Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
PROCESS FOR ESTERIFICATION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1986/005186
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Selective esterification of only one of the hydroxy groups in polyols is achieved using an acetalized or a ketalized polyol as the starting material and an enzyme catalysing esterification. Furthermore, the selective esterified polyols may be obtained by concomitant acetalisation or ketalisation and esterification of a ketal or acetal in the presence of an enzyme catalysing esterification.

Inventors:
Godtfredsen
Sven
Erik, Bundgaord
Peter, Andresen
Otto
Application Number:
PCT/DK1986/000017
Publication Date:
September 12, 1986
Filing Date:
February 27, 1986
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
Novo, Industri A/s Godtfredsen
Sven
Erik, Bundgaord
Peter, Andresen
Otto
International Classes:
C07D317/64; C07H9/04; C07H13/06; C12P7/62; C12P17/04; C12P19/44; (IPC1-7): C07H1/00; C07D317/24; C07D317/64; C07H9/04; C07H13/02; C07H13/04; C12P7/62; C12P17/04; C12P19/02
Foreign References:
US3686238A
DE1543495A1
DE1183895B
GB1589916A
US3251827A
EP0061023A1
EP0126416A1
GB1477880A
EP0018342A1
DE2233245A1
Download PDF:
Claims:
C L A I M S
1. Process for preparing compounds of the general formula I R1 5 I 2 R CHOCR I I CH—0 (I) R4CHOCOR3 wherein R 1, R.
2. and R.
3. re the same or different each representing hydrogen, alkyl, lower alkoxy, aryl or aryl(lower alkyl) each of which may be substituted with one or more of the following groups: hydroxy, amino, carboxy, nitro, cyano, aryl, lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio or lower alkylen, preferably one or two substituents, R 4 and R5 each represent hydrogen or R 4 together with R5 represents straight or branched lower alkylen which may be substituted with one or more of the following groups: hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, amino, carboxy, nitro, cyano, aryl, lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio or lower alkylen, and which alkylen moiety may be interrupted by oxygen, preferably one or two substituents, or R 4 and R5 together with the moiety CHO I CHO CHO from formula I represents a carbohydrate moiety wherein apart from one hydroxy group the hydroxy groups, if desired, are acetalized or ketalized, characterized by treating an alcohol of the general formula II R5CHR1:L R 4CHOH wherein R and R are as stated above, R and R each represents hydroxy, or R 11 together with R12 represents a moiety of the general formula VI R1 I 2 OCR (VI) *& 0.
4. wherein R 1 and R2 are as stated above, with a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid ester of the general formula IV R3C00R6 (IV) wherein R 3 "is as stated above, and R6 represents hydrogen or has one of the meanings stated for R , above, or represents a group of the general formula V R9CHOCOR8 wherein R 9 and R10 have the meanings stated for R4 and R5, above, and R 7 and R8 are the same or different and each has 3 one of the meanings stated for R , above, in the presence of i 12 an enzyme catalyzing esterification and, in case R and R each are hydroxy, in the presence of a carbonyl compound of the general formula III R1C0R2 (III) wherein R 1 and R2 each are as stated above, and an agent catalyzing formation of acetal and ketal under dehydrating conditions. 2. Process, according to Claim 1, for preparing carboxylic acid esters of ketalized or acetalized monosaccharides or carboxylic acid esters of ketalized or acetalized glycerol, characterized by treating a ketalized or acetalized monosaccharide or glycerol with a carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid ester in the presence of an enzyme catalyzing esterification. 3. Process, according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein said enzyme is a lipase.
5. 4 Process, according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein said enzyme is an esterase.
6. Process, according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said enzyme is an immobilized enzyme.
7. Process, according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the process is carried out in a solvent such as a hydrocarbon, preferably hexane or pentane.
8. Process, according any one of the preceding claims, wherein the monosaccharide is glucose, galactose, fructose or sorbose.
9. Any novel feature or combination of features described herein. .
Description:
PROCESS FOR ESTERIFICATION.

Background of the invention

The present invention relates to a process for preparing acetal and ketal esters of polyols, and, optionally, monoesters of carbohydrates or monoglycerides. Formation of acetals and ketals is a well established process within the art of organic chemistry. It is thus well known that aldehydes and ketones may combine with simple alcohols under formation of acetals and ketals. Usually, these reactions are carried out in the presence of an acid catalyst and in a solvent which, by azeotropic distillation, will serve to remove the water generated in the course of the reaction thereby displacing the equilibrium towards acetal or ketal formation. Formation of carboxylic acid esters is, likewise, a well established organic chemical reaction. This process may be carried out by heating a mixture of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol or by contacting these reagents in the presence of a catalyst. Traditionally, an acid catalyst is often used in this context but, recently, it has been shown that enzymes such as esterases and lipases may be used as catalysts in ester synthesis.

In contrast to the predictable course, the simplicity of the processes and the high yields which thus characterize formation of actetals, ketals and carboxylic acid esters of simple monofunctional alcohols, formation of such derivatives from polyols pose problems. However desirable, it is often difficult to prepare, for example, pure derivatives of polyols and carboxylic acids in a satisfactorily high yield. This difficulty has been clearly experienced during attempts to prepare monocarboxylic acid esters of glycerol - the so-called monoglycerides - which are currently used on a large scale as emulsifying agents. Attempted preparation of these compounds by acid or base catalyzed hydrolysis of readily available, naturally occurring triglycerides invariably provides mixtures of mono-, di- and triglycerides besides free carboxylic acids.

glycerol and inorganic salts. This is the case also for even the best, currently applied industrial processes for preparation of monoglycerides which comprises glycerolysis of triglycerides in the presence of a strong base at temperatures above 200°C. Invariably this process suffers from low yields and formation of by-products which necessitates extensive purification of the desired monoglycerides. Likewise, attempted use of enzymes, for example lipases or esterases, for preparation of monoglycerides suffer from formation of undesired by-products such as glycerol, free carboxylic acids and diglycerides. The origin of these difficulties lies in the polyfunctionality of the glycerol molecule which carries three hydroxyl groupings of comparable reactivity towards esterification, the consequence being that selective esterification of the triol is difficult to achieve as is selective cleavage of ester linkages in triglycerides. This is true, also, in regard to other polyols among which the carbohydrates constitute a particularly important group. It is a quite difficult task to achieve selective, partial esterification of these compounds by chemical as well as by enzymatic means. Moreover, the different hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of polyols and acyl donors give rise to technical problems in the design of esterification processes. On one hand, polyols of interest are often soluble only in hydrophilic solvents such as water. On the other hand, the acyl donor is often soluble only in an organic solvent. The consequence of this is that the two species are brought in contact only with difficulty and thus normally react in only poor yields to the desired esters. Danish patent application No. 938/80 describes a process by which glycerol is reacted,with a keton and the resulting ketal is esterified using an acid chloride of an acid. In French patent No. 2,147,091 a similar esterification using an acid instead of an acid chloride is described. A similar process is described in U.S. Patent "specification No. 3,686,238. In none of these publications the use of an enzyme is mentioned.

One object of this invention is to provide a process whereby the above problems are overcome.

A further object of this invention is to provide a process whereby the desired compounds are obtained in high yields.

A still further object of this invention is to provide a process wherein the desired compounds are easily obtained.

Detailed practice of the invention It has now surprisingly been found that it is possible to overcome the problems associated with hydrophilic properties as well as the polyfunctionality of polyols in a single process thereby making possible selective, partial esterification of polyols of the general formula Ila

R 5 -CHOH

' ' I

CHOH (Ha) R 4-CIHOH

wherein R 4 and R5 each are as stated below, in high yield by carrying out the esterification process concomitant with ketalisation or acetalisation of the polyols of formula Ila.

More particularly, partial esterification of the polyols of formula Ila can be achieved, according to the process of this invention, by treating, under dehydrating conditions or other circumstances which favour ketalisation or acetalisation, a polyol- of formula Ila with a carbonyl compound of formula III stated below, or a precursor thereof and a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid ester of formula IV stated below, in the presence of an agent which catalyses formation of acetals or ketals and an enzyme which catalyse esterification. Treatment of a polyol of formula Ila with a carbonyl compound of formula III may be carried out simultaneously with treatment of the polyol of formula Ila with a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid derivative of formula IV, or treatment with a

carbonyl compound of formula III may be carried out alternating with or prior to treatment of the polyol of formula Ila with a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid derivative of formula IV. The process of this invention may, if desired, be carried out in a solvent, in a mixture of solvents or in the absence of solvents. Preferably, the process of this invention is carried out in a solvent of a hydrocarbon, for example, pentane, hexane or benzene, or in the absence of a solvent. The agent catalyzing formation of acetal or ketal and applied in the process of this invention may be any agent known to catalyze formation of acetals and ketals from the corresponding carbonyl compound, for example, acids such as p-toluenesulfonic acid, methansulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, Dowex TM-50 or a carboxylic acid, for exa pel, adipic acid, or reagents such as boron trifluoride. Reagents other than free aldehydes and ketones may also be applied for acetal or ketal formation according to the process, of this invention.

The enzyme catalyzing esterification and applied in the process of this invention may be an enzyme such as a lipase or an esterase or any other enzyme exhibiting an esterase activity. Enzymes applied according to the process of this invention may be used as the native enzymes, as immobilized enzymes, as chemically modified enzymes or as encapsulated enzymes.

It is very surprising that the enzymes can be used in the acid medium containing the carbonyl compound of formula III and the acetalized or ketalized compound of formula I stated below. Dehydration applied according to the process of this invention may be achieved by any known means for dehydration. Preferably, dehydration is achieved by azeotropic distillation of water by the solvent applied in the process of the invention. ' Also, the dehydration can be achieved using an insoluble dehydrating agent, for example a molecular sieve.

Alternatively, the process of this invention may be carried out by reacting an alcohol of the general formula lib

R 1

wherein R 1, R2, R4 and R5 each are as stated below, with a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid ester of formula IV in the presence of an enzyme catalyzing esterification. This process is carried out as described above for the esterification. Compounds of formula lib can by the process of this invention be used as starting material for preparing the desired esters of carbohydrates or monoglycerides of formula VII. Alcohols of formula lib can be prepared by reacting a compound of formula Ila with a carbonyl compound of formula III as stated above. The process of this invention may be carried out batch-wise or continuously at temperatures varying from ambient temperature to the boiling point of the applied solvent or, in the absence of solvents, at temperatures up to about 260°C. The reaction time may be from a few hours to several days. The products of the reaction may be isolated in a manner known per se, optionally after removal of the applied reagents and solvents in a manner known per se.

According to a preferred embodiment of this invention the esterification with the carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid ester of formula IV is carried out after all the hydroxy groups, apart from only one, are acetalized or ketalized and, thereafter, the hydroxy groups are, if desired, liberated.

The above, two process variants can be combined in that they relate to a process for preparing compounds of the general formula I

R 1

5 I 2

R -CHO-C-R

I I CH— 0 ( I )

4 I 3

R -CHOCOR J

wherein R 1, R2 and R3 are the same or different each representing hydrogen, alkyl, lower alkoxy, aryl or aryl(lower alkyl) each of which may be substituted with one or more of the following groups: hydroxy, amino, carboxy, nitro, cyano, aryl, lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio or lower alkylen, preferably one or two substituents, R 4 and R5 each represent hydrogen or R 4 together with R5 represents straight or branched lower alkylen which may be substituted with one or more of the following groups: hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, amino, carboxy, nitro, cyano, aryl, lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio or lower alkylen, and which alkylen moiety may be interrupted by oxygen, preferably one or two substituents, or R 4 and R5 togethe-r with the moiety • . .'

-CHO-

I

CH-O-

I -CHO-

from formula I represents a carbohydrate moiety wherein - apart from one hydroxy group - the hydroxy groups, if desired, are acetalized or ketalized, which is characterized by treating an alcohol of the general formula II

R 4-CIHOH

wherein R and R are as stated above, R and R each represents hydroxy, or R 11 together with R12 represents a moiety of the general formula VI

R 1 -0

wherein R 1 and R2 are as stated above, with a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid ester of the general formula IV

R 3 COOR 6 (IV)

3 6 wherein R is as stated above, and R represents hydrogen or has one of the meanings stated for R , above, or represents a group of the general formula V

R 10 -CH-

I 7 CHOCOR (V) I 8

R -CHOCOR

wherein Rg and- R10 have the meanings stated for R4 and R5,

7 '8 above, and R and R are the same or different and each has one of the meanings stated for R , above, in the presence of an enzyme catalyzing esterification and, in case R 11 and R12 each are hydroxy, in the presence of a carbonyl compound of the general formula III

R 1 -CO-R 2 (III)

wherein R 1 and R2 each are as stated above, and an agent catalyzing formation of acetal and ketal under dehydrating conditions. According to one embodiment of this invention, R 4 and R are each hydrogen. According to another embodiment of this invention, R 4 and R5 together with the moiety

-CHO-

I CH-O-

I -CHO-

from formula I represents a carbohydrate moiety wherein - apart from one hydroxy group - the hydroxy groups, if desired, are acetalized or ketalized.

The carbonyl compound of formula III may be an alifatic ketone, for example, acetone. The carboxylic acid ester of formula IV may be a naturally occurring triglyceride.

The group R may be a fatty acid residue containing from 8 to 24 carbon atoms, and, preferably, the fatty acid is palmitic acid, oleic acid, lauric acid or pelargonic acid. Preferably, the groups R 1 and R2 are hydrogen and lower alkyl, for example, methyl, ethyl or propyl.

3 Preferably, the group R is straight chain alkyl with 1 - 23

" carbon atoms. The term "lower alkyl" herein designates alkyl containing not more than 6 carbon atoms. Preferably, aryl is phenyl. Hence, aryl(lower alkyl) is, preferably, phenyl(lower alkyl), most preferred benzyl and phenethyl. Lower alkoxy is, preferably, methoxy and ethoxy. Lower alkylthio is, preferably, methylthio and ethylthio. Lower alkylene is, preferably, methylene, ethylene and n-propylene. The group R is preferably different from hydrogen.

Examples of preferred alcohols of the general formula lib are as follows:

R 13- 0—CH-HC-CHOH

0—CH—CH_-0 R 2

R 14-CI-OC iH-CHOH-CIO—C'-Rl (lid)

R 13 (fructose)

CH 2 -0

.14

R 13 -C- OCH- CHO-C-R' (He) I (sorbose)

OCH--CH-0-C

•4 I

CH-.OH

wherein R and R are as defined above, and R and R are the same or different each representing hydrogen, alkyl, lower alkoxy, aryl or aryl(lower alkyl) each of which may be substituted with one or more of the following groups: hydroxy, amino, carboxy, nitro, cyano, aryl, lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio or lower alkylen, preferably one or two substituents. In a preferred embodiment, R , R , R and R are the " same and preferably methyl. Furthermore, alcohols of formula II wherein R 4 and R5 together with the moiety

-CHO-

CH-0-

I -CHO-

from formula I does not represent a corbohydrate moiety, are preferred. A preferred embodiment of this invention relates to a process for preparing carboxylic acid esters of ketalized or acetalized monosaccharides or carboxylic acid esters of ketalized or acetalized glycerol, characterized by treating a ketalized or acetalized monosaccharide or glycerol with a carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid ester in the presence of an enzyme catalyzing esterification.

A utility of the invention concerns preparation of monoglycerides of the general formula VII

R 5 -CHOH

CHOH (VII) R 4-C HOCOR3 J

wherein R 3 is as defined above, and R4 and R5 each is hydrogen. These compounds may readily be prepared according to the process of this invention, for example, by treating, as visualized in Scheme 1, below, the corresponding triglyceride of formula IVa with glycerol (formula Ilf) and the appropriate carbonyl compound of formula Ilia in a solvent like hexane and in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid and a lipase at the boiling point of hexane which will serve both as a solvent for the reaction mixture and as a solvent for azeotropic removal of water generated in the course of the reaction. The ketalyzed monoglyceride of formula la can easily be isolated from the reaction mixture, for example by evaporation of the solvent after removal of the applied catalysts. Compounds, of formula la may subsequently be converted into monoglycerides of formula

Vila, c.f. Scheme 1, for example, in a gentle acid medium, or it may be condensed with hydroxy acids or amino acids in a manner exemplified in Scheme 1 by conversion of compounds of formula la into the lactic acid ester of the free monoglycerides of formula IX.

Scheme 1

(Hf) (IVa) (Ilia)

15 (la) (Vila)

CH-OCOCH(OH)CH- 1 1

3 CHOH

20. 1 3 CHOCOR 0

(IX)

ein R , R 2 and R 3 are as stated above.

Another utility of the invention relates to 25 preparation of fatty acid esters of carbohydrates having the above formula VII which may be prepared in a manner analogous to the exemplified preparation of monoglycerides. Compounds of this nature which may thus be prepared according to the process of this invention can be utilized, for example, as 30 defergents and emulsifying agents.

The features disclosed in the foregoing description and in the following examples and claims may, both separately and in any combination thereof, be material for realising the invention in diverse forms thereof.

The process of this invention is further illustrated by the following examples which, however, are not construed as limiting. The examples illustrate some preferred embodiments of the invention. The letters TM after a name 5 indicate that it is a trade mark.

Example 1

Diethylketone (7 ml), tributyrin (19.6 ml) and glycerol diethylketal (21.2 g) were dissolved in hexane (75 ml) and transferred to a Dean-Stark apparatus for azeotropic

10 removal of water.

The reaction mixture was refluxed for one hour to remove water present in the reactants whereupon p-toluene- sulfonic acid (1.25 g) and an immobilized Mucor miehei lipase prepared as described in Danish patent application No.

15 4167/84 and available from Novo Industri A/S (60 mg) were added to the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 24 hours, an additional portion of lipase was added, and refluxing was finally continued for another 24 ' hours. The reaction mixture was analyzed by gas liquid 20 chromatography (hereinafter GLC) using a Carbowax TM column and it was shown to contain the monobutyric acid ester of glycerol diethyl ketal in a yield close to 90% based on the quantity of the applied tributyrin.

Example 2

25 l,2:5,6-di-0-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose was dissolved in phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 6.0) to provide a 3% solution of the derivatised glucose. Methyl butyrate (3 equivalents) was added to 25 ml of this solution followed by the addition of 25 ml of hexane. Finally 200 mg of a freeze

30 dried powder of Candida lipase was added to the reaction mixture which was subsequently stirred vigorously at 30°C. The progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC using a LiChrosorb-NH- column, acetonitrile/water as eluent and a refractive index detection system. After 24 hours the yield

of 4-(l,2:5,6-di-0-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranosyl) butyrate was found to be 10% and the product was isolated by chromatography on silica gel.

Example 3 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose was esterified with decanoic acid using decanoic acid methyl ester as acyl doner and the lipase isolated from a strain of Mucor miehei in a manner analogous to the one described in Example 2. The yield of 4-(1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D- glucofuranosyl) decanoate was 5%.

Example 4

1,2:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-D-fructopyranose was esterified in a manner analogous to the procedure described in Example 3. The yield of 3-(1,2:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-D- fructopyranosyl) decanoate was 10%.

Example '5

2,3:4,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-sorbofuranose was esterified using methyl butyrate as acyl doner and hog pancreas lipase as the transacylating reagent in a manner analogous to the procedure described in Example 1. The yield of l-(2,3:4,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-sorbofuranosyl) butyrate was 8% .

Example 6

1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose was esterified in a two-phase system using toluene as the organic phase and a 4 M sodium chloride solution in phosphate buffer (100 mM pH 6) as the aqueous phase. The acyl doner applied was tri-sterin and the transacylating agent the immobilized Mucor miehei lipase. Otherwise, the synthesis was performed according to the procedure outlined in Example 1. The yield of 4-(l,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranosyl) stearate was 20%.

Example 7

1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose was dissolved in a mixture of hexane and benzene (3:7 (v/v), 50 mM) together with methyl decanoate (50 mM) . The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously while a freeze dried powder of Nocardiopsis lipase was added to the reaction mixture. Stirring was continued for 18 hours whereupon the reaction mixture was analyzed as indicated in Example 1, the yield of 3-(1,2:5 ,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranyl) decanoate being 15% .

Example 8

1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose was esterified in a manner analogous to that described in Example 7 using toluene as solvent. The yield of 3-(1,2:5/6- diisopropylidene-D-glucofuranosyl) decanoate was 20%.

Example 9

1,2:5,6-di-O-isop opyliάene-D-glucofuranose was- esterified as indicated in Example 7 by using benzene as the organic solvent. The yield of 3-(1,2:5,6-diisopropylidene-D- glucofuranosyl) decanoate was 10%.

Example 10

1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose was esterified as indicated in Example 7 using hexane/acetone (9:1 (v/v)) as solvent. The yield of 3-(l,2:5,6- diisopropylidene-D-glucofuranosyl) decanoate was 15%.

Example 11

1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose was esterified with methyl palmitate in a manner analogous to that described in Example 2 the lipase from a species of Pseudomononas being used as catalyst. A yield of 3-(l,2:5,6- diisopropylidene-D-glucofuranosyl) palmitate of 15% was achieved.

Example 12

Application of freeze dried lipase from Nocardiopsis as described in Example 11 served to provide 3- (1,2:5,6-diisopropylidene-D-glucofuranosyl) palmitate in a yield o± 25%.

Example 13

Application of a freeze dried powder of Serratia lipase analogously to the manner described in Example 11 provided 3-(1,2:5,6-diisopropylidene-D-glucofuranosy1) palmitate in a yield of 15%.

Example 14

Application of a freeze dried powder of Geotricium lipase analogously as described in Example 11 served to provide 3-(1,2:5,6-diisopropylidene-D-glucofuranosyl) palmitate in a yield of 10%.

The formulae He, lid and lie mentioned above are represented on the following page.

ose)

se)

ose)