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Title:
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BENZONORBORNENES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/049228
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a novel a process for the preparation of 9- dichloromethylene-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalen-5-ylamine which process comprises a) reacting cyclopentadiene in the presence of a radical initiator and CXCI3, wherein X is chloro or bromo, to a compound of formula Il, or aa) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI3, wherein X is chloro, in the presence of a metal catalyst to a compound of formula Il, wherein X is chloro, b) reacting the compound of formula Il with a base in the presence of an appropriate solvent to the compound of formula III, c) and converting the compound of formula III in the presence of 1,2-dehydro-6- nitrobenzene to the compound of formula IV, and d) hydrogenating the compound of formula IV in the presence of a metal catalyst.

Inventors:
GRIBKOV, Denis (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Breitenloh 5, Münchwilen, CH-4333, CH)
ANTELMANN, Björn (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Breitenloh 5, Münchwilen, CH-4333, CH)
GIORDANO, Fanny (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Breitenloh 5, Münchwilen, CH-4332, CH)
WALTER, Harald (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Schaffhauserstrasse, Stein, CH-4332, CH)
DE MESMAEKER, Alain (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Schaffhauserstrasse, Stein, CH-4332, CH)
Application Number:
EP2009/062525
Publication Date:
May 06, 2010
Filing Date:
September 28, 2009
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SYNGENTA PARTICIPATIONS AG (Schwarzwaldallee 215, Basel, CH-4058, CH)
GRIBKOV, Denis (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Breitenloh 5, Münchwilen, CH-4333, CH)
ANTELMANN, Björn (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Breitenloh 5, Münchwilen, CH-4333, CH)
GIORDANO, Fanny (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Breitenloh 5, Münchwilen, CH-4332, CH)
WALTER, Harald (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Schaffhauserstrasse, Stein, CH-4332, CH)
DE MESMAEKER, Alain (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Schaffhauserstrasse, Stein, CH-4332, CH)
International Classes:
C07C205/12; C07C17/25; C07C22/02; C07C23/08; C07C211/61
Domestic Patent References:
WO2007048556A12007-05-03
Other References:
MOBERG C ET AL: "6-HALOGENOFULVENES AND ALLYLCYCLOPENTADIENE FROM NICKELOCENE", JOURNAL OF ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY, ELSEVIER-SEQUOIA S.A. LAUSANNE, CH, vol. 49, 1 January 1973 (1973-01-01), pages 243 - 248, XP002516787, ISSN: 0022-328X
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HÖLSCHER, Ingo (Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Schaffhauserstrasse, Stein, CH-4332, CH)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A process for the preparation of 9-dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4-methano- naphthalen-5-ylamine of formula I

which process comprises a) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI3, wherein X is chloro or bromo, in the presence of a radical initiator to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro or bromo, or aa) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI3, wherein X is chloro, in the presence of a metal catalyst to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro, b) reacting the compound of formula Il with a base in the presence of an appropriate solvent to the compound of formula III

c) and converting the compound of formula III in the presence of 1 ,2-dehydro-6- nitrobenzene to the compound of formula IV and d) hydrogenating the compound of formula IV with a hydrogen source in the presence of a metal catalyst.

2. A process according to claim 1 , which process comprises a) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI3, wherein X is chloro or bromo, in the presence of a radical initiator to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro or bromo.

3. The compound of formula IV

4. A process for the preparation of the compound of formula

which process comprises a) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI3, wherein X is chloro or bromo, in the presence of a radical initiator to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro or bromo, and b) reacting the compound of formula Il with a base in the presence of an appropriate solvent.

5. A process according to claim 4, wherein X is bromo.

6. A process according to claim 1 , wherein aa) cyclopentadiene is reacted with CCI4 in the presence of a metal catalyst to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro.

7. A process according to claim 1 , which process comprises aa) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI3, wherein X is chloro, in the presence of a metal catalyst wherein the metal component of the catalyst is selected from ruthenium, copper, iron, palladium and rhodium, to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro, b) reacting the compound of formula Il with a base selected from alkali metal alcoholates in the presence of an appropriate solvent to the compound of formula III

c) and converting the compound of formula III in the presence of 1 ,2-dehydro-6- nitrobenzene to the compound of formula IV

and d) hydrogenating the compound of formula IV with a hydrogen source in the presence of a metal catalyst.

Description:
Process for the preparation of benzonorbornenes

The present invention relates to the preparation of 9-dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro- 1 ,4-methano-naphthalen-5-ylamine.

The compound 9-dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4-methano-naphthalen-5-ylamine is a valuable intermediate for the preparation of benzonorbornene fungicides, as described for example in WO 2007/048556.

It is known from WO 2007/048556 to prepare 9-dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4- methano-naphthalen-5-ylamine by a) reacting the compound of formula A

(A) in the presence of an alkyl nitrite with a compound of formula B

(B) wherein R' and R" are e.g. CrC 4 alkyl, to a compound of formula C

b) hydrogenating the compound of formula C in the presence of a suitable metal catalyst to a compound of formula D

c) ozonising the compound of formula D with subsequent treatment with a reducing agent to a compound of formula E

d) reacting the compound of formula E triphenylphosphine/carbon tetrachloride to 2,9- dichloromethylidene-5-nitro-benzonorbornene of formula F

and e) hydrogenating the compound of formula F in the presence of a metal catalyst to 9- dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4-methano-naphthalen-5-ylamine.

A disadvantage of this prior art process is the large number of reaction steps which decreases the yield of the product. In addition, the ozonolysis reaction which is difficult to handle and the expensive step d) which requires the use of triphenylphosphine makes this process uneconomic and unsuitable for a large-scale production.

The aim of the present invention is therefore to provide a novel process for the production of

9-dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4-methano-naphthalen-5-ylamine that avoids the disadvantages of the known process and makes it possible to prepare 9-dichloromethylene-

1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4-methano-naphthalen-5-ylamine in high yields and good quality in an economically advantageous way with less reaction steps.

Thus, according to the present invention, there is provided a process for the preparation of 9-dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4-methano-naphthalen-5-ylamine of formula I which process comprises a) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI 3 , wherein X is chloro or bromo; preferably bromo, in the presence of a radical initiator to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro or bromo, or aa) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI3, wherein X is chloro, in the presence of a metal catalyst to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro, b) reacting the compound of formula Il with a base in an appropriate solvent to the compound of formula III

c) and converting the compound of formula III in the presence of 1 ,2-dehydro-6- nitrobenzene to the compound of formula IV

and d) hydrogenating the compound of formula IV with a hydrogen source in the presence of a metal catalyst. - A -

One embodiment of this process process comprises a) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI3, wherein X is chloro or bromo, in the presence of a radical initiator to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro or bromo.

Reaction step a) and aa):

The compound of formula Il can occur in the following isomers or mixtures thereof:

wherein X is chloro or bromo.

The product of reaction step a) and aa) can be used as it is for the following reaction step b). The isolation or purification of a specific isomer or a isomer mixture of formula Il is not necessary. The compound of formula Il and its isomers and the compound of formula IV are novel and especially developed for the process according to the invention and therefore constitute a further object of the invention.

In principle a large number of radical initiators of following classes can be applied for reaction step a): organic peroxides (for example methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, benzoyl peroxide), organic azo compounds, metal salts and complexes (Cu, Ru). Preferred radical initiators are selected from azobisisobutyronitrile, dibenzoylperoxide and bis(tert- butylcyclohexyl)peroxydicarbonate. Especially preferred is azobisisobutyronitrile.

Reaction step a) is advantageously performed at elevated temperatures, preferably at temperatures of from 20 to 100 0 C, preferably of from 60 to 100 0 C, most preferably of from 80 to 90 0 C. The use of bromotrichloromethane is preferred, especially under peroxide or azo compounds initiation. In the especially preferred reaction step aa), cyclopentadiene is reacted with CCI 4 in the presence of a metal catalyst to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro. For step aa), the presence of a radical initiator is not necessary, but can be of advantage to reduce catalyst loading (use of less catalyst).

Suitable metals for the catalysts are for example selected from ruthenium, copper, iron, palladium and rhodium. Preferred catalysts contain ruthenium (II) or copper (I) complexes. Especially preferred catalysts are selected from the group consisting of Ru(PPh 3 ) 3 CI 2 , Ru(cumene)PPh 3 CI 2 , Ru(Cp)PPh 3 CI 2 , Grubbs I (benzylidene-bis(tricyclohexylphosphine)- dichlororuthenium) and CuCI in combination with an amine-ligand, especially a diamine or triamine ligand. Grubbs I, CuCI/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) or pentamethyldiethylentriamine are the most preferred catalysts.

Reaction step aa) can be performed in the presence of an inert solvent, preferably without a solvent when a Ru-catalyst is used. Reaction step aa) is advantageously performed at elevated temperatures, in particular at temperatures of from 20 to 100 0 C, preferably of from 60 to 100 0 C, most preferably of from 60° to 80 0 C. The product of reaction step aa) is a mixture of the 3 possible isomers. The isolation or purification of a specific isomer or a isomer mixture is not necessary.

A preferred embodiment of reaction step aa) can be efficiently performed by heating a mixture of cyclopentadiene with 1.5 to 3, in particular 2 equivalents of carbon tetrachloride in acetonitrile in the presence of 0,5 to 2 mol%, in particular 1 mol% copper I catalyst, preferably CuCI and 1 to 4 mol%, in particular 2 mol% tetramethylethane-1 ,2-diamine (TMEDA) to give 70-80% isolated yields of product after distillation. Adding of a catalytic amount (usually 1 mol%) of a radical initiator as mentioned above, especially N,N-azobisisobutyronitril to the reaction mixture can reduce catalyst loading (use of less catalyst).

Reaction step aa) has further advantages. The use of CCI 4 is less expensive, the addition product with carbon tetrachloride (CTCM-cyclopentene) is much more stable than the bromo derivate (BTCM-cyclopentene), the reaction is much less exothermic and therefore more suitable for large scale production and no bromide anion is generated on the next step.

In reaction step a) and aa), CCI 3 Br or CCI 4 is used in excess to cyclopentadiene, preferably 1.5-5 equivalents, in particular 2-3 equivalents of CCI 3 Br or CCI 4 for one equivalent cyclopentadiene.

Reaction step b):

Preferred bases for reaction step b) are alkali metal alcoholates, for example sodium tert- butoxide and potassium tert-butoxide or metal amides like NaNH 2 or lithiumdiisopropylamide.

Except for ketones and esters, all inert solvents can be used. Appropriate solvents for reaction step b) are selected from methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE), methylcyclohexane (MCH) or a mixture thereof, tetrahydrofurane (THF), dyglime and toluene.

A further appropriate solvent for reaction step b) is chlorobenzene.

Reaction step b) is advantageously performed at a temperature range of -20 to +20 0 C, preferably at temperatures of from -10 0 C to 10 0 C, most preferably of from -5°C to 5°C.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula III (its solution) is used without isolation directly for the next reaction step. The compound of formula III is a valuable intermediate for the preparation of the compound of formula I. The compound of formula III is known from (a) Moberg, C; Nilsson, M. J. Organomet. Chem. 1973, 49, 243- 248. (b) Siemionko, R. K.; Berson, J. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1980, 102, 3870-3882. However, the preparation method described in said reference is very unfavourable since: 1 ) The method could not be reproduced as described (low yield was obtained). 2) Utilizes very expensive pyrophoric and toxic starting material (nickelocene). 3) Produces large amount of metal-waste (nickel containing compounds). 4) The method cannot be scaled up for industrial use (unavailability of nickelocen in large amounts, dangerous handling of large quantities of nickelocen).

In contrast thereto, the preparation of the compound of formula III starting from cyclopentadiene is a novel and very efficient method and therefore constitutes a further object of the present invention.

Therefore, a further object of the present invention is a process for the preparation of the compound of formula III

which process comprises a) reacting cyclopentadiene in the presence of a radical initiator and CXCI 3 , wherein X is chloro or bromo, preferably bromo,to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro or bromo, and b) reacting the compound of formula Il with a base in the presence of an appropriate solvent.

Reaction step c)

1 ,2-dehydro-6-nitrobenzene is generated in situ [for example, starting from a 6- nitroanthranilic acid of formula (A),

as described by L.Paquette et al, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 3734 (1977) and H. Seidel, Chemische Berichte, 34, 4351 (1901). Reaction step c) is performed at elevated temperatures, preferably at temperatures of from 30 0 C to 60 0 C, most preferably of from 30 to 40°C.

Reaction step d)

Preferred metal catalysts for the hydrogenation reaction are selected from the group consisting of Raney nickel, platinum, preferably platinum on a carrier like carbon, palladium, preferably palladium on a carrier like carbon but are not limited to said group. An especially preferred catalyst is Raney nickel. Suitable hydrogen sources are hydrogen or hydrazine, preferably hydrogen.

Reaction step d) is performed at low to elevated temperatures, preferably at temperatures of from 0 to 80 0 C, preferably of from 30 to 60 0 C.

A preferred variant of the process according to the invention, comprises aa) reacting cyclopentadiene with CXCI3, wherein X is chloro, in the presence of a metal catalyst wherein the metal component of the catalyst is selected from ruthenium, copper, iron, palladium and rhodium, to a compound of formula Il

wherein X is chloro, b) reacting the compound of formula Il with a base selected from alkali metal alcoholates in the presence of an appropriate solvent to the compound of formula III

c) and converting the compound of formula III in the presence of 1 ,2-dehydro-6- nitrobenzene to the compound of formula IV and d) hydrogenating the compound of formula IV with a hydrogen source in the presence of a metal catalyst.

Preparatory examples:

Example P1 : Preparation of the compound of formula Na:

Azobisisobutyronitrile (2.5 g) was dissolved in bromotrichloromethane (25Og). Bromotrichloromethane (650 g) was loaded into a glass reactor under inert atmosphere (nitrogen) and heated to 85 0 C. 1/3 of the azobisisobutyronitrile solution (84 g) was added into the reactor at once and the reactor content was heated again to 85 0 C followed by simultaneous addition of the remaining 2/3 of azobisisobutyronitrile solution (168.5 g) and a mixture of cyclopentadiene (100 g, freshly distilled) and methylcyclohexane (10 g) during 2.5 hours at 85°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 1 hour at 85 0 C, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Large amount of solvent (bromotrichloromethane) was evaporated in vacuum (60→70°C, 150→50 mbar). Methylcyclohexane (50 g) was added to the distillation residue and the distillation was continued (60→70°C, 150→15 mbar). The crude product (distillation residue) was dried in vacuum for an additional 30 min (70 0 C, 15 mbar). Yield 389 g of the compound of formula Na in form of a brown oil, 94% pure, 92% yield, mixture of regioisomers.

Example P2: Preparation of the compound of formula III:

A glass reactor was loaded with bromo(trichloromethyl)cyclopentene (27.83 g, compound Na), methylcyclohexane (62 mL), methyl-tert-butylether (62 mL) and bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether (diglyme, 6.7 g) under inert atmosphere (nitrogen). The mixture was cooled to -10 0 C in an ice/NaCI bath. Sodium tert-butoxide (20.3 g) was added into the reactor as solid during 10 min while keeping the temperature below +5 0 C. When the addition was done, the reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5 0 C for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with a mixture of ice-cold water (80 mL) and ice (40 g) and then the pH value of the water phase was adjusted to <2 with 32% HCI (ca. 3 mL). The water phase was separated and the organic phase was dried over anhydrous potassium carbonate at 0 0 C. The potassium carbonate was filtered off and rinsed with methyl-tert-butylether (10 ml_). Methyl ethyl ketone (10 g) was added to the combined filtrate as internal standard and the concentration of 6,6-dichlorofulvene (compound of formula III) was determined by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Yield 81 % [9.7 g of 9.9% (ca. 0.53 M) solution]. The solution was stored in a freezer and then used for the next step.

Example P3: Preparation of the compound of formula IV:

A cold solution of 6,6-dichlorofulvene obtained in the previous step (9% in methyl-tert- butylether/methylcyclohexane = 1 :1 ) was placed in a glass reactor and heated quickly to 35°C. tert-pentyl nitrite (2.66 g) was added into the reactor followed by simultaneous addition of tert-pentyl nitrite (9.46 g) and a solution of 6-nitroanthranilic acid (11.6 g, 96.6%) in methyl ethyl ketone (42 ml.) during 80 minutes at a temperature of 35°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for additional 30 min at the same temperature and then all the volatiles were removed by rotary evaporation. The remaining residue was crystallized from methanol (20 ml.) at +5°C for 15 hours. The brown crystalline material was filtered, washed with cold methanol (15 ml.) and dried in air. Yield 7.1 O g (42%, 98% pure product).

Example P4: Hydrogenation of the compound of formula IV:

An autoclave was charged with THF (130 ml), wet Raney-Nickel (2 g) and compound of formula IV (20 g). The autoclave was closed, the content started to agitate, purged three times with nitrogen to remove oxygen and then three times with hydrogen. The reactor was pressurized with hydrogen to 5 bar. Then the content of the autoclave was heated to 40 0 C, maintaining pressure with additional hydrogen as needed. When hydrogen uptake stopped, typically after 3 -4 h, the reaction mass was held another 30 min at 40 0 C. After this time, the pressure was released and the content was cooled to ambient temperature. The solvent was removed under vacuum and the resulting oil crystallized upon standing to yield 18 g of the yellowish to brownish compound of formula I (96 %, 94 % pure product). Example P5: Preparation of CTCM-cyclopentene of formula Na using Grubbs-I catalyst:

A mixture of cyclopentadiene (2.0 g), azobisisobutyronitrile (0.5 g), benzylidene- bis(tricyclohexylphosphine)dichlororuthenium (Grubbs' 1 st Generation Catalyst, 12.2 mg, 0.05 mol%) and carbon tetrachloride (14 g) was heated at 75 0 C under inert atmosphere (argon). The conversion was monitored by GC. After 4 hours the reaction was completed to produce chloro(trichloromethyl)cyclopentene as a mixture of three isomers in 85% yield (GC, dodecane was used as a standard).

Example P6: Preparation of CTCM-cyclopentene of formula Na using CuCI/TMEDA catalyst.

Catalyst solution :

A mixture of copper (I) chloride (0.99 g), tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA, 2.32 g) and acetonitrile (100 mL) was heated at 75 0 C for 25 min under nitrogen atmosphere and then cooled to room temperature.

Cyclopentadiene solution:

Freshly prepared cyclopentadiene (66.0 g) was dissolved in carbon tetrachloride (307 g).

Reaction:

Under nitrogen atmosphere acetonitrile (80 g) and 40% of the catalyst solution were placed into a glass reactor under nitrogen. The mixture was heated to a temperature of 75 0 C.

Then 40% of the cyclopentadiene solution was added into the reactor in one portion followed by simultaneous addition of the rests of the catalyst solution and the cyclopentadiene solution while keeping the temperature between 60 and 70 0 C. The cyclopentadiene solution was added in 1 hour and the catalyst solution in 1.5 hours. The reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 1 hour at 70 0 C, cooled to ambient temperature and filtered. The solvent was removed by rotary evaporation and the residue was fractionated by vacuum distillation (40-45 0 C, 0.1 mbar). Yield 170 g (75%, 97-98% purity), mixture of three regioisomers. Example P7: Preparation of the compound of formula

Sodium tert-butoxide (69.2 g) was stirred with chlorobenzene (175 ml) for 30 min at room temperature to produce a fine suspension.

A glass reactor was loaded with chloro(trichloromethyl)cyclopentene (69.1 g), chlorobenzene (275 ml), and bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether (diglyme, 21.1 g) under inert atmosphere (nitrogen). The mixture was cooled to -20 0 C and the suspension of sodium tert-butoxide was added into the reactor portion-wise over 35 min while keeping the temperature below +3 0 C. When the addition was done, the reaction mixture was stirred at - 5 0 C for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with a mixture of 0.5 M aqueous HCI solution (300 ml) and ice (200 g). The pH value of the water phase was controlled to be pH < 2. The water phase was separated and the organic phase was extracted with the same mixture of water and ice two times (This was necessary for a complete removal of tert- butanol and diglyme). The concentration of 6,6-dichlorofulvene was determined by 1 H NMR spectroscopy using chlorobenzene (solvent) as an internal standard. Yield 75% [510 g of 6.8 % (ca. 0.52 M) solution]. The solution was stored in a freezer or dry ice and then used for the next step.

Comment: The yield just after the quench (no further extractions) was 85%. The solution was lost in the phase separations.

A preferred benzonorbornene fungicide which can be advantageously prepared using the process according to the invention is 3-difluoromethyl-1-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (9-dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4-methano-naphthalen-5-yl)-amide of formula V

The compound of formula V is described, for example, in WO 2007/048556. The compound of formula V can occur in two enantiomeric forms. The compound of formula Va

which chemical designation is 3-difluoromethyl-1-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid ((1 S,4R)-9-dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4-methano-naphthalen-5-yl)-amide, and the compound of formula Vb

which chemical designation is 3-difluoromethyl-1-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid ((1 R,4S)-9-dichloromethylene-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1 ,4-methano-naphthalen-5-yl)-amide. The optical rotation angles [α] 235 are -1 19.26° and +1 19.23° (in tetrahydrofurane) respectively.