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Title:
PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURE OF COATED FROZEN CONFECTION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/087319
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A process for the manufacture of a coated frozen confection, the process comprising the steps of (a) manufacturing a frozen confection, followed by; (b) contacting the frozen confection with a substantially flat freezing surface at a temperature of from -10°C to -50°C, wherein a layer of a frozen aqueous solution is present between the frozen confection and the freezing surface, the solution having a Tg' below -60°C and a solute concentration of from 0.001 to 20% by weight; (c) removing the frozen confection from the freezing surface, followed by; (d) coating the frozen confection in a liquid coating, which subsequently solidifies to provide a solid coating.

Inventors:
CHENEY, Paul, Edward (Unilever R&D Colworth Sharnbrook, Bedford, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, MK44 1LQ, GB)
JUDGE, David, John (Unilever R&D Colworth Sharnbrook, Bedford, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, MK44 1LQ, GB)
Application Number:
EP2015/077840
Publication Date:
June 09, 2016
Filing Date:
November 26, 2015
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNILEVER PLC (a company registered in England and Wales under company no. of Unilever House, 100 Victoria EmbankmentLondon, Greater London EC4Y 0DY, EC4Y 0DY, GB)
UNILEVER N.V. (Weena 455, 3013 AL Rotterdam, 3013 AL, NL)
CONOPCO, INC., D/B/A UNILEVER (800 Sylvan Avenue AG West, S. WingEnglewood Cliffs, NJ, 07632, US)
International Classes:
A23G9/04; A23G1/30; A23G9/48
Domestic Patent References:
WO2006048190A12006-05-11
Foreign References:
US20090081342A12009-03-26
US20090061059A12009-03-05
US6932994B12005-08-23
Other References:
C. CLARKE: "The Science of Ice Cream", 2004, ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY, pages: 28 - 30
S ABLETT; MJ IZZARD; PJ LILLFORD: "Differential scanning calorimetric study of frozen sucrose and glycerol solutions", J. CHEM. SOC. FARADAY TRANS., vol. 88, 1992, pages 789
R.T. MARSHALL; H.D. GOFF; W. HARTEL: "Ice Cream", 2013, KLUWER ACADEMIC / PLENUM PUBLISHERS
H.A. BARNES: "A Handbook of Elementary Rheology", 2000
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WARNER, Guy, Jonathan (Unilever PLC, Unilever Patent GroupColworth House, Sharnbrook,Bedford, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, MK44 1LQ, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A process for the manufacture of a coated frozen confection, the process comprising the steps of

(a) manufacturing a frozen confection, followed by;

(b) contacting the frozen confection with a substantially flat freezing surface at a temperature of from -10°C to -50°C, wherein a layer of a frozen aqueous solution is present between the frozen confection and the freezing surface, the solution having a Tg' below -60°C and a solute concentration of from 0.001 to 20% by weight;

(c) removing the frozen confection from the freezing surface, followed by;

(d) coating the frozen confection in a liquid coating, which subsequently solidifies to provide a solid coating.

2. A process according to claim 1 , wherein the freezing surface is coated with the aqueous solution before it is contacted with the frozen confection.

3. A process according to claim 1 , wherein the frozen confectionery is coated with the aqueous solution before the freezing surface is contacted with it.

4. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the frozen confection is formed by extrusion.

5. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the solute is a food

grade solute, for example an alcohol, a polyol or a sugar.

6. A process according to claim 5, wherein the solute is selected from the group consisting of ethanol, glycerol, sorbitol, xylitol, propylene glycol, arabinose, ribose, xylose and mixtures thereof.

7. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the solute concentration is at least 0.01 %, more preferably at least 0.05% by weight. 8. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the solute concentration is at most 10%, more preferably at most 5% by weight.

9. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the solute is ethanol with a concentration of from 0.05 to 1 % by weight.

10. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the layer of frozen aqueous solution is at least 0.1 mm, more preferably at least 0.3mm, most preferably at least 0.5mm in thickness. 1 1 . A process according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the layer is at most

5mm, more preferably at most 3mm, most preferably at most 2mm in thickness.

12. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 1 1 , wherein the temperature of the freezing surface is -15°C or below, more preferably -25°C or below, most preferably -30°C or below.

13. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the temperature of the moulding surface is -45°C or above, more preferably -40°C or above. 14. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 13, wherein the frozen confection is a frozen yoghurt or an ice cream.

15. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 14, wherein the coating is chocolate.

Description:
PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURE OF COATED FROZEN CONFECTION

Technical Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a process of manufacture of coated frozen confection products.

Background to the Invention

Frozen confections which consist of ice cream, frozen yoghurt, or the like coated with chocolate, frozen fruit juice, or other coatings are popular products. These products are often supported on a stick so that they can be conveniently consumed without being held directly. Chocolate-coated stick products are one example of this type of product that have been known for many years.

Frozen confection products, including those on sticks are often produced by an "extrude and cut" process. This provides an uncoated frozen confection, which may at this stage already include a stick inserted in the confection.

More recently it has been proposed to manufacture frozen aerated products with cold roller apparatus the process comprising providing two rollers with open cavities on their surfaces, filling two cavities, one on each roller, with a frozen aerated material, wherein at least one of the cavities is filled with a frozen aerated product which is then allowed to expand outside its cavity, the two cavities then being moved opposite one another and the frozen aerated product in each cavity is pressed against the frozen aerated product in the other cavity. The product is thus formed from two halves and is self-releasing from the rollers.

Once manufactured, the uncoated frozen confection can then be coated by dipping into a bath of liquid coating to form the coating or they may also be sprayed or enrobed with liquid coating. Once coated, the frozen products are typically blast frozen and moved from the production area to the storage areas in the factory prior to distribution. However it has been found that sometimes bubbles appear in the liquid coating. Furthermore these bubbles often do not burst due to the high viscosity and/or rapid solidification of the coating, or if they do burst they leave a crater. Thus, undesirable surface imperfections can be present in such coatings due to such bubbles. Even under conditions where gas bubbles are completely eliminated from the liquid coating before applying it to the surface of the frozen confection it has been found that such bubbles can still be present. It has therefore been concluded that the bubbles are somehow being formed by another mechanism.

It would therefore be desirable to prevent the formation of such bubbles in order to improve the quality of the coating. The present invention has found that the use of a frozen aqueous solution having a particular glass transition temperature and solute concentration is capable of preventing such bubble formation.

Summary of the invention

Accordingly, in a first aspect the present invention relates to a process for the manufacture of a coated frozen confection, the process comprising the steps of

(a) manufacturing a frozen confection, followed by;

(b) contacting the frozen confection with a substantially flat freezing surface at a temperature of from -10°C to -50°C, wherein a layer of a frozen aqueous solution is present between the frozen confection and the freezing surface, the solution having a Tg' below -60°C and a solute concentration of from 0.001 to 20% by weight;

(c) removing the frozen confection from the freezing surface, followed by;

(d) coating the frozen confection in a liquid coating, which subsequently solidifies to provide a solid coating. Tg;

When an aqueous solution freezes, ice is formed. As a result, the amount of unfrozen water in which the solute is dissolved decreases and the solute becomes more concentrated. This is known as freeze-concentration. If the solute does not crystallise out of solution as freezing progresses, the solution eventually becomes so concentrated that it undergoes a transition to a glassy state and does not freeze-concentrate any more. The temperature at which this occurs is the glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze-concentrated solution, known as Tg'. The frozen aqueous solution consists of a mixture of ice crystals and freeze-concentrated glassy phase. The relative amounts of ice and glass depend on the initial solute concentration, but the concentration of the glassy phase (i.e. the maximally freeze-concentrated solution) is independent of the initial solute concentration. Tg' corresponds to the temperature at which the liquidus curve and the glass transition curve intersect on the state diagram (see, for example, C. Clarke, "The Science of Ice Cream", 2004, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, pp 28-30). Values of Tg' are known in the literature for a wide range of food grade solutes. Tg' is measured by the following method. Method for measuring Tg'

The Tg' of aqueous solutions is measured by differential scanning calorimetry, as described in S Ablett, MJ Izzard, PJ Lillford, "Differential scanning calorimetric study of frozen sucrose and glycerol solutions" J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans., 88 (1992) p789. It should be noted that some solutes have a very low Tg'. It is sufficient for the purposes of the present invention to show by this method that Tg' of such solutes is below -60°C, and it is not necessary to measure the actual value.

Method for measuring the temperature of a freezing surface

The temperature of a freezing surface is measured with a self-adhesive patch surface temperature probe connected to a thermometer (as supplied by Comark, Stevenage, UK with code N9008).

After carrying out a study of the problems of unwanted bubble formation, the inventors have observed that the presence of the bubbles is associated with troughs, and possibly also peaks, in the surface of the frozen confection. Without wishing to be bound by theory the present inventors have determined that the bubbles are being caused by the coating being unable to completely fill such troughs in the surface of the frozen confection. This may be due to the already high initial viscosity (especially in the case of a chocolate coating) and/or the typically rapid crystallisation or solidification of the coating before it has had an opportunity to flow into the troughs. Thus, it is believed that gas is entrapped beneath the surface of the liquid coating where troughs in the surface of the frozen confection exist. Furthermore, it is theorised that such trapped gas expands as it warms due to the heat transfer to the surface of the frozen confection from the applied coating. Thus, following Charles' Law, such a gas will expand as it warms and can then form a bubble in the liquid coating.

The present inventors have furthermore surprisingly found that preventing such troughs and/or peaks in the surface of the frozen confection prior to applying the liquid coating, prevents the formation of the bubbles in the coating. In particular the inventors have ascertained that during manufacture of such frozen confections, surface roughness can be inadvertently introduced to the surface prior to coating. Such surface roughness has been found to be the cause of the unwanted bubbles appearing when the coating is applied.

It has now been found that when a frozen confection is placed in contact with a substantially flat freezing surface, it can adhere to the surface. Furthermore, such adhesion can be so great that the frozen confection fails during release and leaves behind parts of the frozen confection. This results in a roughness being induced on the surface of the frozen confection which leads to the formation of bubbles when the coating is applied. The use of a frozen aqueous solution having a particular glass transition temperature and solute concentration is believed to prevent this roughness and therefore greatly reduces bubble formation.

In a preferred embodiment the freezing surface is coated with the aqueous solution before it is contacted with the food product. In an alternative embodiment the food product is coated with the aqueous solution before the freezing surface is contacted with it.

Preferably the solute is food grade solute, for example an alcohol, a polyol or a sugar. More preferably the solute is selected from the group consisting of ethanol, glycerol, sorbitol, xylitol, propylene glycol, arabinose, ribose, xylose and mixtures thereof. Even more preferably the solute is ethanol and / or glycerol. Preferably the solute concentration is at least 0.01 %, more preferably at least 0.05% by weight. Preferably the solute concentration is at most 10%, more preferably at most 5% by weight.

\\\ln a preferred embodiment the solute is ethanol with a concentration of from 0.05 to 1 % by weight.

Preferably the layer of frozen aqueous solution is at least 0.1 mm, more preferably at least 0.3mm, most preferably at least 0.5mm in thickness. Preferably the layer is at most 5mm, more preferably at most 3mm, most preferably at most 2mm in thickness. Preferably the temperature of the moulding surface is -15°C or below, more preferably - 25°C or below, most preferably -30°C or below. Preferably the temperature of the moulding surface is -45°C or above, more preferably -40°C or above.

Preferably the freezing surface is made of a metal, such as stainless steel or aluminium.

In particular the present invention can form part of the extrude-and-cut ice cream manufacturing process. Thus, preferably the frozen confection is an extruded ice cream. In such a process the frozen surface is an essentially flat stainless steel platform, which enters a blast freezer at a temperature of around -40°C.

In a second aspect the present invention provides the use of an aqueous solution having Tg' below -60°C and a solute concentration of from 0.001 to 20% by weight to reduce adhesion between a food product and a freezing surface having a temperature of from - 10°C to -50°C.

Although the process can be carried out in a batch semi-batch or continuous manner, it is preferred to be carried out in a continuous manner. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art (e.g. in frozen food manufacture). Definitions and descriptions of various terms and techniques used in frozen confectionery manufacture are found in "Ice Cream", 7th Edition R.T. Marshall, H.D. Goff and R.W. Hartel, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York 2013.

Frozen confection means a confection made by freezing a pasteurised mix of ingredients such as water, fat, sweetener, protein (normally milk proteins), and optionally other ingredients such as emulsifiers, stabilisers, colours and flavours. Frozen confections may be aerated. Frozen confections include ice cream, frozen yoghurt and the like. Preferably the frozen confection is an ice cream.

The present invention typically utilises a frozen confection having at most 20 wt% of total sugars. As used herein the term "sugars" refers exclusively to digestible mono- and di- saccharides. The total sugar content of a frozen confection is thus the sum of all of the digestible mono- and di-saccharides present within the frozen confection, including any lactose from milk solids and any sugars from fruits. In preferred embodiments the frozen confection has at most 17.5 wt%, more preferably at most 15 wt%, more preferably still at most 12.5 wt%, yet more preferably at most 10 wt%, even more preferably at most 7.5 wt%, more preferably at most 6wt% total sugars. Preferably the frozen confection contains at least 1 wt%, more preferably at least 2 wt%, more preferably still at least 5 wt% total sugars. The frozen confection further typically contains stabilisers, the primary purposes of which is to produce smoothness in body and texture, retard or reduce ice and lactose crystal growth during storage, and to provide uniformity of product and resistance to melting. Additionally, they stabilize the mix to prevent wheying off, produce a stable foam with easy cut-off in the freezer, and slow down moisture migration from the product to the package or the air. The action of stabilisers in ice cream results from their ability to form gel-like structures in water and to hold free water. Iciness can be controlled by stabilizers due to a reduction in the growth of ice crystals over time, related to a reduction in water mobility as water is entrapped by their entangled network structures in the serum phase. Suitable stabilisers include one or more of tara gum, guar gum, locust been gum, carrageenan, gelatin, alginate, carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan and pectin. The frozen confection contains at least 0.45 wt%, preferably at least 0.5 wt%, more preferably at least 0.55 wt%, more preferably still at least 0.6 wt%, even more preferably at least 0.75 wt%, yet more preferably at least 1.0 wt%, still more preferably at least 2.0 wt%, most preferably at least 5.0 wt% of stabilisers. Preferably the frozen confection contains at most 20 wt%, more preferably at most 15 wt%, more preferably still at most 12.5 wt%, even more preferably at most 10 wt%, most preferably at most 7.5 wt% of stabilisers.

The frozen confection may also contain non-saccharide sweetener which as defined herein consist of: The intense sweeteners aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame K, alitame, thaumatin, cyclamate, glycyrrhizin, stevioside, neohesperidine, sucralose, monellin and neotame; and The sugar alcohols HSH (hydrogenated starch hydrosylate - also known as polyglycitol), eythritol, arabitol, glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol, maltitol, isomalt, and palatinit. The frozen confection may contain at least 0.01 wt% of a non- saccharide sweetener, preferably at least 0.02 wt%, more preferably at least 0.03 wt%, more preferably still at least 0.04 wt%, yet more preferably at least 0.05 wt%, yet more preferably still at least 0.10 wt%, even more preferably at least 0.15 wt%, yet more preferably at least 0.20 wt%, more preferably at least 0.25 wt%, most preferably at least 0.50 wt% of a non-saccharide sweetener. Preferably the frozen confection contains at most 2.5 wt%, more preferably at most 2 wt%, more preferably still at most 1 wt% of a non-saccharide sweetener. Preferably the product comprises at least 30g, more preferably at least 40g, more preferably still at least 50g, yet more preferably at least 60g, yet more preferably still at least 70g, even more preferably at least 80g, more preferably at least 100g, yet more preferably at least 125g, still more preferably at least 150g, even more preferably at least 200g frozen confection. Preferably the product comprises at most 500g, more preferably at most 350g, more preferably still at most 300g, still more preferably at most 250g, most preferably at most 225g frozen confection. As discussed, the present invention provides coated frozen confections. Coating means any edible material which can be used to form a coating layer on a frozen confection. Coatings may be fat-based, such as chocolate (dark chocolate, white chocolate, milk chocolate), or a chocolate analogue or couverture. The term "chocolate" is not intended to be limited to compositions that can legally be described as chocolate in any particular country but includes any products having the general character of chocolate. It therefore includes chocolate-like materials which are made using fats other than cocoa butter (for example coconut oil). Chocolate usually contains non-fat cocoa solids, but it is not essential that it does so (e.g. white chocolate). The term chocolate analogue means chocolate-like fat-based confectionery compositions made with fats other than cocoa butter (for example cocoa butter equivalents, coconut oil or other vegetable oils). Such chocolate analogues are sometimes known as couvertures. Chocolate analogues need not conform to standardized definitions of chocolate which are used in many countries. In addition to fat and cocoa solids, chocolate and chocolate analogues may contain milk solids, sugar or other sweeteners and flavourings. A fat-based coating may consist essentially of vegetable oil and sugar, together with colours and / or flavours as required.

The coating can also be water-based, such as frozen water ices, fruit juices and fruit purees.

Frozen confection products, including stick based frozen confections, can be coated using various different techniques. The frozen confection can be dipped into liquid coatings for a certain time to form the coating. The most commonly used method of dipping, on an industrial scale, is to hold products upside down by their sticks on an indexing conveyor. The conveyor moves the products, stepwise, toward a dipping bath. When over the bath, the products are pushed down in to the coating, pulled back up and then indexed away by the conveyor. In a simpler and cheaper dipping method, the ice cream products are continuously moved though the bath. The products are initially held upside down by their sticks. They are then rotated into a horizontal position in order to clear the side of the bath. They are then rotated back to the upside down (vertical) position, thereby dipping the ice cream into the coating while the products are moved along the length of the bath. At the end of the bath they are rotated back to the horizontal position to clear the edge of the tank. Finally they are rotated back to the upside down position to allow the coating to set and the excess coating to run-off. As an alternative to dipping, spraying can be used to coat products, in particular stick based products. Enrobing can be used to coat products without sticks. The product is placed on a mesh conveyor belt and passed through a waterfall of coating (known as a curtain) typically formed by pumping liquid coating through an aperture in the form of a horizontal slot. This operation coats the top, front, back and sides of the bar. An air knife may be used to blow off the excess coating, which drains through the mesh conveyor. Finally, the mesh conveyor carries the product into a shallow bath of coating thereby immersing the bottom of the product and coating it.

Coatings are applied to the frozen confection as liquids, but solidify when they are cooled down, for example as a result of contact with the frozen confection. Chocolates have complex solidification behaviour because they contain mixtures of different triglycerides which can crystallize in different forms. For example, cocoa butter can exist in six different crystalline forms (polymorphs). As chocolate solidifies, triglycerides begin to crystallize. Within a few seconds the chocolate becomes dry to the touch and has plastic or leathery texture. Crystallization continues slowly, so that it typically takes several hours or days for the triglycerides to fully crystallize and so that the chocolate reaches its maximum brittleness. Chocolate made from fats other than cocoa butter displays similar behaviour, but typically crystallizes over a narrower temperature range and reaches maximum brittleness more quickly. Similarly, water based coatings freeze to create a lattice work of ice crystals around the frozen confection core. Preferably the coating is chocolate.

As used herein, the term "viscosity" refers to the apparent viscosity, i.e. the shear stress divided by the rate of shear in steady simple-shear flow. For many fluids the apparent viscosity will be a function of both the temperature and shear rate applied to the fluid. Therefore, the temperature and shear rate are specified herein when referring to the viscosity.

A number of apparatus and geometries can be used to determine viscosity [see "A Handbook of Elementary Rheology", H.A. Barnes. Published by the University of Wales Institute of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics. 2000. ISBN 0-9538032-0-1.] For example, a fluid can be sheared, at a specific temperature, in a concentric cylinder geometry, at various shear rates, (shear rates are derived from rotational speed and geometry factors), and the shear stress can be measured (shear stress is derived from torque and geometry factors).

• For Newtonian fluids, (for example water, sugar solutions, oils), the resulting shear stress vs shear rate relationship is linear, and therefore the viscosity is

independent of shear rate.

· For Non-Newtonian fluids, for example chocolate, the shear stress/shear rate

relationship is not linear, i.e. the viscosity depends on shear rate and therefore the Apparent Viscosity (shear stress divided by shear rate) can be measured at a given shear rate, which should always be quoted along with the apparent viscosity value. Fortunately it has been found, for many materials, that the shear stress/shear rate relationship can be fitted to a model so that the apparent viscosity can be calculated from a few parameters. An example of this is chocolate where the Casson equation can be applied over the shear rate range 5- 60sec-1 , for measurement at 40°C (see IOCCC 1973/10). In this model, the square root of the shear stress is plotted against the square root of the shear rate and a linear relationship is found, of the form Shear stress 05 = Casson yield stress0.5 + (Casson viscosity 0 5 x shear rate 0 5 ). Thus the viscosity profile of chocolate can be reduced to two parameters, namely Casson Yield Value and Casson Viscosity. However, for the purposes of the present invention, all viscosities are carried out at a specified temperature (e.g. 40°C) and at a specified shear rate (e.g. 100s "1 )

Thus, preferably, the coating has a viscosity of greater than 0.4 Pas at 40°C and at a shear rate of 100s "1 , more preferably greater than 0.5 Pas, yet more preferably greater than 0.6 Pas. Preferably however the coatings have a viscosity of at most 2.0 Pas at 40°C and at a shear rate of 100s "1 , more preferably at most 1.5 Pas. The product can be partially coated but in a preferred embodiment it is fully coated. Preferably the product comprises at least 5g, more preferably at least 10g, more preferably still at least 15g, yet more preferably at least 20g, still more preferably at least 25g, even more preferably at least 30g, yet more preferably at least 40g, most preferably at least 50g of coating. Preferably the product comprises at most 100g, more preferably at most 80g, more preferably still at most 70g, most preferably at most 60g of coating.

In a preferred embodiment the ice content of the frozen confection at -12°C is at least 40 wt%, more preferably at least 45 wt%, more preferably still at least 50%, yet more preferably at least 55 wt%, most preferably at least 60 wt%. Preferably the ice content of the frozen confection at -12°C is at most 70 wt%, more preferably at most 65 wt%, most preferably at most 60 wt%. In a further preferred embodiment the ice content of the frozen confection at -8°C is at least 40 wt%, more preferably at least 45 wt%, more preferably still at least 50%, yet more preferably at least 55 wt%, most preferably at least 60 wt%. Preferably the ice content of the frozen confection at -8°C is at most 70 wt%, more preferably at most 65 wt%, most preferably at most 60 wt%.

As can be seen from the foregoing the present invention allows for the prevention of bubbles in the coating of a coated frozen confection. Accordingly in a further aspect the invention provides a process according to the first aspect for the prevention of bubbles in the coating of a coated frozen confection. In another aspect the invention provides the use of the process of the first aspect for the prevention of bubbles in the coating of a coated frozen confection. Brief Description of the Figures

Figure 1 is a photograph of ice cream products produced according to existing approaches.

Figure 2 is a photograph of ice cream products produced according to the process of the invention.

Examples Example 1 - without surface spraying

Ice cream confectionery compositions were produced by extruding the ice cream and cutting the extruded ice cream into pieces with a wire. The products had a core temperature of approximately -40°C.

When produced they were placed onto a stainless steel plate at a temperature of -18°C. The confectioneries were then passed through a blast freezer at a temperature of -30°C for a period of 30 minutes.

Upon exit from the blast freezer, the ice cream confections were removed from the stainless steel plates by hammering on the underside of the plates to dislodge the confections by mechanical force.

It was found by inspection that some of the ice cream was left behind on the surface of the stainless steel plates, which resulted in surface roughness occurring on the surface of the ice cream that was in contact with the stainless steel plate.

The confections were subsequently dipped into liquid chocolate at 46°C and removed to allow the chocolate coating to solidify in place on the surface.

However, undesirable bubbles were seen to form within the chocolate coating as it solidified on the surface. Images of five of the confections are shown in Figure 1 . Example 2 - with surface spraying

Example 1 was repeated except this time the stainless steel plates were sprayed with a 1 % ethanol solution prior to the ice cream confections being placed on the stainless steel plates.

It was noted that none of the ice cream was left behind on the surface of the stainless steel plates.

The confections were subsequently dipped into liquid chocolate at 46°C and removed to allow the chocolate coating to solidify in place on the surface.

Images of five of the confections are shown in Figure 2.

It can be seen that the ice cream confections which were processed with the use of the ethanol spray had no undesirable bubbles on their surface.