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Title:
PREPARATION OF PLATELET FREE MONONUCLEAR CELLS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/231373
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Platelets are similar in density to PBMC and thus are contaminants of PBMC when PBMC are isolated from whole blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation the established procedure for preparing PBMC. Platelets are very sticky and often interfere with experiments requiring lymphocytes and or monocytes (PBMC). Methods, compositions and kits are provided for the rapid removal of the undesired platelets from whole blood or PBMC yielding platelet free PBMC in high yield. The selection process, in the preferred embodiment of the invention, is based on magnetic metallic particles that are uniquely suited for removal of platelets from whole blood or PBMC. The preferred particle is composed of nickel metal in a preferred size range of 0.8-3.5 micron. Specific anti-platelet binding agents are bound to the nickel particles. The particles are mixed with the sample rapidly without non-specifically binding to non-targeted cells. The sample is then placed in a magnetic field and the platelets bound to the magnetic particles are very rapidly removed yielding platelet free whole blood or PBMC in very high yield for further biological experimentation.

Inventors:
RUSSELL, Thomas (403 Lantern Drive, Doylestown, PA, 18901, US)
Application Number:
US2018/031561
Publication Date:
December 20, 2018
Filing Date:
May 08, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
RUSSELL BIOTECH, INC. (403 Lantern Drive, Doylestown, PA, 18901, US)
International Classes:
B03C1/01; A61K39/395; B01D21/00; C12N5/078
Foreign References:
US20140302483A12014-10-09
US6900029B12005-05-31
US5543289A1996-08-06
US20040023222A12004-02-05
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ACETO, Joseph, F. (Attorney At Law, 1617 Newark RoadKennett Square, PA, 19348, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
I claim:

1. A method for obtaining a platelet-free peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a fluid sample comprising:

a. mixing a volume from the fluid sample containing peripheral blood mononuclear cells with anti-platelet magnetic particles for a period of time to allow the antiplatelet particles to completely bind to platelets in the fluid; and

b. placing the mixture from step (a) in a magnetic field for a time sufficient to

remove the anti-platelet particles wherein the remaining fluid sample containing peripheral blood mononuclear cells is platelet-free.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the fluid sample is whole blood further comprising

separating the granulocytes and red blood cells.

3. The method of claim 2 wherein separating is density centrifugation

4. The method of claim 3 wherein density centrifugation is Ficoll density centrifugation.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein the anti-platelet magnetic particles are metal oxide

particles.

6. The method of claim 5 wherein the anti-platelet magnetic particles are iron oxide

particles.

7. The method of claim 1 wherein the anti-platelet magnetic particles are dense particles.

8. The method of claim 1 wherein the anti-platelet magnetic particles are dense metallic nickel magnetic particles.

9. The method of claim 1 wherein the anti-platelet magnetic particles have an IgM antibody isotype.

10. The method of claim 9 wherein the IgM antibody is anti-CD41 or anti-CD61.

11. An anti-platelet magnetic metallic particle comprising:

a. a nickel particle; and

b. an anti-platelet IgM antibody wherein the antibody is adsorbed directly to the nickel particle surface.

12. The particle of claim 11 wherein the anti-platelet IgM antibody is anti-CD41 or anti- CD61.

13. A method for obtaining a platelet-free peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a fluid sample comprising: a. mixing a volume from the fluid sample containing peripheral blood mononuclear cells with anti-platelet gravity settling particles for a period of time to allow the anti-platelet particles to completely bind to platelets in the fluid; and b. allowing the anti-platelet gravity settling particles in the mixture of step (a) to settle for a time sufficient to remove the anti-platelet particles wherein the remaining fluid sample containing peripheral blood mononuclear cells is platelet- free.

14. The method of claim 13 wherein the fluid sample is whole blood further comprising separating the granulocytes and red blood cells.

15. The method of claim 14 wherein separating is by density centrifugation

16. The method of claim 15 wherein density centrifugation is Ficoll density centrifugation.

17. A kit for obtaining platelet-free peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a fluid sample comprising an anti-platelet particle.

18. The kit of claim 17 wherein the anti-platelet particle is anti-platelet magnetic particles or anti-platelet gravity settling particles.

19. The kit of claim 17 wherein the fluid sample is whole blood further comprising a density gradient centrifugation for separating the granulocytes and red blood cells.

20. The kit of claim 19 wherein the density gradient is Ficoll.

Description:
Title: Preparation of Platelet Free Mononuclear Cells

Inventor: Thomas Russell

Assignee/Applicant: Russell Biotech, Inc.

Cross Reference to Related Applications: This application claims benefit of and priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No.

62/519,620, filed June 14, 2017, where permissible incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Background:

1. Field of the Invention:

The invention provides novel means and methods for eliminating platelet contamination from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The invention relates more specifically to kits and reagents to remove platelets from whole blood or PBMC using magnetic separation and/or gravity settling.

2. Description of related art:

PBMC are comprised of desired lymphocytes and monocytes and are used routinely in biological research including immunological research. PBMC are isolated from whole blood using Ficoll gradient centrifugation which removes granulocytes and red blood cells but not platelets yielding the desired lymphocytes and monocytes contaminated with platelets.

Numerous references (see Other publications' : [1-10]) provide means (primarily further centrifugation and washing steps) to remove the undesired platelets. Platelets are very sticky and as seen in the cited references often interfere with experiments requiring lymphocytes and or monocytes. Just a few examples are needed to reveal how undesirable platelets are. From references: A Method for the preparation of mononuclear cells devoid of platelet contamination; Artefactual low lymphocyte activity caused by platelet contamination in mononuclear cell preparations; High platelet contamination in progenitor cell concentrates results in significantly lower CD34+ yield after immunoselection; The measurement of transforming growth factor type beta levels produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells requires the efficient elimination of contaminating platelets and the list goes on. The only means available to practitioners of the art to remove platelets are different means of centrifugati on/washing of PBMC such as:

The following procedure may also help reduce platelet contamination in mononuclear cell suspensions prepared from fresh whole blood:

1. When isolating the mononuclear cells during density gradient centrifugation (e.g.

Lymphoprep™ or Ficoll™), avoid taking any of the platelet-enriched plasma layer.

2. Next, wash the isolated mononuclear cells:

• Perform a slow spin on the isolated cells (120 x g, 10 min, brake off, room temperature)

• Carefully remove the platelet-rich supernatant and discard

• Resuspend the cell pellet in fresh buffer (using a fresh pipette).

• Repeat at least twice for a total of 3 or more washes.

These means are often not very effective in removing platelets, take time and lead to significant loss of PBMC. There is a definite need for improved methods that yield PBMC devoid of platelets without loss of the much desired PBMC. The inventions(s) described herein solve this age-old problem yielding PBMC in high yield and devoid of platelets.

Summary of the Invention:

This invention provides methods and kits to remove platelets from whole blood, diluted whole blood or PBMC that remain part of the PBMC fraction following Ficoll density gradient centrifugation of whole blood. The kits comprise reagents including nano/micro particles bound to antibodies that bind specifically to platelets. Once the anti-platelet particles are bound to the platelets means such as magnetic or gravity are used to remove the platelets from whole blood or PBMC yielding platelet free PBMC in high yield.

A preferred embodiment uses dense metallic nickel magnetic particles as described in US Patent 9435799 and US Patent Application 29170067886 incorporated herein by reference. The unique features of the particles (rapid magnetic separation times, rapid mixing times and the ability to work directly in un-diluted whole blood with minimal loss of non-targeted cells (here PBMC) solve the problem at hand— yielding platelet free PBMC. Another preferred embodiment uses dense particles as described in US patent 5576185 incorporated herein by reference. Though larger than particles in '799 thus exhibiting slower reaction times the particles can be used to bind to platelets and then by simple gravity settling platelets are removed from whole blood or PBMC.

A final embodiment involves magnetic particles not made of metal but rather composed of metal oxides 50nm or less in diameter i.e. inorganic compounds (primarily iron oxides) imbedded in non-magnetic material as described in 5,411,863 (Miltenyi); 5,466,574 (Liberti); 4,654,267 (Ugelstad) and 4,707,523 (Chang). Magnetic particles available commercially are by and large made of these inorganic iron oxide magnetic particles and are referred to as

superparamagnetic particles (Reference 12).

Brief Descriptions of Drawings: Figure 1. Properties of metal nickel particles used in a preferred embodiment of the invention.

Figure 2. Depicts the rapid kinetics seen with nickel particles used in a preferred embodiment of the invention. The sample is un-diluted whole blood. The analysis is done on a Beckman Coulter 3 -part differential analyzer. The granulocytes are removed using a particle of the invention coupled to CD 15.

Figure 3. Depicts the high recovery of non-targeted cells seen with particles used in a preferred embodiment of the invention as compared to iron oxide superparamagnetic particles of the art. Source: BD Biosciences Catalog. RBI: Russell Biotech, Inc.

Figure 4. Gravity settling particles of the invention effectively remove platelets from PBMC.

Figure 5. Properties of inorganic iron oxide particles defined as superparamagnetic particles that are currently available to the market.

Detailed Description of Preferred Embodiments

The means to obtain platelet free PBMC as detailed in this invention comprise three separate methods all based on nano/microparticle technology. The methods include two separate magnetic particles whereby the platelets are removed by a magnetic field and a dense particle whereby the platelets are removed by simple gravity sedimentation or accelerated gravity sedimentation (centrifugation). In all of the methods of the invention the particles have bound thereto antiplatelet antibodies such as CD41 and CD61, but not limited to, that bind to platelets.

The antibodies used in this invention can be either polyclonal or monoclonal. Such monoclonal antibodies (Mab) are commercially available from a number of suppliers. Mab are coupled to the particles of the invention by means known in the art including adsorption and numerous covalent coupling procedures. The Mab can also be coupled to the particle using the biotin/streptavidin/avidin system as known in the art where usually the streptavidin/avidin is bound to the particle and the anti-platelet antibody is coupled to biotin. Other coupling pairs known in the art are included in the invention.

The sample is whole blood (diluted or un-diluted) or PMBC. Whole blood can be human or animal such as mouse or rat but not limited to.

The preferred embodiment uses a dense magnetic metallic particle as described in Russell '799. The particle can range in diameter from 0.3 micron to 3 micron with a preferred diameter around 1 micron. The particle is dense having a density of 5-10 g/cc with a preferred density around 9 g/cc. Any metal or metal alloy that is magnetic will function in the invention with a preferred metal being nickel. Any metal commercially available that has the properties identified here such as from Sigma Aldrich but not limited to will function in the assay but the preferred nickel particle is that described in Russell '799. Figure 1 details features of a preferred nickel particle that make it especially suited to remove platelets including the ability to work easily in undiluted whole blood rapidly with rapid magnetic mixing times (Fig 2). Figure 2 demonstrates the rapid removal of a cell population (granulocytes) directly from an un-diluted whole blood sample in very rapid mixing times using a magnetic particle as in this preferred embodiment. Another key feature of these particles is the ability to remove a desired cell population with high, almost quantitative recovery, of non-targeted cells (Fig 3).

In the preferred method, undiluted or diluted whole blood will be mixed directly with the anti-platelet magnetic nickel particles by end-over-end mixing (www.atrbiotech.com /benchtop/rotomix.htm) for volumes greater than 1 ml and vortexing for volumes equal to or less than 1 ml for the shortest time possible for binding to the platelets in the range of a few seconds to 10 minutes but not limited to. For end-over-end mixing the preferred rotation speed is around 15-30 rpm for 1 micron nickel particles. Following mixing the sample will be placed in a magnetic field depending on the sample volume for a few seconds up to 5 minutes. Suitable magnets are known in the art such as those from Dexter Magnetics The whole blood sample depleted of platelets will be removed while the sample chamber remains in the magnetic field and then separated on Ficoll to yield the much-desired platelet free PBMC in very high yield for further research studies.

As mentioned here any procedure known in the art for coupling antibody to the particles is incorporated herein. For the preferred embodiment disclosed here adsorption of the anti-platelet antibody directly to the nickel particle surface is simple and results in a very stable particle antibody complex when the isotype of the antibody is an IgM. Anti-CD41 and anti-CD61 IgM isotypes are commercially available i.e. BioLegend. Though experimental studies may be needed to obtain the optimal amount of antibody per particle routinely labelling at 2mg antibody/meter squared particle surface (surface area) is usually sufficient.

It is best to start with whole blood since any magnetic particles with or without platelets bound thereto that may remain in the sample following placement in the magnetic field (carry over) will be removed following the Ficoll density gradient centrifugation because of the density of the nickel particle relative to cells thus yielding truly platelet free PBMC. However, platelets can be removed, using particles of the invention, directly from PBMC. Any residual particles can then be removed by simple centrifugation at speeds that sediment the very dense particles but do not sediment PBMC. The speeds and times of centrifugation can be easily determined by means known in the art.

A second embodiment uses dense particles such as those described in U S Patent 5,576,185 incorporated herein by reference and sold by Novamet. The particles are dense with densities in the range 5-10 g/cc with a preferred density around 9g/cc. The particles can be any metal, metal alloy or ceramic that can settle by gravity in whole blood or PBMC. The preferred particle diameter is 3-10 micron. Though any diameter particle that operates as described herein is covered by the invention. The method involves dense particles with anti-platelet antibodies bound thereto as described herein (see preferred embodiment). The particles can be added directly to whole blood or whole blood can be added to particles that are at the bottom of the mixing container. The particles are mixed by end-over-end mixing at about 5-10 rpm for volumes greater than 1ml and by vortexing for volumes of 1 ml or less. Following the mixing step, the sample container is simply placed in an upright position and the dense particles settle by gravity to the bottom of the tube. The gravity settling can be accelerated by centrifugation at speeds that settle the dense particles but do not significantly settle the whole blood. Depending on the sample volume settling times can range from 1-10 minutes. For dense particles that are also magnetic such as nickel particles a magnet can be placed at the bottom of the tube to hold the particles in place while the platelet free blood is removed and then centrifuged over Ficoll to obtain platelet free PBMC. Any residual particles carried over, especially non-magnetic dense particles, will be removed by the centrifugation over Ficoll. Again, it is best to start with whole blood so that any residual dense particles can be removed in the Ficoll centrifugation step.

However, the starting material can be PBMC with removal of any residual dense particles due to carryover by a very rapid centrifugation step that leads to settled dense particles without settling of PBMC.

The results of a typical experiment are seen in Figure 4 which shows the result of treating PBMC with 3.5micron nickel particles with anti-platelet antibodies bound thereto using the method of gravity settling as described herein. The platelets (small objects seen in the left figure) have been removed (right figure) following the gravity settling procedure.

Prior to adding anti-platelet antibodies to nickel particles the nickel particles are weighed on a scale preferably in a hood while wearing a face mask. Though nickel has GRASS status, while working with nickel powder, one should avoid breathing dust from the particles. Weigh out the amount of nickel desired based on coating antibody at 2mg/meter squared surface area of the particle. The nickel particles are then heated at 250 degrees centigrade for 3 hours up to 3 days. This accomplishes the following important features: the particles are sterile if needed and an oxide coating covers the outer layer of the particle which significantly reduces the release of nickel ions from the particle and the nickel oxide surface can be used to covalently bind antibodies to the particles by means known in the art. Once the particles are in a buffer solution no more dust is present. A hood and/or mask are no longer required.

Another embodiment involves use of magnetic particles currently on the market supplied by numerous vendors including Miltenyi Biotec, BD Biosciences, TheromoFisher, EMD Millipore, PolySciences and Stem Cell Technologies to remove platelets from whole blood or PBMC. These particles differ from the magnetic metal particles of '799. They are superparamagnetic particles that are made up of inorganic metal oxides rather than metal. The oxide is usually iron oxide but any metal oxide that is magnetic falls under this embodiment. The metal oxide is para/superparamagnetic because the metal oxide crystal is under 50 nm in diameter (see

5,466,574; 5,411,863; 4,654,267). The metal oxide crystals are embedded in polymeric material by means known in the art to build particles of various diameters from 100 nanometers to 4.5 micron (see Figure 5). The smaller the particle diameter the more rapid the binding kinetics but as the particle decreases in diameter they are weaker magnetically often requiring complex means for magnetic separation (induced magnetic field and columns are often required). The density of these particle is less than 2g/cc and thus mixing in undiluted whole blood is problematic and it is usually recommended that prior to adding magnetic particles to whole blood the blood is diluted and or red cells are lysed (Miltenyi Biotec). Though the providers of superparamagnetic particles offer numerous particles with antibodies bound thereto such as CD15, CD14, CD4, CD8, etc., CD41 and CD61 (anti -platelet) are noticeably absent with the exception of Miltenyi Biotec that offers CD41 and CD61 particles for removal of megakaryocytes and platelets from PBMC preparations. Thus, it appears that the use of superparamagnetic particles of the art for the removal of contaminating platelets from whole blood, as described in this invention, is unobvious as these particles have been available to the market for over 30 years. Most likely this is due to the fact that the particles do not work well in undiluted whole blood. However, the particles do work in diluted whole blood and in PBMC. One skilled in the art could easily modify procedures to use superparamagnetic particles for the removal of contaminating platelets to create platelet free PBMC. To the extent that such procedures are created they are definitely anticipated by the invention disclosed herein. Kits will be provided to the market for using the technology described in this invention to solve a major problem faced by researchers that of obtaining platelet free PBMC preparations. The kits will include both consumable reagents and equipment. The consumables will be particles (magnetic or dense magnetic or non-magnetic) of the invention in a suitable buffer such as Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) with protein such as 0.1% BSA, but not limited thereto. It is anticipated the particles will be bottled as 2ml and 5ml solutions but not limited thereto. The kit will also contain a suitable rinsing buffer known in the art such as PBS with 0.1% BSA. The equipment will be for a mixing means and for magnetic particles a magnetic separation means). While the present invention has been described in terms of its preferred embodiments, it is to be appreciated that the invention is not limited thereby, and that one skilled in the art can conceive of numerous variations and modifications of the invention described herein, without departing from the spirit and scope of following claims.

Cited References:

Patents/Patent Applications:

5,576, 185 Coulter Nov. 19, 1996

9,435,799 Russell Sept. 6, 2016

5,466,574 Libera ' Nov. 4, 1995

5,411,863 Miltenyi May 2, 1995

4,654,267 Ugelstad Mar. 31, 1987

4,707,523 Chang Nov. 17, 1987

20170067886 Russell Mar. 9, 2017

Other Publications: 1. Lad, P.M. etal; A Method for the preparation of mononuclear cells devoid of platelet contamination; J. Immunological Methods vol 110, p 193 (1988).

2. Pawlowski, N.A etal.; Arachadonic acid metabolism by human monocytes. Studies with platelet- depleted cultures. Journal of Experimental Medicine vol 158, p 393 (1983). 3. Rueda, F,.etal; Artefactual low lymphocyte activity caused by platelet contamination in mononuclear cell preparations. American Journal of Hematology vol 31, pl26 (1989).

4. Cheng, H.H. etal; Plasma processing conditions substantially influence circulating microRNA biomarker levels https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064795 (2013).

5.Goday, A etal;. Importance of platelet-free preparations for evaluating lymphocyte nucleotide levels in inherited or acquired immunodeficiency syndromes. Clinical Science vol. 65 p 635 (1983).

6. Reiser, M. etal.; High platelet contamination in progenitor cell concentrates results in significantly lower CD34+ yield after immunoselection Transfusion vol 40 p 178 (2000).

7. Bercovitz, R.S. etal; The pro-inflammatory effects of platelet contamination in plasma and mitigation strategies for avoidance Vox Sanguinis vol 102 p 345 (2012).

8. Urata, M. etal; Platelet contamination causes large variation as well as overstimulation of mitochondrial DNA content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells Annals of Clinical

Biochemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1258/acb.2008.008 008 (2008).

9. Merino, J. etal; The measurement of transforming growth factor type beta levels produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells requires the efficient elimination of contaminating platelets Journal of Immunological Methods vol 153 p 151 (1992).

10. Casale, T.B. and Kaliner, M. A rapid method for isolation of human mononuclear cell free of significant platelet contamination Journal of Immunological Methods vol 55 p 347 (1982).

11. Cell Separation Methods and Applications; edited by Recktenwald and Radbruch; Publisher: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1998.

12. Examples of Product Catalogs: Miltenyi Biotec; BD Biosciences; EMD Millipore; Stem Cell technologies; Beckman Coulter, PolySciences.