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Title:
PROCESS FOR ENANTIOSEPARATION OF CHIRAL SYSTEMS WITH COMPOUND FORMATION USING TWO SUBSEQUENT CRYSTALLIZATION STEPS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/025968
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Method for enantioseparation of a chiral system with compound formation comprising a pair of enantiomers. The method comprises the steps of: placing the chiral system to be processed, which is optically enriched by a target enantiomer, in the 3-phase region (20) of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems to achieve the establishment of the solid/liquid phase equilibria; phase-separating the liquid and solid phase formed by the placing step; shifting the eutectic composition of the remaining liquid towards a lower eutectic composition (xE) until the overall composition is located in the 2-phase region (15) of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems; and performing crystallisation in the 2-phase region (10) of the ternary phase diagram for obtaining the target enantiomer in the solid phase. In some cases the shifting step can be skipped.

Inventors:
LORENZ, Heike (Kroatenwuhne 2d, Magdeburg, 39116, DE)
KAEMMERER, Henning (Matthissonstraße 4, Magdeburg, 39108, DE)
POLENSKE, Daniel (Mühlenbreite 5, Egeln, 39435, DE)
SEIDEL-MORGENSTERN, Andreas (Mövenweg 56, Magdeburg, 39114, DE)
Application Number:
EP2009/057562
Publication Date:
March 11, 2010
Filing Date:
June 18, 2009
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FÖRDERUNG DER WISSENSCHAFTEN E. V. (Hofgartenstr. 8, München, 80539, DE)
LORENZ, Heike (Kroatenwuhne 2d, Magdeburg, 39116, DE)
KAEMMERER, Henning (Matthissonstraße 4, Magdeburg, 39108, DE)
POLENSKE, Daniel (Mühlenbreite 5, Egeln, 39435, DE)
SEIDEL-MORGENSTERN, Andreas (Mövenweg 56, Magdeburg, 39114, DE)
International Classes:
C07B57/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2001042173A22001-06-14
WO1997041084A11997-11-06
WO2003097582A22003-11-27
Foreign References:
EP0694514A21996-01-31
DE102005039501A12007-02-22
JPS54160303A1979-12-19
JP2000063350A2000-02-29
US20040198778A12004-10-07
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HANNKE BITTNER & PARTNER (Christian Hannke, Ägidienplatz 7, Regensburg, 93047, DE)
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Claims:
Process for enantioseparation of chiral systems with compound formation using two subsequent crystallization steps

Claims

1. Method for enantioseparation of a chiral system with compound formation comprising a pair of enantiomers, said chiral system having an eutectic composition that exceeds already the required purity (xpUnty) of the product to be achieved by the claimed method, the method comprising the steps of placing the eutectic composition in the 3-phase region (20) of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems to achieve the establishment of the solid/liquid phase equilibria, and phase-separating the liquid and the solid phase formed by the placing step for obtaining the target enantiomer in the liquid phase.

2. Method for enantioseparation of a chiral system with compound formation comprising a pair of enantiomers, the method comprising the steps of placing the chiral system to be processed, which is optically enriched by a target enantiomer, in the 3-phase region (20) of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems to achieve the establishment of the solid/liquid phase equilibria, phase-separating the liquid and solid phase formed by the placing step, shifting the eutectic composition of the remaining liquid towards a lower eutectic composition (XE), placing the overall composition in the other 2-phase region (15), and performing crystallisation in the outer 2-phase region (15) of the ternary phase diagram for obtaining the target enantiomer in the solid phase.

3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the optically enriched chiral system is an optically enriched liquid solution.

4. Method according to claim 3, wherein the placing step is performed by partial evapo- ration of the optically enriched liquid solution.

5. Method according to claim 3, wherein the placing step is performed by solvent change of the optically enriched solution.

6. Method according to claim 3, wherein the placing step is performed by addition of an antisolvent to the optically enriched solution.

7. Method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the optically enriched chiral system is an optically enriched solid mixture and wherein the placing step is performed by partial dissolution of the optically enriched solid mixture in a solvent.

8. Method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the placing step places the optically enriched chiral system onto the inner phase boundary of the 2- and 3- phase region (25, 20) of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming sys- terns to achieve the establishment of the solid/liquid phase equilibria.

9. Method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the phase-separating step is performed by decanting the enriched liquid phase.

10. Method according to any one of the claims 1 to 9, wherein the phase-separating step is performed by removing the solid phase by filtration or any other technique of solid/liquid phase separation.

1 1. Method according to any one of the claims 2 to 10, wherein the shifting step is per- formed by a temperature change until the overall composition is located in the 2- phase region of the corresponding ternary phase diagram.

12. Method according to any one of the claims 2 to 1 1 , wherein the shifting step is performed by a solvent change until the overall composition is located in the 2-phase re- gion of the corresponding ternary phase diagram.

13. Method according to claim 11 or 12, wherein the shifting step shifts the remaining liquid onto the outer phase boundary between the 2- and the 3-phase region (15, 20).

14. Method according to claim 2, wherein crystallization is performed, in the outer 2- phase region to gain pure target enentiomer in the crystalline phase (52).

15. Method according to claim 10, wherein the removed solid phase (52) is dried to dry- ness.

Description:
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 18.06.09 zur Forderung der Wissenschaften e.V. GAI01-022-WOPT

Hofgartenstr. 8 HA/Sb/is/sf/ak

D-80539 Mϋnchen

Process for enantioseparation of chiral systems with compound formation using two subsequent crystallization steps

Field of invention

The present invention relates to a method for separation of racemates and in particular a method for enantioseparation of a chiral system with compound formation.

A racemate is an equimolar mixture of two enantiomers. Enantiomers are isomers, i.e. substances which differ from each other only in the arrangement of the atoms but not in the sum formula. Enantiomers show chirality, i.e. they have the properties of image and mirror image or hand and opposite hand. Usually, the two enantiomers are referred to as L-enantiomer and D-enantiomer or (S)-and (R)-enantiomers.

More than half of pharmaceutical active substances are chiral. However, often only one of the two enantiomers can be used as active substance, since both different enantiomers usually have a different physiological effect on the human organism. Besides this, obtaining pure enantiomers is very important in the agricultural chemistry and the food industry. The market for substances of pure enantiomers (for example in pharmaceutical agents, plant protecting agents, dyes and fragrances) has substantially risen in the last years.

A separation of such racemates is usually difficult, since the chemical and physical properties except for the behaviour to linear polarized light and other chiral substances is identical.

Herein, only 5 to 10 % of all chiral systems are conglomerate forming systems which can be separated by preferential crystallization without prior enrichment by the target enantiomer due to thermodynamic reasons. However, the majority (more than 90 %) of all chiral substances, are compound forming systems which cannot be separated. Thus, a lot of effort has been made to provide efficient methods for separation of racemic forming systems. Such a method of the state of the art is known from DE 10 2005 039 501 A1 and WO2007/023129 A2, for example.

However, such methods usually require an initial enantiomeric enrichment of the racemic solution in the order of the eutectic composition of the considered chiral system to yield in a further method step the target enantiomer and/or the racemate from enriched fraction(s) (e.g. the preferential crystallization). Therefore, a comparably large amount of energy and time is necessary to provide such an enriched solution.

It is the object of the present invention to provide an enhanced method capable of delivery of optically pure enantiomers and which addresses the above mentioned problems.

This object is achieved by a method according to claim 1 , which method is for enantiosepara- tion of a chiral system with compound formation comprising a pair of enantiomers, wherein the chiral system has an eutectic composition that exceeds already the required purity of the product to be achieved by the claimed method. The method comprises the steps of: placing the eutectic composition in the 3-phase region of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems to achieve the establishment of the corresponding solid/liquid phase equilibria; and subsequently phase-separating the liquid and the solid phase formed by the placing step for obtaining the target enantiomer in the liquid phase.

This object is further achieved by a method according to claim 2, which method is for enanti- oseparation of a chiral system with compound formation comprising a pair of enantiomers. The method comprises the steps of: placing the chiral system to be processed, which is optically enriched by a target enantiomer in the 3-phase region of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems to achieve the establishment of the solid/liquid phase equilibria; phase-separating the liquid and solid phase formed by the placing step; shifting the eutectic composition of the remaining liquid towards a lower eutectic composition, placing the overall composition in the outer 2-phase region; and performing crystallisation in the outer 2-phase region of the ternary phase diagram for obtaining the target enantiomer in the solid phase. An adjustment of the concentration of the solution by e.g. partial evaporization leads to an overall composition, which is located in the outer 2-phase region (Fig. 2, 15). Selective crystallization can be performed in this 2-phase region of the ternary phase diagram in order to obtain the pure target enantiomer in the solid phase.

Advantageous developments are set out in the dependent claims.

The optically enriched chiral system to which the above-described method is applied can be an optically enriched liquid solution. In this case, the placing step can be performed by at least one of partial evaporation of the optically enriched solution, solvent change of the optically enriched solution, and addition of an antisolvent to the optically enriched solution.

In addition, the optically enriched chiral system to which the above-described method is ap- plied can be an optically enriched solid mixture. In this case, the placing step can be performed by partial dissolution of the optically enriched solid mixture in a solvent.

Preferably, in order to start with a minimum of initial enrichment and to gain the highest yield, the placing step places the optically enriched chiral system onto the inner phase boundary of the 2- and 3-phase region of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems to achieve the establishment of the solid/liquid phase equilibria.

It is possible to perform the phase-separating step by decanting the enriched liquid phase or by removing the solid phase by filtration or any other technique of solid/liquid phase separa- tion.

The shifting step can be performed by a temperature change until the overall composition is located in the 2-phase region of the corresponding ternary phase diagram. Preferably, an additional evaporization step is therefore required.

The shifting step can also be performed by a (partial) exchange of the solvent until the overall composition is located in the 2-phase region of the corresponding ternary phase diagram. Preferably, an additional evaporization step is therefore required. The shifting step can also be performed by a combination of a temperature change and a (partial) solvent exchange until the solution composition is located in the 2-phase region. Preferably, an additional evaporization step is therefore required.

Preferably, the shifting step shifts the remaining liquid onto the outer phase boundary between the 2- and the 3-phase region of the ternary phase diagram of the chiral compound forming system in order to obtain the highest yield.

Preferably, the crystallization is performed in the outer 2-phase region to gain pure target enantioner in the crystalline phase.

The removed solid phase can be dried to dryness.

The previously described methods for enantioseparation of chiral systems with compound formation have the following advantages: a) The initial enantiomeric enrichment can be very small, e.g. 1 % excess is sufficient b) Stable, thermodynamically dominated process i.e. method (equilibrium conditions apply) c) Symmetric approach, each of the two enantiomers can be the target d) Method can be operated in a continuous manner

Hereinafter, the present invention will be further described in detail by reference to the appended drawings in which:

Fig. 1 shows a ternary phase diagram of a compound forming system. An optically enriched solution is placed within the 3-phase region and equilibration in step 1 of the method according to a first embodiment of the present invention is shown schematically;

Fig. 2 shows the ternary phase diagram of the same compound forming system in which par- tial evaporation of a solvent and enrichment of the target enantiomer in the solid phase in step 2 of the method according to the first embodiment of the present invention is shown schematically; and Fig. 3 shows a ternary phase diagram of a compound forming system in which the method according to a second embodiment of the present invention is shown schematically.

In the following, a separation scheme is introduced, which aims to yield pure enantiomers from an optically enriched solution (originating e.g. from partial chromatographic resolution of a racemate, selective membranes or partial asymmetric synthesis). The knowledge of the related ternary phase diagram consisting of a pair of enantiomers and a solvent, is the key for the separation method described below. This method is suitable for compound forming systems, which represent the majority (more than 90 %) of all known systems of enanti- omers. It is sufficient for this method, when the initial solution is only slightly optically enriched by the target enantiomer, i.e. L-or D-entantiomer or (S)- or (R)-entantiomer, respectively.

(First embodiment)

It is known from investigations described in the literature and own experimental results that the eutectic composition in the chiral system (intersection of the solubility isotherms of the enantiomers and the racemic compound) can be shifted either by temperature change or variation of the solvent (mixture). In Figs. 1 and 2, a shift towards a lower eutectic composi- tion X E between a lower temperature T| 0W and a higher temperature T hιgh is shown (dashed black line). This variation is exploited to enter the 2-phase region 15 of the ternary phase diagram in step 2 (shaded area in Fig. 2)

Step 1 :

Either partial evaporation of an optically enriched solution or partial dissolution of an optically enriched solid mixture (e. g. arrows pointing towards dot 30 in Fig. 1 ) in order to place the resulting composition of the solution within the 3-phase region 20 of the typical phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems (first substep: placing). Upon equilibration, the target enantiomer accumulates in the liquid phase (Fig. 1 , dot 40, X E ) due to the establishment of the solid/liquid phase equilibria (tie line linking dots 40, 41 in Fig. 1 ). The optimal yield is obtained in the liquid phase, if the overall composition is located anywhere at the inner phase boundary between the 2- and the 3-phase region (Fig. 1 , tie line linking dots 40, 42, e. g. at 43). Alternatively, a solvent change or the addition of an antisolvent to the optically enriched initial solution enables to enter the 3-phase region 20 (of the corresponding ternary phase diagram).

Step 2:

At first, a phase separation is done of the liquid and the solid phase formed after step 1 (second substep: phase-separating). Therefore, the enriched liquid phase (dot 40 in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2) is either decanted or the corresponding solid phase (dot 41 in Fig. 1 ) is removed by filtration. The remaining mother liquor is concentrated by partial evaporation of the solvent until the composition is located in the 2-phase-region 15 at the corresponding higher temperature T hl g h (e.g. composition of dot 30 in Fig. 2) (third substep: shifting). Now a classical crystallization process in this region of the ternary phase diagram yields directly the target enantiomer in the solid phase (dot 52 in the lower left corner of Fig. 2, theoretical value of X f i n ai = 100%) (fourth substep: crystallising).

The maximum yield would be obtained if the evaporation stops on the outer phase boundary (dot 60 in Fig. 2).

While a shift of the eutectic composition towards larger x E from T| 0W to T h ι gh might be possible, too, the shown direction (Figs. 1 , 2) was found more frequently up to now. In case of a shift of the eutectic composition towards larger x E for higher temperatures, one would enrich the solution in step 1 at T hιgh and subsequently decant the liquid phase or remove the solid phase by filtration. In step 2, the solution is already located in the 2-phase region 15 (Fig. 2) at T| 0W . Then again, classical crystallization yields pure enantiomers in the same manner.

It is observed from own experiments that a shift of the eutectic composition can occur due to a change of the solvent, as well. Thus, instead of a temperature change, also a change of the solvent (or a combination of both) can be applied to enter the 2-phase region 15.

Experimental verification of the case described in Figs. 1 and 2 is provided in the following.

(Example of separation of methionine enantiomers) The following example for the method described in the first embodiment is given for better understanding of the present invention only and does not limit the above-described method to the given values or specific method steps used. The person skilled in the art will acknowl- edge that the following steps can equally be executed according to all of the above described principles.

As an illustrating example, to obtain optically pure L-enantiomer from a slightly enriched aqueous solution, the following mixture was subjected to the previously described 2-step method:

• L-/DL-methionine (Sigma-Aldrich, purity: DL 99%; L 98%)

• deionized water

Required thermodynamic data for process i.e. method design (own data)

Experimental Procedure:

Step 1 :

A physical mixture of crystals of the racemic compound (DL-methionine) and the L- enantiomer (387.44 g and 59.69 g) were added to a 2000 ml reactor vessel. The composition was chosen to represent a possible output of a previous partial enrichment step via another reaction or separation step. This initial mixture was only slightly enriched by the target enan- tiomer (optical purity 56.7 %). 1000 g of water were added and the slurry was properly agitated and kept at isothermal conditions at 274.15 K for 4 days to ensure thermodynamic solid/liquid phase equilibrium. The duration can probably be shortened much in terms of process i.e. method optimization. Analysis by means of chiral chromatography yielded an optical purity in the liquid phase of 93.8 % L-enantiomer after this period.

Step 2:

Subsequently the solid phase was filtrated off and the liquid phase was decanted to another reactor vessel and heated to a temperature of 333.15 K.

A fraction of the solvent was evaporated by means of vacuum distillation at 190 mbar aiming to enter the 2-phase area defined by the solubility isotherm at this temperature. The eutectic composition of the methionine enantiomers in water at a temperature of 333.15 K was experimentally determined earlier to 86 % optical purity. During the partial removal of the solvent and the generation of supersaturation spontaneous nucleation occurred and the L- enantiomer crystallized with 100% optical purity within the reactor vessel. The final crystalline product mass after solvent removal exhibited an optical purity of 98.6 %. The maximal theoretical yield for this system under the conditions of the experiment, governed by the thermodynamic equilibrium, is obtained at the phase boundary between the 2- and the 3-phase area (-54% for this case). For this experimental run, the second process step was stopped clearly above the inner phase boundary. An overall yield of 33% (19.72 g product L-methionine / 59.69 g) was obtained which was also diminished by product losses during the two filtration steps, which leaves potential for process improvements. By complete avoidance of crystallization of the mother liquor onto the crystalline product, 100 % purity can be achieved. Promising techniques for this issue are already commercially available and not part of the present application. The mother liquor, which was filtrated off, showed an optical purity of 86.0 %. That makes this phase suitable to be used in combination with new feed material in order to enhance further the method efficiency. Since this solution has to be diluted again for reuse in the above-described step 1 , an even less optical enriched output stream from a chromatographic separation could be used for mixing in favourable synergistic manner.

To sum up, optically pure L-enantiomer was obtained from a slightly enriched solution (56.7 %) by two subsequent crystallization steps. Upon knowledge of the underlying phase equilibria, only a balance to determine the amount of removed solvent and a thermocouple with a thermostat was needed to track the enrichment trajectories. (Second embodiment)

Next a second embodiment of the method according to the present invention is described by reference to Fig. 3.

For certain systems of enantiomers it is possible to partially skip step 2 described in the first embodiment. Just the second substep: phase-separation is required. This is the case when the eutectic composition exceeds already the required purity of the product (x E > x pU πty)- The liquid phase can be decanted or the crystalline phase can be removed by filtration (second substep: phase-separation). The target enantiomer is present in the crystalline product after evaporization of the solvent from the liquid phase.

Experimental verification of the case described in Fig. 3 is provided in the following.

(Example of separation of serine enantiomers)

The following example for the method described in the second embodiment is given for better understanding of the present invention only and does not limit the above-described method to the given values or specific method steps used. The person skilled in the art will acknowledge that the following steps can equally be executed according to all of the above described principles.

As an illustrating example, to obtain optically pure L-enantiomer from a slightly enriched aqueous solution, the following mixture was subjected to the previously described method in which step 2 of the first embodiment was skipped partially:

• L-/DL-Serine (Sigma-Aldrich, purity: DL 99%; L 99%)

• deionized water

Required thermodynamic data for process i.e. method design (own data)

Experimental Procedure:

Step 1 :

A physical mixture of crystals of the racemic compound and the L-enantiomer (53.60 g and 13.19 g) were added to a 300 ml vessel. The mixture was enriched by the target enantiomer (optical purity 59.9 %). A solvent consisting of 81.01 g water and 121.52 g methanol (60:40 wt/wt) was added and the slurry was properly agitated and kept at isothermal conditions at 313.15 K for 2 days to ensure thermodynamic solid/liquid phase equilibrium. The overall composition was chosen to represent an output of a previous partial enrichment step by chiral chromatography e.g. on a SMB system. Analysis by means of chiral chromatography yielded an optical purity in the liquid phase of 99.4 % L-enantiomer after equilibration.

The liquid phase was removed through a filter and dried to dryness. The generated crystals were of 99.4 % optical purity.

To sum up, L-serine was optically purified to 99.4 % from a mixture of 59.9 % optical purity. In principle, only the first step became necessary to conduct, since the eutectic composition in solution provides sufficient purity. From step 2 just the phase separation step was required.

(Other)

The previously described execution possibilities of the different substeps of steps 1 and 2 of the method for enantioseparation of chiral systems with compound formation can be conducted both separately as well as in all possible combinations of the previously mentioned method steps. For example, it is possible to perform the placing step by partial evaporation of the optically enriched solution wherein a solvent change of the optically enriched solution is performed beforehand. Further, performing the placing step by addition of an antisolvent to the optically enriched solution and partial evaporation of the optically enriched solution is possible, too.

Moreover, the phase-separating step can be performed by any of the known techniques for solid/liquid phase separation, e. g. by decanting the enriched liquid phase and removing the solid phase by filtration.

In addition, the shifting step to locate the chiral system in the 2-phase region can be performed by a combination of a temperature change in the ternary system and a (partial) change of the solvent or just one of the techniques.

Other possible combinations of the above steps and substeps will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

List of reference signs

5 1 -phase region

15 outer 2-phase region of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems

20 3-phase region of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming systems

25 inner 2-phase region of the ternary phase diagram of chiral compound forming sys- terns

30 possible placement of solution composition within step 1

40 liquid phase composition after equilibration within step 1

41 sub optimal solid phase composition after equilibration within step 1

42 solid phase composition after equilibration within step 1 (ideal case) 43 optimal overall composition after equilibration within step 1 in terms of maximum yield

50 possible overall composition after partial evaporization and equilibration within step 2

51 possible liquid phase composition after partial evaporization and equilibration within step 2

52 solid phase composition after partial evaporization and equilibration within step 2 60 optimal overall composition after partial evaporization and equilibration within step 2 in terms of maximum yield X E purity at eutectic composition Xfinai obtained purity Xrequired required purity T| 0W lower temperature Thigh higher temperature