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Title:
A PROCESS FOR PREPARING BENZO[B]THIOPHENE DERIVATIVES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2011/047877
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates in general to the field of organic chemistry, and in particular to the preparation of benzo[b]thiophene derivatives. These benzo[b]thiophene derivatives are useful as intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof.

Inventors:
SCHICKANEDER, Christian (Borsbergstr. 7, Dresden, 01309, DE)
SCHÄFER, Jürgen (Körnerweg 14, Radebeul, 01445, DE)
Application Number:
EP2010/006478
Publication Date:
April 28, 2011
Filing Date:
October 22, 2010
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
HEXAL AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT (Industriestrasse 25, Holzkirchen, 83607, DE)
SCHICKANEDER, Christian (Borsbergstr. 7, Dresden, 01309, DE)
SCHÄFER, Jürgen (Körnerweg 14, Radebeul, 01445, DE)
International Classes:
C07D333/56; C07C303/26; C07D409/12
Domestic Patent References:
WO1998048792A1
Foreign References:
US6162930A
US6756388B1
US5731327A
US4133814A
US4358593A
US20020173645A1
US5731327A
Other References:
PETER G. M. WUTS, THEODORA W. GREENE: "Greene's Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis (Fourth Edition)" 2006, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. , USA , XP002557093 Protection for Phenols and Catechols, p. 367-382
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PRÜFER & PARTNER GbR (Sohnckestrasse 12, München, 81479, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . A rocess for preparing a compound of formula VII

wherein R^ represents a hydroxy protecting group, and

R6 represents substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyi, wherein R6 is optionally substituted with one or more -OR1 group wherein R^ is defined as above,

R7 represents substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyi, wherein R7 is substituted with one ore more OR2 group wherein R2 represents a hydroxy protecting group different from R1 ?

wherein R^ and R2 are independently from each other selectively removable, with the proviso that both -OR! and -OR2 are substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, wherein a compound of formula VI is reacted with a compound of formula V

>-R7 V

X

wherein Ri ,R6 and R7 are defined as above, and

X represents CI, Br, I or

O wherein R7 is defined as above, in the presence of a Lewis acid and a solvent.

2. The process according to claim 1 , characterized by either one or a combination of the following structural features (a) to (c):

(a) -O i at the benzene ring of the benzo[bjthiophene moiety is located at the

6-position of the benzo[b]thiophene moiety;

(b) R6 is -Ph-OR-i, wherein R^ is defined as above; preferably, -ORi is located at the 4-position of the phenyl moiety of said R6;

(c) R7 is -Ph-OR2, wherein R2 is defined as above; preferably, -OR2 is located at the 4-position of the phenyl moiety of said R7. The process for preparing a compound of formula VII, wherein a compound of formula vir

wherein and R2 represent different hydroxy protecting groups which are

independently from each other selectively removable, with the proviso that both -ORi and -OR2 are substantially not cieavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, is prepared from a compound of formula VI' which is reacted with a compound of formula V wherein and R2 are defined as above, and

r, I or

wherein R2 is defined as above, in the presence of a Lewis acid and a solvent.

4. The process according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein one of the hydroxy protecting groups R-i and R2 is stable under basic conditions and cieavable under acidic conditions but substantially not cieavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel- Crafts acylation conditions, while the other hydroxy protecting group is cieavable under basic conditions and stable under acidic conditions; preferably, R-i is stable under basic conditions and cieavable under acidic conditions but substantially not cieavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, and R2 is cieavable under basic conditions and stable under acidic conditions.

5. The process according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the Lewis acid is used in substoichiometric amounts relative to compound of formula VI and VI' respectively, preferably in about 0.004 to 0.07 times molar amounts, more preferably in about 0.008 to 0.05 times molar amounts, and in particular in an amount of 0.01 to 0.02 relative to compound of formula VI and VI' respectively. he process according to claims 3 to 5, wherein a compound of formula Vlll

wherein R1 and R2 represent different hydroxy protecting groups which are independently from each other selectively removable, with the proviso that both

-ORi and -OR2 are substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, the process comprising selective deprotection of the -OR2 group. The process according to claim 6, wherein a compound of formula X

wherein R-i represents a hydroxy protecting group which is substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, and

wherein R3 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, with the proviso that -OR3 is substantially not cleavable at deprotection conditions for removal of R^ is prepared from the compound of formula Vlll

by O-alkylation with a compound of formula IX

Y-R3 IX wherein R3 is defined as above

and Y is CI, Br, I. The process according to claim 7, wherein R3 is R4

— (CH2)X-

R5

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 0, and in particular 2, and R4 and R5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyiaryl, or R4 and R5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a

5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a

6- membered ring.

The process according to claim 7 or 8, wherein a compound of formula XI or a salt thereof

is prepared from the compound of formula X

wherein R-, represents a hydroxy protecting group which is substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, and

wherein R3 is

R4

— (CH2)X-

R5

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2, and R4 and R5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyiaryl, or R4 and R5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a

5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a

6- membered ring.

by deprotection of the -ORi groups.

10. A compound of formula III'

wherein R8 is methyl or ethyl, and

wherein R9 is methyl, para-toluene or phenyl.

1 1 A compound of formula IV

wherein R9 is methyl, para-toluene or phenyl. 12. A compound of formula VII"

A process for preparing raloxifene or a pharmaceutical composition containing

raloxifene with the formula

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, comprising the steps of:

a) providing a compound of formula VII' by a process according to any one of

claims 3 to 5,

b) converting said compound of formula VII' to compound of formula VIII by a

process according to claim 6,

c) converting said compound of formula VIII to compound of formula X or optionally a salt thereof, wherein R3 is by a process according to claim 7, and

d) converting said compound of formula X or its salt to compound of formula XI according to claim 9 in order to obtain raloxifene or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

e) optionally mixing said raloxifene or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof with at least one pharmaceutically acceptable exeipient.

15. Use of any one of compounds selected from those of formulae III', IV, VII" and X" as defined in claims 10 to 13 in a process for preparing a pharmaceutically active agent. 16. Use according to claim 15, wherein in compound of formula III', R8 is ethyl and R9 is para-toluene or phenyl, preferably phenyl; in compound of formula IV, R9 is para- toluene or phenyl, preferably phenyl; in compound of formula VII", R9 is para-toluene or phenyl, preferably phenyl.

The use according to claim 15 or 16, wherein said pharmaceutically active agent is raloxifene or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

18. A process for preparing a crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI

wherein R3 is

, wherein x = 1 to 20,

and R4 and R5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R and R5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, wherein a first solvent and a second solvent different from said first solvent are incorporated in said solvate form of the salt of the compound of formula XI with the proviso that a common solvate is formed, wherein said process comprises the steps of:

a) providing a free base or a salt of a compound of formula XI,

b) dissolving said compound provided in step a) in a mixture of said first solvent and said second solvent,

c) optionally distilling off a part of the volume of the mixture of first solvent and second solvent,

d) optionally seeding the mixture resulting from step b) or c) in order to induce crystallisation,

e) allowing a solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI to precipitate or to crystallize, optionally under agitation, and

f) separating the crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI.

19. e form of a salt of a compound of formula XI

wherein R3 is as defined above, wherein a first solvent and a second solvent different from the first solvent is incorporated in said solvate form of the salt of the compound of formula XI with the proviso that a common solvate is formed,

wherein said process comprises the steps of:

i) providing a salt or a free base of a compound of formula X

wherein R1 represents a hydroxy protecting group which is substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, and

wherein R3 is fR4

(CH2)- R5

, wherein x = 1 to 20,

and R4 and R5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R4 and R5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring,

ii) deprotecting the -OR! groups of said salt of a compound of formula X in the presence of a second solvent in order to convert compound of formula X into compound of formula XI,

iii) adding a first solvent to a reaction mixture resulting from step ii),

iv) heating the reaction mixture resulting from step iii),

v) cooling and optionally agitating the reaction mixture resulting from step iv), and vi) separating the solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI.

20. The process according to claim 19, wherein in step i) a compound of formula X' is

provided

wherein A is CI or Br . The process according to claim 20, wherein the compound of formula X' is provided crystalline form,

preferably a compound of formula X' wherein A" is CP and whose X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern has at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

The process according to any one of claims 18 to 21 , wherein the crystalline solvate is characterized by one or more of the following features (x) to (z):

(x) the salt is derived from an organic or inorganic acidselected from the group

consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H2S04, more preferably HCI, HBr and H2S04, even more preferably HCI and HBr, and in particular HBr;

(y) said first solvent is incorporated into the salt of compound of formula XI in an amount of percent by weight which is lower than the amount of percent by weight of the second solvent; and/or wherein the crystalline solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 0.1 to 8 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 3 to 15 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI;

(z) said first solvent is an alcohol and said second solvent is a halocarbon,

preferably said first solvent is a C C4-alcohol and said second solvent is a C!-do-halocarbon optionally comprising a benzene ring, more preferably said first solvent is methanol or ethanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride, chloroform or chlorobenzene, in particular said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride.

23. A c ula XI'

wherein A* is the deprotonated form of an organic or inorganic acid,

said crystalline solvate form comprising a first solvent and a second solvent.

The crystalline solvate form according to claim 23, wherein said crystalline solvate form is characterized by one or more of the following features (a) to (c):

(a) said crystalline solvate form comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 0.1 to 8 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 3 to 15 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI;

(b) A" is selected from the group consisting of oxalate, succinate, lactate, malonate, CI", Br' and S042', preferably CI", Br" and S0 2", more preferably CI", Br", and even more preferably Br";

(c) said first solvent is an alcohol and said second solvent is a hydrocarbon or

halocarbon, preferably said first organic solvent is a Ci-C4-alcoho( and said second organic solvent is a C6-Ci0-hydrocarbon comprising a benzene moiety or a d-C10-halocarbon optionally comprising a benzene moiety, more preferably said first solvent is methanol or ethanoi and said second solvent is toiuene, methylene chloride, chloroform or chlorobenzene, in particular, said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride. f a compound of formula XI

wherein R3 is

R4

— (CH2)X- R5

, wherein x = 1 to 20, and R4 and R5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R and R5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, wherein said crystalline solvate form comprises a first solvent and a second solvent, in a process for preparing a pharmaceutically active agent.

A process for preparing a non-solvated pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI

wherein R3 is

R4

— (CH2)X-

R5

, wherein x = 1 to 20,

and R and R5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R4 and R5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, comprising the steps of: i ) providing a crystalline solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a c

wherein R3 is

R4

— (CH2)-N

R5

, wherein x = 1 to 20,

and R4 and R5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylary), or R4 and R5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring,

wherein said crystalline solvate form comprises a first solvent and a second solvent,

ii) dissolving said crystalline solvate form provided in step i) in an organic solvent, wherein said organic solvent forms an azeotrope with at least one solvent incorporated in said solvate form,

iii) optionally seeding the mixture resulting from step ii) in order to induce

crystallisation,

iv) allowing the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of compound of formula XI to precipitate or to crystallize, and

v) separating the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI.

The process according to claim 26, wherein the crystalline solvate form is characterized by one or more of the following features (a) to (c):

(a) said crystalline solvate form comprises a first solvent and a second solvent different from the first solvent, wherein said first solvent and said second solvent are incorporated in the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI;

(b) said first solvent is incorporated into the salt of compound of formula XI in an amount of percent by weight which is lower than the amount of percent by weight of the second solvent; and/or wherein the crystalline solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 0.1 to 8 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 3 to 15 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI;

(c) said first solvent is an alcohol and said second solvent is a hydrocarbon or

halocarbon, preferably said first organic solvent is a C1-C4-alcohol and said second organic solvent is a C6-C 0-hydrocarbon comprising a benzene moiety or a CVCio-halocarbon optionally comprising a benzene moiety, more preferably said first solvent is methanol or ethanol and said second solvent is toluene, methylene chloride, chloroform or chlorobenzene, even more preferably said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is toluene, methylene chloride or chloroform, and in particular, said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride.

The process according to claim 26 or 27, characterized by either one or a combination of the following procedural features (d) to (f):

(d) the azeotrope formed in step ii) forms under normal or reduced pressure,

preferably under reduced pressure;

(e) in step ii), the resulting mixture is heated prior to step iii), preferably heating is under reflux conditions;

(f) solvent(s) incorporated into said solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is/are removed by azeotropic distillation of the mixture resulting from step ii), preferably said azeotropic distillation is carried out at reduced pressure.

The process according to any one of claims 26 to 28, characterized by either one or a combination of the following procedural features (g) to (i):

(g) said organic solvent of step ii) is an alcohol, preferably a water-miscible alcohol, more preferably a d-C -alcohol, even more preferably methanol or ethanol, and in particular methanol;

(h) said organic solvent of step ii) comprises a predetermined amount of water, preferably said amount of water is predetermined by a volume ratio of water and organic solvent of 0 to 0.5, preferably 0.24 to 0.44, more preferably 0.27 to 0.40, and in particular 0.29 to 0.38;

(i) said water used in step ii) is potable water, preferably deionized water, more preferably reverse osmosis water.

The process according to any one of claims 26 to 29, characterized by either one or a combination of the following features (j) and (k);

(j) the acid forming the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI whereupon said solvate form is based is selected from the group of organic or inorganic acids, preferably from the group consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H2S04, more preferably HCI, HBr and H2S04, even more preferably HCI and HBr, and in particular HBr;

(k) said pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI obtained in step v) has a purity of > 98% measured by HPLC, more preferably > 99%, even more preferably > 99.2%, yet even more preferably > 99.4%, and in particular > 99.6%.

Description:
A process for preparing benzo[b]thiophene derivatives

Field of the invention

The present invention relates in general to the field of organic chemistry, and in particular to the preparation of benzo[b]thiophene derivatives. These benzo[b]thiophene derivatives can be used as intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof.

Background of the invention

Compounds comprising a benzo[b]thiophene moiety are important intermediates for the preparation of active pharmaceutical active agents. For example, raloxifene (6-hydroxy-2- (4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-[4-(2-piperidinoethoxybenzoyl]-benzo[b]t hiophene) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator possessing estrogen agonist-like actions on bone tissues and serum lipids, while displaying efficient estrogen antagonist properties in breast and uterus.

US 4,133,814 and US 4,358,593 disclose processes for preparing benzo[b]thiophene derivatives wherein an amine function comprising moiety is introduced at the 3-position of the thiophene ring by Friedel-Crafts acylation.

WO 98/48792 discloses a process for preparing substituted benzo[b]thiophenes, wherein 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-6-hydroxybenzo[b]th iophene as key intermediate is O-alkylated at its 3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-substituent.

US 2002/0173645 A1 and US 5,731 ,327 disclose processes for preparing crystalline solvate forms of hydrochlorid salts of raloxifene, in particular a 1 ,2-dichloroethane solvate, a methylene chloride solvate, a chlorobenzene solvate, a ,2,3-trichloropropane solvate and a chloroform solvate.

The object of the present invention is to provide an improved process for preparing

benzo[b]thiophene derivatives representing valuable key intermediates for the preparation of pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof. Summary of the invention

Various aspects, advantageous features and preferred embodiments of the present invention as summarized in the following items, respectively alone or in combination, contribute to solving the object of the invention: A process for preparing a compound of formula VII

wherein represents a hydroxy protecting group, and

R 6 represents substituted or unsubstituted alky), substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyi, wherein R 6 is optionally substituted with one or more -OR ! group wherein R-i is defined as above,

R 7 represents substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyi, wherein R 7 is substituted with one ore more OR 2 group wherein R 2 represents a hydroxy protecting group different from R

wherein and R 2 are independently from each other selectively removable, with the proviso that both -OR 1 and -OR 2 are substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, wherein a compound of formula VI is reacted with a compound of formula V

wherein Ri,R 6 and R 7 are defined as above, and

X represents CI, Br, I or

wherein R 7 is defined as above, in the presence of a Lewis acid and a solvent.

The term "hydroxy protecting group" as used herein means any group known in the art which can be used for protecting a hydroxy group, with the proviso that the cleavage conditions for selectively removing said hydroxy protecting group will not adversely affect the structure of compounds of formula VII, VII', VIII or X.

The term "alkyl" as used herein means straight, branched or cyclic hydrocarbons of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to 8 carbon atoms and more preferably 1 to 6 carbon atoms.

The term "aryl" as used herein means hydrocarbon aryls, preferably single or condensed six-membered rings, more preferably phenyl or naphthyl, in particular phenyl. The term "alkylaryl" as used herein means that the aforementioned aryl moieties are incorporated into the aforementioned straight or branched alkyl moieties either at one of the proximal or distal ends of the alkyl chain or between the aforementioned alkyl chains. For example, proximal end means for R-i e.g. adjacent to the oxygen bound to the benzene ring of the benzofbjthiophene moiety of compound of formula VI, while distal means the terminal carbon of the alkyl moiety which is furthermost from said oxygen.

The term "substituted" as employed herein means that the aforementioned alkyl, aryl and alkylaryl groups have one, two or three linear or branched d-C 6 alkyl substituents. The term "substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions" as used herein means that there is no or substantially no deprotection of -OR^ and -OR 2 at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions. In a "Friedel- Crafts acylation condition" suitable for testing absence of cleavage, a Lewis acid, that is an electron acceptor, which acts as a catalyst, may be used for example in about 1 molar amount to about 2 molar amount relative to the compound to be acylated, wherein the temperature of the reaction mixture is typically within a range of about 0°C to ambient temperature.

The procedural concept according to this aspect of the invention provides an

orthogonal protecting group strategy for the present process for acylation. The term "orthogonal protecting group strategy" as used herein means that two different protecting groups and R 2 are introduced in a compound, wherein said two different protecting groups can be independently from each other selectively deprotected. By suitably selecting the type of hydroxy protecting group Ri and R 2 and/or the positions of -ORi and -OR 2 , the present orthogonal protecting group strategy surprisingly provides for protecting groups which are not cleavable at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions and/or conditions of subsequent reaction steps, while selective and complete removal of -i and R 2 can be carried out in subsequent reactions steps at mild conditions.

The process according to item (1 ), wherein -OR ! at the benzene ring of the

benzo[b]thiophene moiety is located at the 6-position of the benzo[b]thiophene moiety.

The process according to item (1) or (2), wherein R 6

is— Ph-OR,, wherein R is defined as above; preferably,

-ORi is located at the 4-position of the phenyl moiety of said R 6 .

The process according to any one of the preceding items, wherein R 7 is -Ph-OR 2 , wherein R 2 is defined as above; preferably, -OR 2 is located at the 4-position of the phenyl moiety of said R 7 . The process according to any one of items (1 ) to (4), wherein a compound of formula ll'

wherein R-, and R 2 represent different hydroxy protecting groups which are

independently from each other selectively removable, with the proviso that both -OR^ and -OR 2 are substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, i of formula VI' which is reacted with a compound of formula V wherein and R 2 are defined as above, and

r, I or

wherein R 2 is defined as above, in the presence of a Lewis acid and a solvent.

As to the meanings of the terms "hydroxy protecting group", "alkyl", "aryl", "alkylaryl", "substituted", "substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel- Crafts acylation conditions", reference is made to the explanations under item (1).

According to this preferred embodiment of the invention, the starting materials compound of formula VI' and compound of formula V are suitably selected in order to obtain highly desirable products of formula VII'. Compound of formula VII' represents a useful intermediate for preparing pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof, since the introduction of the two different protecting groups R, and R 2 provides for an advantageous selective derivatisation of compound of formula VII' in subsequent reaction steps.

Furthermore, by suitably selecting and R 2 , the possibly different cleavability/bond strength of O-R 1 and 0-R 2 for a certain protecting group at the 2- and 6-positions compared to the 3-position of the benzo[b]thiophene moiety can be taken into account. The process according to any one of the preceding items, wherein one of the hydroxy protecting groups Ri and R 2 is stable under basic conditions and cleavable under acidic conditions but substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel- Crafts acylation conditions, while the other hydroxy protecting group is cleavable under basic conditions and stable under acidic conditions; preferably, is stable under basic conditions and cleavable under acidic conditions but substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, and R 2 is cleavable under basic conditions and stable under acidic conditions.

The term "basic conditions" as used herein means conditions wherein Bronsted bases, that is proton acceptors, are applied and added.

The term "acidic conditions" as used herein means conditions wherein Bronsted acids, that is proton donators, or Lewis acids, that is electron acceptors, are applied and added.

Besides the type of acid or base used, the reaction conditions of said "basic conditions" and "acidic conditions" have to be suitably selected such that there is no undesired cleavage due to harsh reaction conditions like large excess of acid or base, high reaction temperatures and/or long reaction times. For Lewis acids for example, cleavage of the protecting group(s) due to the presence of Lewis acid is undesired in the acylation process according to items (1 ) and (4), while cleavage by a Lewis acid may be carried out under suitable reaction conditions in a reaction step subsequent to acylation.

This measure provides for an efficient and economical deprotection of R-i and R 2 respectively, since Bronsted bases and acids as well as Lewis acids are readily available and economic reactants for cleavage.

The process according to any one of the preceding items, wherein is selected from the group consisting of linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkylaryl and linear or branched alkenyl; preferably R, is linear or branched alkyl;

and R 2 is selected from the group consisting of linear or branched sulfonylalkyl, sulfonylaryl and linear or branched sulfonylalkylaryl; preferably R 2 is sulfonylaryl; or

The process according to any one of the preceding items, wherein Ri is selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, tert-butyl, benzyl, p-methoxybenzyl (PMB), trityl (Tr), allyl; preferably methyl, ethyl, tert-butyl, more preferably methyl;

and R 2 is selected from the group consisting of mesyl, tosyl and benzene sulfonyl; preferably R 2 is tosyl and benzene sulfonyl; more preferably R 2 is benzene sulfonyl.

The process according to any one of the preceding items, wherein Ri is methyl and R 2 is benzene sulfonyl.

The process according to any one of the preceding items, wherein X is CI.

The process according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the Lewis acid is used in substoichiometric amounts relative to compound of formula VI and VI' respectively, preferably in about 0.004 to 0.07 times molar amounts, more preferably in about 0.008 to 0.05 times molar amounts, and in particular in an amount of 0.01 to 0.02 relative to compound of formula VI and VI' respectively.

According to this beneficial embodiment of the invention, the amount of Lewis acid as a catalyst of the Friedel-Crafts acylation can be significantly reduced compared to conventional Friedel-Crafts conditions, especially those conventionally applied to similar reactants, wherein an excess of Lewis acid relative to the compound to be acylated is used. Thereby, acylation of compound of formula VI or VI' can be carried out under mild reaction conditions, which in turn provides for a stable and reliably process, since cleavage of the OR, moieties is avoided owing to the significantly reduced amount of Friedel-Crafts catalyst. Thus, this embodiment provides for high yields and less require efforts for purifying the product, while said process is also advantageous from economical view due to the substantial savings of Lewis acid catalyst.

(12) The process according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the Lewis acid

comprises divalent or trivalent metal, preferably divalent metal, more preferably divalent metal generated in situ by comproportionation of elemental metal and salt comprising trivalent metal.

In this way, the Lewis acid catalyst is suitably selected in view of the activity of the catalyst. That is, the above defined Lewis acids provide for both fast reaction rates and high conversion rates. By suitably selecting the valency of the metal comprised in the Lewis acid, activity of the Lewis acid catalyst can be improved. Furthermore, activity of the Lewis acid catalyst may be improved by generating the metal comprised in the catalyst in situ. (13) The process according to item (12), wherein the Lewis acid is FeCI 3 , FeCI 2 , FeBr 3 ,

FeBr 2 , FeS0 4 , Fe 2 (S0 4 )3, ZnCI 2 , ZnBr 2 , ZnSCy, preferably FeC , FeS0 4 , ZnCI 2 ; more preferably FeS0 , ZnCI 2 ; even more preferably FeS0 generated in situ by

comproportionation of elemental Fe and Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 , and in particular FeS0 4 generated in situ by comproportionation of elemental Fe and Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -5H 2 0.

According to this embodiment of the invention, both metal cation and counter anion are suitably selected with the proviso that the Lewis acid catalyst has an improved activity.

(14) The process according to any one of items (1 ) to (13), wherein chlorobenzene,

dichlorobenzene or toluene is used as the solvent, preferably chlorobenzene or toluene, more preferably toluene.

This embodiment of the invention provides for improvement of environmental friendliness of the process, while there is also an improvement in view of the working conditions. Under conventional Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, halocarbons such as dichloroethane or methylene chloride are used as the solvent, wherein said

halocarbons are hazardous to health and exhibit low boiling points. In contrast to that, toluene has a high boiling point and is much less hazardous to health. Toluene can not be used as a solvent in conventional Friedel-Crafts acylations, since toluene would be acylated, too. In contrast to that, under the process conditions defined in items (11) to (13) above, there is substantially no acylation of toluene as the solvent. The process according to any one of items (5) to (14), wherein a compound of formula VIII

la VII'

droxy protecting groups which are

independently from each other selectively removable, with the proviso that both -OR^ and -OR 2 are substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, the process comprising selective deprotection of the -OR 2 group.

The process according to item (15), wherein deprotection of the -OR 2 group is carried out in at least one organic solvent in the presence of an inorganic base optionally in the presence of water, preferably said deprotection is carried out in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst.

The process according to item (16), wherein the phase transfer catalyst is selected from the group consisting of tetraalkyl ammonium salts and tetraalkyl phosphonium salts; preferably tetraalkyl ammonium salts.

( 8) The process according to item (16) or (17), wherein the phase transfer catalyst is

selected from the group consisting of trihexylmethylammonium chloride,

benzyltriethylammonium bromide, benzyltriethylammonium hydroxide,

cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB), hexadecyltributylphosphonium bromide; preferably trihexylmethylammonium chloride, benzyltriethylammonium bromide, benzyltriethylammonium hydroxide,

tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB); more preferably tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB).

(19) The process according to any one of items (16) to (18), wherein the inorganic base is K 2 C0 3 , NaOH or KOH, preferably NaOH or KOH, more preferably NaOH. (20) The process according to any one of items (16) to (19), wherein the solvent is toluene. The process according to any one of items (15) to (20), wherein a compound of formula X

wherein represents a hydroxy protecting group which is substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, and

wherein R 3 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, with the proviso that -OR 3 is substantially not cleavable at deprotection conditions for removal of R n ,

is prepared from the compound of formula VIII

by O-alkylation with a compound of formula IX

Y-R 3 IX wherein R 3 is defined as above

and Y is CI, Br, I.

The term "substantially not cleavable at deprotection conditions for removal of Ri" as used herein means that there is no or substantially no cleavage of -OR 3 at conventional conditions for deprotecting -ORi.

The process according to item (21), wherein R 3 is preferably substituted with at least one amine moiety, preferably a tertiary amine moiety.

The process according to item (21) or (22), wherein Y is CI.

The process according to any one of items (21) to (23), wherein R 3 is

— (CH 2 )-

R 5

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2, and R 4 and R 5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R4 and R 5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a 5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a 6-membered ring.

In this way, an advantageous introduction of an amine moiety into a compound of formula VIII is provided. Since the amine moiety is introduced subsequent to acylation reaction, undesired side reactions of amine moieties during acylation, e.g. ring opening of heterocyclic amine moieties such as piperidino or pyrrolidino, are effectively avoided.

(25) The process according to any one of items (21 ) to (24), wherein O-alkylation is carried out under basic conditions, preferably by using aqueous KOH or NaOH as a base, more preferably by using aqueous NaOH as a base. (26) The process according to item (21) to (25), wherein the compound of formula X

comprises at least one amine moiety in R 3 , wherein said compound is converted into its respective salt by contacting compound of formula X with an acid, preferably said acid is selected from the group of organic or inorganic acids, more preferably from the group consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , even more preferably HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , yet even more preferably HCI and HBr, and in particular HBr.

(27) The process according to any one of items (21) to (26), wherein the compound of

formula X is recrystallized. (28) The process according to item (27), wherein compound of formula X in form of its salt is recrystallized using methanol as the solvent. (29) The process according to any one of items (21) to (28), wherein a compound of formula

is prepared from the compound of formula X

wherein represents a hydroxy protecting group which is substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, and

wherein R 3 is

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2, and R and R 5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R and R 5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a

5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a

6- membered ring. by deprotection of the -OR^ groups.

(30) The process according to item (29), wherein of compound of formula X is alkyl, preferably methyl, ethyl or tert-butyl, more preferably methyl or ethyl, in particular methyl, and deprotection of the -ORi groups is carried out with a Lewis acid, preferably said Lewis acid is BCI 3 or BBr 3 , more preferably said Lewis acid is BCI 3 .

(31 ) The process according to item (30), wherein said Lewis acid is used in 2 to 7 times molar amounts, preferably 2.4 to 6 times molar amounts, more preferably 2.6 to 5 times molar amounts and in particular 2.9 to 4.5 times molar amounts relative to compound of formula X.

(32) The process according to item (30) or (31 ), wherein compound of formula XI comprising an amine moiety is converted into its respective salt by contacting compound of formula XI with an acid, preferably said acid is selected from the group of organic or inorganic acids, more preferably from the group consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 , even more preferably HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , yet even more preferably HCI and HBr, and in particular HBr.

(33) The process according to any one of items (30) to (32), wherein compound of formula XI is recrystallized.

(34) The process according to item (32) or (33), wherein compound of formula XI in form of its salt is recrystallized using a mixture of methanol/water.

(35) A compound of formula III'

wherein R 8 is methyl or ethyl, preferably ethyl, and wherein R 9 is methyl, para-toluene or phenyl, preferably para-toluene or phenyl, more preferably phenyl.

Preferably, said compound of formula III' is in crystalline form. (36) A com ound of formula IV

wherein R 9 is methyl, para-toluene or phenyl, preferably para-toluene or phenyl, more preferably phenyl.

Preferably, said compound of formula IV is in crystalline form. (37) A compound of formula VII"

wherein R 9 is methyl, para-toluene or phenyl, preferably para-toluene or phenyl, more preferably phenyl.

The compound according to item (37), wherein the compound of formula VII" is in crystalline form, preferably a compound of formula VII" wherein R 9 is phenyl and whose X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern has at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

2theta[°] 12.93 13.77 14.42 16.16 18.73 21.46 22.26 23. 1 23.87 24.88

, more preferably said compound of formula VII" wherein R 9 is phenyl exhibits a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

2theta[°] 8.81 1 1.15 12.93 13.77 14.42 14.84 16.16 17.07 18.73 19.51

19.63 20.09 20.22 21.46 22.26 23.1 1 23.87 24.29 24.61 24.88

25.76 26.03 26.19 26.74 27.67 27.79 28.09 29.1 1 30.39 34.17

; or a compound ol ' formula VII" wherein R 9 is met nyl and whose X-ray difl Fraction (XRD) pattern has at leas t signals at the following 2Θ vak jes (±0.5° respectively)

2theta[°] 17.86 18.77 18.93 19.07 19.77 23 24.64 25.44 26.1 1 28.26 , preferably said compound of formula VII" wherein R 9 is methyl exhibits a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

, preferably said compound of formula VII" wherein R 9 is methyl exhibits a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

In this preferred embodiment, 2Θ values may be exact or substantially correspond with a tolerance of ±0.2° or even ±0.5° with the given 2Θ values.

(39) A compound of formula X'

The compound according to item (39), wherein the compound of formula X' is in crystalline form, preferably said compound of formula X' exhibits a X-ray diffraction

(XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

2theta[°] 7.41 13.05 16.64 19.07 19.22 21.45 23.31 24.34 25.81 26.62

, more preferably said compound of formu a X' exhibits a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ > i alues (±0.5° respectively):

2theta[°] 7.41 .38 3.05 14.57 15.28 16.64 17.1 19.07 19.22 19.56

19.71 20.04 21.45 22.35 22.84 23.31 23.81 24.34 25.45 25.81

25.96 26. 2 26.43 26.62 27.3 29.3 30.33 33.65 33.95 41.36 In this preferred embodiment, 2Θ values may be exact or substantially correspond with a tolerance of ±0.2° or even ±0.5° with the given 2Θ values. (41) A process for preparing raloxifene with the formula

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, comprising the steps of:

a) providing a compound of formula VII' by a process according to any one of items (5) to (14),

b) converting said compound of formula VII' to compound of formula VIII by a

process according to any one of items (15) to (20),

c) converting said compound of formula VIII to compound of formula X or optionally a salt thereof, wherein R 3 is by a process according to any one of items (21) to (25), and

d) converting said compound of formula X or its salt to compound of formula XI according to any one of items (29) to (31) in order to obtain raloxifene or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

e) optionally mixing said raloxifene or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof with at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

The term "pharmaceutically acceptable excipient" as used herein means any physiologically inert, pharmacologically inactive material known in the art being compatible with the physical and chemical characteristics of the active agent.

(42) The process according to item (41), wherein compound of formula VIII is converted into its salt according to item (26) prior to step c), and preferably said salt is recrystallized according to item (28).

(43) The process according to item (41) or (42), wherein compound of formula XI is

converted into its salt according to item (32) subsequent to step d), and preferably said salt is recrystallized according to item (34). The process according to any one of items (41) to (43), wherein raloxifene or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt obtained by said process have a purity > 98% measured by HPLC, more preferably > 99%, even more preferably > 99.2%, yet more preferably > 99.4%, and in particular > 99.6%.

Use of a compound of formula 111'

wherein R 8 is methyl or ethyl, preferably ethyl, and

wherein R 9 is methyl, para-toluene or phenyl, preferably para-toluene or phenyl, more preferably phenyl, in a process for preparing a pharmaceutically active agent.

The term "pharmaceutically active agent" as used herein means any active

pharmaceutical ingredient intended for treatment or prophylaxis of a disease of a mammal. In general it means any active pharmaceutical ingredient that has an effect on the physiological conditions of a mammal.

Preferably, said compound of formula III' is used in crystalline form. Use of a compound of formula IV"

wherein R 9 is methyl, para-toluene or phenyl, preferably para-toluene or phenyl, more preferably phenyl, in a process for preparing a pharmaceutically active agent.

As to the meaning of the term "pharmaceutically active agent", reference is made to the explanations under item (45) above.

Preferably, said compound of formula IV is used in crystalline form. (47) Use of a compound of formula VII"

wherein R 9 is methyl, para-toluene or phenyl, preferably para-toluene or phenyl, more preferably phenyl, in a process for preparing a pharmaceutically active agent.

As to the meaning of the term "pharmaceutically active agent", reference is, made to the explanations under item (45) above.

Preferably, said compound of formula VII' is used in crystalline form. Use of a compound of formula X'

in a process for preparing a pharmaceutically active agent.

As to the meaning of the term "pharmaceutically active agent", reference is made to the explanations under item (45) above.

Preferably, said compound of formula X' is used in crystalline form.

The use according to any one of items (45) to (48), wherein said pharmaceutically active agent is raloxifene or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. A process for preparing a crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI

wherein R 3 is

R 4

— (CH 2 ) -N,

R 5

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2, and R 4 and R 5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R 4 and R 5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a

5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a

6- membered ring, wherein a first solvent and a second solvent different from said first solvent are incorporated in said solvate form of the salt of the compound of formula XI with the proviso that a common solvate is formed, wherein said process comprises the steps of:

a) providing a free base or a salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably a salt thereof, more preferably a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, b) dissolving said compound provided in step a) in a mixture of said first solvent and said second solvent, preferably by heating, more preferably by heating under reflux conditions,

c) optionally distilling off a part of the volume of the mixture of first solvent and second solvent, preferably under reduced pressure in order to obtain a suspension, preferably distilling off is carried out by azeotropic distillation, more preferably distilling off is carried out under reduced pressure,

d) optionally seeding the mixture resulting from step b) or c) in order to induce crystallisation,

e) allowing a solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI to precipitate, preferably to crystallize, optionally under agitation, and

f) separating the crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably separation is carried out by filtration.

As to the meaning of the terms "alkyl", "aryl", "alkylaryl" and "substituted", reference is made to the explanations under item (1 ). The term "solvate form" as used herein means a crystalline solid adduct wherein a stoichiometric or nonstoichiometric amount of a first solvent and a second solvent is incorporated in said crystalline solid. The terms "first solvent'V'second solvent" as used herein denote the order in which said solvents are indicated within the chemical nomenclature used herein.

The term "seeding" as used herein means any conditions known in the art which may assist in the induction of crystallisation, such as adding a seed crystal, scratching the glass containing the mixture resulting from step b) or c) in order to promote the formation of seed crystals and/or cooling the mixture resulting from step b) or c) to or below ambient temperature.

Preferably, seeding is effected by adding a seed crystal.

The procedural concept according to this aspect of the invention provides for an

unconventional pathway for obtaining a pharmaceutical acceptable salt of compound of formula XI in form of solvates which may represent polymorphs. Polymorph means that a salt is obtained in different crystal structures. Said solvates represent highly valuable intermediates for the preparation of pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof, since the formation of said solvates provides for a highly effective purification step in the synthetic pathway for preparing a compound of formula XI, while incorporating a first and a second solvent into the crystalline solid of the compound of compound of formula XI.

additionally provides for an advantageous setting of the properties of said solvate.

Furthermore, the properties of said solvate can be suitably set by selecting an appropriate anion for the salt form of compound of formula XI. For example, properties such as melting point, chemical reactivity, density and solubility can be suitably set by incorporating an appropriate anion and/or appropriate solvents into a crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI , wherein setting the aforementioned properties in turn provides for a suitable setting of procedural conditions in a process for preparing pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof.

(51 ) The process according to item (50), wherein a free base of a compound of formula XI provided in step a) is converted into its respective salt by contacting compound of formula XI with an acid prior to step c), preferably said acid is selected from the group of organic or inorganic acids, more preferably from the group consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , even more preferably HCI,

HBr and H 2 S0 4 , yet even more preferably HCI and HBr, and in particular HBr.

(52) The process according to item (50) or (51 ), wherein the salt of a compound of formula XI is prepared via a process according to any one of items (1 ) to (34). process for preparing a crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI

wherein R 3 is

R 4

— (CH 2 ) X -

R 5

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2, and R 4 and R 5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R 4 and R 5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a

5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a

6- membered ring, wherein a first solvent and a second solvent different from the first solvent is incorporated in said solvate form of the salt of the compound of formula XI with the proviso that a common solvate is formed, wherein said process comprises the steps of:

i) providing a salt or a free base of a compound of formula X

wherein RT represents a hydroxy protecting group which is substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, preferably said salt of a compound of formula X is a pharmaceuticall acceptable salt thereof, and

wherein R 3 is defined as above,

ii) deprotecting the -ORi groups of said salt of a compound of formula X in the presence of a second solvent in order to convert compound of formula X into compound of formula XI

iii) adding a first solvent to a reaction mixture resulting from step ii), preferably said first solvent is added dropwise within a predetermined time interval, and iv) heating the reaction mixture resulting from step iii), preferably heating to reflux, and v) cooling and optionally agitating the reaction mixture resulting from step iv), preferably said reaction mixture is cooled to a temperature of -20 to 20 °C, more preferably -10 to 10 °C, and

vi) separating the solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably separation is carried out by filtration.

As to the meanings of the terms "hydroxy protecting group", "alkyl", "aryl", "alkylaryl",

"substituted", "substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions", reference is made to the explanations under item (1).

The term "free base of a compound of formula XI" as employed herein means a compound of formula XI wherein the nitrogen of R 3 is in its free basic form, that is, said nitrogen is not protonated and thus distinct from the nitrogen atom from R 3 of a salt of a compound of formula XI.

This beneficial aspect of the present invention provides for a particularly advantageous reaction pathway for obtaining a solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI from a salt or a free base of a compound of formula X, wherein a step for isolation of the intermediate salt of a compound of formula X forming in step ii) can be omitted, while the crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI is obtained in both high yield and purity. Furthermore, changing the crystal structure of the pharmaceutical acceptable salt of compound of formula XI by solvating said two solvents therein additionally provides for an advantageous setting of the properties of said solvate. For example, properties such as melting point, chemical reactivity, density and solubility can be suitably set by incorporating appropriate solvents into a crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI, wherein setting the aforementioned properties in turn provides for suitable setting procedural conditions in a process for preparing pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof.

(54) The process according to item (53), wherein in step i), the compound of formula X is provided in crude form or in isolated form, preferably in isolated form, more preferably in an isolated form wherein the compound of formula X has a purity of at least 90% measured by HPLC, even more preferably at least 95%, yet even more preferably at least 97% and in particular at least 98%. The term "crude form" as used herein means that the compound of formula X is provided in form of the reaction mixture wherein the reaction for preparing compound of formula X is carried out, that is in situ.

The term "isolated form" as used herein means that the compound of formula X is separated from the reaction mixture wherein the reaction for preparing compound of formula X is carried out by appropriate means such as filtration. Preferably, the separated compound is

subsequently subjected to further purification step(s). According to this embodiment of the invention, compound of formula X is provided in a suitable form. Applying a compound of formula X in crude form as the starting material provides for reducing both work-up and purification efforts in a process for preparing a compound of formula XI. On the other hand, applying a compound of formula X in isolated form as the starting material provides for a surprisingly high purity of compound of formula XI.

(55) The process according to item (53) or (54), wherein in step i) a compound of formula X' is provide

wherein A is CI or Br , preferably Br "

The process according to item (55), wherein the compound of formula X' is in crystalline form, preferably a compound of formula X' wherein A " is CP and whose

X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern has at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

, more preferably said compound of formula X' wherein A " is C! " exhibits a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

2theta[°] 6.41 11.41 12.56 13.07 14.82 15.45 15.86 16.74 17.1 18.33

18.95 19.27 19.39 19.79 20.09 21.56 22.32 22.92 23.42 24

24.63 24.77 25.53 25.89 26.05 26.83 29.35 29.49 30.45 42.03

; or a compound of formula X' wherein A s Br and whose X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern has at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively)

2th eta [°] 7.41 13.05 16.64 19.07 19.22 21.45 23.31 24.34 25.81 26.62

, preferably said compound of formula X' wherein A is Br " exhibits a X-ray diffraction

(XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

2theta[°] 7.41 11.38 13.05 14.57 15.28 16.64 17.1 19.07 19.22 19.56

19.71 20.04 21.45 22.35 22.84 23.31 23.81 24.34 25.45 25.81

25.96 26.12 26.43 26.62 27.3 29.3 30.33 33.65 33.95 41.36 In this preferred embodiment, 2Θ values may be exact or substantially correspond with a tolerance of ±0.2° or even ±0.5° with the given 2Θ values.

(57) The process according to item (53) or (54), wherein in step i), compound of formula X is prepared via a process according to any one of items (1) to (34).

(58) The process according to any one of items (53) to (57), wherein in step ii), deprotection is carried out by applying a process according to any one of items (30) to (34). (59) The process according to any one of items (50) to (58), wherein the crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI is based on a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably the acid forming said pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI whereupon said solvate form is based is selected from the group of organic or inorganic acids, preferably from the group consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 , more preferably HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , even more preferably HCI and HBr, and in particular HBr.

(60) The process according to any one of items (50) to (59), wherein the anion of a salt of a compound of formula XI obtained in step ii) is exchanged by another anion prior to step iii), preferably by an anion of an acid forming a pharmaceutically acceptable salt as defined in item (59).

This embodiment of the invention provides for a particularly advantageous conversion of a salt of a compound of formula XI obtained in step ii) to a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula X! by exchange of the anion. Thereby, a solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is obtained in step vi) which provides for valuable intermediates for preparing a non- solvated pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI. Exchange of the anion may e.g. be performed by converting the salt of a compound of formula XI obtained in step ii) into its free base by adding an (aqueous) base. The resulting free base of compound of formula XI may then be separated by suitable means such as extraction (from an aqueous phase) with an appropriate organic solvent. Then, an appropriate acid is added to the free base of compound of formula XI in order to form a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI.

(61) The process according to any one of items (50) to (60), wherein said first solvent is incorporated into the salt of compound of formula XI in an amount of percent by weight which is lower than the amount of percent by weight of the second solvent

(62) The process according to any one of items (50) to (61), wherein the crystalline solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 0.1 to 8 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 3 to 15 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI, preferably compound of formula XI provided in step a) comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 1 to 5 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 7.7 to 10 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI.

The process according to any one of items (50) to (62), wherein said first solvent is an alcohol and said second solvent is a halocarbon, preferably said first solvent is a (VC-alcohol and said second solvent is a d-Cio-halocarbon optionally comprising a benzene ring, more preferably said first solvent is methanol or ethanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride, chloroform or chlorobenzene, in particular said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride.

(64) The process according to any one of items (53) to (63), wherein the solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI is a solvate as defined in any one of items (65) to (69). (65) A c ound of formula XI'

wherein A " is the deprotonated form of an organic or inorganic acid,

said crystalline solvate form comprising a first solvent and a second solvent.

(66) A crystalline solvate form according to item (65), wherein said crystalline solvate form comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 0.1 to 8 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 3 to 15 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI, preferably compound of formula XI provided in step a) comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 1 to 5 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 7.7 to 10 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a the salt of compound of formula XI.

(67) The crystalline solvate form according to item (65) or (66), wherein A " is selected from the group consisting of oxalate, succinate, lactate, malonate, CI " , Br ' and S0 4 2' , preferably CI " , Br " and S0 2" , more preferably CI " , Br " , and even more preferably Br " .

(68) The crystalline solvate form according to any one of items (65) to (67), wherein said first solvent is an alcohol and said second solvent is a hydrocarbon or halocarbon, preferably said first organic solvent is a CrC^alcohol and said second organic solvent is a C 5 -Cio-hydrocarbon comprising a benzene moiety or a C C 10 -halocarbon optionally comprising a benzene moiety, more preferably said first solvent is methanol or ethanol and said second solvent is toluene, methylene chloride, chloroform or chlorobenzene, in particular, said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride.

The crystalline solvate form according to any one of items (653) to (68), wherein a compound of formula XI' wherein A " is CP and wherein the f irst solvent is methanol and the second solvent is methylene chloride exhibits a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

preferably said compound of formula Χ wherein A " is CP and wherein the first solvent is methanol and the second solvent is methylene chloride exhibits a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

; or a compound of formula XI' wherein A " is CI " and wherein the first solvent is methanol and the second solvent is toluene exhibiting a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

preferably said compound of formula Χ wherein A ~ is CI " and wherein the first solvent is methanol and the second solvent is toluene exhibits a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

; or a compound of formula ΧΓ wherein A " is Br " and wherein the first solvent is methanol and the second solvent is methylene chloride exhibiting a X-ray diffraction (XRD) having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5° respectively):

preferably said compound of formula XI' wherein A " is Br " and wherein the first solvent is methanol and the second solvent is methylene chloride exhibits a X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern having at least signals at the following 2Θ values (+0.5° respectively):

2theta[°] 10.82 13.47 14.1 1 15.92 16.43 17.1 1 17.57 18.76 18.96 19.06

19.52 19.75 20 20.73 20.98 21.18 23.06 23.39 23.54 24.37

24.53 25.28 25.88 28.55 28.64 28.74 29.4 31.07 31.71 32.68 In this preferred embodiment, 2Θ values may be exact or substantially correspond with a tolerance of ±0.2° or even ±0.5° with the given 2Θ values.

Use of a crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI

wherein R 3 is

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2, and R 4 and R 5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R 4 and R 5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a

5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a

6- membered ring, wherein said crystalline solvate form comprises a first solvent and a second solvent, in a process for preparing a pharmaceutically active agent; preferably, said

pharmaceutically active agent is compound of formula XI in form of raloxifene or derivatives thereof.

As to the meaning of the term "pharmaceutically active agent", reference is made to the explanations under item (45) above.

The use according to item (70), wherein said crystalline solvate form comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 0.1 to 8 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 3 to 15 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI, preferably compound of formula XI provided in step a) comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 1 to 5 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 7.7 to 10 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI.

The use according to item (70) or (71), wherein said salt of a compound of formula XI is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt in form of an acid addition salt formed with an acid selected from the group consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , preferably HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 , more preferably HCI, HBr, and even more preferably HBr. (73) The use according to any one of items (70) to (72), wherein said first solvent is an alcohol and said second solvent is a hydrocarbon or halocarbon, preferably said first organic solvent is a C C -alcohot and said second organic solvent is a

C 6 -Ci 0 -hydrocarbon comprising a benzene moiety or a optionally comprising a benzene moiety, more preferably said first solvent is methanol or ethanol and said second solvent is toluene, methylene chloride, chloroform or chlorobenzene, in particular, said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride. (74) A process for preparing a non-solvated pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a

compound of formula XI

wherein R 3 is

R 4

— (CH 2 )-N

R 5

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2, and R 4 and R 5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R 4 and R 5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a 5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a 6-membered ring, comprising the steps of: i ) providing a crystalline solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI

wherein R 3 is

R 4

— (CH 2 ) X -

R 5 , wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2,

and R 4 and R 5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R 4 and R 5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a 5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a 6-membered ring,

ii) dissolving said crystalline solvate form provided in step i) in an organic solvent, wherein said organic solvent forms an azeotrope with at least one solvent incorporated in said solvate form,

iii) optionally seeding the mixture resulting from step ii) in order to induce crystallisation,

iv) allowing the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of compound of formula XI to precipitate, preferably to crystallize, optionally under agitation, and v) separating the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably separation is carried out by filtration.

The term "crystalline solvate form" as used herein means a crystalline solid adduct wherein a stoichiometric or nonstoichiometric amount of at least one organic solvent is incorporated in said crystalline solid. In a particular embodiment, a first solvent and a second solvent is incorporated in said crystalline solid.

The term "azeotrope" as used herein means a mixture of two (or more) fluid components, in this case at least one organic solvent incorporated in the crystalline solvate form provided in step i) / organic solvent applied in step ii), wherein said two (or more) fluid components can not be separated by simple distillation, that is distillation without rectification step.

According to this preferred aspect of the invention, a process for preparing a non-solvated pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is provided, wherein the crystalline solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is converted to the non-solvated form of the respective pharmaceutically acceptable salt in both high yields and high purity, while the obtained non-solvate form of the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is substantially free of organic solvent(s) incorporated into the starting material in solvate form.

The process according to item (74), wherein the crystalline solvate form of a

pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI comprises a first solvent and a second solvent different from the first solvent, wherein said first solvent and said second solvent are incorporated in the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI.

According to this preferred embodiment of the invention, a particularly suitable starting material for the process for preparing a non-solvated pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is provided. Surprisingly, even though said crystalline form comprises two organic solvents, said crystalline solvate form provides for a non-solvated form of the respective pharmaceutically acceptable salt in both particularly high yields and exceptional high purity, while the obtained non-solvate form of the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is substantially free of said first solvent and said second solvent incorporated into the starting material in solvate form.

(76) The process according to any one of items (74) to (75), wherein said first solvent is incorporated into the salt of compound of formula XI in an amount of percent by weight which is lower than the amount of percent by weight of the second solvent (77) The process according to any one of items (74) to (76), wherein the crystalline solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 0.1 to 8 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 3 to 15 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI, preferably compound of formula XI provided in step a) comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 1 to 5 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 7.7 to 10 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI.

(78) The process according to any one of items (74) to (77), wherein said first solvent is an alcohol and said second solvent is a hydrocarbon or halocarbon, preferably said first organic solvent is a C C 4 -alcohol and said second organic solvent is a

C 6 -C 10 -hydrocarbon comprising a benzene moiety or a Ci-C 10 -halocarbon optionally comprising a benzene moiety, more preferably said first solvent is methanol or ethanol and said second solvent is toluene, methylene chloride, chloroform or chlorobenzene, even more preferably said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is toluene, methylene chloride or chloroform, and in particular, said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride.

(79) The process according to any one of items (74) to (78), wherein the solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI is a solvate as defined in any one of items (65) to (69).

(80) The process according to any one of items (74) to (79), wherein the azeotrope formed in step ii) forms under normal or reduced pressure, preferably under reduced pressure. (81 ) The process according to any one of items (74) to (80), wherein solvent(s) incorporated into said solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is/are removed by azeotropic distillation of the mixture resulting from step ii), preferably said azeotropic distillation is carried out at reduced pressure. (82) The process according to any one of item (74) to (81 ), wherein said organic solvent of step ii) is an alcohol, preferably a water-miscible alcohol, more preferably a

Ci-C 4 -alcohol, even more preferably methanol or ethanol, and in particular methanol. The process according to any one of items (74) to (82), wherein said organic solvent of step ii) comprises a predetermined amount of water, preferably said amount of water is predetermined by a volume ratio of water and organic solvent of 0 to 0.5, preferably 0.24 to 0.44, more preferably 0.27 to 0.40, and in particular 0.29 to 0.38.

The process according to item (83), wherein said water used in step ii) is potable water, preferably deionized water, more preferably reverse osmosis water.

The process according to any one of items (74) to (83), wherein in step ii), the resulting mixture is heated prior to step iii), preferably heating is under reflux conditions.

The process according to any one of items (74) to (85), wherein the acid forming the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI whereupon said solvate form is based is selected from the group of organic or inorganic acids, preferably from the group consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , more preferably HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 , even more preferably HCI and HBr, and in particular HBr.

The process according to any one of items (74) to (86), wherein activated charcoal is added in step ii) and said charcoal is separated from the mixture resulting from step ii) prior to step iii), preferably separation is carried out by filtration.

The process according to any one of items (74) to (87), wherein said p armaceuticaWy acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI obtained in step v) has a purity of > 98% measured by HPLC, more preferably > 99%, even more preferably > 99.2%, yet even more preferably > 99.4%, and in particular > 99.6%.

Detailed description of the invention

The present invention is now described in more detail by referring to further preferred and further advantageous embodiments and examples, which are however presented for illustrative purposes only and shall not be understood as limiting the scope of the present invention.

Reaction Scheme 1 illustrates a preferred embodiment of the process according to the present invention. The illustrative and preferred embodiment is shown here for preparing a compound of formula XI

XI

Scheme 1 According to the preferred embodiment of Scheme 1 (wherein R-i , R 2 , R 3 , X and Y are defined as in the preceding items), a compound of formula VII' is prepared by acylating a compound of formula V)' with a compound of formula V in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst.

Compound of formula V is preferably prepared by a reaction pathway as depicted in Scheme 2 below.

Scheme 2

According to the preferred embodiment of Scheme 2 (wherein R 8 and R 9 are defined as in the preceding items), a compound of formula V is prepared by esterification of a compound of formula with a compound of formula II'. Next, compound of formula III' is converted into compound of formula IV by cleavage of the carboxylic acid ester moiety, and compound of formula IV in turn is converted to a carboxylic acid halogenide of formula V. For example, compound of formula V may be obtained by using the following reactants: thionyl chloride or phosphorus pentachloride for obtaining carboxylic acid chlorides and phosphorus

pentabromide for obtaining carboxylic acid bromides respectively.

Compound of formula VI' is readily available. For example, it can be prepared by reacting m- methoxythiophenol with a-bromo-4-methoxyacetophenone as described in US 4, 133,814.

The advantage of introducing two different protecting groups R, and R 2 into compound of formula VII' is that an orthogonal protecting group strategy is provided, that is R, and R 2 can be independently from each other selectively removed. Protecting groups Ri and R 2 have to be suitably selected with the proviso that -OR, and -OR 2 are substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions.

Conventionally, Friedel-Crafts acylation is carried out with a Lewis acid as the catalyst in about 1 molar amount to about 2 molar amount relative to the compound to be acylated, wherein the temperature of the reaction mixture is typically within a range of about 0°C to ambient temperature, wherein elevated temperatures may be required for less reactive compounds to be acylated.

It was surprisingly found that Friedel-Crafts acylation can be carried out with Lewis acid catalyst used in substoichiometric amounts relative to the compound to be acylated, wherein the temperature of the reaction mixture is within a range of about 50°C to reflux temperature of the reaction mixture. Preferably, the Lewis acid catalyst is used in about 0.004 to 0.07 times molar amounts, more preferably in about 0.008 to 0.05 times molar amounts, and in particular in an amount of 0.01 to 0.02 relative to the compound to be acylated. Since the amount of Lewis acid as the catalyst can be significantly reduced compared to conventional Friedel- Crafts conditions, acylation of compound of formula VI' can be carried out under mild reaction conditions. Thus, a stable and reliably process is provided, since cleavage of the OR, moieties is avoided owing to the significantly reduced amount of Friedel-Crafts catalyst. Mostly, Lewis acids such as BCI 3 , BF 3 and AICI 3 are used as a catalyst for conventional Friedel-Crafts acyiation. Surprisingly, Lewis acids comprising divalent metal represent effective catalysts for Friedel-Crafts acyiation providing both fast reaction rates and high conversion rates. Preferably, a divalent metal generated in situ by comproportionation of elemental metal and salt comprising trivalent metal is used as the Lewis acid catalyst.

Furthermore, both metal cation and counter anion may be suitably selected in order to improve activity of the Lewis acid catalyst. Preferably, the Lewis acid is FeCI 3 , FeCl 2 , FeBr 3 , FeBr 2 , FeS0 , Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 , ZnCI 2 , ZnBr 2 , ZnS0 4 ; more preferably FeCI 2 , FeS0 4 , ZnCI 2 ; even more preferably FeS0 4 , ZnCI 2 ; in particular FeS0 generated in situ by comproportionation of elemental Fe and Fe 2 (S0 ) 3 , wherein Fe 2 (S0 ) 3 is preferably applied in pentahydrate form. Surprisingly, Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 in pentahydrate form represents an effective catalyst, since under conventional Friedel-Crafts acyiation conditions, water disturbs or even prevents the acyiation reaction.

Preferably, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene or toluene is used as the solvent in the acyiation step, more preferably chlorobenzene or toluene, and in particular toluene. Conventionally, at Friedel-Crafts acyiation conditions, halocarbons such as dichloroethane or methylene chloride are preferably used as the solvent. However, such halocarbons are hazardous to health.

Furthermore, they exhibit low boiling points, that is they are relatively volatile. Therefore, it is very likely that maximum allowable concentration (MAC) values may be exceeded. The aromatic solvents chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene or toluene provide for efficient reaction rates. Furthermore, the relatively high boiling aromatics chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and toluene are less hazardous than the aforementioned halocarbons. Surprisingly,

chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and toluene provide for an efficient acyiation, while further providing improvement of both environmental friendliness of the process and working conditions. Even more surprisingly, it was found that toluene represents a suitable solvent for Friedel-Crafts acyiation, since toluene is acylated under conventional Friedel-Crafts conditions and can therefore not be used as a solvent under conventional Friedel-Crafts conditions.

Further according to the preferred embodiment illustrated by Scheme 1 , a compound of VIII is prepared by subjecting a compound of formula VII' to a deprotection reaction, wherein -OR 2 is selectively cleaved. Said selective deprotection reaction is enabled by the beneficial present orthogonal protecting group strategy, i.e. introducing two different hydroxy protecting groups i and R 2 in compound of formula VII' by the aforementioned acyiation step.

The hydroxy protecting groups Ri and R 2 are stable under basic conditions and cleavable under acidic conditions, but substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acyiation conditions, while the other hydroxy protecting group is cleavable under basic conditions and stable under acidic conditions. Preferably, i is stable under basic conditions and cleavable under acidic conditions but substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acyiation conditions, and R 2 is cleavable under basic conditions and stable under acidic conditions. More preferably is selected from the group consisting of linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkylaryl and linear or branched alkenyl; preferably Ri is linear or branched alkyl, and R 2 is selected from the group consisting of linear or branched sulfonylalkyl, suifonylaryl and linear or branched sulfonylalkylaryl;

preferably R 2 is suifonylaryl. Even more preferably, R^ is selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, tert-butyl, benzyl, p-methoxybenzyl (PMB), trityl (Tr), allyl; preferably methyl, ethyl, tert-butyl, more preferably methyl, and R 2 is selected from the group consisting of mesyl, tosyl and benzene sulfonyl; preferably R 2 is tosyl and benzene sulfonyl; more preferably R 2 is benzene sulfonyl. In particular, R, is methyl and R 2 is benzene sulfonyl.

By suitably selecting protecting groups Ri and R 2 , which are located at different positions of the benzo[b]thiophene moiety, complete deprotection of both -ORi and -OR 2 can be attained under mild conditions. It is known that cleavability of a certain protecting group, for example methyl, may differ at the different positions of the benzo[b]thiophene moiety. For example, WO 98/48792, which does not disclose an orthogonal protecting group strategy since all hydroxy protecting groups are methyl groups, describes that a methoxy group at the 3-benzoyl substituent of the benzo[b]thiophene moiety can not be cleaved under conventional cleavage conditions wherein a large excess of Lewis acid such as BCI 3 is applied as the cleaving agent, while methoxy groups at the 2- and 6-positions of benzo[b]thiophene are smoothly cleaved under the aforementioned conditions. For removing the methyl group from the methoxy group at the 3-benzoyl substituent of the benzo[b]thiophene moiety, harsh conditions like refluxing in pyridinium chloride had to be applied, nevertheless removal was not complete.

Preferably, the aforementioned deprotection step for cleavage of the -OR 2 group is carried out under phase transfer catalysis conditions, wherein the reaction is carried out in a mixture of organic solvent such as toluene and water in the presence of an inorganic base such as NaOH or KOH and a phase transfer catalyst such as tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB).

Subsequent to deprotection of -OR 2 , compound of formula VIII is converted to compound of formula X by O-alkylation using compound of formula IX as the alkylation reagent. Preferably, Y of the alkylation reagent is CI. Furthermore, R 3 preferably has the following formula

,R 4

— (CH 2 ) X - 5

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2, and R 4 and R 5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R and R 5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a 5- to

7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a 6-membered ring.

Further according to the preferred embodiment illustrated by Scheme 1 , subsequent to O-alkylation, a deprotection reaction is carried out in order to convert compound of formula X to compound of formula XI. For example, in case of compound of formula X is alkyl such as methyl, deprotection of the -OR, groups is carried out with a Lewis acid such as BCl 3 as the cleaving agent. Since -ORi is substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, deprotection conditions have to be suitably selected in order to achieve complete cleavage of -OR^ Therefore, the Lewis acid as the cleavage agent is used in relatively large excess, preferably in 2 to 7 times molar amounts, preferably 2.4 to 6 times molar amounts, more preferably 2.6 to 5 times molar amounts and in particular 2.9 to 4.5 times molar amounts relative to compound of formula X.

Preferably, compound of formula XI represents a pharmaceutically active agent such as raloxifene.

According to another preferred embodiment, compounds of formula III', IV, VII", X' and a crystalline solvate form of a compound of formula XI are respectively used for preparing a pharmaceutically active agent, wherein said pharmaceutically active agent is optionally admixed with at least one pharmaceutically-acceptable excipient. Preferably, said

pharmaceutically active agent is raloxifene or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Pharmaceutically-acceptable excipients include, but are not limited to, solvents, polymers, plasticizers, fillers, binders, buffer systems, surfactants, dyes or pigments, preservatives and flavouring substances.

Reaction Scheme 3 illustrates another preferred embodiment of the process according to the present invention. The illustrative and preferred embodiment is shown here for preparing a non-solvated pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI:

crystalline solvate form of a salt

comprising a first solvent and a second solvent

XI dissolving in an organic

solvent with the proviso

that an azeotrope is formed

non-solvated pharmaceutically

acceptable salt

XI

Scheme 3 According to the preferred embodiment of Scheme 3 (wherein R 1 f R 3 , first solvent and second solvent are defined as in the preceding items), a crystalline solvate form of a compound of formula XI is prepared either from a compound of formula XI (pathway A) or from a compound of formula X (pathway B). Preferably, compounds of formula X and XI are prepared according to the preferred embodiment of Scheme 1 as described above.

According to one aspect of the invention, a crystalline solvate form of a compound of formula XI is prepared via pathway A comprising the steps of: a) providing a free base or a salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably a salt thereof, more preferably a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

b) dissolving said compound provided in step a) in a mixture of a first solvent and a second solvent, preferably by heating, more preferably by heating under reflux conditions,

c) optionally distilling off a part of the volume of the mixture of first solvent and second solvent, preferably under reduced pressure in order to obtain a suspension, preferably distilling off is carried out by azeotropic distillation, more preferably distilling off is carried out under reduced pressure,

d) optionally seeding the mixture resulting from step b) or c) in order to induce crystallisation,

e) allowing a solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI to precipitate, preferably to crystallize, optionally under agitation, and

f) separating the crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably separation is carried out by filtration.

It was surprisingly found that the above procedural concept provides crystalline solvate forms of a salt of a compound of formula XI. Said crystalline solvate forms represents highly valuable intermediates for the preparation of pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof, since said solvate is obtained in exceptional high purity. Thus, a highly effective purification step in a synthetic pathway for preparing a compound of formula XI is provided. Furthermore, incorporating a first and a second solvent into the crystalline solid of the compound of compound of formula XI additionally provides for an advantageous setting of the properties of said solvate, wherein the properties of said solvate can be suitably set by selecting an appropriate anion for the salt form of compound of formula XI. For example, properties such as melting point, chemical reactivity, density and solubility can furthermore be suitably set by incorporating an appropriate anion and/or appropriate solvents into a crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI, wherein setting the aforementioned properties in turn provides for a suitable setting of procedural conditions in a process for preparing pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof.

In a preferred embodiment of pathway A, a free base of a compound of formula XI provided in step a) is converted into its respective salt by contacting compound of formula XI with an acid prior to step c), preferably said acid is selected from the group of organic or inorganic acids, more preferably from the group consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H2SO4, even more preferably HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , yet even more preferably HCI and HBr, and in particular HBr. In this way, the chemical and/or physical properties of the solvate obtained in step f) can be suitably set in view of procedural conditions in a process for preparing pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof.

According to another aspect of the invention, a crystalline solvate form of a compound of formula XI is prepared via pathway B comprising the steps of:

i) providing a salt or a free base of a compound of formula X

wherein represents a hydroxy protecting group which is substantially not cleavable in the presence of a Lewis acid at Friedel-Crafts acylation conditions, preferably said salt of a compound of formula X is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and

wherein R 3 is defined as above,

ii) deprotecting the -OF? ! groups of said salt of a compound of formula X in the presence of a second solvent in order to convert compound of formula X into compound of formula XI

iii) adding a first solvent to a reaction mixture resulting from step ii), preferably said first solvent is added dropwise within a predetermined time interval, and iv) heating the reaction mixture resulting from step iii), preferably heating to reflux, and

v) cooling and optionally agitating the reaction mixture resulting from step iv), preferably said reaction mixture is cooled to a temperature of -20 to 20 °C, more preferably -10 to 10 °C, and

vi) separating the solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably separation is carried out by filtration.

Surprisingly, when using compound X as a starting compound, a solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI is obtained in both high yield and purity, while a step for isolation of the intermediate salt of a compound of formula X forming in step ii) can be omitted. As to the advantages of said solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI, it is referred to the explanations for pathway A.

In a preferred embodiment of pathway B, in step i), the compound of formula X is provided in crude form or in isolated form, preferably in isolated form, more preferably in an isolated form wherein the compound of formula X has a purity of at least 90% measured by HPLC, even more preferably at least 95%, yet even more preferably at least 97% and in particular at least 98%. Since the starting material compound of formula X may be applied in crude form or in isolated form having a suitably selected purity, there is free choice concerning the nature of compound of formula X provided in step i). While applying the crude form of compound of formula X as the starting material provides for reducing both work-up and purification efforts in a process for preparing a crystalline solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI, applying a compound of formula X in isolated form as the starting material provides for a surprisingly high purity of a crystalline solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI

Preferably, in step i) of pathway B, a compound of formula X' is provided

wherein A " is CP or Bf , preferably ΒΓ. More preferably, the compound of formula X' is in crystalline form, even more preferably a compound of formula X' wherein A " is C and whose X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern has at least signals at the following 2Θ values (±0.5°

respectively):

In this way, particularly suitable starting materials are provided which further contribute to a exceptional high purity of the solvate obtained in step vi).

Preferably, in step ii) of pathway B, deprotection reaction for cleaving the -ORT groups is carried out as described above for the embodiment of Scheme 1.

According to another embodiment of pathway B, the anion of a salt of a compound of formula XI obtained in step ii) is exchanged by another anion prior to step iii), preferably by an anion of an acid forming a pharmaceutically acceptable salt as defined in item (62). In this way, a particularly advantageous conversion of a salt of a compound of formula XI obtained in step ii) to a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI by exchange of the anion is provided.

According to one embodiment of pathways A and B, the crystalline solvate form of a salt of a compound of formula XI is based on a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably the acid forming said pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI whereupon said solvate form is based is selected from the group of organic or inorganic acids, preferably from the group consisting of oxalic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , more preferably HCI, HBr and H 2 S0 4 , even more preferably HCI and HBr, and in particular HBr.

Preferably, in the process of pathways A and B, said first solvent is incorporated into the salt of compound of formula XI in an amount of percent by weight which is lower than the amount of percent by weight of the second solvent. More preferably, the crystalline solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 0.1 to 8 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 3 to 15 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI, preferably compound of formula XI provided in step a) comprises said first solvent in an amount of about 1 to 5 percent by weight and said second solvent in an amount of about 7.7 to 10 percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI. Even more preferably, said first solvent is an alcohol and said second solvent is a halocarbon, preferably said first solvent is a C 1 -C 4 -alcohol and said second solvent is a d-C 10 -halocarbon optionally comprising a benzene ring, more preferably said first solvent is methanol or ethanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride, chloroform or chlorobenzene, in particular said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride. In this way, the chemical and/or physical properties of the crystalline solvate form of a compound of formula XI can be suitably set in view of procedural conditions in a process for preparing pharmaceutically active agents such as raloxifene or derivatives thereof.

Further according to the preferred embodiment illustrated by Scheme 3, a non-solvated pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is prepared by a process starting from a crystalline solvate form of a compound of formula XI. Said process comprises the steps of: i ) providing a crystalline solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a c

wherein R 3 is

R 4

— (CH 2 ) -

R 5

, wherein x = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 15, more preferably 2 to 10, and in particular 2,

and R 4 and R 5 independently from each other represent substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkylaryl, or R and R 5 cooperatively with the N-atom form a part of a 5- to 10-membered ring, preferably a 5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 5- or 6-membered ring, in particular a 6-membered ring, dissolving said crystalline solvate form provided in step i) in an organic solvent, wherein said organic solvent forms an azeotrope with at least one solvent incorporated in said solvate form,

iii) optionally seeding the mixture resulting from step ii) in order to induce crystallisation,

iv) allowing the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of compound of formula XI to precipitate, preferably to crystallize, optionally under agitation, and separating the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI, preferably separation is carried out by filtration.

The above mentioned aspect provides a process for preparing a non-solvated

pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI, wherein the crystalline solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is converted to the non-solvated form of the respective pharmaceutically acceptable salt in both high yields and high purity, while the obtained non-solvate form of the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is substantially free of organic solvent(s) incorporated in the starting material in solvate form.

Preferably, the crystalline solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI comprises a first solvent and a second solvent different from the first solvent, wherein said first solvent and said second solvent are incorporated in the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI. Surprisingly, even though said crystalline form comprises two organic solvents, said crystalline solvate form provides for a non-solvated form of the respective pharmaceutically acceptable salt in both particularly high yields and exceptional high purity, while the obtained non-solvate form of the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is substantially free of both first solvent and second solvent incorporated into the starting material in solvate form.

More preferably, said first solvent is incorporated into the salt of compound of formula XI in an amount of percent by weight which is lower than the amount of percent by weight of the second solvent. Even more preferably, the crystalline solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI comprises said first solvent and said second solvent in the following amounts (given in percent by weight relative to the solvate form of a salt of compound of formula XI): about 0.1 to 8 percent by weight of the first solvent and about 3 to 15 percent by weight of the second solvent, preferably about 1 to 5 percent by weight of the first solvent and about 7.7 to 10 percent by weight of the second solvent.

Furthermore, preferably said first solvent is an alcohol and said second solvent is a

hydrocarbon or halocarbon. More preferably, said first organic solvent is a C r C 4 -alcohol and said second organic solvent is a C 6 -C 10 -hydrocarbon comprising a benzene moiety or a CrCio-halocarbon optionally comprising a benzene moiety, even more preferably said first solvent is methanol or ethanol and said second solvent is to\uene, methylene chloride, chloroform or chlorobenzene, even more preferably said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is toluene, methylene chloride or chloroform, and in particular, said first solvent is methanol and said second solvent is methylene chloride.

According to one embodiment, the azeotrope formed in step ii) forms under normal or reduced pressure, more preferably under reduced pressure. Even more preferably, solvent(s) incorporated into said solvate form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI is/are removed by azeotropic distillation of the mixture resulting from step it), preferably said azeotropic distillation is carried out at reduced pressure. The organic solvent applied in step ii) is preferably an alcohol, more preferably a water- miscible alcohol, even more preferably a d-C -alcohol, yet even more preferably methanol or ethanol, and in particular methanol.

According to a further embodiment, said organic solvent of step ii) comprises a predetermined amount of water, preferably said amount of water is predetermined by a volume ratio of water and organic solvent of 0 to 0.5, preferably 0.24 to 0.44, more preferably 0.27 to 0.40, and in particular 0.29 to 0.38. Preferably, said water is potable water, preferably deionized water, more preferably reverse osmosis water. According to a further embodiment, in step ii), the resulting mixture is heated prior to step iii), preferably heating is under reflux conditions.

In another preferred embodiment, activated charcoal is added in step ii) and said charcoal is separated from the mixture resulting from step ii) prior to step iii), preferably separation is carried out by filtration.

Preferably, said pharmaceutically acceptable salt of a compound of formula XI obtained in step v) has a purity of > 98% measured by HPLC, more preferably > 99%, even more preferably > 99.2%, yet even more preferably > 99.4%, and in particular > 99.6%.

The following examples are merely illustrative of the present invention and they should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention in any way. The examples and modifications or other equivalents thereof will become apparent to those versed in the art in the light of the present entire disclosure.

Examples

Methods

Heavy metals. According to USP (231 , method II). Sulphated ash. According to Ph. Eur. (2.4.14). IR. FTIR-spectrometer Spectrum one (Perkin-Elmer); according to Ph. Eur. (2.2.24, KBr). DSC. DSC822 (Mettler), inert gas: nitrogen, temperature program from 30°C to 400°C / heating rate: 10°C/min. Water content. Titrando 835 (Metrohm) with double-Pt-electrode; Karl- Fisher-titration (abbreviated as KFT in the following Examples). MP. B545 (Buchi). Residual solvents. Gas chromatograph 6890 (Agilent) with head space sampler; head space gas chromatography, column DB-624: 30 m length, 0.32 mm ID, 1 ,8 pm film thickness, temperature program from 40°C to 250°C. Titration. Titrino 716 / Titrando 835 (Metrohm); with sodium hydroxide solution and solvotrode, with silver nitrate solution and silver titrode. N R. Bruker AVANCE 300 spectrometer at 301 K. XRPD. transmission diffractometer STADI P (STOE & Cie., Darmstadt, Germany) using Ge-monochromated CuKG radiation (1.5406 A) in Debye-Scherrer-geometry; the most intense 29-peaks of the obtained X-ray diffractograms were determined by the analysis software "Match! Version 1 .9d, Crystal Impact, 2003-2009".

Gas Chromatography. The analysis was carried out by using an GC-system consisting of a split/splitless-injector, an autosampler, column oven and Fl-detector (Agilent), using a

Rxi-5-MS column (25 m x 0.25 mm ID, 0.5 pm film thickness). Injection volume 1 pi. Heating rate 10 K/min.

Hydrogen 40 ml/min

Air 450 ml/min

Make-up gas (N 2 ) 25 ml/min A) Compounds (ΙΙ', IV. A sample (50 mg) was dissolved in 1 ml_ of dimethylformamide and assayed by gas chromatography

Carrier gas, flow rate Nitrogen: 1.4 mL/min, constant flow Split flow rate 28 mlJmin Injector temperature 300°C Oven temperature program:

Start temperature/holding time 50°C / O min Final temperature/holding time 330°C / 20 min Duration of analysis 45 min Detector / temperature 300°C

B) Compounds V". A sample (50 mg) was dissolved in 1 mL of toluene and assayed by gas chromatography.

Carrier gas, flow rate Nitrogen: 1.4 mL/min, constant flow Split flow rate 28 mUmin Injector temperature 300°C Oven temperature program:

Start temperature/holding time 50°C / 0 min Final temperature/holding time 330°C / 20 min Duration of analysis 45 min Detector / temperature 300°C

D) Compounds VII'. A sample (50 mg) was dissolved in 1 .5 mL of toluene and assayed by gas chromatography. Carrier gas, flow rate Nitrogen: 1 .0 mL/min, constant flow Split flow rate 20 mL/min Injector temperature 330°C Oven temperature program:

Start temperature/holding time 50°C / O min Final temperature/holding time 330°C / 60 min Duration of analysis 88 min Detector / temperature 330°C

GC-MS. The analysis was carried out by using an GC-MS-system consisting of a sp!it/splitless- injector, an autosampler, column oven and MSD-detector (Agilent), using a

Rxi-5-MS column (25 m x 0.25 mm ID, 0.5 pm film thickness). Carrier gas, flow rate helium: 1 .9 mL/min, constant flow. Split flow rate 38 mL/min. Oven temperature program: Start

temperature/holding time 50°C / 0 min. Heating rate 10 K/min. Injection volume 1 μΙ.

AUX / temperature 350°C

MS Source / temperature 230°C

MS Quad / temperature 150°C

Scan masses from 15 to 550

Threshold 25

A) Compounds III'. A sample (50 mg) was dissolved in 1 mL of dimethylformamide and subjected to GC/MS analysis.

Injector temperature 330°C

Final temperature/holding time 330°C / 50 min

Duration of analysis 78 min

B) Compounds IV. A sample (50 mg) was dissolved in 1 mL of dimethylformamide and subjected to GC/MS analysis.

Injector temperature 300°C

Final temperature/holding time 300°C / 20 min

Duration of analysis 45 min

C) Compounds V. A sample (50 mg) was dissolved in 1 mL of toluene and subjected to GC/MS analysis. Injector temperature 300°C

Final temperature/holding time 300°C / 20 min

Duration of analysis 45 min

D) Compounds VII'. A sample (50 mg) was dissolved in 1 mL of toluene and subjected to GC/MS analysis.

Injector temperature 330°C

Final temperature/holding time 330°C / 50 min

Duration of analysis 78 min

High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The analysis was carried out by using an HPLC-system consisting of a gradient pump, an autosampler, column thermostat and

UV-detector (Agilent or Dionex).

A) Compounds III', IV, V. A sample (25 mg) was weighed into a 50-mL volumetric flask, and dissolved in 25 mL acetonitrile. Water was added to 50.0 mL. An aliquot of this solution (10 pL) was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, using a YMC Pack Pro C18 RS column (25 cm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 pm particle) maintained at 40°C and UV detection

(220 nm). Flow rate: 1 .0 ml/min. Gradient solvent system (A: 20 mM KH 2 P0 buffer, pH 3.0; B: acetonitrile):

B) Compounds VII'. A sample (25 mg) was weighed into a 50-mL volumetric flask, and dissolved in acetonitrile. An aliquot of this solution (10 pL) was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, using a YMC Pack Pro C18 RS column (25 cm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 pm particle) maintained at 0°C and UV detection (220 nm). Flow rate: 1.0 ml/min. Gradient solvent system (A: 20 mM KH 2 P0 4 buffer, pH 3.0; B: acetonitrile): time (min) A (%) B (%)

0 50 50

20 5 95

25 5 95

25.3 50 50

30 50 50 C) Compounds VIII', X'. A sample (25 mg) was weighed into a 50-mL volumetric flask, and dissolved in 25 mL acetonitrile. Water was added to 50.0 mL. An aliquot of this solution (10 pL) was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, using a YMC Pack Pro C18 RS column (25 cm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 pm particle) maintained at 40°C and UV detection (290 nm). Flow rate: 1.0 ml/min. Gradient solvent system (A: 10 mM ammonium formate buffer, pH 3.0; B: acetonitrile):

LC-W1S. A sample (5 mg) was dissolved in 10 mL acetonitrile and diluted to 25.0 mL with acetonitrile / water (1 : 1 ). An aliquot of this solution (5 pL) was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, using a Purospher STAR RP18 endcapped column (12.5 cm x 2 mm ID, 5 pm particle) maintained at 25°C and MS detection in ESI positive mode. Flow rate:

0.3 ml/min. Gradient solvent system (A: water with 0.05% formic acid; B: acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid).

D) Compounds ΧΓ. A sample (25 mg) was weighed into a 50-mL volumetric flask, and dissolved in 25 mL acetonitrile and 20 mL of water. Water was added to 50.0 mL. An aliquot of this solution (10 pL) was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, using a YMC Pack Pro C18 RS column (25 cm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 pm particle) maintained at 40°C and UV detection (290 nm). Flow rate: 1.0 ml/min. Gradient solvent system (A: water with 0.05% formic acid; B: acetonitrile).

(LC-MS). A sample (5 mg) was disssolved to 100.0 mL in a mixture of acetonitrile / water (1 : 1 ). An aliquot of this solution (5 pL) was assayed by high performance liquid

chromatography, using a Purospher STAR RP18 endcapped column (12.5 cm x 2 mm ID, 5 μηι particle) maintained at 25°C and MS detection in ESI positive mode (abbreviated as ESI(+) in the following Examples). Flow rate: 0.3 ml/min. (A: water with 0.05% formic acid; B: acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid).

Examples 1 -4: Preparation of compounds of formula 111'

Example 1 4-Benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester

Aq. K 2 C0 3 (2.5 M, 80.6 mL) was added at 13 - 18 °C to a mixture of 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester (332.5 g, 2 mol), benzenesulfonyl chloride (365.6 g, 2.07 mol), tetra-n-butyl- ammonium hydrogen sulphate (5.0 g, 0.03 mol), ethyl acetate (500 mL), and water (100 mL) with stirring. The mixture was heated to 35 °C with stirring and treated with aq. K 2 C0 3 (2.5 M, 367 mL) over a period of 1 h. The mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h and treated with water (200 mL) with stirring. The aqueous phase was separated and the organic phase was washed with water (150 mL). The organic phase was evaporated to dryness at 45 - 75 °C and the residue was dried under reduced pressure to obtain a colourless or yellowish liquid. Yield: 613.3 g (100 %). Purity: 100.0 % (HPLC). H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 7.9 - 7.8

(m, 5 H, arom.), 7.7 (m, 2 H, arom.), 7.2 (d, 2 H, arom.), 4.3 (q, 2 H, R 2 CH 2 ), 1 .3 (t, 3 H, RCH 3 ); 13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 164.6 (>C=0), 52.2 (R 2 C-0-R, arom.), 135.2 (=CH-), 134.1 (=C<), 131.1 (=CH-), 129.8 (=CH-), 128.9 (=C<), 128.2 (=CH-), 122.3 (=CH-), 61 .0 (>CH 2 ), 14.0 (-CH 3 )). IR (KBr, cm '1 ): 1718 (v c =o), 1602, 1499, 1450, 1380, 1278, 1202, 1 178, 1 154, 1093, 1018, 871 , 746, 712, 697, 583, 568. GC/MS (El, RT; 22.1 19 min): m/z = 306 [M] + .

Example 2 4-Benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid methyl ester

4-Benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid methyl ester was obtained in a similar manner as

4-benzenesulfony)oxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester by employing 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid methyl ester as starting material. Purity: 99.61 % (HPLC). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm):

δ 8.01 - 7.92 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.91 - 7.78 (m, 3 H, arom.), 7.74 - 7.61 (m, 2 H, arom.), 7.19

(d, 2 H, arom.), 3.83 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ). 13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 165.0 (>C=0), 152.21 (R 2 C-0-R, arom.), 135.16 (=CH-), 133.98 (=CH<), 131.15 (=CH-), 129.81 (=CH-), 128.62 (=CH<), 128.1 (=CH-), 122.29 (=CH-), 52.25 (-CH 3 ). I (KBr, cm "1 ): 3000, 2952, 1728 (v c =o). 1607, 1500, 1542, 1436, 1415, 1373, 1309, 1281 , 1203, 1 182, 1 161 , 1092, 1017, 998, 962, 878, 856, 827, 773, 751 , 712, 687, 646, 625, 613, 573.

GC/ S (El, RT; 22.1 min): m/z = 292 [Mf .

Example 3

4-Methanesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester 4-Methanesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester was obtained in a similar manner as

4-benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester by employing methanesulfonyl chloride as starting material. H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 8.06 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.49 (d, 2 H, arom.), 4.33 (q, 2 H, -CH 2 CH 3 ), 3.45 (s, 3 H, -CH 3 ) 1.32 (t, 3 H, -CH 2 CH 3 ).

1 3 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6) ppm): δ 164.71 (>C=0), 152.38 (R 2 COS0 2 CH 3 ), 131 .21 (=CH-), 128.75 (=C<), 122.41 (=CH-), 60.96 (>CH 2 ), 37.71 (-CH 3 ), 14.04 (-CH 3 ). IR (KBr, cm " 1 ): 2943, 1717 (v c=0 ), 1675, 1603, 1500, 1415, 1373, 1334, 1280, 1205, 1 171 , 1 156, 1 1 12, 1096, 1019, 967, 879, 793, 774, 713, 698, 628, 547, 529, 521. GC/MS (El, RT; 17.9 min): m/z = 244 [M] + . Example 4

4-Toluene-4-sulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester

4-Toluene-4-sulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester was obtained in a similar manner as

4-benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester by employing 4-methyl-benzenesulfonyl chloride as starting material. Purity: 97.14 % (HPLC). Mp.: 58.6 - 59.9 °C. DSC: Peak at 61.88 °C. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 7.95 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.75 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.46 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.18 (d, 2 H, arom.), 4.29 (q, 2 H, -OCH 2 CH 3 ), 2.41 (s, 3 H, -CH 3 ), 1 .29

(t, 3 H, -OCH 2 CH 3 ). 13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 164.57 (>C=0), 152.27

(R2COSO 2 CH 3 ), 146.0 (=CH<), 131.09 (=CH-), 130.23 (=CH-), 128.80 (=CH<), 128.14 (=CH-), 122.26 (=CH-), 60.94 (-OCH 2 CH 3 ), 21.08 (-CH 3 ), 13.98 (-OCH 2 CH 3 ).

IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 2981 , 1720 (v c=0 ), 1595, 1501 , 1476, 1454, 1415, 1376, 1293, 1212, 1 199, 1 177, 1 159, 1 121 , 1092, 1024, 875, 843, 818, 777, 738, 694, 671 , 619, 573, 551 , 510.

GC/MS (El, RT; 23.7 min): m/z = 320 [M] + .

Example 5-7: Preparation of compounds of formula IV

Example 5

Benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid a) Preparation by using formic acid and sulphuric acid as an acid for ester cleavage:

A stirred mixture of 4-benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester (310.0 g, 1.0 mol), prepared as described in example 1 , formic acid (85 %, 450 mL), and sulphuric acid (96 %, 6.0 mL) was heated to distillation. 23 mL solvents were distilled off over a period of

approximately 1 h and formic acid (85 %, 23 mL) was added. This procedure was repeated 16 times. The reaction mixture was cooled and water (150 mL) was added at 90 °C. After stirring for 1 h at 20 °C the precipitate was filtered off, washed with water (188 mL) and ethyl acetate (125 mL) and dried under reduced pressure at 55 °C. Yield: 252.4 g (91 %).

For further, optional purification, 241.5 g of the product obtained above were suspended in ethyl acetate (1.69 L) and heated to reflux. The solution was filtered and the filter rinsed with ethyl acetate (20 mL). The combined clear filtrates were cooled to 3-5 °C with stirring and stirring was continued for further 3 h. The solid was filtered off, washed with ethyl acetate (2 x 80 mL), and dried under reduced pressure at 50 °C. Yield: 200.7 g (83 %).

Purity: 97.09 % (HPLC). DSC: peak at 173.5 °C. 1 H N R (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 13.2 (s, 1 H, -OH), 8.0 - 7.8 (m, 5 H, arom.), 7.7 (m, 2 H, arom.), 7.2 (d, 2 H, arom.);

1 3 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6l ppm): δ 166.1 (>C=0), 152.0 (R 2 C-0-R, arom.), 135.2 (=CH-), 134.1 (=C<), 131.3 (=CH-), 129.8 (=CH-), 128.1 (=C<), 128.1 (=CH-), 122.1

(=CH-). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 2552, 1684 (v c =o), 1600, 1498, 1450, 1427, 1355, 1290, 1200, 1 169, 1090, 1016, 953, 868, 848, 822, 806, 784, 764, 740, 720, 694, 685, 642, 588, 540. GC/MS (El, RT; 22.082 min): m/z = 278 [Μ] +' . XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

b) Preparation by using acetic acid as an acid for ester cleavage:

Benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid was obtained in a similar manner as described above by employing acetic acid as solvent. Yield: 93 %. Purity: 99.99 % (HPLC). DSC: peak at

173.13 °C).

c) Preparation by using 4-benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid methyl ester as starting material:

Benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid was also obtained in a similar manner described above by employing 4-benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid methyl ester as starting material. Yield: 93 %. Purity: 99.98 % (HPLC). Mp.: 74.8 °C. Example 6

4-Methanesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid

4-Methanesulfonyloxy-b ' enzoic acid was obtained similar to example 5 item b, by employing 4- methanesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester as starting material. Yield: 74 %. Purity: 99.77 % (HPLC). Mp.: 226.1 °C. DSC: Peak at 225.58 °C. 1 H N R (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 13.16 (bs, 1 H, -OH), 8.05 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.47 (d, 2 H, arom.), 3.44 (s, 3 H, -CH 3 ).

1 3 C-{H}-N R (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 166.30 (>C=0), 152.21 (R 2 COS0 2 CH 3 ), 131.41 (=CH-), 129.73 (=C<), 122.27 (=CH-), 37.71 (-CH 3 ). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3036, 1689 (v c=0 ), 1602, 1502, 1429, 1331 , 1290, 1197, 1169, 1 150, 1129, 1099, 1017, 982, 938, 864, 830, 789, 772, 718, 691 , 626, 543, 509. GC/MS (El, RT; 18.000 min): m/z = 216 [M] + . XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

Example 7

4-Toluene-4-sulfonyloxy-benzoic acid

4-Toluene-4-sulfony!oxy-benzoic acid was obtained in a similar manner as described in example 5 item b, employing 4-toluene-4-sulfonyloxy-benzoic acid ethyl ester as starting material. Purity: 99.61 % (HPLC). DSC: peak at 173.91 °C. 1 H N R (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 13.15 (bs, 1 H, -OH), 7.94 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.75 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.46 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.15 (d, 2 H, arom.), 2.40 (s, 3 H, -CH 3 ). 13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 166.16 (>C=0), 152.09 (R 2 COS0 2 R), 145.98 (=C<), 131.26 (=CH-), 131.21 (=C<), 130.24 (=CH-), 129.77 (=C<), 128.16 (=CH-), 122.10 (=CH-), 21.1 1 (-CH 3 ). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 2990, 1689 (v c = 0 ), 1602, 1502, 1434, 1367, 1293, 1203, 1 174, 1 155, 1093, 1017, 943, 860, 813, 778, 735, 692, 670, 645, 617, 569, 551. GC/ S (El, RT; 23.800 min): m/z = 292 [M] + . XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

Example 8: Preparation of compounds of formula V

Benzenesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester

a) Preparation by using DMF as a catalyst and toluene as the solvent:

A mixture of benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid (100 g, 0.36 mol), obtained according to example 5 item a, toluene (300 ml_), and DMF (0.028 mL) was heated to 63-68 °C with stirring. SOCI 2 (43.7 g) was added slowly (40 min) and stirring was continued for further 5 h at 65 - 70 °C. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure at 40-53 °C and the residue was dried in vacuum at 50 °C. Yield: 108.8 g. Purity: 98.57 % (HPLC). DSC: peak at

41.45 °C. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 , ppm): δ 8.1 - 7.7 (m, 5 H, arom.), 7.6 (m, 2 H, arom.), 7.2 (d, 2 H, arom); 13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 167.1 (>C=0), 154.6 (R 2 COS0 2 R), 135.2 (=C<), 134.7 (=CH-), 133.1 (=CH-), 131.9 (=C<), 129.4 (=CH-), 128.4 (=CH-), 122.8 (=CH-)). ]R (KBr, cm "1 ): 1780 (v c = 0 ), 1748, 1597, 1496, 1450, 141 1 , 1299, 1200, 1 183, 1 157, 1093, 1015, 866, 754, 733, 707, 686, 629, 581 , 518. GC/ S (El, T; 21.360 min): m/z = 296 [ ] + . b) Preparation by using DWIF as a catalyst and chlorobenzene as the solvent:

Benzenesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester was obtained in a similar manner as described in example 8 item a, employing chlorobenzene as the solvent. c) Preparation by using dimethy!amino)pyridine (DIWAP) as a catalyst and

chlorobenzene as the solvent:

A flask was charged with benzenesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid (50.0 g, calcd, dry, 80 mmol) and chlorobenzene (150 mL). 50 mL of chlorobenzene were distilled off under reduced pressure at 70 - 90 °C and DMAP (0.22 g, 1 .8 mmol) was added. The suspension was slowly treated with SOCI 2 (21 .8 g, 183.6 mmol, 1 .5 h) at 75 - 85 °C with stirring. After the addition was completed stirring was continued for further 2 h at 85-91 °C to complete the reaction. The reaction mixture was subsequently flushed with nitrogen at 85 - 91 °C for approximately 35 min and allowed to reach room temperature to obtain benzenesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester in practically quantitative yield.

Methanesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester A flask was charged with 4-Methanesulfonyloxy-benzoic acid (10.0 g, 46.2 mmol), toluene

(30 mL), and dimethyl formamide (0.02 mL). The mixture was heated to 62 °C with stirring and SOCI 2 (3.4 mL, 47.1 mmol) was added slowly (0.5 h). Stirring was continued for 5 h at approximately 60 °C to complete the reaction. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure at 50 °C. The residue was dissolved in toluene (10 mL) and the solvent was distilled off in vacuum at 50 °C to give the title compound. Yield: 0.61 g (45.2 mmol, 97.9 %). Purity: 95.41 % (GC). p.: 72.6 - 73.8 °C. DSC: peak at 74.31 °C. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 8.04 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.46 (d, 2H, arom.), 3.43 (s, 3 H, -CH 3 ).

1 3 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 166.19 (>C=0), 152.27 (R 2 COS0 2 CH 3 ), 131.44 (=CH-), 129.69 (=C<-), 122.31 (=CH-), 37.78 (-CH 3 ). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3033, 1733, 1597, 1496, 1411 , 1365, 1207, 1 182, 1157, 1014, 971 , 871 , 788, 709, 657, 631 , 553, 523. GC/MS (El, RT; 17.058 min): m/z = 234 [M] + . XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

2theta[°] 1/1»

8.62 87.74

15.75 522.96

17.34 321.79

19.07 729.08

19.96 375.87

20.1 254.83

21.76 171 .23

21.97 438.63 2theta[°] l/lo

23.03 1000

24.2 409.67

24.47 201.94

25.04 187.7

26.61 173.19

27.42 336.67

28.28 242.92

28.83 46.68

30.63 173.43

30.82 90.03

31.84 72.59

32.46 126.9

33.04 46.99

33.77 99.68

34.1 140.73

34.48 110.86

34.7 87.28

35.12 202.5

38.41 66.08

42.55 71.8

46.63 62.36

53.82 62.07

Toluenesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester

A flask was charged with 4-toluene-4-sulfonyloxy-benzoic acid (15.0 g, 51.3 mmol), toluene (45 mL), and dimethyl formamide (0.02 mL). The mixture was heated to 72 °C and SOCI 2 (3.9 mL, 53.9 mmol) was added slowly (0.5 h) at 63-72 °C with stirring. Stirring was continued for 5 h and the solvent was distilled off at 45 °C under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in toluene (15 mL) and the solution was taken to dryness at 50 °C in vacuo to obtain the title compound. Yield: 15.73 g (50.6 mmol, 98.7%). Purity: 97.33 % (GC).

p.: 75.0 -76.4 °C. DSC: 77.46 °C. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 7.93

(d, 2 H, arom.), 7.74 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.45 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.15 (d, 2 H, arom.), 2.40 (s, 3 H, -CH 3 ). 13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 166.05 (>C=0), 152.12 (R 2 COS0 2 R), 146.01 (=C<), 131.28 (=CH-), 130.27 (=CH-), 129.70 (=C<), 128.18 (=CH-), 122.45 (=C<) 122.13 (=CH-), 21 .15 (-CH 3 ). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3070, 1778, 1748, 1597, 1497, 1412, 1382, 1298, 1202, 1 176, 1 162, 1092, 1018, 889, 864, 836, 817, 751 , 721 , 672, 651 , 642, 618, 571 , 551 , 517. GC/MS (El, RT; 23.0 min): m/z = 310 [M] + . XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

2theta[°] l/lo

11.57 731.9

15.81 829.06

15.98 941.36

16.27 186.02

16.78 166.09

17.71 469.67

18.03 254.45

18.54 458.06 2thetaH l/lo

18.71 1000

18.84 272.79

19.41 819.05

19.67 699.35

20.51 566.26

21.98 179.07

22.7 741.37

23.28 255.92

23.68 912.37

24.21 747.61

25.36 440.32

25.7 141.67

27.13 381.23

27.63 481.15

27.97 621.58

29.57 212.4

30.69 165.92

30.74 156.07

30.81 146.35

30.87 173.63

37.91 174.83

38.23 165.32

Example 9: Preparation of compounds of formula VII'

Benzenesulfonicacid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-ben zo[b]thiophene-3- carbonylj-phenyl ester a) Preparation by using Fe powder / Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 x 5 H 2 0 as the catalyst and toluene as the solvent: A mixture of 68.1 g of a solution of benzenesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester (19.3 g, 65 mmol, calcd.) in toluene, prepared according to example 8 item a, toluene

(107 mL), 6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)- benzothiophene (14.1 g, 52 mmol), iron

(0.242 g, 4 mmol) and Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 x 5 H 2 0 (1 .898 g, 4 mmol) was heated to 106 °C to initiate the reaction. The dark coloured mixture was subsequently treated with 6-methoxy-2-(4- methoxy-phenyl)benzothiophene (126.48 g, 468 mmol) and toluene (107 mL). 612.7 g of a solution of benzenesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester in toluene (173.57 g, 585 mmol, calcd.) were added slowly (5.5 h) at 100 - 1 1 1 °C with stirring. The mixture was then cooled to 98 °C and flushed with nitrogen for 1 h at 99 - 04 °C. The reaction mixture was cooled to 62 - 66 °C, diluted with toluene (637 ml), treated with sodium hydroxide (aq., 1 N, 328 mL), and Si0 2 (1 .57 g) with stirring. Stirring was continued for 30 min at 62 - 66 °C and insolubles were filtered off. The filter residue was rinsed with hot toluene (40 mL). The combined biphasic filtrates were separated. The aqueous phase was disposed. The organic phase was alkalized with sodium hydroxide (aq., 1 N, 328 mL) and heated at

60 - 64 °C for approximately 40 min with vigorous stirring. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was disposed. The organic phase was washed with water (3 x 328 mL) and the solvent was distilled off at 62 - 66 °C in vacuo to yield 301.6 g of benzenesulfonic acid-4-[6- methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]-p henyl ester.

For an optional purification, the residue was treated with acetone (240 mL) and heated to reflux with stirring. After 10 min the clear solution was cooled to 1 - 4 °C and stirring was continued for further 60 min. The suspension was filtered and the solid washed with cold acetone (3 x 40 mL) to give the title compound as crystalline solid. Yield: 83.2 g (66.4 %, calcd. dry). Purity: 96.74 % (HPLC). XRPD the XRD diffractorgram exhibitssignals at the following 2Θ values:

b) Preparation by using Fe powder / Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 x 5 H 2 0 as the catalyst and chlorobenzene as the solvent (0.32 eq):

Benzenesulfonicacid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-ben zo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]- phenyl ester was also obtained in a similar manner as described under example 9 item a), employing 0.32 eq. of iron ions as catalyst and chlorobenzene as the solvent. c) Preparation by using Fe powder / Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 x 5 H 2 0 as the catalyst and toluene as the solvent employing 0.005 eq. of iron ions

Ben2enesulfonicacid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-ben zo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]- phenyl ester was also obtained in a similar manner as described under example 9 item a), employing 0.005 eq. of iron ions as catalyst and toluene as the solvent. d) Preparation by using FeCI 3 as the catalyst and toluene as the solvent: A mixture of benzenesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester (26.7 g, 0.090 mol) prepared according to example 8 item b, toluene (135 mL), 6-methoxy-2-(4- methoxyphenyl)benzothiophene (19.5 g, 0.072 mol), and FeCI 3 (0.292 g, 0.002 mol) was stirred for .5 h at 23 - 24 °C and for 4.5 h at 56 - 63 °C. The mixture was treated with sodium hydroxide (aq., 1 N, 50 mL) and toluene (60 mL) with stirring. The mixture was filtered and the phases separated. The aqueos phase was discarded. The organic phase was washed with water (3 x 70 mL) and concentrated at 40 °C under reduced pressure. Methanol (75 mL) was added and the suspension was stirred for 0.5 h at 0 - 5 °C. The solid was separated, washed a mixture of toluene and methanol (1 :1 v/v, 2 x 10 mL) and dried at 50 °C in vacuo. DSC. peak at 128.1 °C.

For optional purification, a sample (26.4 g) of the product obtained above was dissolved in hot toluene (45 mL). The turbid solution was filtered and the filter washed with toluene

(3 mL). The combined filtrates were cooled to 4 °C with stirring and filtered. The solid was washed with toluene (2 x 10 mL) and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure.

A sample (15.0 g) of the re-crystallized product was dissolved in hot acetone (35 mL). The clear solution was allowed to reach approx. 30 °C. The resulting suspension was cooled to 2-3 °C and stirring was continued for further 60 min. The solid was isolated, washed acetone (2 x 4 mL) and dried at 40 °C under reduced pressure. Yield: 41.4 % (calcd.). Purity: 99.86% (HPLC). DSC: peak at 134.2 °C. 1 H N R (300 MHz, CDCI 3 , ppm): δ 7.66 (m, 3 H, arom.), 7.60 (m, 3 H, arom.), 7.46 (m, 2 H, arom.), 7.27 (s, 1 H, arom.), 7.17 (d, 2 H, arom.), 6.96 (d, 1 H, arom.), 6.76 (d, 2 H, arom.), 6.68 (d, 2 H, arom.), 3.83 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.71 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ); 13 C-{H}-N R (75 MHz, CDCI 3 , ppm): δ 192.46 (>C=0), 160.05, 157.90, 152.51 , 145.49, 140.11 , 136.53, 135.21 (=C<), 134.35 (=CH-), 133.58 (=C<), 131 .41 , 130.67 (=CH-), 129.66 (=C<), 129.16, 128.37 (=CH-), 125.73 (=C<), 124.21 , 122.1 1 , 1 15.05, 1 13.98, 104.57 (=CH-), 55.64, 55.27 (-OCH 3 ). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3068, 3006, 2961 , 2907, 2836, 1641 (v c = 0 ), 1606 (v arom ), 1530, 1493, 1477, 1450, 1438, 1409, 1376, 1355, 1327, 1290, 1253, 1218, 1204, 1 154, 1 132, 1093, 1046, 1030, 1015, 892, 863, 841 , 785, 750, 730, 71 1 , 687, 617, 581. GC/MS (El, RT; 47.138 minj. m/z = 530 [Mf. e) Preparation by using Fe / Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 as the catalyst and chlorobenzene as the solvent employing 0.02 eq. of iron ions

A mixture of benzenesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester (26.7 g, 0.090 mol), chlorobenzene (133 mL), 6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzothiophene (19.5 g, 0.072 mol), iron (0.0335 g, 0.0006 mol), and Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 (0.263 g, 0.0013 mol) was stirred for 4 h at 56 - 63 °C. The organic phase was washed with sodium hydroxide (aq., 1 N) and water and taken to dryness at 65 °C under reduced pressure. f) Preparation by using Fe / Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 as the catalyst and chlorobenzene as the solvent employing 0.05 eq. of iron ions

Benzenesulfonicacid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-ben zo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]- phenyl ester was also obtained in a similar manner as described under example 9 item a), employing 0.05 eq. of iron ions as catalyst. g) Preparation by using Fe / Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 as the catalyst and chlorobenzene as the solvent employing 0.005 eq. of iron ions:

Benzenesulfonicacid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-ben zo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]- phenyl ester was obtained in a similar manner as described under example 9 item a), employing 0.005 eq. of iron ions as catalyst. h) Preparation by using ZnCI 2 as the catalyst and chlorobenzene as the solvent: Benzenesulfonicacid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[ b]thiophene-3-carbonyI]- phenyl ester was also obtained in a similar manner as described under example 9 item a), employing ZnCI 2 (0.05 eq.) as catalyst. i) Preparation by using AICI 3 as the catalyst and chlorobenzene as the solvent:

Benzenesulfonicacid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-ben zo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]- phenyi ester was also obtained in a similar manner as described under example 9 item a), employing AICI 3 (0.05 eq.) as catalyst. j) Preparation by using Zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate as the catalyst and

chlorobenzene as the solvent:

Benzenesulfonicacid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-ben zo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]- phenyl ester was also obtained in a similar manner as described under example 9 item a), employing Zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate (0.05 eq.) as catalyst.

Methanesulfonic acid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonylj-phenyl ester A mixture of methanesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester (7.5 g, 31.96 mmol), toluene (30 ml_), 6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzothiophene (6.9 g, 25.5 mmol), iron (0.012 g, 0.22 mmol), and Fe 2 (SO„) 3 x 5 H 2 0 (0.093 g, 0.22 mmol) was heated at reflux for 9 h with stirring. The mixture was then flushed with nitrogen for 7.5 h at 108 - 1 10 °C, cooled to 70 °C and treated with toluene (30 mL), sodium hydroxide (aq., 1 N, 16 mL), and Si0 2 (0.6 g). Stirring was continued for 50 min at 70 - 72 °C and the suspension was filtered. The filter residue was washed with hot toluene (5 mL) and the filtrates were combined. The phases were separated. The aqueous phase was disposed. The organic phase was treated with sodium hydroxide (aq., 1 N, 16 mL) and the mixture was stirred for 30 min at 75 °C. The phases were separated and the organic phase was washed with water (3 16 mL) at 90 °C. The organic phase was cooled to 1 °C and stirring was continued for 40 min. The solid was filtered off, washed with cold toluene (3 x 3 mL) and dried at 45 °C under reduced pressure. Yield: 5.26 g (11 .2 mmol, 44.05 %). Purity: 95.01 % (HPLC).

A sample (4.84 g, 10.3 mmol) of the above obtained product was suspended in acetone (55 mL) and heated to reflux. The resulting solution was cooled to 52 °C and seeded. The turbid solution was cooled to 1 - 3 °C and stirring was continued for 1 h. The solid was isolated, washed with cold acetone (3 x 1 mL) and dried at 45 °C under reduced pressure. Yield: 3.88 g (8.3 mmol, 80.0 %). Purity: 98.99 % (HPLC). DSC. peak at 163.08 °C.

H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 7.75 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.67 (d, 1 H, arom.), 7.58

(d, 1 H, arom.), 7.37 - 7.18 (m, 4 H, arom.), 7.06 (dd, 1 H, arom.), 6.83 (d, 2 H, arom.), 3.85 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.69 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.33 (s, 3 H, -OS0 2 CH 3 ).

3C-{H}-N R (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 192.07 (>C=0), 159.66 (=C<), 157.47(=C<), 152.21 (=C<), 144.37(=C<), 139.45(=C<), 135.89(=C<), 132.84(=C<), 131 .46 (=CH-), 130.24 (=CH-), 129.18(=C<), 124.93(=C<), 123.59 (=CH-), 122.14 (=CH-), 115.18 (=CH-), 114.13 (=CH-), 105.1 1 (=CH-), 55.54 (-OCH 3 ), 55.14 (-OCH 3 ), 37.41 (-CH 3 ). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3015, 2939, 2837, 1640 (v c=0 ), 1606, 1527, 1493, 1473, 1440, 1362, 1298, 1250, 1222, 1 172, 1 148, 1 127, 1047, 1028, 959, 892, 871 , 862, 840, 786, 769, 717, 633, 615, 556, 527, 517. GC/ S (El, RT; 39.900 min): m/z = 468 [M] + \ XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

2theta[°]

6.21 71.16

11 .44 144.14

12.25 62.4

12.97 99.06

14.51 86.7

15.31 59.98

16.31 57.5

17.86 222.06

18.77 479.76

18.93 408.11

19.07 753.68

19.23 122.2

19.39 145.69

19.77 1000

21 .25 70.77

22.21 108.58

23 148.5

23.84 140.58

24.64 262.97

25.44 193.37

25.57 130.08 26.1 1 251.36

28.26 377.94

29.76 65.39

29.92 136.45

30.3 1 12.15

39.06 50.3

Toluenesulfonic acid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenyl ester A mixture of toluenesulfonic acid 4-chlorocarbonyl-phenyl ester (10.0 g, 32.18 mmol), toluene (40 mL), 6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzothiophene (6.96 g, 25.7 mmol), iron (0.012 g, 0.22 mmol), and Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 x 5 H 2 0 (0.094 g, 0.22 mmol) was heated at reflux for 10.5 h with stirring. The mixture was cooled to approx. 70 °C, diluted with toluene (40 mL), treated with sodium hydroxide (aq., 1 N, 16 mL) and Si0 2 (0.6 g) and stirring Was continued for 30 min at 65 - 68 °C. The mixture was filtered and the residue washed with hot toluene (5 mL). The filtrates were combined and the phases separated. The aqueous phase was disposed. The organic phase was treated with sodium hydroxide (aq., 1 N, 16 mL) and stirring was continued for 15 min at 60 - 68 °C. The phases were separated and the organic phase was washed with water (3 x 16 mL) at ambient temperature, concentrated at 45 °C under reduced pressure, and cooled to 1 °C with stirring. After 60 min the resulting solid was isolated, washed with cold toluene (2 x 1 mL) and dried at 45 °C under reduced pressure. Yield 8.17 g (15.0 mmol, 58.4 %). Purity: 84.37 % (HPLC).

A sample (7.56 g, 13.88 mmol) of the material obtained above was dissolved in toluene

(19 mL) at approx. 100 °C. The solution was cooled to 5 °C with seeding and stirring was continued for 1.5 h. The resulting solid was filtered off, washed with cold toluene

(2 x 2 mL), and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure. Yield 4.72 g (8.7 mmol, 62.4 %). The re-crystallized material (4.55 g, 8.35 mmol) was suspended in acetone (13 mL) and heated to reflux. The resulting solution was cooled to 1 °C with seeding and stirring was continued for 45 min. The solid was isolated, washed with cold acetone (2 x 0.75 mL) and dried at 65 °C to give the title compound as crystalline solid. Yield: 3.49 g (6.4 mmol,

76.7 %). Purity: 92.33 % (HPLC). Mp.: 132.9 - 134.0 °C. DSC: peak at 133.14 °C. 1 H N R (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6l ppm): δ 7.70 - 7.50 (m, 6 H , arom.), 7.44 (m, 2 H, arom.), 7.22 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.04 (dd, 1 H, arom.), 6.93 (d, 2 H, arom.), 6.85 (d, 2 H9, arom.), 3.84 (s, 3 H, - OCH 3 ), 3.72 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ) 2.41 (s, 3H, -CH 3 ). 13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 191 .87 (>C=0), 159.68 (=C<), 157.46 (=C<), 152.00 (=C<), 145.98 (=C<), 144.46 (=C<), 139.47 (=C<), 135.90 (=C<), 132.82 (=C<), 131.28 (=CH-), 131.05 (=C<), 130.23 (=CH-), 130.1 1 (=CH-), 128.98 (=C<), 128.02 (=CH-), 124.90 (=C<), 123.54 (=CH-), 122.13 (=CH-), 1 15.14 (=CH-), 1 14.14 (=CH-), 105.08 (=CH-), 55.52 (-OCH 3 ), 55.18 (-OCH 3 ), 21.9 (-CH 3 ). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 2947, 2844, 1649 (v c = 0 ), 1598, 1527, 1497, 1476, 1442, 1376, 1356, 1294,

1251 , 1215, 1201 , 1 177, 1 154, 1092, 1045, 1022, 893, 862, 838, 739, 726, 668, 617, 573, 553. GC/MS (El, RT; 71.400 min): m/z = 544 [Μ] +' . XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values: 2theta[°] l/lo

6.04 247.1

7.54 202.01

10.84 177.43

12.09 595.56

13.05 240.93

14.38 118.19

14.81 125.76

16.05 487.7

17.59 1000

17.86 333.83

18.01 176.09

18.97 486.46

19.18 83.42

19.41 86.52

20.4 267.28

20.53 299.19

21.05 522.54

21.3 200.27

22.57 289.73

23.03 623.01

24.17 82.34

24.37 128.02

25.3 148.52

26.08 87.7

26.44 584.05

26.85 262.88

27.97 92.12

29.07 95.1 1

31.1 96.61

32.46 85.66

Example 10: Preparation of compound of formula VIII'

(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[ b]thiophen-3-yl]-methanone a) Preparation by using moist benzenesulfonic acid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)- benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]-phenyl ester, TBAB as the catalyst, NaOH as the base and toluene/water as the solvent:

A 2 L glass flask was charged with benzenesulfonic acid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)- benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]-phenyl ester (182.5 g, 344 mmol, calcd. dry), prepared as described under example 9 item a, TBAB (2.2 g, 7 mmol), and toluene (365 mL). The contents were heated to 106 - 108 °C and 22 mL of solvents were distilled off. The mixture was cooled to 80 °C and treated with water (160 mL) and aq. sodium hydroxide (92 mL, 1720 mmol). The biphasic mixture was heated to reflux with stirring. After 4 h water (365 mL) was added and stirring was continued for 20 min at 88 °C. The phases were separated and the organic phase was disposed. The aqueous phase was vigorously washed with toluene (290 mL) at approx. 90 °C, cooled to 12 °C, and treated with methylene chloride (670 mL) and hydrochloric acid (aq., 175 mL, 1800 mmol) in sequence. Stirring was continued for 25 min at 12 - 20 °C until a pH of 1 was observed. The phases were separated and the organic phase was washed with water (3 x 165 mL) to yield a solution of (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)- benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl]-methanone in methylene chloride (1002 g). Purity: 97.62 % (HPLC). b) Preparation by using TBAB as the catalyst, NaOH as the base and toluene/water as the solvent:

A flask was charged with benzenesulfonic acid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)- benzofb]thiophene-3-carbonyl]-phenyl ester (27.91 g, 0.053 mol), TBAB (0.34 g,

0.001 1 mol), and toluene (170 mL). Aq. sodium hydroxide (cc, 16.9 mL, 0.318 mol) and water (25 mL) were added at ambient temperature and the mixture was heated to reflux with stirring. After 6 h the mixture was treated with water (68 mL). The aqueous phase was separated and washed with toluene (45 mL) at 80 - 86 °C. The aqueous phase was subsequently treated with methylene chloride (100 mL) and aq. hydrochloric acid (cc, 32 mL, 0.331 mol) at room temperature with stirring. The organic phase was separated, washed with water (4 x 25 mL), and evaporated to dryness. A mixture of MTBE (12 mL), toluene (1 10 mL), and activated charcoal ( .0 g) was added after which the suspension was heated to reflux. The suspension was filtered and the residue washed with a hot mixture of MTBE and toluene (1 :9 v:v, 10 mL). The combined filtrates were cooled to 2 °C with stirring. The resulting precipitate was isolated, washed with a mixture of MTBE and toluene (1 :9 v/v, 2 x 5 mL) and dried at 40 °C under reduced pressure. The product was dissolved in methanol (100 mL) and evaporated to dryness. This procedure was repeated twice. The residue was dried under reduced pressure to yield the title compound as an amorphous solid. Yield: 80.9 %. Purity: 99.21 % (HPLC). Mp.: 79.8 - 83.2 °C. DSC: first peak at 69.8 °C, second peak at 368.6 °C. 1 H N R (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 10.47 (b, 1 H, -OH), 7.62 (m, 3 H, arom.), 7.33 (m, 3 H, arom.), 6.98 (m, 1 H, arom.), 6.88 (d, 2 H, arom.), 6.74 (d, 2 H, arom.), 3.83 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.71 (s, 3 H,

-OCH 3 ); 13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): 6 192.03 (>C=0), 162.61 , 159.33, 157.24, 140.20, 139.24, 133.21 (=C<), 132.00 (=CH-), 130.33 (=C<), 129.50 (=CH-), 128.19, 125.21 (=C<), 123.21 , 1 15.35, 114.81 , 1 14.21 , 105.00 (=CH-), 55.41 , 55.04 (-OCH 3 ). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3277, 2935, 2834, 1633 (v c =o), 1603 (v^ . ), 1574, 1535, 1499, 1474, 1438, 1349, 1254, 178, 1 162, 1076, 1046, 1030, 893, 829, 783, 616. LC/MS (ESI(+), RT; 17.02 min): m/z = 391 [MH] + . c) Preparation by using TBAB as the catalyst, KOH and toluene/water as the solvent:

(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[ b]thiophen-3-yl]-methanone was also obtained in a similar manner as described under example 10 item b, employing aqueous potassium hydroxide solution (6.0 eq.) as base. Purity: 97.13 % (HPLC). Example 11 : Preparation of sodium and potassium salts of compound of formula VIII' Sodium 4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[blthiophene-3-carbon yl]-phenolate a) Using sodium methylate as the base and methanol as the solvent:

(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]t

(14.61 g, 0.024 mol), prepared as described under example 10 item b, was dissolved in methanol (14.5 ml_) at ambient temperature. MTBE (44 ml_) and a solution of sodium methylate in methanol (7.8 mL, 1.1 eq.) were added to the clear solution. After addition of MTBE (27 mL), the mixture was cooled and stirred for 4 h at -16 to -17 °C. The amorphous solid was separated, washed with a mixture of methanol and MTBE (40. 0 v/v, 2 5 mL) and dried at 45 °C under reduced pressure. Purity: 99.28 % (HPLC). DSC: peak at 96.8 °C. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 7.58 (d, 1 H, arom.), 7.48 - 7.19 (m, 5 H, arom.) 6.95 (dd,

I H, arom.) 6.90 (d, 2 H, arom.), 6.19 (b, 2 H, arom.), 3.83 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.72 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ). I (KBr, cm "1 ): 2938, 2835, 1608 (v c = 0 ), 1569, 1498, 1473, 1438, 1344, 1280, 1258, 1215, 1 180, 1 157, 1075, 1045, 1025, 894, 830, 785, 737, 644, 618, 595, 554. LC/ S (ESI(+), RT; 19.88): m/z = 390.9 [MH-Na] + . b) Sodium 4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbon yl]-phenolate using 2-piperidin-1 -yl-ethanolate (formed in situ) as the base and toluene as the solvent:

A flask was charged with a solution of toluene (5 mL), sodium (0.64 g, 0.0277 mol), and 2-piperidin-1 -yl-ethanol (4.6 mL, 0.0342 mol) and benzenesulfonic acid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4- methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]-phenyl ester (7.0 g, 0.0132 mol) in toluene (55 mL) was added within 20 min at 18 - 23 °C. After stirring for 1 h at ambient temperature, the mixture was heated at 47-50 °C for 0.5 h with stirring. The resulting solid was separated by filtration, washed with toluene (3 x 10 mL) and dried to give the title compound as its sodium salt.

Potassium 4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbon yl]- phenolate a) Potassium 4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbon yl]- phenolate by using 2-piperidin-1-yl-ethanolate (formed in situ) as the base and toluene as the solvent:

A corresponding potassium salt was obtained in a similar manner as described under example

I I item b, employing potassium for forming 2-piperidin-1-yl-ethanolate as base. b) Potassium 4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbon yl]- phenolate using K 2 C0 3 as the base:

A mixture of benzenesulfonic acid-4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenyl ester (3.0 g, 0.0056 mol), 2-piperidin-1-yl-ethanol (9 mL, 67 mmol), and K 2 C0 3 (1.88 g, 2.4 eq.) was stirred for 6.5 h at 80 - 83 °C. The mixture was cooled and extracted with a mixture of 45 mL of toluene (45 mL) and water (25 mL). The organic phase was extracted with water (2 x 25 mL) and evaporated to dryness. Yield: 85 %.

Examples 12 and 13: Preparations of compounds of formula X'

Example 12

1-(2-{4-[6-IWethoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophen e-3-carbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidine a) Preparation by using NaOH as the base and water/methylene chloride as the solvent:

A solution (830.5 g) of (4-hydroxy-phenyi)-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]t hiophen- 3-yl]-methanone (1 18.4 g, 0.303 mol, calcd. dry) in methylene chloride, prepared as described under example 10 item a, was treated with water (45 mL), 1-(2-chloro-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride (58.57 g, 0.318 mol), and methylene chloride (175 mL). Aq. sodium hydroxide (cc, 40.6 mL, 0.758 mol) was added slowly (15 min) at 16 - 20 °C with stirring. The mixture was heated to reflux and stirring was continued for 6.5 h. The contents were cooled to 24 °C and water (765 mL) was added with stirring. The phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with water (3 x 260 mL) and concentrated at

40 - 42 °C. The solution was diluted with methanol (510 mL) and concentrated at approx.

60 °C to give 478 g of a solution of [6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl]- [4-(2-piperidin-1 -yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-methanone in methanol. Yield: quantitative.

Purity: 97.0 % (HPLC). b) Preparation by using polyethylene glycol 600 as the catalyst, K 2 C0 3 as the base and to!uene MTBE as the solvent:

A mixture of (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]t hio-phen-3-yl]- methanone (3.9 g, 0.010 mol), toluene (25 mL), MTBE (5 mL), 1-(2-chloro-ethyl)-piperidine hydrochloride (2.03 g, 0.01 1 mol), K 2 C0 3 (4.42 g, 0.032 mot), and PEG 600 (0.6 g, 0.001 mol) was heated at 62 - 68 °C for 16 h with stirring. The mixture was cooled and washed with water (5 x 20 mL) at ambient temperature. The organic phase, was dried over Na 2 S0 4 and

evaporated to dryness. Yield: 88.0 %. Purity: 91.0 % (HPLC). c) Synthesis from 1 -{2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride

A flask was charged with 1 -(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo-[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride (145.0 g, 269.5 mmol), methylene chloride

(750 mL), and water (250 mL). Aq. sodium hydroxide ( 8.86 N, 17.1 mL) was added dropwise at 18 °C with stirring. Stirring was continued for 10 min and the phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with water (2 x 250 mL) to give a solution (795 mL) of the title compound in methylene chloride. A sample (70 mL) was evaporated to dryness at 45°C under reduced pressure to give 1-(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidin. Yield: 1 1.58 g (23.08 mmol, 97.3 %, calcd.). Purity: 97.42 (HPLC). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 7.67 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.64 (d, 1 H, arom.), 7.37 - 7.26 (m, 3 H, arom.), 6.98 (dd, 1 H, arom.), 6.94 (m, 4 H, arom.), 4.05 (t, 2 H,

-OCH 2 CH 2 NR 2 ), 3.83 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.70 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 2.58 (-OCH 2 CH 2 NR 2 ), 2.36 (bt, 4 H, pipe idine), 1.50 - 1.27 (m, 6 H, piperidine). 13 C-{H}-N R (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 192.26 (R 2 CO), 162.88 (=C<), 159.45 (=C<), 157.35 (=C<), 140.7 (=C<), 139.33 (=C<), 133.18 (=C<), 131 .73 (=CH-), 130.16 (=C<), 129.6 (=CH-), 129.52 (=C<), 125.17(=C<), 123.24 (=CH-), 1 4.93 (=CH-), 114.52 (=CH-), 1 14.31 (=CH-), 105.12 (=CH-), 65.98 (-CH 2 -), 57.01 (- CH 2 -), 55.5 (-OCH 3 ), 55.12 (-OCH 3 ), 54.25 (-CH 2 -), 25.48 (-CH 2 -), 23.81 (-CH 2 -). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 2933, 1647 (v c =o), 1598, 1572, 1535, 1500, 1475, 1294, 1253, 1164, 1031 , 892, 828, 782, 620. LC/ S (ESI(+), RT; 14.17 min): m/z = 501.9 [MH] + .

1 -(2-{4-[6-WIethoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-ptperidinium chloride d) Preparation by using TBAB as the catalyst, NaOH as the base and water/methylene chloride as the solvent:

A flask was charged with (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)- benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl]-methanone (17.6 g, 0.045 mol), prepared according to example

10 item c, and methylene chloride (140 mL). The stirred mixture was treated with aq. sodium hydroxide (cc, 5.9 mL, 0.1 13 mol), water (6 mL), TBAB (0.73 g, 0.0023 mol), and 1 -(2-chloro- ethyl)-piperidine hydrochloride (9.13 g, 0.050 mol) at ambient temperature. Stirring was continued for 16 h and the phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with aq. hydrochloric acid (1 N, 3 x 50 mL), water (55 mL), aq. sodium hydroxide (2 N, 55 mL), and with water (5 x 50 mL) in sequence. The organic phase was dried over Na 2 S0 4 and evaporated to dryness. The residue (21.8 g) was dissolved in methanol (65 mL) and aq. hydrochloric acid (cc, 3.8 mL, 0.046 mol) was added at 51 °C. The suspension was cooled to 2 °C and stirring was continued for 0.75 h. The solid was isolated, washed with methanol (2 x 7.5 mL) and dried at 70 °C. Yield: 18.36 g (78.4 %). Purity: 98.64 % (HPLC).

A sample (17.1 g, 31.78 mmol) of the material obtained above was dissolved in hot methanol (128 mL) and the solution was filtered. The clear filtrate was cooled to 1 °C with stirring. The resulting solid was isolated, washed with methanol (3 x 4.5 mL), and dried at 40 °C under reduced pressure. Yield: 14.61 g (85.4 %). Purity: 99.03 % (HPLC). Mp.: 217.8 °C; DSC: first peak at 220.7 °C, second peak at 314 °C. H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 10.55 (b, 1 H, -NH), 7.71 (m, 3 H, arom.), 7.32 (m, 3 H, arom.), 7.00 (d, 3 H, arom.), 6.90 (d, 2 H, arom.), 4.44 (t, 2 H, -OCH 2 CH 2 NH-), 3.84 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.72 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.43 (m, 4 H, - NHCH 2 CH 2 -), 2.95 (b, 2 H, -OCH 2 CH 2 NH-), 1.77 (m, 4 H, -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 NR 2 ), 1.66 - 1.36 (m, 2H, -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -); 13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm) δ 192.22 (>C=0), 161.66 (=C<), 159.37 (=C<), 157.26 (=C<), 140.69 (=C<), 139.23 (=C<), 132.98 (=C<), 131 .64 (=CH-), 130.11 (=C<), 129.94 (=C<), 129.50 (=CH-), 125.02 (=C<), 123.06 (=CH-), 1 14.87 (=CH-), 1 14.61 (=CH-), 1 14.27 (=CH-), 105.09 (=CH-), 62.40 (-CH 2 -), 55.43 (-OCH 3 ), 55.08 (-OCH3), 54.30 (-CH 2 -), 52.41 (-CH 2 -), 22.08 (-CH 2 -), 20.95 (-CH 2 -). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3413, 2941 , 2453, 1643 (v c =o), 1599 (v arom ), 1574, 1535, 1498, 1475, 1438, 1353, 1307, 1295, 1251 , 1 179, 1043, 1026, 949, 893, 830, 783, 645, 621. LC/ S (ESI(+), RT; 11.90 min): m/z = 502.1 [MH] + .

XRPD: the XRD diffragtogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

e) Preparation by using NaOH as the base and water/methylene chloride as the solvent:

A flask was charged with a solution (735 g) of (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxy- phenyl)-benEo[b]thiophen-3-yl]-methanone (96.0 g, 0.246 mol, calcd. dry) in methylene chloride, prepared as described under example 10 item a, water (35 mL),

1 -(2-chloro-ethyl)-piperidine hydrochloride (49.82 g, 0.271 mol), and methylene chloride (96 mL). Aq. sodium hydroxide (cc, 32.9 mL, 0.622 mol) was added slowly (20 min) at

15 - 18 °C with stirring. The mixture was allowed to reach room temperature and stirring was ' continued for a further 60 min after which the reactor contents were heated at reflux for approx. 2.25 h. The resulting clear solution was allowed to reach room and treated with water (620 mL). Stirring was continued for a further 10 min and the phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with water (4 x 210 mL), concentrated at max. 48 °C and dissolved in methanol (385 mL). The resulting clear solution was concentrated at normal pressure and aq. hydrochloric acid (cc, 21.5 mL.) was added at approx. 50 °C with stirring. The solution was seeded with appropriate material. Stirring was continued for approx. 45 min and the resulting suspension was cooled to approx. -10 °C. Stirring was continued for a further 60 min at -6 to -9 °C after which the precipitate was isolated, washed with cold methanol (3 x 30 mL) and dried under reduced pressure (5 h, 50 °C) to give the title compound.

Yield: 99.19 g (75.0.%). Purity: 97.16 % (HPLC).

For an optional purification, a sample (98.3 g, 182.7 mmol) was suspended in methanol (675 mL) and heated to reflux. The resulting clear solution was seeded with appropriate material with stirring. The resulting suspension was cooled to 2 °C and stirring was continued for 1.5 h. The solid was isolated, washed with cold methanol (2 x 30 mL) and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure. Yield: 85.7 g (159.3 mmol, 87.2 %). Purity: 99.33 % (HPLC). f) Preparation from 1 -(2-{4-[6-Wlethoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium bromide as the starting material 1 -(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium bromide (122.3 g, 209.9 mmol), prepared according to example 13 item c was added to mixture of methylene chloride (630 mL) and water (210 mL) with stirring. Aq. sodium hydroxide (18.86 N, 14.5 mL) was added over a period of 5 min at 17 °C and stirring was continued for 10 min. The phases were separated and the organic phase was washed with water (2 x 210 mL). Aqueous phases were disposed and the organic phase was concentrated at 45 °C under reduced pressure. Methanol (700 mL) was added to the residue and the mixture was heated to 50 °C. Hydrochloric acid (aq., 2 N, 21 mL, 252 mmol) was added dropwise to reach a pH of 1.5. The clear solution was seeded with appropriate material and, after crystallization was observed, the suspension was cooled to approx. -10 °C and stirring was continued for 2.5 h. The solid was isolated, washed with cold methanol (3 x 30 mL) and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure to give the title compound. Yield: 105.76 g (196.5 mmol, 93.6 %). Purity: 99.69 % (HPLC). Example 13

1 -(2-{4-[6-Wlethoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidinium bromide a) Preparation by using methanol as the solvent:

A solution of [6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2 -piperidin-1-yl- ethoxy)-pheny!]-methanone (75.0 g, 0.150 mol) in methanol (195 mL), prepared as described under example 12 item a, was heated to 50 - 58 °C and aq. hydrobromic acid (47 %, 25.9 g, 0.150 mol) was added dropwise to adjust a pH of 1. The resulting suspension was cooled to - 6 °C and stirring was continued for 0.75 h. The crystalline solid was separated, washed with cold methanol (3 x 20 mL) and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure. Yield: 79.01 g

( 35.4 mmol, 89.5 %). Purity: 98.34 % (HPLC). DSC: peak at 232 °C; peak at 330 °C. IR (KBr, cm '1 ): 2940, 2838, 2627, 2517, 1642 (v c = 0 ), 1598, 1573, 1535, 1498, 1475, 1455, 1435, 1354, 1307, 1294, 1251 , 1217, 1 178, 1 128, 1083, 1043, 1026, 1007, 970, 947, 893, 829, 783, 765, 644, 620, 512.

For an optional purification, a sample (77.4 g, 132.6 mmol) of the product as obtained above was dissolved in a mixture of 1 -propanol and water (75:25 v/v, 500 mL) at reflux temperature. The solution was allowed to cool to 70 °C, seeded with appropriate material, and cooled to approximately 5 °C. Stirring was continued for a further 60 min and the solid was separated. The crystalline material was washed with a cold mixture of 1 -propanol and water (75:25 v/v, 2 x 25 mL) and dried under reduced pressure (6 h, 50 °C). Yield: 70.79 g (121 .3 mmol, 91.5 %); Purity: 99.18 % (HPLC). Nip. : 230.8 °C; DSC: first peak at 233.1 °C, second peak at 330.6 °C. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 9.58 (bs, 1 H, - NH), 7.73 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.66 (dd,

1 H, arom.), 7.32 (m, 3 H, arom.), 7.00 (m, 3 H, arom.), 6.89 (d,

2 H, arom.), 4.42 (t, 2 H, -OCH 2 CH 2 NH-), 3.84 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.72 (s, 3 H, -OCH 3 ), 3.50 (b, 4 H, -OCH 2 CH 2 NH-), 3.02 (m, 2 H, piperidine), 1.96 - 1.17 (m, 6 H, piperidine).

1 3 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): 5 192.36 (>C=0), 161.78 (=C<), 159.46 (=C<), 157.36 (=C<), 140.81 (=C<), 139.36 (=C<), 133.10 (=C<), 131.76 (=CH-), 130.20 (=C<), 1 30.01 (=C<), 129.62 (=CH-), 125.13 (=C<), 123.17 (=CH-), 1 15.01 (=CH-), 1 14.76 (=CH-), 1 14.38 (=CH-), 105.18 (=CH-), 62.42 (-CH 2 -), 55.55 (-OCH 3 ), 55.21 (-OCH 3 ), 54.56 (-CH 2 -), 52.63 (-CH 2 -), 22.27 (-CH 2 -), 20.99 (-CH 2 -). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 2940, 2628, 2517, 1642 (v c =o), 1598, 1573, 1535, 1498, 1475, 1454, 1435, 1354, 1307, 1294, 1251 , 1217, 1 173, 1 127, 1043, 1026, 1007, 970, 946, 893, 829, 783, 765, 644, 620, 542, 512. LC/MS (ESI(+), RT; 13.99 min): m/z = 502.1 [MH] + . XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

2theta[°] l/to

7.41 236.8

1 1 .38 97.77

13.05 432.67

14.57 130.76

15.28 130.66

16.64 196.79

17.1 104.55

19.07 328.62

19.22 370.8

19.56 103.49

19.71 11 1.49

20.04 158.16

21.45 455.47

22.35 129.8

22.84 119.53

23.31 492.39

23.81 127.93

24.34 1000

25.45 145.39

25.81 606.94

25.96 126.15

26.12 101.1 1

26.43 89.73

26.62 213.81 27.3 163.65

29.3 120.27

30.33 124.47

33.65 100.22

33.95 103.18

41.36 102.63 b) Preparation by using 2-propanol as the solvent:

1 -(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethy piperidinium bromide was also obtained in a similar manner as described under example 13 item a, employing 2-propanol as solvent. Yield: 5.81 g (9.96 mmol, 83.4 %).

Purity: 96.0 % (HPLC). p.. : 225.8 °C; DSC: first peak at 230.5 °C, second peak at 328.7 °C. IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 2941 , 2838, 2628, 2517, 1642 (v c = 0 ), 1598, 1573, 1535, 1498, 1475, 1455, 1435, 1354, 1307, 1294, 1251 , 1217, 1 173, 1 128, 1083, 1043, 1026, 1007, 970, 947, 893, 829, 783, 644, 621 , 512. XRPD: X-ray diffractogramdata correspond to those given for Example 13 a). c) Preparation by using n-propanol/water as the solvent: A solution of [6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phen l)-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1 -yl- ethoxy)-phenyl]-methanone ( 89.09 g, 376.9 mmol) in a mixture of n-propanol and water (75:25 v:v, 570 mL) prepared as described under example 12 item a, was heated to

60 - 70 °C and aq. hydrobromic acid (47 %, 42 mL, 377 mmol) was added slowly (30 min) to adjust a pH of 1.5 - 2. The resulting suspension was cooled to 2 - 5 °C and stirring was continued for 1.5 h. The solid was isolated and washed three times with a cold mixture of n-propanol/water (75:25 v:v, 3 x 40 mL). Yield: 227.2 g (172.8 g, 296.6 mmol, 86.8 %, calcd. dry). Purity: 98.18 % (HPLC). d) Preparation from 1 -(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride as the starting material

1 -(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium chloride (145.0 g, 269.5 mmol), prepared according example 12 item e was added to a mixture of methylene chloride (750 mL) and water (250 mL) with stirring. Aq.

sodium hydroxide (18.86 N, 17.1 mL) was added dropwise over a period of 5 min at 18 °C and stirring was continued for 10 min. The phases were separated and the organic phase was washed water (2 x 250 mL). Yield: 795 mL of a solution of 1-(2-{4-[6- ethoxy-2-(4-methoxy- phenyl)-benzo[b)thiophene-3-carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperi dine in methylene chloride. A sample (655 mL) was evaporated at 45 °C under reduced pressure and treated with a mixture of 1 -propanol (525 mL) and water (160 mL). The mixture was heated to 70 °C and aq.

hydrobromic acid (48%, 29 mL, 258 mmol) was added dropwise over a period of 8 min to adjust a pH of 1.5. The solution was allowed to cool to 77 °C and seeded with appropriate material. After crystallization was observed the suspension was cooled to 0 - 5 °C and stirring was continued for 2 h. The solid was isolated, washed with a cold mixture of 1-propanol and water (75:25 v/v, 3 x 40 mL) and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure. Yield: 121.24 g (208.1 mmol, 77.2 %). Purity: 99.3 % (HPLC). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 2940, 2627, 2517, 1642 (v c=0 ), 1598, 1573, 1534, 1498, 1475, 1454, 1435, 1354, 1307, 1294, 1251 , 1217, 1173, 1127, 1083, 1043, 1026, 1007, 969, 946, 893, 829, 783, 764, 644, 620, 533, 512.

Example 14 to 17: Preparation of compound of formula XI'

Example 14

Solvates of 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[blthiophene-3-c arbonyl]- phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride

a) 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidinium chloride 0.28 methanol · 0.53 methylene chloride: A solution of boron trichloride in methylene chloride (1 M, 446 ml_, 446 mmol) was added dropwise to a mixture of 1-(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride (80.0 g, 0.149 mol), prepared as described under example 12 item e, and methylene chloride (400 mL) over a period of 3 h at 0 - 2 °C with stirring. The mixture was stirred for 1 h at 2 - 6 °C and heated to ambient temperature over a period of 2 h. Stirring was continued for approx. 18 h after which the suspension was cooled to 4 °C and boron trichloride in methylene chloride (1 , 149 mL, 149 mmol) was added within .5 h, not exceeding an inner temperature of 7 °C. The suspension was heated at reflux for 6.6 h and cooled to room temperature. Boron trichloride in methylene chloride

(1 M, 149 mL, 149 mmol) was added over a period of 1 h at 22 °C after which the mixture was heated at reflux for 5 h with stirring. The mixture was cooled to 15 °C and methanol (240 mL) was added slowly (0.75 h), not exceeding an inner temperature of 27 "C. The resulting suspension was heated at reflux for 0.5 h and allowed to reach room temperature. Stirring was continued for a further 60 min and the precipitate was filtered off. The crystalline solid was washed with methanol (6 x 75 mL). A sample (79.1 g) was dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure (40 mbar) to give 66.78 g of 1-(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thio- phene-3-carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride · 0.28 methanol · 0.53 methylene chloride. Yield: 92.6 % (138 mmol, calcd. dry).

Purity: 98. 8 % (HPLC). Methanol: 1.6 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.28 molar equivalents (GC). Methylen chloride: 8.0 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.53 molar equivalents (GC). Mp.: 225.8 °C; DSC: first peak at 201.4 °C, second peak at 225.3 "C, third peak at 262.9 °C, fourth peak at 338.5 °C; 1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 10.68 (bs, 1 H, -NH), 9.88 (bs, 2 H, -OH), 7.70 (d, 2 H, arom.), 7.38 (m, 1 H, arom.), 7.27 (d, 1 H, arom.), 7.17 (d, 2 H, arom.), 6.97 (d, 2 H, arom.), 6.89 (m, 1 H, arom.), 6.71 (d, 2 H, arom. ) 5.75 (CH 2 CI 2 ), 4.45 (m, 2H, -OCH 2 CH 2 NH-), 3.51 - 3.37 (m, 4 H, -OCH 2 CH 2 NH-, piperidine), 3.17 (CH 3 OH), 2.95 (m, 2 H, piperidine,) 1.95 - 1.22 (m, 6 H, piperidine).

13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 192.54 (>C=0), 161.60 (=C<), 157.89 (=C<), 155.50 (=C<), 140.59 (=C<), 139.20 (=C<), 132.16 (=C<), 131.73 (=CH-), 130.35 (=C<), . 129.64 (=CH-), 129.55 (=C<), 123.68 (=C<), 123.19 (=CH-), 1 15.70 (=CH-), 1 15.23 (=CH-), 1 14.61 (=CH-), 107.1 1 (=CH-), 62.51 (-CH 2 -), 54.45 (-CH 2 -), 52.55 (-CH 2 -), 22.23 (-CH 2 -), 21.08 (-CH 2 -). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3203, 2958, 2722, 1653 (v c =o), 1597, 1548, 1501 , 1467, 1437, 1419, 1343, 1309, 1250, 1 166, 1065, 1037, 1021 , 953, 939, 907, 840, 817, 808, 786, 738, 645, 635, 627, 594, 524. LC/MS (ESI(+), RT; 10.31 min): m/z = 473.9 [M-ClT- XRPD the

X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

b) 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidinium chloride 0.37 methanol 0.51 methylene chloride:

Boron trichloride in methylene chloride (1 M, 149 mL, 149 mmol) was cooled to 2 - 5 °C and 1 - (2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thio-phene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium chloride (20.0 g, 37.2 mmol) was added in portions over a period of 70 min with stirring. The mixture was stirred for 35 min at 3 - 4 °C and allowed to warm to ambient temperature within 90 min. Stirring was continued for 49 h after which the mixture was cooled to 12 °C. Methanol (60 mL) was then added slowly (approx. 20 min) and the resulting suspension was heated at reflux for 0.75 h. The solution was allowed to reach 20 °C and the solid was filtered off. The crystalline residue was with methanol (6 x 10 mL) and dried at 45°C under reduced pressure to give 1-(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene- 3-carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethy!)-piperidinium chloride 0.37 methanol · 0.51 methylene chloride. Yield: 20.14 g (34.9 mmol, 95.0 %, calcd.). Purity: HPLC: 98.01 % (HPLC). Methanol: 2.1 % - by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.37 molar equivalents (GC). Methylene chloride: 7.7 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.51 molar equivalents (GC). Assay: 101 .7 % (AgN0 3 ). p.: 213 - 221 °C. DSC. Peak at 197.47 °C, Peak at 221 .81 °C, Peak at 334.13 °C. IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3205, 2958, 2722, 2558, 1653 (v c = 0 ), 1597, 1547, 1500, 1467, 1437, 1418, 1343, 1309, 1250, 1 1 66, 1065, 1037, 1020, 953, 938, 907, 840, 816, 808, 785, 738, 645, 635, 627, 594, 524. XRPD. XRD data correspond to those given for Example 14 item a). c) 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidinium chloride 0.34 methanol 0.62 methylene chloride from non-solvated crystalline 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]- phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride:

A mixture of 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]-thiophene-3- carbonyl]- phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride (12.1 g, 0.024 mol), prepared as described under example 5 item a, methanol (350 mL) and methylene chloride (230 mL) were heated to reflux. The resulting clear solution was allowed to cool to 45 °C and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting suspension was cooled to 2 °C with stirring. The solid was isolated, washed with a mixture of methanol and methylene chloride (60:40 v.v, 3 x 4 mL) and dried at 45 °C under reduced pressure (40 mbar) to give 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)- benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride · 0.34 methanol 0.62 methylene chloride. Yield: 66 %. Purity: 99.10 % (HPLC). Methanol: 1 .9 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.34 molar equivalents (GC). Methylene chloride: 9.2 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.62 molar equivalents (GC). Mp..: 255 - 259.1 °C DSC: first peak at 206.2 °C, second peak at 223.3 °C, third peak at 233. 1 °C, fourth peak at 268.8 °C, fifth peak at 343.3 °C. IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3202, 2958, 2722, 1653 (v c =o), 1596, 1549, 1500, 1467, 1437, 1418, 1343, 1309, 1270, 1227, 1 166, 1065, 1036, 1020, 953, 939, 907, 839, 816, 808, 785, 738, 645, 635, 627, 594, 524. XRPD . XRD data correspond to those given for Example 14 item a). d) 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidinium chloride · 0.08 methanol 0.29 toluene:

1-(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene -3-carbony!]-phenoxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium chloride 0.28 methanol · 0.53 methylene chloride (60.0 g, 0.1 18 mol), prepared as described under example 14 item a was dissolved in a mixture of water (540 mL) and aq. sodium hydroxide (cc, 20 mL, 0.38 mol) and washed with toluene (4 x 500 mL). The aqueous phase was treated with methanol (550 mL) and hydrochloric acid (aq. , cc , 37 mL, 444 mmol) was added dropwise at approx. 15 °C to adjust a pH of 2 with stirring. The resulting

suspension was heated to reflux and treated with a mixture of methanol and water (50:50 v/v, 300 mL) and cooled to 2 °C with stirring. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with cold aqueous methanol (50:50 v/v, 2 x 25 mL), water (2 x 25 mL), and cold aqueous methanol (50:50 v/v, 2 x 25 mL). A sample (3.21 g) was dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure (40 mbar) to give 1 -(2-{4-[6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]- phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride · 0.08 methanol · 0.29 toluene. Yield: 51.2 g (100.4 mmo!, 94.5 %, calc. dry). Purity: 98.94 % (HPLC). Methanol: 0.5 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.08 molar equivalents (GC). Toluene: 4.9 % by weight,

corresponding to approx. 0.29 molar equivalents (GC). Mp.: 260.6 °C; DSC: first peak at 21 1 .7 °C, second peak at 247.4, third peak at 267.0 °C, fourth peak at 332.9 °C. IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3203, 2958, 2722, 1653 (v c=0 ), 1597, 1548, 1501 , 1467, 1437, 1419, 1343, 1309, 1250, 1 166, 1065, 1037, 1021 , 953, 939, 907, 840, 817, 808, 786, 738, 645, 635, 627, 594, 524. XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

e) 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidinium chloride 0.35 methanol 0.67 methylene chloride

1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium chloride .35 methanol .67 methylene chloride was, obtained in a similar manner as described under example 14 item a), employing 1 -(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy- phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperi dinium bromide instead of 1 -(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium chloride.

Methanol: 1.93 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.35 molar equivalents (GC).

Methylene chloride: 9.8 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.67 molar equivalents (GC). Example 15

Non-so!vated crystalline 1-(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride a) Preparation by using a mixture of methanol/water (70:30 v/v) as the solvent:

1 -(2-{4-[6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium chloride · 0.34 methanol 0.62 toluene, (44.14 g, 0.0865 mol, calcd. dry), prepared as described under example 14 item c, was dissolved in hot aqueous methanol (70:30 v/v, 610 mL). Approx. 50 mL of methanol was distilled off at 70 °C and a mixture of activated charcoal (3 g) and aqueous methanol (70:30 v/v, 50 mL) was added. The suspension was diluted with methanol (50 mL) and heated reflux to reflux. Insolubles were filtered off and the residue was washed with hot aqueous methanol (70:30 v/v, 10 mL). The combined filtrates were cooled 2 °C and stirring was continued for 2.3 h at 2 - 8 °C. The resulting solid was isolated and washed with aqueous methanol (70:30 v/v, 3 x 20 mL) to give 48.23 g of 1-(2-{4- [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl ]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride. Yield: 31.22 g (70.8 %, calcd. dry). Purity: 99.59 % (HPLC). A sample (46.5 g) of the product as obtained above (30.1 g, 0.059 mol, calcd. dry) was dissolved in hot aqueous methanol (70:30 v/v, 330 mL) and a mixture of activated charcoal (3.0 g) in aqueous methanol (70:30 v/v, 30 mL) was added. The mixture was heated to reflux and insolubles were filtered off. The residue was washed with aqueous methanol (70:30 v/v, 10 mL). The combined filtrates were cooled to 2 °C and stirring was continued for a further 60 min at 2 - 5 °C. The solid was isolated, washed with cold aqueous methanol (70:30 v/v, 3 x 15 mL) and dried under reduced pressure for (50 0 C, 7 h). Yield: 22.93 g (44.96 mmo!, 76.1 %). Purity: 99.70 %; all individual impurities: nmt 0.10 % (HPLC). Water: 0.16 % (KFT). Assay (NaOH): 99.9 %. Assay (AgN0 3 ): 99.8 %. Sulphated ash: 0.02 %. Heavy metals: nmt 20 ppm. Residual solvents: methanol (707 ppm).

p.: 260.0 °C. DSC: first peak at 266.1 °C, second peak at 331.7 °C.

1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 10.68 (b, 1 H, -NH + ), 9.87 (m, 2 H, -OH), 7.70 (d, 3 J = 9.0 Hz, 2 H, arom.), 7.38 (d, 4 J = 2.2 Hz, 1 H, arom.), 7.26 (d, 3 J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H, arom.), 7.17 (d, 3 J = 8.7 Hz, 2 H, arom.), 6.96 (d, 3 J = 9.0 Hz, 2 H, arom.), 6.88 (dd, 3 J = 8.8 Hz, 4 J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H, arom.), 6.71 (d, 3 J = 8.7 Hz, 2 H, arom.), 4.45 (m, 2 H, -OCH 2 CH 2 NH-), 3.42 (m, 4 H, -NHCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -OCH 2 CH 2 NH-), 2.97 (m, 2 H, -NHCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -),

1.87 - 1 .28 (m, 6 H, -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -NR 2 , -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -);

13 C-{H}-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , ppm): δ 192.57 (>C=0), 161.64 (=C<), 157.93 (=C<), 155.53 (=C<), 140.61 (=C<), 139.22 (=C<), 132.19 (=C<), 131.77 (=CH-), 130.36 (=C<),

129.67 (=CH-), 129.57 (=C<), 123.70 (=C<), 123.22 (=CH-), 115.74 (=CH-), 1 15.27 (=CH-), 1 14.65 (=CH-), 07.14 (=CH-), 62.54 (-CH 2 -), 54.47 (-CH 2 -), 52.57 (-CH 2 -), 22.26 (-CH 2 -),

21 .12 (-CH 2 -). IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3146, 2945, 2694, 1643 (v c =o), 1597 (v arom ), 1540, 1500, 1468 (varom ), 1358, 1259, 1 170, 1038, 1002, 906, 840, 807, 623. XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values: 2theta[°] l/lo

12.78 150.93

14.45 696.72

15.75 372.19

16.26 158

18.61 140.55

19.13 332.59

19.62 95.86

19.78 226.51

20.41 155.52

21 344.2

21.18 715.36

21.38 488.6

21.65 139.21

21.87 131.02

22.48 206.29

22.67 1000

22.88 136.09

23.02 331 .41

23.82 100.83

24.06 222.51

24.4 171.37

25.09 114.33

25.47 137.89

25.79 208.69

25.9 174.26

27.63 142.62

27.98 107.44

29.02 222.22

31.28 158.82

31.9 99.36 b) Preparation by using a mixture of 1-propanol/water (75:25 v/v) as the solvent:

1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium chloride was also obtained in a similar manner as described under example 15 item a, employing 1-(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]- phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium chloride · 0.28 methanol · 0.53 methylene chloride, obtained according to example 15 item a, and a mixture of 1 -propanol and water (75:25 v/v) as solvent. Yield: 34 %. Purity: 99.28 % (HPLC). DSC: first peak at 266.3 °C, second peak at 335.4°C). IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3146, 2945, 2692, 1643 (v c = 0 ), 1597, 1541 , 1500, 1468, 1431 , 1357, 131 1 , 1259, 1 169, 1 125, 1078, 1048, 1038, 1002, 952, 906, 840, 807, 762, 724, 706, 643, 623, 588, 529.

Example 16

Solvates of 1-(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]- phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium bromide a) 1-(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidinium bromide · 0.25 methanol · 0.52 methylene chloride:

Boron tribromide (51.6 g, 0.206 mol) in methylene chloride (20 mL) was added to a mixture of of 1-(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyi)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium bromide (40.0 g, 0.0687 mol), prepared as described under example 13 item a, and methylene chloride (560 mL) over a period of 2 h at 37 - 39 °C with stirring. Stirring was continued for 0.5 h at 39 °C and the mixture was cooled to 17 °C. Methanol (1 1 1 mL) was added slowly (0.5 h) at 17 - 32 °C and the resulting suspension was heated at reflux for 0.25 h. The suspension was allowed to cool to 15 - 20 °C and stirring was continued for 15 min. The solid was filtered off, washed with methanol (4 x 35 mL) and dried under reduced pressure (45 °C, 30 mbar, 3 h) to give 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thio- phene-3-carbonyl]-phen-oxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium bromide · 0.25 methanol 0.52 methylene chloride. Yield: 33.49 g (55.17 mmol, 80.4 %).

Purity: 97.29 % (HPLC). Methanol: 1.3 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.25 molar equivalents (GC). Methylene chloride: 7.3 % by weight, corresponding to approx.

0.52 molar equivalents (GC). Mp.: 250.4 °C. Water: 0.36 % (KFT). Assay (AgN0 3 ): 99.4 % (calcd. on non-solvated substance) DSC: first peak at 182.6 °C, second peak at 197.9 °C, third peak at 254.4 °C, fourth peak at 352.2 °C. IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3247, 2945, 2742, 1653 (v c=0 ), 597, 1546, 1500, 1467, 1433, 1418, 1341 , 1305, 1250, 1226, 1 167, 1064, 1037, 1019, 952, 907, 839, 817, 808, 784, 738, 627, 523. XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

2theta[°] l/lo

10.82 183.94

13.47 450.42

14.1 1 305.45

15.92 415.8

16.43 524.47

17.1 1 198.42

17.57 955.66

18.76 750.64

18.96 592.19

19.06 805.32

19.52 300.68

19.75 280.67

20 186.3

20.73 251.74

20.98 665.41

21.18 984.83

23.06 224.76

23.39 503.31

23.54 999.33

24.37 476.01

24.53 219.79

25.28 541.05

25.88 41 1.61

28.55 158.07 2theta[°] l/l„

28.64 179.27

28.74 186.54

29.4 249.82

31.07 257.25

31.71 218.43

32.68 153.25 b) 1-(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidinium bromide · 0.08 methanol 0.51 methylene chloride: A flask was charged with non-solvated 1-(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)- benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium bromide (4.5 g, 0.008 mol) and a mixture of methanol and methylene chloride (1 : 1 v/v, 1 15 ml_). The mixture was heated to reflux. The resulting clear solution was allowed to cool to 45 °C. The suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure (870 mbar) at 45 °C and cooled to 2 - 3 °C with stirring. The solid was isolated, washed a mixture of methanol and methylene chloride (1 :1 v/v, 3 x 3 ml_), and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure to to give

1-(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phen-oxy}-ethyl)- piperidinium bromide 0.08 methanol · 0.51 methylene chloride. Yield: 3.39 g (5.6 mmol, 70 %).

Purity: 99.36 % (HPLC). Water: 0.41 % (KFT). Methanol: 0.4 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.08 molar equivalents (GC). Methylene chloride: 7.3 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.51 molar equivalents (GC). Mp.: 256.5 - 258.4 °C; DSC: first peak at 180.1 °C, second peak at 199.6 °C, third peak at 219.7 °C, fourth peak at 263.9 °C, fifth peak at 359.2. IR (KBr, cm "1 ): 3246, 2946, 2744, 2549, 1653 (v c = 0 ), 1597, 1547, 1500, 1467, 1434, 1418, 1339, 1305, 1249, 1226, 1 167, 1064, 1037, 1019, 952, 937, 907, 852, 839, 8 8, 808, 785, 739, 660, 645, 635, 627, 594, 524. XRPD: XRD data correspond to those given for Example 6 item a). c) 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]-phenoxy}- ethyl)-piperidinium bromide 0.16 methanol · 0.64 chlorobenzene

Boron tribromide (21 .5 ml_, 85.8 mmol) in chlorobenzene (20 mL) was added slowly

(40 min) to a mixture of 1-(2-{4-[6-Methoxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium bromide (10.0 g, 17.2 mmol) and chlorobenzene (80 mL) at 2 - 3 °C with stirring. The mixture was allowed to reach room temperature and stirring was continued for 44.5 h. Methanol (30 mL) was added slowly at 10 °C and the resulting suspension was allowed to reach room temperature. Stirring was continued for a further 60 min and the suspension was filtered. The solid was washed with methanol

(6 x 5 mL) and dried at 45 °C under reduced pressure to give the title compound.

Yield: 7.63 g (13.75 mmol, 80.5 %, calcd. dry). Purity: 95.71 %. Methanol: 0.83 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.16 molar equivalents (GC). Chlorobenzene: 11 .41 % by weight, corresponding to approx. 0.64 molar equivalents (GC). Example 17

Non-solvated crystalline 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonyl]-phenoxy}-ethyl)-piperidinium bromide

Synthesis via 1 -(2-{4-[6-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-3-c arbonyl]- phenoxy}-ethy!)-piperidinium bromide · 0.16 methanol 0.64 chlorobenzene

A sample (6.49 g, 1 1.7 mmol, calcd. dry) of the material obtained according to example 16 item c was dissolved in methanol (130 mL) and treated with activated charcoal (0.39 g). The mixture was heated to reflux, filtered, and the residue was washed with hot methanol (3 mL). The combined filtrates were cooled, seeded with appropriate material, and stored at 2 °C for 16.5 h. The solid was isolated, washed with 2 mL cold methanol (3 x 2 mL) and dried at 50°C under reduced pressure. Yield: 3.94 g (7.1 mmol, 60.7 %).

Purity: 99.25 % (HPLC).

A sample of the material (3.13 g, 5.64 mmol) was re-crystallized from methanol (69 ml) and stirred for 1.75 h at -6 to -10 °C. The solid was isolated, washed with cold methanol (3 x 1 mL) and dried at 50°C under reduced pressure. Yield: 2.13 g (3.84 mmol, 68.3 %).

Purity: 99.69 % (HPLC). XRPD: the X-ray diffractogram exhibits signals at the following 2Θ values:

2theta[°] l/lo

12.32 179.64

14 450.33

14.68 124.93

15.02 334.5

18.31 139.86

19.14 467.48

19.28 319.2

19.7 259.65

20.93 828.37

21.22 262.49

21 .91 125.76

22.47 339.99

22.6 1000

23.59 192

23.68 170.4

23.96 363.43

24.45 481.64

24.79 426.65

25.15 123.16

26.1 225.47

27.45 352.33

27.73 406.18

28.22 150.52

28.59 208.75

28.79 122.45

29.07 223.4

30.23 139.53

30.73 150.13

33.17 169.3

36.83 123.26