector 40 are located proximate to one another. Chamber 20 also has an outlet 50 located on an outer wall (or may be any other type of port assembly). Attached to chamber 20 are pressure probe 22 and temperature probe 24 and pressure failsafe valve 56. Attached to the outlet 50 of chamber 20 are pressure regulator 60 and a throttle valve 70.

[0032] In Fig. 2 fuel is delivered through fuel injector system 30. Simultaneously an oxidizer is delivered through oxidizer injector system 32. An expansive fluid is delivered in fluid inlet 40, through a supply line (not shown), and out fluid injector 44. Fuel and oxidizer are ignited by ignition system 34, which combusts the fuel and oxidizer mixture. This ignition generates tremendous heat and converts the expansive fluid into a gas. The expansion of the expansive fluid into a gas creates tremendous pressure within chamber 20. This pressure is released through outlet 50 and may be utilized in any number of power or energy generating capacities.

[0033] In Figs. 3a and 3b coddler 36 as shown in Fig. 2 is a ceramic cone that protects the combustion of the fuel and oxidizer mixture at the point where they are ignited. The role of coddler 36 is to act as heat sync, provide cooling and prevent turbulence in the chamber from interfering with the combustion of the fuel and oxidizer mixture. As illustrated in Fig. 3a, combustion occurs when fuel from fuel injector system 30 is discharged through fuel injector nozzle 31, while oxidizer from oxidizer system 32 is discharged through oxidizer nozzle 33, in which the combination is then ignited by igniter 35, which is the terminal end of ignition system 34.

[0034] Fuel injector system 30 and oxidizer injector system 32 may be located inside coddler 36 as illustrated, or may be mounted directly to the coddler. Likewise coddler 36 may be located in any desirable location inside chamber 20 including in a centralized location, or mounted onto the combustion chamber's wall. In some cases it may be acceptable to have no coddler, as ignition will nevertheless occur. This may be the case with a chamber that is designed to incorporate a coddler, a fuel system, an oxidizer system, and an ignition system that is more or less formed right into shape of the chamber itself. What is most important is that an igniter is at least somewhat proximate to the fuel and oxidizer injectors in order to have a successful ignition of the fuel and the oxidizer.

[0035] A pre-heater for the incoming water may also be used with the gas generator. After the water leaves the auxiliary unit pump the incoming water may be heated by coils, or other arrangement, either inside or outside of the gas generator combustion chamber. This allows for quicker expansion (evaporation) of the water spray as it is sprayed inside of the combustion chamber. This feature may or may not be used depending on the individual application.

B. The process in a typical use

[0036] Block diagram Fig. 4 illustrates the operation of the generator system 10 shown in Figs. 1 , 2, 3a and 3b. Computer control system C starts the preferred embodiment and commands the fuel supply F, and oxidizer supply X to inject fuel and oxidizer into combustion chamber 20. It also starts the auxiliary unit (starter/generator) A to pressurize expansive fluid W. Next, computer control system C sends the command for igniter I to ignite the mixture of fuel F and oxidizer X. Once a predetermined minimum temperature is achieved, expansive fluid W is also introduced into combustion chamber 20. Then, computer control system C monitors the internal pressure in chamber 20 from pressure probe 22 (see Figs. 1 and 2) and temperature probe 24 (see Figs. 1 and 2) inside chamber 20, and based on the desired application as programmed into computer control system C, it will further monitor the operation of the preferred embodiment and combustion chamber 20. This monitoring process regulates fuel F, oxidizer X and the internal hydration and evaporation of fluid W in order to maintain the desired operating pressure and temperature depending upon the application and the desired output. It will also maintain fail safe systems to shut down operation in the event of a malfunction, such as low water supply, high temperatures, high pressure, and so on. As illustrated in Fig. 4, the desired output is to operate engine E. It goes without saying that the interconnection between the computer control system C is interconnected with all components.

[0037] In the gas generator engine system an important component for proper operation is the computer control system. Other control systems may be used but a computer control system is typically the best. The complex operation of the gas generator driven engine system may make anything except a computer control system impracticable. The other operating systems that may be used would include a manual system, with one or more operators (personnel), a simple chip, microprocessor, a programmable logic control (PLC), a telephony application and so on may also be used.

This following Table 1 describes the operation sequence for typical vehicle mounted purposes: a mobile unit such as an automobile, truck, train, bus, tractor, airplane, and so on. A stationary or portable application would probably use a variation of the system based on the design and its intended purpose.

drives the electric motor/generator unit. The electric motor/generator unit switches from the electric motor drive mode to the electric generator mode once the auxiliary unit begins running from the steam generated in the combustion chamber. In some installations the auxiliary unit may be driven from a propeller shaft when the vehicle is being driven.

Once the desired operating pressure has been reached in the gas generator combustion

6 chamber, the vehicle is ready to operate; or the gas generator can be left in the stand-by mode with the vehicle at a stand-still.

The gas generator combustion chamber and the auxiliary unit will continue to operate in

7 the stand-by mode as long as needed. This includes running all other vehicle accessories such as air conditioning and so on.

8 When the vehicle is being driven the computer control unit controls the functions of the gas generator combustion chamber and the auxiliary unit.

The pressure in the gas generator combustion chamber varies and a pressure regulator

9 between the gas generator combustion chamber and the throttle valve provides the desired pressure. Without the pressure regulator the vehicle speed would vary as the gas combustion chamber pressure fluctuates.

The driver may have a manual device or the computer control system itself may select the combustion chamber operating pressure; where the power (pressure) setting in the gas

10 generator combustion chamber can be changed. A low pressure setting for in town driving, a medium pressure setting for normal driving and a high pressure setting for rapid acceleration or towing. Since the combustion chamber pressure can be changed by the driver, a variable pressure regulator is used for this application as an optional feature.

When the vehicle is being driven, the gas generator combustion chamber may be producing

11 additional pressure (a reserve) continuously or intermittently depending on engine demand.

The demand is based on vehicle speed and the power setting. This operation done with the computer control system can optimize operating efficiencies.

C. Operation of the preferred embodiment

[0038] Fig. 5 illustrates a typical process of the preferred embodiment as illustrated in Fig. 4 and Table 1 and includes a generator system 110 much like that described as generator system 10 in Figs. 1 and 2 with the addition of fuel tank 180, oxidizer tank 182, an expansive fluid tank 184, an output unit 200 (prior art), a computer control system C, Auxiliary unit (starter/generator) (prior art) 146. As illustrated, fuel is drawn from tank 180 through pressure regulator 186a, and into fuel injector 136a and injected into combustion chamber 120; and the oxidizer is drawn from oxidizer tank 182 through oxidizer regulator 186b and into injector 136b forming a combustible mixture inside the coddler (not shown) inside combustion chamber 120. This operation is much like that illustrated in Figs. 2, 3 and 4, and in Table 1. At the moment fluid is introduced (again, such as water) into combustion chamber 120, it is converted to a gaseous state and generates tremendous pressure (expansive power). This pressure is released through output 200, which in this example, turns impeller 202, which converts a forward moving pressure into a rotational force R. This force R drives a prior art device.

[0039] Fig. 5 shows a gas turbine being used as the driven engine; numerous other types of driven engines may be used. They include the typical reciprocating piston type steam engines, various types of steam turbines, a modified Wankel rotary engine, a Stirling engine may also be designed to operate with the generator.

[0040] As disclosed in Fig. 5 the superheated gases generated by the preferred embodiment will compromise the integrity of most metals if there is not adequate cooling. For example, if hydrogen and oxygen are used as the fuel and oxidizer, the heat of combustion would be approximately 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit. By using water as the expansive fluid and being injected into the chamber in a spray, it not only serves as an expansive fluid, but serves to cool the inside of the generator combustion chamber to a safe working temperature simultaneously vaporizing the water when the fuel/oxidizer mixture is ignited. The steam generated multiplies the work potential of the expanding gasses. The operation of the generator system as described herein is regulated by computer control system C as described in Figs. 4 and 5. This control system monitors the pressure, temperature, generator output, water injection, fuel and oxidizer mixture, ignition and so on, in order to operate the engine system to meet the requirements of each application.

E. Method of manufacture

[0041] The construction of the preferred embodiment may be done using currently available materials and manufacturing processes, such as machining, drilling, milling, cutting, welding, casting and so on. High temperature components of the preferred embodiment may require materials such as stainless steel, chrome molybdenum, titanium, and ceramics and so on. Likewise the construction and physical design and shape may include numerous variations. Examples of the materials used to construct the components and physical designs of the preferred embodiment would include:

1. Combustion chamber 20: Typically a cylinder or round-shaped chamber would be the strongest physical design, although any suitable shape may work. The preferred chamber would have at least one form of opening, such as an end cap, whereas the internal components may be mounted, attached and secured.

On a cylinder-shaped chamber the end cap may be a semi-spherical unit and may include one at each end. Such a design provides easy access to mount, attach, and secure the internal components during manufacturing. Likewise, the half- spherical end caps may provide access for future maintenance. The thickness of the walls of the chamber depend on the type of fuel used, the amount of heat generated, plus the maximum operating pressure that is needed, among other factors. The type of material used would obviously have an impact on the thickness of the walls in any given application. However, with the understanding that most applications will be generating substantial heat and pressure, the materials used to construct the chamber would typically be those such as stainless steel, chrome molybdenum and titanium. In the lower temperature and pressure ranges, suitable materials may include cast iron and perhaps aluminum and so on.

2. Fuel injector system 30: The injector is subject to high temperatures and pressure, thus would typically require a material such as stainless steel, chrome

molybdenum or titanium. Its physical construction also may be similar to any existing fuel injector, such as those used in the automobile, military, and aircraft industry and so on.

3. Oxidizer injector 32: Requires essentially the same physical characteristics as fuel injector 30.

4. Ignition system 34: Requires essentially the same physical characteristics as fuel injector 30. Coddler 36: The unique coddler may be constructed of ceramic, or a suitable metallic material, such as stainless steel, chrome molybdenum or titanium in order to withstand the highest temperature range within the chamber. Its shape is typically conical or somewhat tubular but may be in any number of forms that provide the desired effect. In certain applications no coddler may be required as previously described.

Pressure regulator 60 and throttle valve 70: These components would be built similar to currently available components with the possible exception that a variable pressure regulator may be desired for some applications. The material and construction would be similar to the other internal components to withstand the high temperatures and pressures.

F. Alternative applications

[0042] In the variation of the preferred embodiment in Fig. 6 the central component in the generator system 210 is a combustion chamber 220. This chamber 220 has a fuel injector system 230; an ignition system 234, a fluid injection system 240, and a supercharger (or turbocharger) 290. Fuel injector system 230, ignition system 234 and air from the supercharger are proximate to one another inside chamber 220 with sufficient space to accommodate a protective coddler 236 (not shown). The operation of this variation is much like that of the previously described inventions in Figs. 1-5, with the exception of the addition of a supercharger 290, which would be adaptable to common fuels such as gasoline, kerosene and other liquid fuels and natural gas and so on. The variation using supercharger 290 (instead of an oxidizer system like the oxidizer system 32 of Fig. 2), with present invention 210 includes an air intake 292, air intake valve 294 adjacent a wall in chamber 220, an exhaust valve and system 296, and affixed to outlet 250 is pressure regulator 260 and a throttle valve 270. Like the preferred embodiment in Fig. 2, the components inside and outside of chamber 220 are operated by a computer control system C (not shown, see Fig. 5). In Fig. 6 fuel is delivered through fuel injector system 230.

Simultaneously supercharger 290 provides the air oxidizer through intake 292 and intake valve 294, then inside the chamber. Fluid is an expansive fluid that is delivered in fluid system 240. When the fuel and air mixture is ignited by ignition system 234, it combusts the fuel and supercharged air mixture. When the pressure in the chamber is below the desired operating level, valve 296 open to exhaust the spent gases, and after the gases have been exhausted valve 296 closes and valve 294 opens to allow the supercharger to replenish pressurized air in chamber 220. Like the preferred embodiment in Fig. 2, this ignition generates high heat and converts expansive fluid into a gaseous state. The expansion of the fluid into a gas creates high pressure within chamber 220. This pressure is released through outlet 250 and may be utilized in any number of applications. The variations in figures 6 and 7 may use two or more combustion chambers, depending on the application, to insure constant pressure. This may include a plenum.

[0043] The preferred embodiment 310 in Figs. 7a and 7b is essentially the same invention 210 as illustrated in Fig. 6 with the addition of a partial-purge tube 398 and a valve 399. In this generator system 310 coddler 336, fuel injection system 330, fluid injection system 340, and igniter 334 are located inside partial-purge tube 398. In this generator, fuel is delivered by fuel injection system 330. Simultaneously supercharger 390 provides the air through intake inlet 392 and intake valve 394 and into the partial-purge tube 398, up-stream from valve 399. The expansive fluid is delivered in fluid injection system 340. When the fuel and air are ignited by igniter 334, it combusts the supercharged fuel and air mixture. As illustrated in Fig. 7a in a normal operating disposition, when the pressure in the partial-purge tube 398 reaches the desired pressure, it is released into chamber 320 through valve 399, and serves the purpose of allowing high pressure into chamber 320 and thus functions much like generator 210.

[0044] As illustrated in Fig. 7b, when valve 399 diverts the air flow out through partial- purge tube 398 and through exhaust valve 396 to allow the spent mixture to exhaust downstream from valve 399 as shown by the curved arrows in Fig. 7b. Likewise the supercharger effect with the exhaust valve 396 are essentially the same as described in Fig. 6. Valve 399 may be a piston-type valve, slide gate valve, a pressure operated valve and so on. The primary reason for using the unique partial-purge tube is to eliminate the need to fill the entire combustion chamber, preserve the gas already in the chamber and to maintain a more constant pressure in the chamber.

[0045] In Figs. 8a, 8b, 8c and 9, the water treatment plant of the preferred embodiment 410 is a variation of the preferred embodiments as previously described in the in the preceding figures with a combustion chamber 420. This chamber 420 has a fuel injection system, and oxidizer injection system as described in Figs. 1 and 2. It would probably not be supercharged (or turbocharged) as described in Figs. 6, 7a and 7b. Unlike the chambers in the previous figures, chamber 420 has a precipitant collector 421 at its base, which collects particles being filtered out of the water to be treated, which process will be subsequently described in detail. The water to be treated is fed from water inlet 442, which is being pumped by water pump 446 through dual interconnected tubular piping 448 in the direction illustrated by arrows, until it enters chamber 420 at connection 449.

[0046] As illustrated in Fig. 8b, the dual piping system serves the purpose of preheating the incoming water. Typically the water to be treated begins in a relatively cool temperature but is increased by the treated, purified heated (or hot) water. This heated water is exiting the chamber though pipe 448 in the opposing direction as the incoming water. In other words, incrementally cooling the exiting hot water, and incrementally heating the cool incoming water. Otherwise all other piping in the system is like that illustrated in Fig. 8c.

[0047] Upon entering chamber 420 the water to be treated is heated to the point where it is vaporized, thus allow precipitants to fall by gravity into the precipitant collector 421. The vaporized water (steam) being under pressure and is released out of outlet 450 through single tube exit pipe 462. As shown the vaporized water condenses during its travel (shown by arrows) through exit pipe 462 and connects to junction 464, where its route then travels in the opposite direction in the second of the two interconnected tubes in piping 448.

Subsequently, the hot condensed water in the second of the two interconnected tubes is warming up the incoming water to be treated, improving the efficiency by reducing the amount of energy required to vaporize the water to be treated in chamber 420. Likewise the vaporized water leaving chamber 420 is condensed into distilled water.

[0048] At junction 466 the warm condensed, distilled water leaves the dual interconnected tubular piping 448 and goes out single tube pipe 468 to be stored, used, or handled as desired. The distilled water may be used as drinking water, such as with a salt water conversion system, or any number of internal plant operations. Utilizing an appropriate length of exit piping 462 the temperature may be maintained at an elevated level and used as a heating supply within a city, building, and so on. It may also be admixed through metering back into the water to be treated to dilute an otherwise polluting precipitant, making it suitable for use with crops, or any number of commercial or industrials applications.

Whether the precipitant is a pollutant or contaminant, the extracted precipitants may indeed have significant commercial value. For example, treating water in silicon chip and computer manufacturing plants may extract significant amounts of silver and gold.

[0049] Also illustrated in Fig. 8a is an improved method to condense the vaporized water leaving chamber 420. Part of the cooler water to be treated is pumped by pump 446 through a single tube pipe 470 which then wraps around piping 462 serving as condenser 472 to assist in condensing the water vapor that is exiting chamber 420. The cool water entering condenser 472 then exits through piping 474 and circulates back into the original piping 443 through one way valve 476. The size and length of condenser 472 may vary to help cool the vaporized water faster and cooler depending on the output temperature desired for the distilled water. It goes without saying that if a high temperature is desired, no condenser may be required.

[0050] The variations in Figs. 8a, 8b, 8c and 9, work on the same principle as generators shown previously in figures 1 , 2, and 5. In Fig. 9 the chamber 420 the spray tree 445 replaces the fluid injector 40 as shown in the above mentioned figures. Spray tree 445 allows a greater volume of fluid to be introduced to the chamber 420 than injectors could provide. The variation in Figs. 8a, 8b, 8c and Fig. 9 is required to process contaminated fluid instead of providing steam power to perform work. In Fig. 9 the bottom of chamber 420 is shown a collector 421 where particulate may be caught as these solids are separated from the fluid as vaporization occurs. The particulate can be removed through the use of two valves 423 and 425, whereas particulate is released below valve 423 but not past valve 425, thus maintaining pressure with generator 410/420. Then after closure of valve 423, valve 425 may be opened and the particulate completely removed from the system.

G Variations

[0051] In the previous examples and applications of the preferred embodiment, there are numerous ways to cool the inside of the combustion chamber. For example, instead of pumping (spraying) water into the combustion chamber, excess air in the combustion chamber may be used for cooling; or a double walled generator may be used and pressurized air may be forced into an outer portion of the chamber. The outer portion of the double walled chamber may be used to circulate water through a radiator type cooling system. Variations of internal piping configurations may be used to provide internal cooling with a radiator system. Also air cooling lines or fins on the outside of the chamber may also be used to provide chamber cooling.

[0052] Valves used throughout the preferred embodiment and its systems, appear as

representations and may be in any number of forms such as slide gate valves, rotary valves and so on. Not illustrated herein are valve actuators, which may be of any number of commonly used types.

[0053] The previously described gas generators use a fuel and some form of air or oxygen to provide power. This variation may use a monopropellant such as hydrogen peroxide or hydrazine and so on. Any one of the monopropellant fuels may be used to provide power instead of the previously mentioned fuel and oxygen combinations for the generator.

[0054] The following concept may be used for rocket engines to assist in the initial, vertical liftoff from the ground. A rocket engine may use preheated or cold water that is not carried onboard the rocket to supplement the rocket engine power. Controlled water metering may provide the desired temperature and amount of steam produced. The ground mounted supply of water may be delivered to the rocket engine for the first 20 to 50 feet, or more, of liftoff. The water may cool the rocket engine exhaust slightly, while the evaporating water would quickly turn to steam, producing additional power (thrust) from the rapidly expanding steam. The area around the ignition point may have a spray arrangement (a spray tree) to deliver the water. The water may be delivered through the center or sides of the rocket engine exhaust nozzle by using a delivery line that rises with the rocket at liftoff. This may be a telescoping arrangement similar to an auto repair hydraulic lift or a hydraulic elevator lift. Another method may be to use a breakaway line from a high point on the tower. This method may not be as desirable as the previously mentioned method. By using this system the amount of fuel carried onboard the rocket may be reduced, or used onboard after liftoff. Additional rocket fuel may also be delivered in this same manner, preferably a liquid fuel. This system may deliver the water for steam and may also deliver additional rocket fuel by using one line inside of the other. The fuel line may be the inner line. This uses some of the same technology used in the Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV gas generators described previously.

[0055] The Gas Generators described in the text and drawing sections will be referred to as Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV as follows:

Type 1 gas generator is shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig5.

Type II gas generator is shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 5.

Type III gas generator is shown in Fig. 7A and Fig. 7B and Fig. 5.

Type IV water treatment generator is shown in Fig. 8A, Fig. 8B, Fig. 8C and Fig. 9.

[0056] For Type I, Type II, and Type III gas generators and driven engine system, a two-part engine system includes a gas generator and a driven engine system. The gas generator includes a combustion chamber that receives fuel, oxidizer, and water; an igniter coupled to the combustion chamber. In one embodiment, the engine system has a combustion chamber that receives fuel, oxidizer, and water; an igniter coupled to the combustion chamber; and a computer control system, (controller) including sensors to sense pressure and temperature in the

combustion chamber, wherein the controller controls the amount of fuel, oxidizer, and water in the chamber, and actuates the igniter to produce hot gasses and steam to drive an engine(s). The operation of the engine can include the following: pressurizing and controlling the amount of water at a predetermined water injection pressure; injecting oxygen, or air, and hydrogen, or other fuels, into a combustion chamber in a coddler and firing an ignition system and; spraying pressurized water into the combustion chamber to create expansive gasses from the products of combustion and steam; and applying the products of combustion and steam to drive an engine and an auxiliary unit, if needed. The system includes controlling the throttle valve in some cases, or if no valve is needed, it controls the gas generator output. The driven engine(s) are powered by the products of combustion and steam produced by the gas generator(s). Almost any type of engine or engines may be driven; this includes a reciprocating piston (a steam engine), a gas turbine, a modified Wankel, or future engine. an auxiliary unit to provide system support for the operation of the complete gas generator and driven engine system. The auxiliary unit operation is controlled by the computer control system. The gas generator and driven engine system that can be used in a mobile, stationary or portable application. Driving a vehicle and producing additional pressure (a reserve) continuously or intermittently depending on engine demand based on vehicle speed and the power setting. The construction of the gas generators may be either in a modular form or as a single unit. The system uses fuels and oxidizers to produce high pressure gases. The oxidizers can be oxygen, and or air. The gas generator combustion chamber includes a coddler to protect the fuel and oxidizer during combustion. The coddler also introduces spray to produce steam in addition to the products of combustion and may also use a water spray assembly (spray tree). The generator comprises an internally fired pressure vessel. The generator comprises a boiler with combustion products and steam. A throttle valve can be used for permitting, if needed, the combustion chamber to build up and store a predetermined working pressure of hot gasses and steam. A pressure regulator can be used, if needed. One embodiment of the computer control system can control the gas generator(s) and driven engine(s) system including the auxiliary unit operation in accordance with Table 1 - Engine Operating Sequence and the information described in block diagram shown in Fig. 4. Any number of computer programs could be written to accomplish controlling the system; what is important is the sequencing of the operation for controlling the system. The computer control system would be tailored to each individual application, depending on the Type (I, II or III), number of generators and whether the use is for a mobile, stationary or portable installation. The generator encloses products of combustion and steam after ignition and produces them in a useable and manageable form. The system can include a rocket engine and a cover over the rocket engine. The gas generator produces power as high pressure gasses and then routes the high pressure gasses to drive an engine. One or more valves can route the high pressure gases. The driven engine is closely-coupled or remote. A plurality of engines can be driven from the gas generator(s). An auxiliary unit can be driving one or more of a water pump, a fuel pump, an oxidizer pump, an exhaust vacuum pump, an engine oil pump, an air conditioning compressor, if needed, and an electric motor/generator. Type I gas generator would not normally use a fuel or oxidizer pump since the gasses are stored in tanks under high pressure. The operation of the auxiliary unit is controlled by the computer control system. The engine can be used for driving a vehicle and producing additional pressure (a reserve) continuously or intermittently depending on engine demand based on vehicle speed and the power setting. The construction of the gas generators may be either in a modular form or as a single unit.

[0057] For Type II and Type III, Fig. 6, Fig. 7a and 7b type of gas generators and driven engine system, the combustion chamber of these two types of gas generators is supplied with air by supercharger(s), or turbocharger(s). The inlet and exhaust valves provide the intake of a fresh charge of air; and the exhaust valve exhausts the spent products of combustion and steam. The exhaust may be vented to the atmosphere or condensed, cleaned and the water may be recycled or reused if desired. Multiple engines or a plenum may be used to provide a constant source of power to drive an engine(s). Air is supplied to the gas generator by a automotive type of supercharger(s) or turbocharger(s). The intake and exhaust valves operate as designed for the proper intake of air, and the exhaust of spent products of combustion and steam, if used. A condenser can be used if water recovery is desired. Multiple engines or a plenum can deliver a more constant supply of hot gasses.

[0058] For Type III only, Fig. 7a and 7b gas generator and driven engine system, the combustion chamber of the gas generator with the partial-purge tube (tube) allows for the smaller amount of spent gasses in the tube to be exhausted and a fresh charge of air to be introduced into the tube without exhausting the entire combustion chamber of the gas generator. Fuel can then be injected into the tube with the air for ignition. When combustion is complete the valve allows the hot gasses (and steam if used) to flow into the full chamber. This system allows most of the temperature and pressure to be retained in the main chamber. After the hot gasses in the full chamber have reached the minimum low working level, the partial-purge tube valve closes and then the remaining hot gasses in the tube are exhausted. When most of the hot gasses have been exhausted, the exhaust valve remains open for a short time and the intake valve opens and completes the purging of the exhaust. Then the exhaust valve closes and the intake remains open momentarily to put a highly compressed charge of air in the tube. A partial-purge tube can allow the products of combustion and steam, if used to pressurize the complete gas generator combustion chamber, including the partial-purge tube without completely exhausting of depressurizing the full gas generator chamber. [0059] For Type IIII, Fig. 8a, 8b, 8c and Fig. 9, a water (or other fluid) treatment system can use the gas generator system to produce steam so that any solid particles may precipitate to the bottom of the collector bin. This will allow the water to be purified and distilled. The preferred fuels would be hydrogen and oxygen since they would not introduce additional pollutants. The burning of hydrogen and oxygen would produce an additional amount of water. Other fuels and oxidizers may be used. A gas generator can be used to generate a high temperature to produce steam to purify and distill water or other liquid. A coddler can introduce and ignite the fuel and oxidizer used to produce steam and the products of combustion within the chamber. One or more spray tree(s) can assist in vaporizing the hot water to allow the particulate to precipitate into the bottom of the collector, and later be discharged, through the double valve assembly without depressurizing the entire gas generator combustion chamber. A dual chambered piping system can efficiently and effectively cool the outgoing steam and heat the cool incoming water to be treated, thus reducing the amount of energy required to produce steam. A pump and condenser system with a single chamber pipe can be used to cool the steam from the gas generator just as it leaves generator. A waste collector bin can be used at the bottom of the gas generator. There is space in the bin to collect a predetermined amount of particulate matter, and when the bin is full, the top valve opens and the material drops to the area between the top valve and the bottom valve. The top valve closes and then the bottom valve opens to release the particulate matter to the outside environment for sale or disposal. The bottom valve closes and the system is ready to operate the same cycle again when the bin is full. This system is used to avoid having the gas generator lose the high internal pressure. A valve at the inlet to the gas generator combustion chamber can be used to meter the incoming water at the proper rate to allow for the steam to be at the correct temperature and pressure to allow the particulate matter to settle by gravity into the bin.

[0060] The system can be used as a rocket usage for liftoff assistance. This system may be used for rocket engines during liftoff. Using technology as previously described for Type I, II, III and IV gas generators and applying it to assist in the first 10 to 50 feet or more, of liftoff to add additional liftoff thrust and to reduce the amount of fuel carried onboard or provide onboard uses for the fuel. This system would use a hydraulic or pneumatic telescoping device to rise with the rocket at liftoff. Another option would be to attach a breakaway line from high on the launching tower. A spray tree would be used to spray water into the area immediately outside of the area where the fuel is being combusted. The water would quickly turn to steam and add additional thrust to the rocket engine. The water may be cold or preheated and needed. A liquid rocket fuel and oxidizer may also be provided through this delivery system and would add even more power (thrust). Safety systems would monitor the delivery system and the rocket liftoff, and shut the delivery system down if necessary. The gas generators Type I, II, III and IV can assist in the initial liftoff of a rocket. A telescoping system can provide water and or fuel to assist in the initial liftoff. A breakaway line from high on the launching tower may be another option. A third option would be to spray ground mounted fixed nozzles to spray water into the rocket engine with the pressure increased as the rocket lifts off. The heat from the burning of the rocket engine can turn the water spray into steam, thereby adding additional thrust and slightly cooling the rocket engine exhaust. The engine heat would also ignite any additional fuel and oxidizer that were introduced to the engine. Unlike a similar engine system that uses a gas generator with a rocket engine type of combustion chamber, that system uses an axial (or semi-axial) flow gas turbine, similar to the aft section of a jet engine. This other engine may be considered a rocket powered jet engine. In essence it would be a modified Brayton cycle. This engine is normally stationary though, and the primary use is to generate electricity.

[0061] The spirit (Intent) of the present invention provides a breadth of scope that includes all methods of manufacture and methods of using the present inventions. Any variation on the theme (concept) and methodology of accomplishing the same that are not described herein would be considered within the scope of the present invention.