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Title:
PRE-PACKED POWER CELL, POWER MODULE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING PRE-PACKED POWER CELL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/187400
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a pre-packed power cell comprising: a power die, embedded in an electrically insulating core, two first electrically conductive layers embedded in the electrically insulating core and having contact pads respectively connected to the power die through first vias, two second electrically conductive layers on opposite main surfaces of the core, and having contact pads respectively connected to the contact pads of each first electrically conductive layer through second vias, wherein the second conductive layers have a thickness greater than the thickness of the first conductive layers, the surface area of a contact pad of a first layer is greater than that of the electrical contact of the power die, the surface area of a contact pad of a second layer is greater or equal to that of the contact pad of the first electrically conductive layer to which it is connected.

Inventors:
PERRIN, Remi (1 allee de Beaulieu CS 10806 RENNES Cedex 7, 35708, FR)
MORAND, Julien (1 allee de Beaulieu CS 10806 RENNES Cedex 7, 35708, FR)
MRAD, Roberto (1 allee de Beaulieu CS 10806 RENNES Cedex 7, 35708, FR)
EWANCHUK, Jeffrey (1 allee de Beaulieu CS 10806 RENNES Cedex 7, 35708, FR)
MOLLOV, Stefan (1 allee de Beaulieu CS 10806 RENNES Cedex 7, 35708, FR)
Application Number:
JP2018/046672
Publication Date:
October 03, 2019
Filing Date:
December 12, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC CORPORATION (7-3 Marunouchi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo, 10, 10083, JP)
MISTUBISHI ELECTRIC R&D CENTRE EUROPE B. V. (Capronilaan 46, NS Schiphol Rijk, 1119, NL)
International Classes:
H01L23/48; H01L21/48; H01L23/00; H01L23/522; H01L23/538
Foreign References:
DE102008040906A12010-02-04
US20160293579A12016-10-06
US20160240471A12016-08-18
US9425131B22016-08-23
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SOGA, Michiharu et al. (S. SOGA & CO, 8th Floor Kokusai Building, 1-1, Marunouchi 3-chome, Chiyoda-k, Tokyo 05, 10000, JP)
Download PDF:
Claims:
[CLAIMS]

[Claim 1]

A pre-packed power cell comprising:

a power die, having at least two electrical contacts on opposite sides of the power die,

an electrically insulating core, wherein the power die is embedded in the electrically insulating core,

two first electrically conductive layers embedded in the electrically insulating core and having contact pads respectively connected to each electrical contact of the power die through first vias arranged in the electrically insulating core,

two second electrically conductive layers on opposite main surfaces of the core, and having contact pads respectively connected to the contact pads of each first electrically conductive layer through second vias arranged in the electrically insulating core,

characterized in that the second electrically conductive layers have a thickness greater than the thickness of the first electrically conductive layers, in that the surface area of a contact pad of a first electrically conductive layer is greater than the surface area of the electrical contact of the power die to which it is connected,

and in that the surface area of a contact pad of a second electrically conductive layer is greater or equal to than the surface area of the contact pad of the first electrically conductive layer to which it is connected.

[Claim 2]

A pre-packed power cell according to claim 1 , wherein the thickness of the second electrically conductive layers is at least ten times the thickness of the first electrically conductive layers.

[Claim 3]

A pre-packed power cell according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the electrically insulating core is made in one of the following materials: FR4, polyimide, HTCC, LTCC.

[Claim 4]

A pre-packed power cell according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the pre-packed power cell has electrical contacts arranged in the second electrically conductive layers, and formed by the contact pads of said second electrically conductive layers.

[Claim 5]

A pre-packed power cell according to any of the preceding claims, comprising a density of first vias between each first electrically conductive layer and respectively each electrical contact of the power die of at least30 vias/mm2.

[Claim 6]

A pre-packed power cell according to any of the preceding claims, comprising a density of second vias between each first electrically conductive layer and respectively each second electrically conductive layer lower or equivalent than the density of first vias.

[Claim 7]

A pre-packed power cell according to any of the preceding claims, further comprising a control die adapted to control the power die, the control die being embedded in the electrically insulating core and being connected to the first electrically conductive layers by third vias arranged in the electrically insulating core. [Claim 8]

A pre-packed power cell according to claim 7, wherein the power die is connected to the control die through the first electrically conductive layers. [Clam 9]

A pre-packed power cell according to claim 7 or 8, wherein the power die is a wide band gap semiconductor device.

[Claim 10]

A pre-packed power cell according to any of the preceding claims, further comprising at least one passive component embedded in the electrically insulating core and being connected to the second electrically conductive layers by fourth vias.

[Claim 11]

A power module, comprising at least a substrate and a plurality of power dies connected to the substrate, wherein the power module comprises at least one pre-packed power cell according to any of the preceding claims, each pre-packed power cell being connected to the substrate and incorporating one of the power dies of the power module.

[Claim 12]

A method for manufacturing a pre-packed power cell according to any of claims 1 to 10, comprising :

forming at least a cavity of a size of a power die in a first layer of electrically insulating material,

placing the or each power die in a respective cavity,

laminating an electrically isolating layer and first electrically conductive layers on opposite sides of the obtained layer of electrically isolating layer in order to obtain an intermediate structure comprising a layer of electrically insulating material, embedding the power die, between two first layers of electrically conductive material,

drilling first holes and metallizing the first holes in order to connect the at least one power die to the electrically conductive layers,

etching the first electrically conductive layers in order to obtain a layout, laminating additional isolation layers and on opposite main surfaces of the intermediate structure, and providing second electrically conductive layer on each additional isolation layer, wherein the second additional conductive layers have a thickness greater than the thickness of the first electrically conductive layers,

drilling second holes and metallizing the second holes in order to connect the first and additional conductive layers,

etching the second electrically conductive layers in order to obtain another layout.

[Claim 13]

A method according to claim 12, wherein the first drilling step is performed by laser drilling and the second drilling step is performed by mechanical drilling.

[Claim 14]

A method according to claim 12 or 13, wherein each step of metallizing holes is performed by electro-deposition.

[Claim 15]

A method according to any of claims 12 to 14, wherein the second holes have a diameter of at least 0.4 mm, and the method further comprises a step of filling the second holes.

Description:
[DESCRIPTION]

[Title of Invention]

PRE-PACKED POWER CELL, POWER MODULE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING PRE-PACKED POWER CELL

[Technical Field]

[0001]

The invention relates to a pre-packed power cell comprising a power die embedded in a substrate, to a power module comprising such a pre-packed power cell, and to a manufacturing method thereof.

[Background Art]

[0002]

Power dies, such as diodes or various types of transistors (MOSFET, JFET, IGBT) are elementary components of power modules which are used for the control and conversion of electric power, for instance in applications such as the automotive or aeronautic industries.

[0003]

Currently the most common way to connect a power die to other components, for instance in a power module, is by using an insulated plate such as Direct Bonded Copper (DBC) Substrate, which comprises a ceramic tile covered on at least one side with a sheet of copper. Power dies are soldered or sintered on the DBC Substrate on one side, and connected on the other side of the die by wire bonded or ribbons that are ultrasonic welded on the die metallization.

[0004]

The constant increase in switching frequency and power density of power dies leads to a constant need for thermal enhancement, volume reduction and reliability increase of the power modules.

[0005]

In this perspective, the traditional connection of a power die on a substrate has a number of limitations and drawbacks, among which the high parasitic level and low reliability of the wire bonds, as well as the inductance they incur.

[0006]

Moreover, the manufacturing process of a power module is quite complex and expensive because of the fragility of the power dies, and also because the electrical contacts of a power die are very small, which makes it difficult to perform wire-bonding. The complex manufacturing process also implies a lack of flexibility in the power dies placement because the available space is allocated according to the design and the possibilities of connections of the various dies.

[0007]

An emerging technology proposes embedding dies in PCB substrate in order to obtain pre-packed power cells. For instance, document US20160240471 proposes to embed wide band-gap dies such as GaN transistors in a PCB substrate in order to reduce the drawbacks incurred by the wire bonds, and in particular to bring contact pads of the cell as close as possible to the die itself.

[0008]

It is also known from document US9425131 a packaged structure incorporating at least one electronic component embedded in a PCB substrate and connected to conductive layers through vias. In this type of structure the PCT substrate is used as a mechanical layer to easily connect the die to larger electrical contacts. Moreover, the embedding of the die inside a substrate reduces the mechanical stresses on the die and increases the reliability and lifetime of the die. The fabrication process is also simplified.

[0009]

However the structure disclosed in this document is not adapted for high power applications, because it can be anticipated that the low thickness of the conductive layers and the limited number of vias to connect said layers to the die are not appropriate for transmitting high currents. Moreover for high power applications the thermal dissipation provided by this structure may not be sufficient.

[Summary of Invention]

[0010]

In view of the above, the invention aims at providing a power electronic packaging which is more reliable, more robust, easier to produce and less expensive than in the prior art.

[001 1]

Another aim of the invention is to provide a packaging of an electronic component that is adapted to high power applications, in particular by allowing efficient thermal and current spreading.

[0012]

Another aim of the invention is to provide an elementary cell having a packed power die which placement in a power module can be rendered mode flexible in order to further reduce the manufacturing cost and complexity of a power module.

[0013]

Accordingly, a pre-packed power cell is disclosed, comprising: a power die, having at least two electrical contacts on opposite sides of the power die,

an electrically insulating core, wherein the power die is embedded in the electrically insulating core,

two first electrically conductive layers embedded in the electrically insulating core and having contact pads respectively connected to each electrical contact of the power die through first vias arranged in the electrically insulating core,

two second electrically conductive layers on opposite main surfaces of the core, and having contact pads respectively connected to the contact pads of each first electrically conductive layer through second vias arranged in the electrically insulating core,

characterized in that the second electrically conductive layers have a thickness greater than the thickness of the first electrically conductive layers, in that the surface area of a contact pad of a first electrically conductive layer is greater than the surface area of the electrical contact of the power die to which it is connected,

and in that the surface area of a contact pad of a second electrically conductive layer is greater or equal to than the surface area of the contact pad of the first electrically conductive layer to which it is connected.

[0014]

In embodiments, the thickness of the second electrically conductive layers is at least ten times the thickness of the first electrically conductive layers.

[0015]

The electrically insulating core may be made in one of the following materials: FR4, polyimide, HTCC, LTCC.

[0016]

The pre-packed power cell may have electrical contacts arranged in the second electrically conductive layers, and formed by the contact pads of said second electrically conductive layers.

[0017]

In embodiments, the pre-packed power cell comprises a density of first vias between each first electrically conductive layer and respectively each electrical contact of the power die of at least 30 vias/mm 2 .

[0018]

The density of second vias between each first electrically conductive layer and respectively each second electrically conductive layer may be lower or equivalent than the density of first vias.

[0019]

In embodiments, the pre-packed power cell may further comprise a control die adapted to control the power die, the control die being embedded in the electrically insulating core and being connected to the first electrically conductive layers by third vias arranged in the electrically insulating core.

[0020]

The power die is preferably connected to the control die through the first electrically conductive layers.

[0021]

The power die may be a wide band gap semiconductor device.

[0022]

The pre-packed power cell may further comprise at least one passive component embedded in the electrically insulating core and being connected to the second electrically conductive layers by fourth vias.

[0023]

According to another object, a power module is disclosed comprising at least a substrate and a plurality of power dies connected to the substrate, wherein the power module comprises at least one pre-packed power cell according to the description above, each pre-packed power cell being connected to the substrate and incorporating one of the power dies of the power module.

[0024]

According to another object, a method for manufacturing a pre-packed power cell is disclosed, comprising:

forming at least a cavity of a size of a power die in a first layer of electrically insulating material,

placing the or each power die in a respective cavity,

laminating an electrically isolating layer and first electrically conductive layers on opposite sides of the obtained layer of electrically isolating layer in order to obtain an intermediate structure comprising a layer of electrically insulating material, embedding the power die, between two first layers of electrically conductive material,

drilling first holes and metallizing the first holes in order to connect the at least one power die to the electrically conductive layers,

etching the first electrically conductive layers in order to obtain a layout, laminating additional isolation layers and on opposite main surfaces of the intermediate structure, and providing second electrically conductive layer on each additional isolation layer, wherein the second additional conductive layers have a thickness greater than the thickness of the first electrically conductive layers,

drilling second holes and metallizing the second holes in order to connect the first and additional conductive layers,

etching the second electrically conductive layers in order to obtain another layout.

[0025]

The first drilling step is preferably performed by laser drilling and the second drilling step is performed by mechanical drilling.

[0026]

Each step of metallizing holes may be performed by electro-deposition.

[0027]

Preferably, the second holes have a diameter of at least 0.4 mm, and the method further comprises a step of filling the second holes.

[0028]

The proposed invention resolves the above recited problems by close coupling a power die to thick electrically conductive layers through intermediate, thinner electrically conductive layers and respective vias. The surface increase between the electrical contact of the die and the thicker electrically conductive layers, allows transmitting high currents to the die and allows efficient thermal dissipation. Moreover the intermediate thin layer allows laser drilling of a great density of thin vias between the intermediate thin layer and the power die, while the thick external layers require mechanical drilling of enlarges vias. The thin layer also acts as an intermediate for the manufacturing process.

[0029]

The proposed pre-packed power cell improves the robustness of the die by embedding the die in an insulating substrate, and facilitates the embedding process and the subsequent integration as well as the reliability of a power module incorporating said cell.

[0030]

In addition, the invention makes it possible to incorporate a control die of a power die inside a pre-packed power cell, to bring a control dies and power die closer from one another and further reduce parasitic effects and resistance incurred by lengthy connections.

[0031]

Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description given by way of non-limiting example, with reference to the accompanying drawings.

[Brief Description of Drawings]

[0032]

[Fig. la]

Figure la schematically shows a pre-packed power cell according to two embodiments of the invention.

[Fig. lb]

Figure lb schematically shows a pre-packed power cell according to two embodiments of the invention.

[Fig. 2]

Figure 2 schematically shows a power module comprising at least one pre-packed power cell according to an embodiment of the invention.

[Fig. 3]

Figure 3 is a diagram showing the main steps of a manufacturing process according to an embodiment of the invention. [Fig. 4a]

Figure 4a schematically represents one of the main steps of a manufacturing process according to an embodiment of the invention.

[Fig. 4b]

Figure 4b schematically represents one of the main steps of a manufacturing process according to an embodiment of the invention.

[Fig. 4c]

Figure 4c schematically represents one of the main steps of a manufacturing process according to an embodiment of the invention.

[Fig. 4d]

Figure 4d schematically represents one of the main steps of a manufacturing process according to an embodiment of the invention.

[Description of Embodiments]

[0033]

With reference to figures la and lb, a pre-packed power cell 1 according an embodiment of the invention will now be described.

[0034]

The pre-packed power cell 1 comprises a power die 10. The power die may be a diode or a transistor such as a MOSFET, JFET or IGBT. In embodiments, the power die 10 is made from a wide bandgap semiconductor, i.e a semiconductor having a bandgap in the range of 2-4 eV. For instance, the power die may be made in Silicon Carbide SiC or in Gallium Nitride GaN.

[0035]

The power die has electrical contacts 11 on opposite sides of the power die. In an embodiment, the power die 10 is a diode and has two electrical contacts. In another embodiment, the power die 10 is a transistor and has three electrical contacts comprising a gate, a source and a drain, or a gate, an emitter and a collector, according to the type of transistor.

[0036]

The pre-packed power cell 1 further comprises an electrically insulating core 20, in which the power die 10 is embedded. Preferably, the electrically insulating core has low thermal resistance to provide better heat dissipation.

[0037]

The electrically insulating core 20 may be made of FR-4 glass epoxy, polyimide, or in ceramic such as HTCC (High Temperature Co-fired Ceramic) or LTCC (Low Temperature Co- fired Ceramic).

[0038]

In addition, the pre-packed power cell 1 further comprises two first electrically conductive layers 30, also embedded in the electrically insulating core 20 and arranged on both sides of the power die. Each first electrically conductive layer 30 is connected to at least an electrical contact of the power die through respective first vias 40 arranged in the electrically insulating substrate.

[0039]

The first electrically conductive layers 30 are patterned to be properly connected to the contacts of the power die. In particular, each electrically conductive layer 30 has at least one contact pad 31 adapted to be connected to a respective contact of the power die.

[0040]

Last, the pre-packed power cell 1 further comprises two second electrically conductive layers 50, which are positioned on opposite main surfaces of the electrically insulating core 20. Each second electrically conductive layer 50 is also patterned to provide appropriate connections to other components, for instance components of a power module.

[0041]

Each second electrically conductive layer 50 comprises at least one contact pad 51 connected to a respective contact pad 31 of a first electrically conductive layer 30 through respective second vias 60 arranged in the electrically insulating substrate.

[0042]

The first and second electrically conductive layers are preferably made in copper.

[0043]

In addition, as shown schematically on figure 1, the thickness of the second electrically conductive layers 50 is greater than the thickness of the first electrically conductive layers 30. Preferably, the thickness of the second electrically conductive layers is at least ten times the thickness of the first electrically conductive layers. For instance, the thickness of the first electrically conductive layers may be about 35 pm, and the thickness of the second electrically conductive layers may be at least 70 pm, for instance equal to 400 pm.

[0044]

Moreover, the surface area of a contact pad of a second electrically conductive layer 50 is greater than or equal to the surface area of the contact pad 31 of a first electrically conductive layer 31 to which it is connected; and the surface area of said contact pad 31 of the first electrically conductive layer 30 is greater than the surface area of the power die electrical contact 11 to which it is connected.

[0045]

The contact pads 51 of a second electrically conductive layer also form electrical contacts 2 of the power cell 1, for its connection to other components, for instance within a power module.

[0046]

Therefore, the electrical contacts of the power cell 1 are larger than those 11 of the power die 10. This offers an improved and a flexible fan out for a final assembly process of a power module including such a power cell. It also reduces the complexity and the precision requested during the assembly process.

[0047]

Moreover, the thick second conductive layers 50 allow high current flow to the power die by decreasing the resistivity of the current path. This current flow is transmitted to the thin first conductive layers 30 through the second vias 60, and in turn to the power die 10 through the first vias 40. To this end, given the reduced surface area of the power die electrical contacts 11 , the first vias 40 are arranged with a density of at least 30 vias/mm 2 , for instance with a ratio vias hole depth to drill diameter of 1 :2.5.

[0048]

The connection surface between each first electrically conductive layer and a respective second electrically conductive layer being greater, the density of second vias 60 needs not be as high. It is therefore inferior or equal to the density of the first vias 40. For instance, it can thus inferior or equal to 30 vias/mm 2 . In that case the diameter of the second vias 60 can be greater than the diameter of the first vias. For example, with a ratio vias hole depth to drill diameter of 1 : 1.

[0049]

This connection to the power die allows a low impact on the resistivity of the assembly stack. In particular, the on and off resistance of the power die are not affected and the electric losses are quite low. This important density of vias also contributes to heat dissipation.

[0050]

In an embodiment, an example of which being shown on figure la, the pre-packed power cell comprises only a power die. In this embodiment, integration of the power cell 1 in a power module is rendered easy because the connection of power cell electrical contacts to a substrate is easier than with smaller contacts of a power die. Thus it is no longer necessary to adapt the design of a power module to the design or the connection possibilities of a cell; hence new design possibilities are offered.

[0051]

In an alternative embodiment, the power cell 1 may incorporate other components. In a preferred embodiment, the power cell 1 comprises, in addition to a power die 10, a control die 70 adapted to control the power die 10.

[0052]

In that case, the control die 70, also having respective electrical contacts 71, is also embedded in the electrically insulating substrate. The control die 70 is connected to the power die through the first electrically conductive layers, to which it is connected by third vias 80. The control die 70 is thus also connected to the second electrically conductive layers 50 through the first electrically conductive layers 30, and can be controlled by respective electrical contacts 3 arranged in the second electrically conductive layers.

[0053]

This embodiment is particularly preferred for power dies made of wide bandgap semiconductors, because the latter exhibit high commutation frequencies, and the incorporation of a power die in the power cell allows bringing the control die closer to the power die and hence reducing parasites in their connection.

[0054]

The power cell 1 may further comprise additional components (not shown), for instance passive components such as capacitors, or integrated circuit dies, to incorporated additional functionalities. In that case, these components are also embedded in the electrically insulating substrates, and connected to the second electrically conductive layers by respective vias (not shown).

[0055]

With reference to figure 2, a power module 9 is shown, comprising a plurality of pre-packed power cells 1 according to the description above. The power module can be for instance an inverter or a power converter.

[0056]

The power module 9 may comprise at least one substrate 90 having a layer 91 of highly thermally conductive material on which an electrically conductive layer 92 (e.g. copper layer) is patterned to match the size and shape of the electrical contacts of the pre-packaged power cell 1 and to provide the desired connections between the dies contained in the respective power cells 1. Each power cell 1 is attached on one side of the substrate by an electrically and thermally conductive interconnection material 93 such as solder, silver sinter or conductive paste.

[0057]

With reference to figure 3, a method for manufacturing a pre-packed power cell 1 according to the description above will now be described.

[0058]

During a first step 100, at least one cavity having the size of a power die is formed in a first layer 20a of electrically insulating material. The cavity may be obtained by positioning a wedge having the size of a power die during the manufacturing of the first layer, and then removing the wedge.

[0059]

During a second step 200, a power die 10 is inserted in the cavity. Figure 4a represents the structure obtained at the end of step 200.

[0060]

In an embodiment in which the pre-packed power cell comprises another cavity, for instance for a control die of the power die, step 100 also comprises forming an additional cavity for the control die. Step 200 then comprises the insertion of the control die in the additional cavity.

[0061]

During a step 300, a second layer 20b of electrically insulating material is laminated on top of the first layer 20a in order to embed the power die therein. This step also comprises forming, on opposite main surfaces of the thus obtained layer of electrically insulating material, two first electrically conductive layers 30. In one embodiment, the two first electrically conductive layers 30 may be obtained by electrodeposition. In another embodiment, step 300 may comprise laminating second layers 22 of electrically insulating material and first layers of electrically conductive material simultaneously on opposite sides of the layer of electrically insulating material embedding the power die. The first electrically conductive layers are etched to obtain the desired connection patterns.

[0062]

At this point an intermediate structure 5 comprising a layer 20c of electrically insulating material between two first layers of electrically conductive material is obtained. A schematic representation of this intermediate structure 5 is shown in figure 4b.

[0063]

As schematically shown in figure 4c, during a step 400 first holes are drilled and metallized to form the plurality of first vias at the desired density of at least 30 vias/mm 2 , the vias extending from each first layer of electrically conductive material to the electrical contacts of the power die. The drilling step may be performed by laser drilling.

[0064]

A step 500 then comprises laminating additional electrically insulating layers on opposite main surfaces are formed on opposite main free surfaces of the intermediate structure 5, and forming second electrically conductive layers on the additional insulating layers. This step is performed in a similar way as step 300, except it comprises additional steps of metal deposition in order to obtain the desired thickness of the second electrically conductive layers. The second electrically conductive layers are then etched to obtain the desired connection patterns.

[0065]

During a step 600, second holes are drilled and metallized in order to obtain second vias connecting the second electrically conductive layers to the first ones. This step can be performed by mechanical drilling.

[0066]

As mentioned hereinbefore, the density of the second vias can be lower than the density of the first vias and hence the diameter of the second vias can be more important, for instance with a ratio hole depth to drill diameter of 1 : 1 . In that case, the method can then comprise an additional step 700, of filling the second vias with electrically conductive material so that the second vias can transmit a desired current density to the first electrically conductive layers. This step can be performed by electrodeposition.

[0067]

In an embodiment, the method comprises forming at step 500 second electrically conductive layers at a thickness lower than the desired thickness, forming the second vias at step 600, and then filling the vias and increasing the thickness of the second electrically conductive layers at step 700 by electrodeposition.

[0068]

The pre-packed power cell 1 is then obtained and shown schematically in figure 4d. Additionally, some specific treatments, which may be chemical, mechanical or other, may be performed on the second electrically conductive layers 50 in order to facilitate interfacing of the power cell to an external assembly. As a non-limiting example, those treatments can comprise deposition on the surface of the pre-packed power cell of other metals such as a Nickel-gold or Silver deposition for latter sintering.

[0069]

If the pre-packed power cell comprises additional components such as passive components, they can be embedded in the electrically insulating core with the power dies and connected to the second layers of electrically conductive materials through vias arranged in the core.




 
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