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Title:
PROCESS FOR MAKING ALKYLTIN TRIHALIDES AND THEIR USE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/109097
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of monoalkyltin trihalides. In particular the present invention relates to an improved process for the preparation of monoalkyltin trihalides involving a redistribution reaction. More particularly the present invention relates to an improved process for the preparation of monoalkyltin trihalides involving a redistribution reaction in presence of at least one transition metal complex, said complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre.

Inventors:
DEELMAN, Berth Jan (Jonagoldstraat 16, 4421 DW Kapelle, 4421, NL)
DE PATER, Jeroen (Oranjelaan 51, 3311 DH Dordrecht, 3311, NL)
Application Number:
EP2016/082425
Publication Date:
June 29, 2017
Filing Date:
December 22, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ARKEMA B.V. (Tankhoofd 10, 3196 KE Vondelingenplaat-Rotterdam, NL)
International Classes:
C07F15/00; C07F7/22
Foreign References:
US3994944A1976-11-30
US4036866A1977-07-19
EP1225177A12002-07-24
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SENFF, Holger et al. (ARKEMA FRANCE, 420 rue d'Estienne d'Orves, Colombes Cedex, 92705, FR)
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Claims:
Claims

1. Process for the production of monoalkyltin trihalides involving a redistribution reaction between tetraalkyltins , trialkyltin halides or dialkyltin dihalides and tin tetrahalides , said process comprising contacting tetraalkyltin, trialkyltin halide or dialkyltin dihalide with tin tetrahalide in the presence of at least one transition metal complex, said complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre, to afford said monoalkyltin trihalides.

2. The process according to claim 1 characterized that the metal of said transition metal complex is selected from the d-block of the periodic table of elements according to the IUPAC naming system, preferably chosen from group 8, 9 or 10 of the periodic table of elements and more preferably from group 10 of the periodic table of elements, most preferably the transition metal in the complex has a d8 or d10 configuration and has 16 valence electrons, advantageously the transition metal is chosen from Nickel (Ni) , Palladium (Pd) and/or Platinum (Pt) , and most advantageously the transition metal is Pt .

3. The process according to claim 1 characterized that the metal of said transition metal complex is selected from Nickel (Ni) , Palladium (Pd) and/or Platinum (Pt) .

4. The process according to claim 1 characterized that the metal of said transition metal complex is selected from Palladium (Pd) and/or Platinum (Pt) .

5. The process according to claim 1 characterized that the metal of said transition metal complex is Platinum.

6. The process according to any of claims 1 to 5, characterized that said transition metal complex comprises following structure given in following corresponding formula (1) A! - M ( A ) n (1) wherein M is the transition metal, n is 2 or 3, Ai and A are ligands and the ligand Ai is a monodentate phosphorus ligand.

The process according to any of claims 1 to 6, characterized that said transition metal complex comprises following structure given in followin corresponding formula (la)

wherein M is the transition metal and Ai, A2, A4, and A5 are ligands .

The process according to any of claims 1 to 5, characterized that said transition metal complex is a dimeric transition metal complex of the general formula (2)

A]_ A2 A3

M M ( \ A4 A A6 wherein M is the transition metal and Ai to Αε are ligands.

The process according to any of the claims 1 to 5 or 8 characterized that said transition metal complex has the general formula (3)

[ M ( μ -Χ]_ ) X2 (L ) ] 2 (3) wherein M is the transition metal, L is a monodentate phosphorus ligand, Xi is the anion of the conjugate base of an organic or inorganic acid and X2 is the anion of the conjugate base of an organic or inorganic acid or tin trichloride anion. 10. The process according to any of claims 1 to 5, 8 or 9 characterized that said transition metal complex is a dimeric transition metal catalyst as given by formulas (9) and (10) wherein M is the transition metal, LI and L2 are a monodentate phosphorus ligand, the anions X, X2 and X3 in formula (9) or (10) are the anions of CI, Br or I and the anions Xi and X4 in formula (9) or (10) are the anions of CI, Br, I or SnCl3.

The process according to any of claims 1 to 7 characterized that said transition metal complex is a monomeric transition metal catalyst as given by formula (11)

[ M X2 (S±) ( L ) ] ( I D wherein M is the transition metal, L is a monodentate phosphorus ligand, Si is a monodentate ligand and X is the anion of the conjugate base of an organic or inorganic acid.

The process according to any of the claims 1 to 6, characterized that said transition metal complex comprises following structure given in following corresponding formula (lb) 2 (lb)

wherein M is the transition metal, Ai, A2 and A4 are ligands.

The process according to any of claims 1 to 6 or 12 characterized that said transition metal complex is a monomeric transition metal catalyst containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand, as given by formulae (12) or (13)

[ (L) Pt (S2) (S3] (12) [ (L) Pt (S4AS5) ] (13) wherein Pt is the transition metal, L is a monodentate phosphorus ligand, S2 and S3 are monodentate ligands and 54ΛΞ5 is a bidentate ligand.

14. The process according to any of claims 1 to 13 characterized that the phosphorus ligand-to-metal M molar ratio is between 0.95:1 and 1:0.95.

15. The process according to any of claims 1 to 14 characterized that the monodentate phosphorus ligand the monodentate ligand is chosen from an organic phosphine of the formula PR1R2R3 wherein Ri, R2 and R3 are organic groups which can be identical or different.

16. The process according to claim 15, characterized that Ri, R2 and R3 are chosen from alkyl groups, aryl groups or substituted alkyl or aryl groups .

17. The process according to claim 15, characterized that Ri, R2 and R3 are chosen from phenyl, (cyclo) alkyl-substituted aryl groups, alkoxy-substituted aryl groups, mixed alkyl-/alkoxy- subsitituted aryl groups and (optionally substituted) aryl- substituted aryl groups.

18. The process according to claim 15, characterized that Ri ,R2 and R3 are chosen from alkyl-substituted aryl groups, ( cyclo ) alkyl- substituted aryl groups, alkoxy-substituted aryl groups, mixed alkyl-/alkoxy-subsitituted aryl groups and (optionally substituted) aryl-substituted aryl groups.

19. The process according to claim 16 or 17 or 18, characterized that the aryl groups are chosen from 2 , 3-subsituted, 2,6- subsituted, 2 , 4 , 6-subsituted, 3, 4-substituted, 3 , 5-substituted and 3 , 4 , 5-substituted aryl groups.

20. The process according to claim 19, characterized that the aryl groups are alkyl-substituted aryl groups, preferred alkyl groups are CnH2n+l alkyls with n from 1 to 15 and more preferably alkyl groups is chosen from methyl, ethyl, propyl, 2-propyl, n-butyl-, 2-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, tert-pentyl, neo-pentyl, iso-pentyl, sec-pentyl, 3-pentyl, n- hexyl or mixtures thereof.

Process according to any of claims 1 to 20 characterized that transition metal catalyst quantity expressed in molar quantity of the transition metal M based on the total amount of Sn used is <5mol% and even <0. lmol% .

Process according to any of claims 1 to 20 characterized that transition metal catalyst is preferably employed in the range between 1-10-5 and 1-10-1 mol, more preferably in the range between 1-10-5 and 1-10-2 mol, most preferably between l-10~5and 1-10"3 mol of metal M of the catalyst per mol of total Sn present .

Use of a transition metal complex in a process according to claims 1 to 22, said complex containing one monodentate phosphorus ligand ligand per metal centre, for the production of monoalkyltin trihalides involving a redistribution reaction between tetraalkyltins , trialkyltin halides or dialkyltin dihalides and tin tetrahalides , said process comprising contacting tetraalkyltin, trialkyltin halide or dialkyltin dihalide with tin tetrahalide.

Use of the monoalkyltin trihalides obtained by the process according to any of claims 1 to 22 as PVC stabilizer, glass coating precursor, catalyst for chemical reactions.

Use of the monoalkyltin trihalides obtained by the process according to any of claims 1 to 22 as stabilizer for halogen containing polymers, preferably chlorine containing polymers and more preferably polyvinyl chloride (PVC) .

26. Use of the monoalkyltin trihalides obtained by the process according to any of claims 1 to 22 as precursor for glascoatings . 27. Use of the monoalkyltin trihalides obtained by the process according to any of claims 1 to 22 as catalyst for chemical reactions .

Description:
Process for making alkyltin trihalides and their use

[Field of the invention]

[001] The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of monoalkyltin trihalides.

[002] In particular the present invention relates to an improved process for the preparation of monoalkyltin trihalides involving a redistribution reaction.

[003] More particularly the present invention relates to an improved process for the preparation of monoalkyltin trihalides involving a redistribution reaction in presence of at least one transition metal complex, said complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre.

[Technical problem]

[004] Alkyltin compounds and specifically monoalkyltin compounds are known, as well as their uses such as chlorine-containing polymer-stabilisers, glass coating chemicals and catalysts, and the like.

[005] Sometimes mixtures of monoalkyltin with dialkyltin compounds are used or obtained. For example widely used tin-based compounds in PVC polymers and copolymers are mixtures of mono- and dimethyltin compounds, mono- and dibutyltin compounds or mono- and dioctyltin compounds .

[006] However, trialkyltin compounds are known to be toxic compounds, and dialkyltin compounds have recently been classified as toxic compounds. Toxicity of tin compounds is known to be linked to the specific mono-, di- and trialkyltin compound contents, particularly toxicity is increasing from mono-, to di- and to trialkyltin compound contents. Therefore it is nowadays highly relevant to develop monoalkyltin compounds, with low levels of di- and trialkyltin compounds, in order to avoid toxicity issues .

[007] Attempts to the production of high purity monoalkyltin chlorides have been conducted, for example through redistribution of tetraalkyltin and trialkyltin compounds with tin tetrachloride followed by fractional distillation: monoalkyltin chlorides were obtained in relatively pure form but dialkyltin chlorides were always co-produced in significant quantities rendering these routes less attractive from an industrial perspective.

[010] The objective of the present invention is to propose an improved process to produce monoalkyltin trihalides.

[011] An objective of the present invention is also to propose a process to produce monoalkyltin trihalides with increased yield and less co-produced dialkyltin dihalides (amount < 1 weight %) .

[012] An additional objective of the present invention is to propose a process to produce monoalkyltin trihalides with short reaction times.

[013] An objective of the present invention is also to propose a process to produce monoalkyltin trihalides under mild reaction conditions .

[014] Another objective of the present invention is to propose process to produce monoalkyltin trihalides at lower temperatures.

[015] Still another objective of the present invention to propose a process to produce monoalkyltin trihalides with a high selectivity .

[016] Still an additional objective is to propose a process to produce monoalkyltin trihalides using a transition metal complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre .

[BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION JPrior art

[017] Tetraalkyltin or mixtures of tetraalkyltin and trialkyltin halides are generally produced by alkylation of tin tetrahalide with alkylmagnesium or alkylaluminium compounds. [018] The document US 3,432,531 discloses a process of for preparing an alkyl organotin compound by the reaction of an alkyl halide, magnesium, and tin tetrahalide.

[019] The Documents Neumann, W.P., Ziegler, K. GB 923179, 1963; Neumann, W.P., Ziegler, K. DE 1157617, 1963; M & T Chemicals Inc., NL 6601352, 1966; Buschhoff, M . ; Mueller, K.H., Schering AG, US 3994944, 1976 and Schumacher, 0.; Franke, L. Crompton GmbH, EP 1389620, 2004 describe the alkylation of tin tetrahalide with a trialkylaluminum compounds.

[020] Tetraalkyltin compounds or mixtures containing tetraalkyltin and trialkyltin halides can be further reacted by redistribution with tin tetrahalide to produce mixtures of monoalkyltin trihalide, dialkyltin dihalide and trialkyltin halide: Johnson, E.W.; Church, J.M., Metal & Thermit Corp., US 2599557, 1952, Neumann et al . Liebigs Ann. Chem. 663 (1963) 11 and Carlisle Chemical Works Inc., NL 6513659, 1966.

[021] The separation of monoalkyltin halides from the mixtures of alkyltin compounds produced through the processes mentioned above is usually carried out by distillation.

[022] The document US 3,931,264 discloses an alternative separation method, aqueous extraction.

[023] Several modified redistribution processes that seek to improve the yield of monoalkyltin trihalides have been disclosed:

[024] The document US 3,459,779 describes the redistribution of dialkyltin dihalides, trialkyltin halides, tetraalkyltin with tin tetrahalides in the presence of polar substances, which in particular increase the polarity of the reaction medium, such as phosphorus oxychloride or other phosphorus-halogen compounds, preferably in admixture with phosphorus pentoxide, hydrochloric acid .

[025] Kugele, T.G.; Parker, D.H., Cincinatti Milacron Chemicals Inc., US 3862198, 1975 describe the use of quaternary ammonium salts as catalysts for preparing monoalkyltin trihalides from the redistribution of dialkyltin dihalides with tin tetrahalides. [026] The document US 3,454,610 also discloses a process for the synthesis of organometallic halides by redistribution . The reaction medium is 3.R 3.1iphcitic sulfoxide and reacting therein is an organometallic compound with an organometallic halide to yield another organometallic halide.

[027] The document US 3,862,198 discloses the use of onium salts as catalysts for redistribution of di- or trialkyl tin halides or tetraalkyl tins with tin tetrahalide to form monoalkyltin

[028] The documents US 4,604,475 and Buschhoff, M . ; Neumann, W.P., Schering A . -G . , EP 158163, 1985 disclose how organotin halides are obtained by the redistribution of appropriate mixtures of organotin compounds in the presence o f stannous fluoride as a catalyst .

[029] The document EP 1225177 discloses a transition metal- catalyzed redistribution process for the production of monoalkyltin trihalides. The process is a redistribution reaction between tetraorganotins , triorganotin halides or diorganotin halides and tin tetrahalides , said process comprising contacting tetra- (R4Sn) , tri- (R3SnX) or diorganotin halides (R2SnX2) with SnX4 to afford said monoorganotin trihalides in the presence of at least one transition metal complex, said complex comprising at least one transition metal M, selected from Group VIII of the periodic table of elements, at least one monodentate ligand or bidentate ligand, L, L', or L' ', and optionally one or more anions, X, of an organic or inorganic acid, as a catalyst or catalyst precursor.

[030] A direct reaction of tin metal or stannous chloride with higher alkyl chlorides has also been disclosed as a method to form monoalkyltin chlorides (Albright & Wilson Ltd., NL 6614326, 1967 and Bulten, E.J., Cosan Chem. Corp., US3824264, 1974) . [031] The document EP1743898 discloses a transition metal-catalyzed process for the production of monoalkyltin trihalides and dialkyltin halides from stannous halide and optionally Sn metal . The process comprises contacting the corresponding alkene or cycloalkene, stannous halide SnHal,?, hydrogen halide HHal and optionally Sn metal , in the presence of at least one transition metal-based catalyst, thereafter isolating the monoalkyltin trihalides or dialkyltin halides from the medium . [032] None of the prior art documents discloses a process with mono phosphorus-containing ligands transition metal complexes of the present invention.

[Brief description of the invention]

[033] Surprisingly a process has been found for the production of monoorganotin trihalides that involves a redistribution reaction between tetraorganotins , triorganotin halides or diorganotin dihalides and tin tetrahalides, said process comprising contacting tetraorganotin, triorganotin halide or diorganotin halide with tin tetrahalide in the presence of at least one transition metal complex, said complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre, as catalyst or catalyst precursor to afford said monoorganotin trihalides with an increased yield. [034] Surprisingly also a process has been found for the production of monoalkyltin trihalides that involves a redistribution reaction between tetraalkyltins , trialkyltin halides or dialkyltin dihalides and tin tetrahalides, said process comprising contacting tetraalkyltin, trialkyltin halide or dialkyltin dihalide with tin tetrahalide in the presence of at least one transition metal complex, said complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre, as catalyst or catalyst precursor to afford said monoalkyltin trihalides with an increased yield. [Detailed description of the invention]

[035] According to a first aspect, the present invention relates to a process for the production of monoorganotin trihalides involving a redistribution reaction between tetraorganotins (F.4Sn) , triorganotin halides (RsSnX) or diorganotin halides (F.2SnX2) and tin tetrahalides (SnX/j) , said process comprising contacting tetraorganotin, triorganotin halide or diorganotin halide with tin tetrahalide in the presence of at least one transition metal complex, said complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre, as catalyst or catalyst precursor to afford said monoorganotin trihalides. [036] According to a second aspect, the present invention relates to a process for the production of monoalkyltin trihalides involving a redistribution reaction between tetraalkyltins , trialkyltin halides or dialkyltin dihalides and tin tetrahalides, said process comprising contacting tetraalkyltin, trialkyltin halide or dialkyltin dihalide with tin tetrahalide in the presence of at least one transition metal complex, said complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre, as catalyst or catalyst precursor. [037] In a third aspect the present invention relates to the use of a transition metal complex, said complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre, for the production of monoalkyltin trihalides involving a redistribution reaction between tetraalkyltins, trialkyltin halides or dialkyltin dihalides and tin tetrahalides, said process comprising contacting tetraalkyltin, trialkyltin halide or dialkyltin dihalide with tin tetrahalide .

[038] In a fourth aspect the present invention relates to the use of the monoorganotin trihalides and monoalkyltin trihalides obtained by the process in glass coating application, as catalysts for polyurethane production and stabilizers for polyvinylchloride.

[039] By the term "ligand" as used is denoted a molecule that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex [040] With regard to the monoalkylin trihalide obtained by the process of the invention, it is a monoalkyltin trihalide of the general formula RSnX3, wherein R is an alkyl or cycloalkyl and X = CI, Br or I.

[041] The alkyl R can be linear or branched.

[042] Preferably the alkyl or cycloalkyl R has between 1 and 30 carbon atoms. More preferably between 1 and 25, and particular preferably between 1 and 10. [043] With regard to the catalyst according to the process of the invention, it is a transition metal complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre M.

[044] The transition metal M in the complex is a transition metal chosen from the d-block of the periodic table of elements according to the IUPAC naming system, preferably chosen from group 8, 9 or 10 of the periodic table of elements and more preferably from group 10 of the periodic table of elements. Most preferably the transition metal in the complex has a d 8 or d 10 configuration and has 16 valence electrons. Advantageously the transition metal is chosen from Nickel (Ni), Palladium (Pd) and/or Platinum (Pt) , more advantageously the transition metal is chosen from Palladium (Pd) and/or Platinum (Pt) and most advantageously the transition metal is Platinum (Pt) .

[045] The transition metal complex comprises in one embodiment following structure given in following corresponding formula (1)

A]_ - M ( A ) n (1) wherein M is the transition metal, n is 2 or 3, Ai and A are ligands. The ligand Ai is a monodentate phosphorus ligand. The ligands A can be the same or different.

[046] The transition metal complex of formula (1) comprises in one embodiment with n=3 following structure given in following corresponding formula (la)

wherein M is the transition metal and Ai, A2, A4, and A5 are ligands .

[047] One of the ligands Ai A2, A4, and A5 is a monodentate phosphorus ligand. Preferably only one of the ligands Ai A2, A4, or A5 is a monodentate phosphorus ligand.

[048] The transition metal complex of formula (1) comprises in another embodiment with n=2 following structure given in following corresponding formula (lb)

wherein M is the transition metal and Ai, A2 and A4 are ligands.

[049] One of the ligands Ai A2 and A4 is a monodentate phosphorus ligand. Preferably only one of the ligands Ai A2 or A4 is a monodentate phosphorus ligand.

[050] The transition metal complex comprises in still another embodiment following structure given in following corresponding formula (2)

A]_ A 2 A 3

M M ( \ A 4 A A 6

wherein M is the transition metal and Ai to Ae are ligands.

[051] The ligands A2 and A5 which form the bridge between the two transition metals M of the dimeric transition metal complex of formula (2) are preferably chosen from an anion of the conjugate base of an organic or inorganic acid.

[052] At least one of the ligands AI or A4 and A3 or A6 is preferably chosen from an anion of the conjugate base of an organic or inorganic acid or tin trichloride anion. More preferably one of ligands AI or A4 and A3 or A6 is chosen to be CI, Br, I or SnCl3 anions

[053] At least one of the ligands AI or A4 and A3 or A6 is preferably chosen to be a monodentate phosphorus ligand. Preferably only one of the ligands Al or A4 and A3 or A6 is chosen to be a monodentate phosphorus ligand

[054] In a preferred first embodiment the catalyst according to the process of the invention is a dimeric catalyst as given generally in formula (3)

[M (μ-Χ]_) X 2 (L) ] 2 (3)

[055] wherein M is the transition metal, L is a monodentate phosphorus ligand, Xi is the anion of the conjugate base of an organic or inorganic acid and X2 is the anion of the conjugate base of an organic or inorganic acid or tin trichloride anion.

[056] The general formula (3) corresponds to structures (4) or (5) :

M M (5) L Xi L

[057] Preferably M is a metal selected from group 10 of the periodic table of elements according to the IUPAC naming system and more preferably chosen from Ni, Pd and/or Pt and most advantageously the transition metal is Pt .

[058] Preferably the anion Xi in formula (3), (4) or (5) is the anion of CI, Br or I and the anion X2 in formula (3), (4) or (5) is the anion of CI, Br, I or SnCl3.

[059] In a specific case of the preferred first embodiment Xi and X2 can be the same so that the catalyst according to the process of the invention is a dimeric catalyst as given generally in formula (6)

[M(y-X)X(L) ] 2 (6)

[060] wherein M is the transition metal, L is a monodentate phosphorus ligand and X is the anion of the conjugate base of an organic or inorganic acid.

[061] The general formula (6) corresponds to structures (7) or (8) : X X L

\ / \ /

M M (7) / \ / \

L X X

X X X

\ / \ /

M M (8) / \ / \

L X L

[062] Preferably M is a metal selected from group 10 of the periodic table of elements according to the IUPAC naming system and more preferably chosen from Ni, Pd and/or Pt and most advantageously the transition metal is Pt .

[063] Preferably the anion X in formula (6) , (7) or (8) is the anion of CI, Br or I.

[064] In a preferred second embodiment the catalyst according to the process of the invention is a dimeric transition metal catalyst as given by formulas (9) and (10)

wherein M is the transition metal, LI and L2 are a monodentate phosphorus ligand .

[065] Preferably M is a metal selected from group 10 of the periodic table of elements according to the IUPAC naming system and more preferably chosen from Ni, Pd and/or Pt and most advantageously the transition metal is Pt .

[066] Preferably the anions X, X2 and X3 in formula (9) or (10) are the anions of CI, Br or I and the anions Xi and X4 in formula (9) or (10) are the anions of CI, Br, I or SnCl3.

[067] In a preferred third embodiment the catalyst according to the process of the invention is a monomeric transition metal catalyst as given by formula (11)

[M X 2 (S ± ) (L) ] (ID wherein M is the transition metal, L is a monodentate phosphorus ligand, Si is a monodentate ligand and X is the anion of the conjugate base of an organic or inorganic acid.

[068] Preferably M is a metal selected from group 1 0 of the periodic table of elements according to the IUPAC naming system and more preferably chosen from Ni, Pd and/or Pt and most advantageously the transition metal is Pt .

[069] Preferably the anion X in formula ( 1 1 ) is the anion of CI, Br or I .

[070] Preferably the monodentate ligand L in formula ( 11 ) is an organic phosphorus ligand.

[071] Preferably the monodentate ligand Si in formula ( 1 1 ) is chosen from organic nitriles RCN, alkyl ethers OR2 or dialkyl sulfoxides R2SO. More preferably S is chosen from MeCN or EtCN.

[072] In a preferred fourth embodiment the catalyst according to the process of the invention is a monomeric zerovalent transition metal catalyst containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand, as given by formulae ( 12 ) and ( 13 )

[ (L)Pt( S 2 ) ( S 3 ] ( 12 ) [ (L) Pt (S 4 A S 5 ) ] ( 13 ) wherein Pt is the transition metal, L is a monodentate phosphorus ligand, S2 and S 3 are monodentate ligands and Ξ 4 Λ Ξ 5 is a bidentate ligand.

[073] Preferably the ligands S2 and S3 are chosen from ethene, ethyne, propene, propyne, styrene, maleic acid anhydride, fumaronitrile or tetracyanoethylene .

[074] Preferably the bidentate ligand S^ Ss is chosen from cis , cis- 1 , 5-cyclooctadiene (COD), trans, trans-dibenzylidene acetone (dba) , 1 , 3-divinyl-l , 1 , 3 , 3-tetramethyldisiloxane (dvtms), diallyl ether (AE) , 1 , 6-hexadiene or N, , ' , ' -tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) . More preferably the bidentate ligand S^ Ss is dvtms. [075] According to the invention the respective ligands L, LI and/or L2 in all the respective formulas (3) to (13) are a monodentate phosphorus ligand.

[076] Preferably the phosphorus ligand-to-metal M molar ratio is between 0.95:1 and 1:0.95 and more preferably is 1:1.

[077] Preferably the monodentate ligands L, LI and L2 are each chosen from an organic phosphine of the formula PR1R2R3 wherein Ri ,R2 and R3 are organic groups which can be identical or different.

[078] According to the invention the ligand L, LI and/or L2 has the general structure

[079] wherein Ri ,R2 and R3 are organic groups which can be identical or different.

[080] Preferably Ri, R2 and R3 in formula (14) are chosen from alkyl groups, aryl groups or substituted alkyl or aryl groups. The substituted alkyl or aryl groups can have one or more substituents .

[081] In a particular embodiment the Ri ,R2 and R3 are chosen from phenyl, alkyl-substituted aryl groups, (cyclo) alkyl-substituted aryl groups, alkoxy-substituted aryl groups, mixed alkyl-/alkoxy- subsitituted aryl groups and (optionally substituted) aryl- substituted aryl groups.

[082] In a particular preferred embodiment the Ri ,R2 and R3 are chosen from alkyl-substituted aryl groups, (cyclo) alkyl- substituted aryl groups, alkoxy-substituted aryl groups, mixed alkyl-/alkoxy-subsitituted aryl groups and (optionally substituted) aryl-substituted aryl groups.

[083] In a particular preferred embodiment of this invention such aryl groups are chosen from 2 , 3-subsituted, 2 , 6-subsituted, 2,4,6- subsituted, 3, 4-substituted, 3, 5-substituted and 3, 4, 5-substituted aryl groups. In the case alkyl-substituted aryl groups, preferred alkyl groups are C n H2n + i alkyls with n from 1 to 15 and more preferably aklkyl group is chosen from methyl, ethyl, propyl, 2- propyl, η-butyl-, 2-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, tert- pentyl, neo-pentyl, iso-pentyl, sec-pentyl, 3-pentyl, n-hexyl or mixtures thereof. [084] With regard to the process for the production of monoalkyltin trihalides involving the redistribution reaction between tetraalkyltins , trialkyltin halides or dialkyltin halides and tin tetrahalides , said process comprising contacting tetraalkyltin, trialkyltin halide or dialkyltin halide or mixtures thereof with tin tetrahalide, said process takes place in the presence of at least one transition metal complex containing only one monodentate phosphorus ligand per metal centre. The process can be carried out with or without solvent. The catalyst can be added immediately or later during the reaction.

[085] The solvent is chosen preferably from an inert organic and aprotic solvents

[086] The solvent is more preferably chosen from aromatic solvents, chloroaromatics , alkanes or mixtures thereof. In particular toluene, xylene and n-octane proved to be appropriate solvents.

[087] The process can be carried with a molar excess of one of the reagents or using stoichiometric molar ratios, 1:3 molar ratio for the reaction between F.4Sn and SnX/j, 1:2 molar ratio for the reaction between F.3SnX and SnX4 and 1 : 1 molar ratio for the reaction between F.2SnX2 and SnX4. For the reaction between F.4Sn and SnX4 the ratio can vary from 100:1 to 1:100, more preferred from 2:1 to 1:15 and preferably from 1:2 to 1:5. For the reaction between F.2SnX2 and SnX4 the ratio can vary from 100:1 to 1:100, more preferred from 5:1 to 1:5 and preferably from 1.5:1 to 1:1.5.

[088] In a specific embodiment of the invention the concentration of the tin reagents employed falls within the range of 0.01 to 5 M, more preferred 1.0—4.0 M.

[089] The transition metal catalyst quantity expressed in molar quantity of the transition metal M based on the total amount of Sn used can be <5mol% and even <0.1mol%.

[090] The transition metal catalyst is preferably employed in the range between 1-10 -5 and 1-10 -1 mol, more preferably in the range between 1·10 ~5 and 1-10 -2 mol and most preferably between l-10 ~5 and 1-10 "3 mol of metal M of the catalyst per mol of total Sn present.

[091] With regard to the operating conditions of the process the reaction is made continuously or in batch. The batch process is preferred. Temperature can be, by way of example, from ambient to 130°C. A range from 20°C to 120°C is advantageous and more advantageous the reaction temperature of the process is from 20 °C to 100°C. Preferred reaction times range from a few seconds to 48 hours. The pressure in the reaction vessel is under 5 bar. The reaction is carried out in any usual apparatus. The reaction can be checked by taking samples and conventional analysis. The monoalkyltin trihalides can be separated from the reaction medium by any means such as, by way of examples, distillation, solvent extraction, crystallisation.

[092] The conversion of the process according to the invention is preferably more than 85%, based on tin. More preferably the yield is more than 88% and advantageously more than 90% and more advantageously more than 92%.

[093] The yield of the process according to the invention is preferably more than 85%, based on tin. More preferably the yield is more than 88% and advantageously more than 90% and more advantageously more than 92%.

[094] The selectivity of the reaction based on tin according to process of the invention is at least 75%, preferably at least 80% and more preferably at least 85% and advantageously at least 88%.

[095] According to a preferred embodiment the process according to the invention has a yield more than 90% and a selectivity of at least 91%.

[096] In a preferred embodiment of the invention the process concerns a catalyzed redistribution reaction with redistribution between F.2SnCl2 (R is Me, Et, propyl, hexyl or octyl more preferably R is n-butyl and n-octyl) and SnCl4 to afford RSnCl3. For R = n-butyl and n-octyl, the monoalkyltin trichloride was obtained starting from R2SnCl2 and SnCl4 in 90 and 94 % yield, respectively, whereas in the blank experiment (no catalyst added) only unreacted starting materials were recovered.

[097] In another preferred embodiment of the invention the process concerns a catalyzed redistribution reaction with redistribution between F.4Sn (R is Me, Et, propyl, hexyl or octyl more preferably R is n-butyl or n-octyl) and SnCl4 to afford RSnCl3 using the same catalyst as defined before.

[098] With regard to the use of the monoalkyltin trihalide obtained mention may be made of PVC stabilizer, glass coating precursor, catalyst for chemical reactions as for example polyurethane production .

[099] In a first preferred embodiment the monoalkyltin trihalide obtained by the process according to the invention is used as stabilizer for halogen containing polymers, preferably chlorine containing polymers and more preferably polyvinyl chloride (PVC) .

[0100] In a second preferred embodiment the monoalkyltin trihalide obtained by the process according to the invention is used as precursor for glascoatings .

[0101] In a third preferred embodiment the monoalkyltin trihalide obtained by the process according to the invention is used as catalyst for chemical reactions.

[Methods of evaluation]

[0102] About the Sn yield and selectivity:

[0103] al is the number of moles of Sn (present as tetraalkyltin (R 4 Sn) , trialkyltin halide (R 3 SnX) , dialkyltin dihalide (R 2 SnX 2 ) plus tin tetrahalide (SnX/j) ) at the beginning of the reaction.

[0104] a2 is the total number of moles of Sn (present as R4Sn, RsSnX or R 2 SnX2 plus SnX/j) converted.

[0105] a3 is the number of moles of monoalkyltin trihalide produced .

[0106] a4 is the number of moles of dialkyltin dihalide produced.

[0107] a5 is the number of moles of tin dihalide produced.

[0108] The yield of monoalkyltin trihalide is defined as a3/al. The conversion is defined as a2/al. [0109] For the reaction between dialkyltin dihalide and tin tetrahalide the Sn selectivity is defined as the ratio a3/ (a3+a5) .

[0110] For the reaction between tetraalkyltin and tin tetrahalide the selectivity is defined as a3/ (a3+a4+a5)

[0111] The moles of al, a2, a3 and a4 are determined by Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) analysis of a sample from the liquid part of the reaction. The moles of a5 are determined by filtering off the formed tin dichloride, washing with an appropriate solvent, drying of the remaining solids in an oven under vacuum, followed by gravimetric determination.

[Examples]

[0112] Abbreviations

[0113] Bu 4 Sn - tetrabutyltin

[0114] BusSnCl - tributyltin chloride

[0115] Bu 2 SnCl 2 - dibutyltin dichloride

[0116] BuSnCl3 - monobutyltin trichloride

[0117] SnCl 4 - tin tetrachloride

[0118] SnCl 2 - tin dichloride

[0119] Example 1. Preparation of BuSnCl 3 from Bu 2 SnCl 2 and SnCl 4

In a 250 mL roundbottom flask with a magnetic stirring bar, placed in Radleys Carrousel 6 Plus Reaction Station™, was weighed Bu 2 SnCl 2 (46.27 grammes, 150.0 mmol) . The flask was inertisized three times at 60 °C, followed by introduction of the complex [Pt ( μ-Cl) CI (T4TP) ] 2 (8.5 mg, 0.0149 mmol Pt) and one more vacuum- nitrogen cycle. Next, SnCl 4 (39.10 grammes, 150.1 mmol) was added by means of a syringe. The carrousel was heated to a plate temperature of 95 °C, which corresponded to a temperature of the flask contents of 88 °C.

The reaction was continued for 20 hours, after which the reaction mixture was cooled to ambient temperature, the liquid phase sampled and analyzed by GC (after ethylation with excess EtMgCl), giving the following composition (weight %) : SnCl 4 3.14 %; BuSnCl3 89.53 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 3.90 %. The remaining reaction mixture was filtered over a glass frit and the residue washed with toluene (1 * 10 mL) and heptane (1 * 10 mL) . The filter residue (SnCl2) was dried in a stove at 50 °C for 2 hours and weighed (3.37 grammes, 17.77 mmol) . [0120] Example 2-10. Preparation of BuSnCl 3 from Bu 2 SnCl 2 and SnCl 4 . The reactions were carried out in a similar fashion as Example 1, with the following differences:

Example 2) Bu2SnCl2 (46.38 grammes, 150.1 mmol), [Pt ( μ-Cl) CI (TXP) ] 2 (9.2 mg, 0.0150 mmol Pt) and SnCl 4 (39.00 grammes, 149.7 mmol) were used. After 20 h the liquid phase had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl4 2.68 %; BuSnCl3 91.36 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 3.00 %. The amount of SnCl 2 was 2.49 grammes (13.13 mmol) . Example 3) A 500 mL round bottom flask was used with an electronic heating mantle and overhead stirrer. Bu2SnCl2 (150.00 grammes, 485.8 mmol), [ Pt ( μ-Cl ) CI (TXP) ] 2 (29.8 mg, 0.0486 mmol Pt) and SnCl4 (126.60 grammes, 485.8 mmol) were used. The reaction temperature was 80 °C. After 29 h the liquid phase had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl4 1.70 %; BuSnCl3

96.20 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 2.10 %. The amount of SnCl 2 was 7.45 grammes (39.30 mmol) .

Example 4) A 500 mL round bottom flask was used with an electronic heating mantle and overhead stirrer. Bu2SnCl2 (150.00 grammes, 485.8 mmol), [ Pt ( μ-Cl ) CI (TXP) ] 2 (29.8 mg, 0.0486 mmol Pt) and SnCl4 (126.60 grammes, 485.8 mmol) were used. The reaction temperature was 65 °C. After 48 h the liquid phase had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl4 1.90 %; BuSnCl3 95.70 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 2.40 %. The amount of SnCl 2 was 5.54 grammes

(29.20 mmol) .

Example 5) Bu2SnCl2 (46.27 grammes, 149.7 mmol), [Pt ( μ-Cl) CI (Ph (An*) 2 P) ] 2 (12.1 mg, 0.0149 mmol Pt) and SnCl 4 (39.10 grammes, 150.1 mmol) were used. After 20 h the liquid phase had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl4 2.75 %; BuSnCls 94.01 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 2.4 %. The amount of SnCl 2 was 3.30 grammes (17.40 mmol) .

Example 6) Bu2SnCl2 (46.29 grammes, 149.8 mmol), [Pt ( μ-Cl) CI (Ph (An*) 2 P) ] 2 (12.2 mg, 0.0150 mmol Pt) and SnCl 4

(39.16 grammes, 150.3 mmol) were used. The reaction was carried out at 80 °C. After 24 h the liquid part had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl 4 3.68 %; BuSnCl 3 89.86 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 3.90 %. The amount of SnCl2 was 2.36 grammes (12.45 mmol) .

Example 7) Bu2SnCl2 (46.35 grammes, 147.1 mmol), [Pt ( μ-Cl) CI (D4TXP) ] 2 (8.6 mg, 0.0147 mmol Pt) and SnCl 4 (38.15 grammes, 146.5 mmol) were used. After 20 h the liquid phase had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl4 3.26 %; BuSnCl3 93.69 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 3.0 %. The amount of SnCl 2 was 3.09 grammes

(16.30 mmol) .

Example 8) Bu2SnCl2 (46.36 grammes, 150.2 mmol), [Pt ( μ-Cl) CI (T4TBP) ] 2 (10.5 mg, 0.0151 mmol Pt) and SnCl 4 (39.02 grammes, 149.8 mmol) were used. After 20 h the liquid phase had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl4 2.01 %; BuSnCl3 90.86 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 2.80 %. The amount of SnCl 2 was 2.92 grammes (15.40 mmol) . Example 9) A 500 mL roundbottom flask was used with an electronic heating mantle and overhead stirrer. Bu2SnCl2 (150.00 grammes, 485.8 mmol), [Pt ( μ-Cl) CI (T4TBP) ] 2 (33.8 mg, 0.0486 mmol Pt) and SnCl4 (126.60 grammes, 485.8 mmol) were used. The reaction was carried out at 80 °C. After 22 h the liquid phase had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl4 2.90 %; BuSnCl3

94.30 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 2.80 %. The amount of SnCl 2 was 7.95 grammes (41.90 mmol) .

Example 10. Bu 2 SnCl 2 (100.00 grammes, 320.30 mmol), [Pt ( μ-Cl) CI ( (Me 4 Tet) 3 P) ] 2 (27.8 mg, 0.0324 mmol Pt) and SnCl 4

(83.43 grammes, 320.3 mmol) were used. The reaction was carried out at 80 °C. After 25 h the liquid phase had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl 4 0.99 %; BuSnCl 3 98.25 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 0.80 %. The amount of SnCl2 was 5.14 grammes (27.11 mmol) .

[0121] The results of these different experiments with dimeric catalyst are presented in Table 2 as examples 1 to 10 and compared to results obtained using (pre ) catalysts [PtCl2L2] from the prior art (entries comparative examples 1-3) .

[0122] Table 1 - Ligands L of general formula (14) PRiR 2 R 3 of catalyst: abbreviation and formula

[0123] Results of reactions of Bu2SnCl2 with SnCl4 of a molar ratio of 1:1 in presence of several catalyst are shown in table 2.

[0124] Table 2 - summary of results

a - Mol % of Pt relative to total amount of Sn. b After 20 h unless indicated otherwise. 0 Byproduct = SnCl2. d After 29 hours. e After 48 hours . f After 24 hours.9 After 22 hours. 11 After 25 hours. [0125] Example 11. Preparation of n 0ctSnCl 3 from n Oct 2 SnCl 2 and SnClz

[0126] In this experiment, in a 250 mL roundbottom flask n Oct2SnCl2 (50.03 g, 114.7 mmol), [ Pt (μ-Cl ) CI ( (Me 4 Tet ) 3 P) ] 2 (9.7 mg, 0.0115 mmol) and SnCl4 (29.93 g, 114.9 mmol) were reacted at 88 °C for 22 h. After cooling the reaction mixture was filtered and the liquid phase was sampled and analyzed by GC (after ethylation with excess EtMgCl) for the amount of n OctSnCl 3 present (72.1 g, 213.0 mmol, yield: 93 %) The remaining solids (SnCl2> were washed with toluene (10 mL) and heptane (10 mL) , dried under vacuum and weighed (2.30 g, 12.1 mmol, yield 5 %) .

[0127] Example 12. Preparation of BuSnCl 3 from Bu 2 SnCl 2 and SnCl 4 .

[0128] The reaction was carried out in a similar fashion as Example 3, with the following differences:

a) Bu 2 SnCl 2 (47.98 grammes, 142.6 mmol), [ Pt (dvtms ) ( (T4TP) ] (9.8 mg, 0.0143 mmol Pt) and SnCl 4 (37.15 grammes, 142.6 mmol) were used.

b) The reaction was carried out at 83 °C.

c) After 22 h the liquid phase had the following composition (weight %) : SnCl 4 3.70 %; BuSnCl 3 89.39 %; Bu 2 SnCl 2 4.00 %. The amount of SnCl 2 was 2.88 grammes (15.19 mmol) . Conversion: 92 %; Selectivity: 94 %; Yield of BuSnCl 3 : 86 %.

[0129] The conversion of all examples 1 to 12 according to the process of the invention is more than 90%.

[0130] The selectivity of the reaction based on tin of all examples

1 to 12 according to the process of the invention is at least 85%.

[0131] The yield of all examples 1 to 10 according to the process of the invention is more than 85%.

[0132] The examples 1 to 12 according to the process of the invention has a yield more than 85% and a selectivity of at least

90%.