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Title:
PROCESS FOR PREPARING DIASTEREOMERICALLY ENRICHED PHOSPHORAMIDATE DERIVATIVES OF NUCLEOSIDE COMPOUNDS FOR TREATMENT OF VIRAL INFECTIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/008236
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is directed to a process for preparing diastereomerically enriched nucleoside phosphoramidates having the formula I:

Inventors:
TRAN, Kristy (1 Squibb DriveNew Brunswick, New Jersey, 08903, US)
EASTGATE, Martin D. (1 Squibb DriveNew Brunswick, New Jersey, 08903, US)
JANEY, Jacob (1 Squibb DriveNew Brunswick, New Jersey, 08903, US)
CHEN, Ke (1 Squibb DriveNew Brunswick, New Jersey, 08903, US)
ROSSO, Victor W. (1 Squibb DriveNew Brunswick, New Jersey, 08903, US)
Application Number:
US2013/049031
Publication Date:
January 09, 2014
Filing Date:
July 02, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (Route 206 and Province Line Road, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543, US)
International Classes:
C07H19/16; C07F9/24
Domestic Patent References:
WO2012012465A1
WO2011123668A2
WO2012062870A1
WO2012062869A1
WO2010081082A2
WO2008121634A2
WO2011123668A2
WO2012012465A1
WO2004003138A2
WO2006122207A1
WO2011123586A1
WO2012048013A2
Foreign References:
US20100240604A1
Other References:
GREEN, M. ET AL. PROC. CHEM. SOC. 1962, page 307
ANGEW. CHEM. INT. ED. vol. 2, 1963, page 11
GREENE, T.W. ET AL.: 'Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis', 1999, WILEY
'Fieser and Fieser's Reagents for Organic Synthesis', vol. 1-15, 1991, JOHN WILEY AND SONS
'Rodd's Chemistry of Carbon Compounds', vol. 1-5, 1989, ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS
'Organic Reactions', vol. 1-40, 1991, JOHN WILEY AND SONS
'March's Advanced Organic Chemistry', JOHN WILEY AND SONS
'Larock's Comprehensive Organic Transformations', 1989, VCH PUBLISHERS INC.
MICHELSON, A.M.: 'The Chemistry of Nucleosides and Nucleotides', 1963, ACADEMIC PRESS
GOODMAN, L.: 'Basic Principles in Nucleic Acid Chemistry', vol. 1, 1974, ACADEMIC PRESS
'Synthetic Procedures in Nucleic Acid Chemistry', vol. 1, 2, 1973, WILEY
J. MED. CHEM. vol. 47, 2004, page 2283
BIOORG. MED. CHEM. LETT. vol. 17, 2007, page 2456
BIOORG. MED. CHEM. LETT. vol. 20, 2010, page 4850
BIOORG. MED. CHEM. LETT. vol. 21, 2011, page 6007
BIOORG. MED. CHEM. LETT. vol. 21, 2011, page 6788
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GIBBONS, Maureen S. et al. (Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, P.O. Box 4000Princeton, New Jersey, 08543-4000, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A method for preparing a compound of formula I having the following structure, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

(I)

wherein

Base is a naturally occurring or modified purine or pyrimidine base linked to the furanose ring through a carbon or nitrogen atom;

phenyl, naphthyl,

any of which are optionally substituted with Ci-C6alkyl, Ci-C6alkoxy,

di(Ci-C6)alkylamino or Ci-C6alkylcarboxy(Ci-C6)alkyl-;

R3 is OH, H, alkyl, C2-C4 alkenyl, C2-C4 alkynyl, vinyl, N3, CN, CI, Br, F, I, N02, OC(0)0-Ci_4 alkyl, -OC1-10 alkyl, haloalkyl or -OH;

R4 and R5 are independently selected from hydrogen, Ci-C6alkyl optionally substituted with alkylthio, benzyl optionally substituted with one or more

halo,Ci-C6alkyl, or Ci-C6alkoxy, phenyl optionally substituted with one or more halo, Ci-C6alkyl, or Ci-C6alkoxy; R6 is selected from Ci-Cioalkyl, C3-C8cycloalkyl, Q-Cscycloalkyl-alkyl-, phenyl(Ci-C6)alkyl- optionally substituted with Ci-C6alkyl, Ci-C6alkoxy, and halo, indanyl and heterocycloalkyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, -OH, OP, wherein P is a protecting group, OCH3, halo, NH2;

R8 is selected from the group consisting of H, CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, F, CN, -OH, -OP wherein P is a protecting group, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl; and

R9 is H, Ci_4 alkyl, CN, halo, -OH, -CH2CN, -CH2NH2, vinyl, C2-C4 alkynyl, O-Ci-6 alkyl, -CH2F, N3,

in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive; comprising contacting a compound having the following Formula II, or a salt thereof: II

with a nucleoside compound of Formula III:

III

wherein

R3 is OH, H, alkyl, C2-C4 alkenyl, C2-C4 alkynyl, vinyl, N3, CN, CI, Br, F, I, N02 OC(0)0-Ci_4 alkyl, -OC1-10 alkyl, haloalkyl or -OH;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, -OH, OP, wherein P is a protecting group, OCH3, halo, N3, NH2;

R8 is selected from the group consisting of H, CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, F, CN, -OH, -OP wherein P is a protecting group, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl; and

R9 is H, Ci_4 alkyl, CN, halo, -OH, -CH2CN, -CH2NH2, vinyl, C2-C4 alkynyl, O-Ci-6 alkyl, -CH2F, N3,

in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive. comprising contacting a compound having the following Formula II, or a salt thereof:

II

with a nucleoside compound of Formula III:

III

wherein

R3 is OH, H, alkyl, C2-C4 alkenyl, C2-C4 alkynyl, vinyl, N3, CN, CI, Br, F, I, N02, OC(0)0-Ci_4 alkyl, -OC1-10 alkyl, haloalkyl or -OH;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, -OH, OP, wherein P is a protecting group, OCH3, halo, NH2; and

R8 is selected from the group consisting of H, CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, F, CN, -OH, -OP wherein P is a protecting group, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl;

in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive.

2. The process according to claim 1 wherein the activator is a uronium or phosphonium activator.

3. The process according to claim 1 wherein the base is an organic base.

4. The process according to claim 3 wherein said organic base is

triethylamine, Hunig's base, DMAP, DBU or l,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene.

5. The process of claim 1 wherein said additive is quinine or a quinine derivative,

6. The process of claim 1 wherein Ar is naphthyl or phenyl R3 is -OH; R4 and R5 are H or lower alkyl, independently, and R9 is H.

7. The process of claim 1 wherein R8 is -alkyl or halo. The process of claim 1 wherein R6 is selected from H, optionally substituted Ci-Cio alkyl, wherein said substituent is selected from halo, methoxy, alkylamino, benzyl, and allyl which may be optionally substituted with halo, methoxy, benzyl, alkylamino, trialkylsilyl; optionally substituted phenyl (Ci-Ce) alkyl, wherein said substituents are independently selected from halo, methoxy, benzyl, alkylamino, and allyl which may be optionally substituted with halo, methoxy, benzyl, alkylamino, and trialkylsilyl.

9. A process for preparing a compound having the following Formula IV:

IV

comprising contacting a compound having Formula V:

V

with a compound having Formula thereof:

VI

in the presence of an activator, a base and optionally an additive.

10. The process of claim 9 wherein said activator is selected from a phosphonium or a uronium activator, said base is Hunig's base and said addititive is quinine or a quinine derivative.

11. A process for making a compound having the following Formula X:

comprising contacting a compoun having the Formula XI:

XI

with a compound having the Formula

XII

or a salt thereof in the presence of an activator, a base, and an optional additive.

A compound having the following Formula II, or a salt or hydrate thereof:

Formula II

wherein

R4 and R5 are independently selected from hydrogen, Ci-C6alkyl optionally substituted with alkylthio, benzyl optionally substituted with one or more

halo,Ci-C6alkyl, or Ci-C6alkoxy, phenyl optionally substituted with one or more halo, Ci-C6alkyl, or Ci-C6alkoxy;

R6 is selected from Ci-Cioalkyl, Cs-Cscycloalkyl, Cs-Cscycloalkyl-alkyl-, phenyl(Ci-C6)alkyl- optionally substituted with Ci-C6alkyl, Ci-C6alkoxy, and halo, indanyl and heterocycloalkyl; and

phenyl, naphthyl,

any of which are optionally substituted with Ci-C6alkyl, Ci-C6alkoxy,

di(Ci-C6)alkylamino or Ci-C6alkylcarboxy(Ci-C6)alkyl.

A compound of claim 12 having the following structure:

or a salt, hydrate or solvate thereof

A compound having the following Formula XII:

XII

or a salt or hydrate thereof.

Description:
PROCESS FOR PREPARING DIASTEREOMERICALLY ENRICHED PHO SPHORAMID ATE DERIVATIVES OF NUCLEOSIDE COMPOUNDS FOR TREATMENT OF VIRAL INFECTIONS RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No.

61/667,620, filed on July 3, 2012, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This application relates to novel methods for preparing nucleoside

phosphoramidates that are useful as agents for treating viral diseases.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] HCV is a member of the Flaviviridae family of RNA viruses that affect animals and humans. The genome is a single 9.6-kilobase strand of RNA, and consists of one open reading frame that encodes for a polyprotein of approximately 3000 amino acids flanked by untranslated regions at both 5' and 3' ends (5'- and 3'-UTR). The polyprotein serves as the precursor to at least 10 separate viral proteins critical for replication and assembly of progeny viral particles.

[0004] Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem that leads to chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, in a substantial number of infected individuals, estimated to be 2-15% of the world population. There are an estimated 4.5 million infected people in the United States alone, according to the U.S. Center for Disease control. According to the World Health Organization, there are more than 200 million infected individuals worldwide, with at least 3 to 4 million people being infected each year. Once infected, about 20% of people clear the virus, but the remainder can harbor HCV for the rest of their lives.

[0005] Ten to twenty percent of chronically infected individuals eventually develop liver-destroying cirrhosis or cancer. The viral disease is transmitted parenterally by contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated needles, or sexually and vertically from infected mothers or carrier mothers to their offspring. [0006] At present, the standard treatment for chronic HCV is interferon alpha (IFN- alpha) in combination with ribavirin, which requires at least six (6) months of treatment. However, treatment of HCV with interferon has frequently been associated with adverse side effects such as fatigue, fever, chills, headache, myalgias, arthralgias, mild alopecia, psychiatric effects and associated disorders, autoimmune phenomena and associated disorders and thyroid dysfunction.

[0007] International patent publication WO 2010/081082 discloses novel

phosphoramidate nucleoside prodrugs with improved properties over known therapeutics. These compounds exist as diastereomeric or enantiomeric mixtures, potentially complicating development of these compounds into pharmaceutically acceptable compounds, which results in increased manufacturing costs and potential limitations to access. There is a need for an efficient and selective process for the preparation of diastereomerically enriched nucleoside phosphoramidates. WO 2008/121634, WO 2011/123668 and WO 2012/012465 disclose processes for preparing nucleoside phosphoramidate prodrugs that result in diastereomerically enriched product. These methods rely on a very well precedented process— a nucleophilic substitution at phosphorous which is well known to proceed with inversion of stereochemistry at phosphorous. The inversion of stereochemistry at phosphorous during a nucleophilic substitution has been documented as early as 1962 (Green, M. et al., Proc. Chem. Soc, 307 (1962); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2: 11 (1963)). In order to form diastereomerically enriched phosphoramidate drug compounds, previous work has involved the isolation of an activated phosphate containing a leaving group (generally -OC 6 F 5 or -OC 6 H 4 -PNO 2 ), which would then be coupled to the nucleoside to yield the desired compound. In order to obtain diastereomeric enrichment, these activated phosphates are isolated separately and re-crystallized to diastereomeric purity, often in exceptionally low yields. Thus, the stereochemical information is introduced through crystallization. These approaches are therefore extremely limited, only compounds where a fractional crystallization is possible can be employed, exhibit poor overall yields, and are cumbersome to perform. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] The present invention leverages a highly diastereoselective coupling process to convert a pro-chiral phosphorous atom into a diastereomerically enriched phosphate through a selective reaction. This new process offers many significant advantages in terms of yield, ease of operation and cost. In some aspects of the present invention, methods for preparing a compound of formula la having the following structure, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

(la)

wherein

Base is a naturally occurring or modified purine or pyrimidine base linked to the furanose ring through a carbon or nitrogen atom;

phenyl, naphthyl,

any of which are optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy,

di(Ci-C6)alkylamino or Ci-C 6 alkylcarboxy(Ci-C6)alkyl-;

R 3 is OH, H, alkyl, C 2 -C 4 alkenyl, C 2 -C 4 alkynyl, vinyl, N 3 , CN, CI, Br, F, I, N0 2 , OC(0)0-Ci_ 4 alkyl, -OC 1-10 alkyl, haloalkyl or -OH;

R 4 and R 5 are independently selected from hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl optionally substituted with alkylthio, benzyl optionally substituted with one or more

halo,Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy, phenyl optionally substituted with one or more halo, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy; R 6 is selected from Ci-Cioalkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, Q-Cscycloalkyl-alkyl-, phenyl(Ci-C6)alkyl- optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, and halo, indanyl and heterocycloalkyl;

R 7 is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, -OH, OP, wherein P is a protecting group, OCH 3 , halo, NH 2 ;

R 8 is selected from the group consisting of H, CH 3 , CH 2 F, CHF 2 , CF 3 , F, CN, -OH, -OP wherein P is a protecting group, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl; and

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, C 1-4 alkyl, CN, halo, -OH, -CH 2 CN, -CH 2 NH 2, vinyl, C 2 -C 4 alkynyl, 0-Ci_ 6 alkyl, -CH 2 F, N 3 ,

in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive; comprising contacting a compound having the following Formula II, or a salt thereof: II

with a nucleoside compound of Formula Ilia:

Ilia

wherein

R 3 is OH, H, alkyl, C 2 -C 4 alkenyl, C 2 -C 4 alkynyl, vinyl, N 3 , CN, CI, Br, F, I, N0 2 , OC(0)0-Ci_ 4 alkyl, -OC 1-10 alkyl, haloalkyl or -OH;

R 7 is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, -OH, OP, wherein P is a protecting group, OCH 3 , halo, N 3 , NH 2 ;

R 8 is selected from the group consisting of H, CH 3 , CH 2 F, CHF 2 , CF 3 , F, CN, -OH, -OP wherein P is a protecting group, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl; and

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, C 1-4 alkyl, CN, halo, -OH, -CH 2 CN,

-CH 2 NH 2, vinyl, C 2 -C 4 alkynyl, -0-C 1-6 alkyl, and -CH 2 F, N 3 ,

in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive. [0009] According to some embodiments of the present invention methods for preparing the following nucleoside phosphoramidate compound of Formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof are provided:

(I)

wherein

Base is a naturally occurring or modified purine or pyrimidine base linked to the furanose ring through a carbon or nitrogen atom;

phenyl, naphthyl,

any of which are optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy,

di(Ci-C6)alkylamino or Ci-C 6 alkylcarboxy(Ci-C6)alkyl-;

R 3 is O or -OH;

R 4 and R 5 are independently selected from hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl optionally substituted with alkylthio, benzyl optionally substituted with one or more

halo,Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy, phenyl optionally substituted with one or more halo, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy; and R 6 is selected from Ci-Cioalkyl, C3-Cscycloalkyl, Cs-Cscycloalkyl-alkyl-, phenyl(Ci-C6)alkyl- optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, and halo, indanyl and heterocycloalkyl; comprising contacting a compound having Formula II, or a salt thereof: II

with a nucleoside compound of Formula III:

III

wherein

R 3 is OH, H, alkyl, C 2 -C 4 alkenyl, C 2 -C 4 alkynyl, vinyl, N 3 , CN, CI, Br, F, I, N0 2 , OC(0)0-Ci_ 4 alkyl, -OC 1-10 alkyl, haloalkyl or -OH;

R 7 is selected from the group consisting of -OH, halo, and alkyl; and

R 8 is selected from the group consisting of -OH, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl; in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Definitions

[0010] As used herein, the term "alkyl" refers to a straight or branched saturated monovalent cyclic or acyclic hydrocarbon radical, having the number of carbon atoms as indicated (or where not indicated, an acyclic alkyl group preferably has 1-20, more preferably 1-6 (lower alkyl), more preferably 1-4 carbon atoms and a cyclic alkyl group preferably has 3-20, preferably 3-10, more preferably 3-7 carbon atoms), optionally substituted with one, two, three or more substituents independently selected from the group set out above. By way of non-limiting examples, suitable alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, octyl, nonyl, isopropyl, 2-butyl, cyclopropyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopentyl, neopentyl and dodecyl. The term "Cs-Cscycloalkyl" refers to cyclic alkyl group comprising from about 3 to about 8 C atoms. The term

"C3-C 8 cycloalkyl-alkyl" refers to an acyclic alkyl group substituted by a cyclic alkyl group comprising from about 3 to about 8 C atoms.

[0011] As used herein, the term "alkenyl" refers to a straight or branched unsaturated monovalent acyclic or cyclic hydrocarbon radical having one or more C=C double bonds and having the number of carbon atoms as indicated (or where not indicated, an acyclic alkenyl group preferably has 2-20, more preferably 2-6, more preferably 2-4 carbon atoms and a cyclic alkenyl group preferably has 4-20, more preferably 4-6 carbon atoms), optionally substituted with one, two, three or more substituents independently selected from the group set out above. By way of non-limiting examples, suitable alkenyl groups include vinyl, propenyl, butenyl, pentenyl and hexenyl.

[0012] As used herein, the term "alkynyl" refers to a straight or branched unsaturated monovalent acyclic or cyclic hydrocarbon radical having one or more triple C/C bonds and having the number of carbon atoms as indicated (or where not indicated, an acyclic alkynyl group preferably has 2-20, more preferably 2-6, more preferably 2-4 carbon atoms and a cyclic alkynyl group preferably has 7-20, more preferably 8-20 carbon atoms), optionally substituted with one, two, three or more substituents independently selected from the group set out above.

[0013] As used herein, the term "alkoxy" or the term "alkyloxy" refers to the group alkyl-O-, where alkyl is as defined above and where the alkyl moiety may optionally be substituted by one, two, three or more substituents as set out above for alkyl. By way of non-limiting examples, suitable alkoxy groups include methoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, iso- propoxy, n-butoxy, tert-butoxy, sec-butoxy, n-pentoxy, n-hexoxy and 1,2- dimethylbutoxy. The term "cycloalkyloxy" refers to the group cyclicalkyl-O-, where cyclicalkyl is as defined above and where the cyclicalkyl moiety may be optionally substituted by one, two, three or more substituents as set out above for alkyl.

[0014] As used herein, the term "alkylthio" refers to the group alkyl-S-, where alkyl is as defined above and where the alkyl moiety may optionally be substituted by one, two, three or more substituents as set out above for alkyl. By way of non-limiting examples, suitable alkylthio groups include methylthio, ethylthio, n-propylthio, iso-propylthio, n- butylthio, tert-butylthio, sec-butylthio, n-pentylthio, n-hexoxy and 1,2-dimethylbutylthio. [0015] The term "alkylamino" refers to a group alkyl-NR R 2 -, wherein R 1 and R 2 are H, alkyl, aryl and where alkyl is defined as above.

[0016] As used herein, the term "aryloxy" refers to the group aryl-O-, where aryl is as defined below and where the aryl moiety may optionally be substituted by one, two, three or more substituents as set out above with respect to the group Ar.

[0017] As used herein, the term "alkoxyalkyl" refers to an alkyl group having an alkoxy substituent. Binding is through the alkyl group. The alkyl moiety and the alkoxy moiety are as defined herein with respect to the definitions of alkyl and alkoxy, respectively. The alkoxy and alkyl moieties may each be substituted by one, two, three or more substituents as set out above with regard to the definition of alkyl.

[0018] As used herein, the term "alkylthioalkyl" refers to an alkyl group having an alkylthio substituent. Binding is through the alkyl group. The alkyl moiety and the alkylthio moiety are as defined herein with respect to the definitions of alkyl and alkylthio, respectively. The alkylthio and alkyl moieties may each be substituted by one, two, three or more substituents as set out above with regard to the definition of alkyl.

[0019] As used herein, the term "alkoxyaryl" refers to an aryl group having an alkoxy substituent. Binding is through the aryl group. The alkoxy moiety and the aryl moiety are as defined herein with respect to the definitions of alkoxy and aryl, respectively. The alkoxy and aryl moieties may each be substituted by one, two, three or more substituents, as defined herein with regard to the definitions of alkoxy and aryl, respectively.

[0020] As used herein, the term "cycloalkylaryl" refers to an aryl group having a cyclic alkyl substituent. Binding is through the aryl group. The cycloalkyl moiety and the aryl moiety are as defined herein with respect to the definitions of cycloalkyl and aryl, respectively.

[0021] As used herein, the term "aryl(Ci-C6)alkyl-" refers to a Ci-Ce alkyl group substituted at any carbon by an aryl group. Binding is through the alkyl group. The aryl moiety and the alkyl moiety are as defined herein with respect to the definitions of aryl and alkyl. The aryl group may be substituted. By way of non-limiting examples, suitable aryl(Ci-C6)alkyl- groups include benzyl, 1 -phenylethyl, 3-phenylpropyl, 4-chlorobenzyl, 4-fluorobenzyl, 2,4-difluorobenzyl, and the like.

[0022] As used herein, the term "alkylcarboxy(Ci-C6)alkyl-" refers to a Ci-Ce alkyl group substituted at any carbon by an alkylcarboxy [alkyl-C(=0)0-] group. The alkyl moiety is as defined hereinabove. By way of non-limiting examples, suitable

alkylcarboxy(Ci-C6)alkyl- groups include acetoxymethyl[CH 3 C(=0)0-CH 2 -], propanoyloxyethyl[CH3CH 2 C(=0)0-CH 2 CH2-], weopentoyloxypropyl

[(CH 3 ) 3 CCH 2 C(=0)0-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -] and the like.

[0023] A cycloalkyl moiety and the aryl moiety may each be optionally substituted by one, two, three or more substituents as set out herein with regard to the definitions of alkyl and aryl, respectively.

[0024] As used herein the term "aryl" refers to a monovalent unsaturated aromatic carbocyclic radical having one, two, three, four, five or six rings, preferably one, two or three rings, which may be fused or bicyclic. An aryl group may optionally be substituted by one, two, three or more substituents as set out above with respect to optional substituents that may be present on the group Ar. Preferred aryl groups are: an aromatic monocyclic ring containing 6 carbon atoms; an aromatic bicyclic or fused ring system containing 7, 8, 9 or 10 carbon atoms; or an aromatic tricyclic ring system containing 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14 carbon atoms. Non-limiting examples of aryl include phenyl and naphthyl. These compounds may include substituent groups, preferably those substituent groups independently selected from hydroxy(-OH), acyl(R'-C(=0)),

acyloxy(R'-C(0)-0-), nitro(-N0 2 ), amino(-NH 2 ), carboxyl(-COOH), cyano(-CN), Ci-C 6 monoalkylamino, Ci-C 6 dialkylamino, thiol, chloro, bromo, fluoro, iodo, SO 3 H, -SH, -SR', wherein R' is independently selected from halo, Ci-C 6 alkoxy,and Ci-C 6 alkyl.

[0025] As used herein, the term "heterocycloalkyl" refers to a saturated or partially unsaturated heterocyclic ring system having one, two, three, four, five or six rings, preferably one, two or three rings, which may be fused or bicyclic, and having contained within the ring or rings at least one member selected from the group consisting of N, O and S. The prefix "C5-CV or "C5-C1 0 " used before heterocycloalkyl means, respectively, a five- to twenty- or a five- to ten-membered ring system at least one of which members is selected from the group consisting of N, O and S. Preferred heterocycloalkyl systems are: a monocyclic ring system having five members of which at least one member is a N, O or S atom and which optionally contains one additional O atom or one, two or three additional N atoms; a monocyclic ring having six members of which one, two or three members are a N or O atom; a bicyclic ring system having nine members of which at least one member is a N, O or S atom and which optionally contains one, two or three additional N atoms; or a bicyclic ring system having ten members of which one, two or three members are a N atom. By way of non-limiting examples, suitable heterocycloalkyl groups include tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, pyrrolidinyl, morpholinyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, thiomorpholinyl, and piperidinyl.

[0026] ndanyl" refers to the fused bicyclic substituent of structure, int of attachment of the radical to the rest of the molecule is on any available non-aromatic carbon atom.

[0027] Available carbon atoms and/or heteroatoms of the "heterocycloalkyl" ring systems described above may be substituted on the ring with one or more heteroatoms. Where the ring(s) is substituted with one or more heteroatoms, heteroatom substituents are selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and halogen (F, CI, Br and I). Where the ring(s) is substituted with one or more heteroatoms, preferably there are 1, 2, 3 or 4 heteroatom substituents selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen and/or halogen. Preferred substituent groups are independently selected from hydroxy, acyl, acyloxy, nitro, amino, SO 3 H, SH, SR', wherein R' is independently selected from the same groups as R; carboxyl, cyano, (Ci-C6)alkylamino, (Ci-C 6)dialkylamino, thiol, chloro, bromo, fluoro and iodo.

[0028] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" refers to pharmaceutically acceptable salts of a compound, which salts are derived from a variety of organic and inorganic counter ions well known in the art and include, by way of example only, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, tetraalkylammonium, and the like; and when the molecule contains a basic functionality, salts of organic or inorganic acids, such as hydrochloride, hydrobromide, tartrate, mesylate, acetate, maleate, oxalate and the like.

[0029] The "5"' and "R" designations as used herein are determined using the Cahn- Ingold-Prelog method.

[0030] The term "diastereomerically enriched" as used herein refers to an instance where, due to the chirality at phosphorus, the mole amount of one diastereomer (Rp or Sp) exceeds the mole amount of the other diastereomer. Recognizing that the phosphorus atoms in the compounds of the present invention are chiral, one of ordinary skill will understand that a composition, comprised of the compounds of the present invention (e.g., a composition of compounds of Formula I, la, II, IV, VI, X, XII, respectively, comprise mixtures of diastereomers. "Diastereomerically enriched" means a composition having at least about 51 mol% to about 100 mol% of one diastereomer (5p or Rp) and at most 49 mol% to 0 mol% of the other enantiomer (Rp or 5p). Within this meaning,

"diastereomerically enriched" includes a composition comprised of about at least about 60 mol% of one diastereomer to about 40 mol% of the other, about 70 mol% of one diastereomer to about 30 mol% of the other, about 80 mol% of one diastereomer to about 20 mol% of the other, about 90 mol% of one diastereomer to about 10 mol% of the other, about 95 mol% of one diastereomer to about 5 mol% of the other, about 97 mol% to about 5 mol% of the other, about 98 mol% to about 2 mol% of the other, of about 99 mol% of diastereomer to about 1 mol% of the other, about 99.5 mol% of one

diastereomer to about 0.5 mol% of the other, about 99.9 mol% of one diastereomer to about 0.1 mol% of the other.

[0031] The term "salt" refers to organic and inorganic salt forms of the phosphoric acids of Formula II. These salts may be derived from a variety of organic and inorganic counter ions well known in the art and include, by way of example, quinine salt, DBU salt, calcium salts and zinc salts. These salt forms may also contain a range of hydrates and solvates.

[0032] Unless otherwise indicated, the term "lower alkylthio", "alkylthio", "arylthio" or "aralkylthio" as employed herein alone or as part of another group includes any of the above alkyl, aralkyl or aryl groups linked to a sulfur atom.

[0033] The term "acyl" as used herein alone or as part of another group refers to a radical linked to a carbonyl (C=0) group which radical can be, for example, lower alkyl, aryl, heterocyclo, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, lower alkoxy or amino.

[0034] The term "naturally occurring or modified purine or pyrimidine base" refers to those naturally occurring and modified nucleoside bases such as adenine, N 6 -alkylpurines, N 6 -acylpurines (wherein acyl is C(0)(alkyl, aryl, alkylaryl, or arylalkyl), N 6 - benzylpurine, N 6 -halopurine, N 6 -vinylpurine, N 6 -acetylenic purine, N 6 -acyl purine, N 6 - hydroxyalkyl purine, N 6 -allylaminopurine, N 6 -thioallyl purine, N 2 -alkylpurines, N 2 -alkyl- 6-thiopurines, thymine, cytosine, 5-fluorocytosine, 5-methylcytosine, 6-azapyrimidine, including 6-azacytosine, 2- and/or 4-mercaptopyrmidine, uracil, 5-halouracil, including 5- fluorouracil, C 5 -alkylpyrimidines, C 5 -benzylpyrimidines, C 5 -halopyrimidines, C 5 - vinylpyrimidine, C 5 -acetylenic pyrimidine, C 5 -acyl pyrimidine, C 5 -hydroxyalkyl purine,

C 5 -amidopyrimidine, C 5 -cyanopyrimidine, C 5 -5-iodopyrimidine, C 6 -iodo-pyrimidine, C 5 - Br-vinyl pyrimidine, C 5 -Br-vinyl-pyrimidine, C 5 -nitropyrimidine, C 5 -amino-pyrimidine, N 2 -alkylpurines, N 2 -alkyl-6-thiopurines, 5-azacytidinyl, 5-azauracilyl, triazolopyridinyl, imidazolopyridinyl, pyrrolopyrimidinyl, and pyrazolopyrimidinyl. Purine bases include, but are not limited to, guanine, adenine, hypoxanthine, 2,6-diaminopurine, and 6- chloropurine. Additional non-classical purine bases include pyrrolo[l,2-f][l,2,4]triazines, imidazo[l,5-f][l,2,4]triazines, imidazo[l,2-f][l,2,4]triazines, and [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3- fj[l,2,4]triazines, all of which are optionally substituted. The purine and pyrimidine bases of Formula I are linked to the ribose sugar, or analog thereof, through a nitrogen atom or carbon atom of the base. Functional oxygen and nitrogen groups on the base can be protected as necessary or desired. Suitable protecting groups are well known to those skilled in the art, and include, but are not limited to, trimethylsilyl, dimethylhexylsilyl, t- butyldimethylsilyl, and ?-butyldiphenylsilyl, trityl, alkyl groups, and acyl groups such as acetyl and propionyl, methanesulfonyl, and p-toluenesulfonyl.

[0035] N 3 refers to azido or -N=N=NH.

[0036] The term "activator" as used herein refers to a reagent, reactant or combination of reagents capable of performing a formal dehydration of the phosphoric acid.

[0037] The term "additive" as used herein refers to a reagent, reactant or combination of reagents, which, when added to the reaction, either increase the rate or reaction, the overall yield of the reaction, or impacts the diastereoselectivity of the process.

[0038] The present invention is directed to novel processes for preparing

diastereomerically enriched (at phosphorus) nucleoside phosphoramidate compounds having the following Formula la:

(Ia)

wherein Base is a naturally occurring or modified purine or pyrimidine base linked to the furanose ring through a carbon or nitrogen atom;

phenyl, naphthyl,

any of which are optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy,

di(Ci-C6)alkylamino or Ci-C 6 alkylcarboxy(Ci-C6)alkyl-;

R 3 is OH, H, alkyl, C 2 -C 4 alkenyl, C 2 -C 4 alkynyl, vinyl, N 3 , CN, CI, Br, F, I, N0 2 ,

OC(0)0-Ci- 4 alkyl, -OC 1-10 alkyl, haloalkyl or -OH;

R 4 and R 5 are independently selected from hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl optionally substituted with alkylthio, benzyl optionally substituted with one or more

halo,Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy, phenyl optionally substituted with one or more halo, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy;

R 6 is selected from Ci-Cioalkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, Q-Cscycloalkyl-alkyl-, phenyl(Ci-C6)alkyl- optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, and halo, indanyl and heterocycloalkyl;

R 7 is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, -OH, OP, wherein P is a protecting group, OCH 3 , halo, NH 2 ;

R 8 is selected from the group consisting of H, CH 3 , CH 2 F, CHF 2 , CF 3 , F, CN, -OH, -OP wherein P is a protecting group, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl; and

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, C 1-4 alkyl, CN, halo, -OH, -CH 2 CN, -CH 2 NH 2, vinyl, C 2 -C 4 alkynyl, 0-Ci_ 6 alkyl, -CH 2 F, N 3 ,

in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive; comprising contacting a compound having the following Formula II, or a salt thereof:

II

a nucleoside compound of Formula Ilia:

Ilia

wherein

R 3 is OH, H, alkyl, C 2 -C 4 alkenyl, C 2 -C 4 alkynyl, vinyl, N 3 , CN, CI, Br, F, I, N0 2 , OC(0)0-Ci_ 4 alkyl, -OC 1-10 alkyl, haloalkyl or -OH;

R 7 is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, -OH, OP, wherein P is a protecting group, OCH 3 , halo, N 3 , NH 2 ;

R 8 is selected from the group consisting of H, CH 3 , CH 2 F, CHF 2 , CF 3 , F, CN, -OH, -OP wherein P is a protecting group, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl; and

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, C 1-4 alkyl, CN, halo, -OH, -CH 2 CN, -CH 2 NH 2 , vinyl, C 2 -C 4 alkynyl, -0-C 1-6 alkyl, and -CH 2 F, N 3 ,

in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive.

[0039] According to some embodiments of the present invention, methods are provide for preparing diastereomerically enriched (at phosphorus) nucleoside

phosphoramidate compounds having the following Formula I:

I

wherein Base is a naturally occurring or modified purine or pyrimidine base linked to the furanose ring through a carbon or nitrogen atom;

phenyl, naphthyl,

any of which are optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy,

di(Ci-C6)alkylamino or Ci-C 6 alkylcarboxy(Ci-C6)alkyl-;

R 3 is O or -OH;

R 4 and R 5 are independently selected from hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl optionally substituted with alkylthio, benzyl optionally substituted with one or more

halo,Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy, phenyl optionally substituted with one or more halo, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy; and

R 6 is selected from Ci-Cioalkyl, Cs-Cscycloalkyl, Cs-Cscycloalkyl-alkyl-, phenyl(Ci-C6)alkyl- optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, and halo, indanyl and heterocycloalkyl; comprising contacting a compound having the following Formula II, or a salt thereof:

II

with a nucleoside compound of Formula III:

III

wherein

R 7 is selected from the group consisting of -OH, -OP, wherein P is a protecting group, halo, and alkyl; and

R 8 is selected from the group consisting of -OH, -OP, wherein P is a protecting group, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl;

in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive.

[0040] According to some preferred embodiments of the present invention, Ar is phenyl or naphthyl. According to some preferred embodiments of the present invention, R 4 and R 5 are independently H or Ci to Ce alkyl

[0041] According to some embodiments of the present invention, R 8 is alkyl or halo.

[0042] According to one embodiment of the present invention, the activator is selected from AOMP, AOP, BDDC, BDMP, BDP, BEC, BEMT, BEP, BEPH, BMP-C1, BOMP, BOP, BOP-C1, BroP, Bsmoc, Bspoc, Bts-Fmoc, BTFFH, BPMP, BTC, BTCFH (PyClU) Bts-Cl, CDMT, DCMT, DECP, DEPAT, DKP, DMCH, DPPAT, DOEPBI, DOPPBI, DPPBI, CC, CDPOP, CDPP, CF, CF 3 -BOP CF 3 -HBTU CF 3 -N0 2 -PyBOP, 6- Cl-HOBI, CF 3 -PyBOP, 6-Cl-HOBt, CIC, CIP, CloP, CMBI, CMPI, COMU, Cpt-Cl,

CPC, CPP, DCC, DEBP, DEPB, DEPBO, DEPBT, DEPC, DFIH, DIC, DEFFH, DMC, DMCH, DMCT, DMFFH, DMFH, DMTMM, DNAs, DNBs, DOMP, DOPBO, DOPBT, DPP-C1, DPP A, EDC, FDMP, FDPP, FEP, FEPH, FIP, FOMP, HAE2PipU, HAE2PyU, HAM2PipU, HAM2PyU, HAMTU, HAMDU, HAPipU, HAPyU, HAPyTU, HAPTU, HATTU, HATU, HATeU, HBE2PipU, HBE2PyU, HBM2PipU, HBM2PyU, HBMTU, HBPTU, HBTeU, BMDU, HBPipU, HBPyU, HBTU, HDATU, HDAPyU, HDTU, HDATU, HDMA, 4-HDMA, HDMB, HDMC, 6-DMFB, HDMODC, HDMODeC, HDMOPC, HDMP, HDMPfp, HDmPyODC, HDPyU, HDTMA, HDTMB,

HDmPyODeC, HDmPyOC, HMPyODC, HMPyOC, HOAt, 4-HOAt, 5-HOAt, 6-HOAt, HOBI, HOBt, HOCt, HODhbt, HODhad, HODhat, HODT, HOSu, HOI, 6-N0 2 -HOBt, HONP, HOPy, 6-CF 3 -HOBt, PS-S0 2 -HOBt, PS-HOSu, PS-DCT, HONB, HOTT, HOTT, HOTU, HPyOPfb, HPFTU, HPTU, HPyONP, HPyOTCp, HPySPfp, HSTU, HTODC, HTODeC, HTOPC, NAs, 2-NAs, 4-NAs, NBs, 2-NBs, 4-NBs, NDPP, N-HATU, N-CF 3 - HBTU, N-CF 3 -TBTU, N-HAPyU, N-HATTU, N-HBPyU, N-HBTU, N-TATU, N- TBTU, MPTA, MPTO, Mspoc, Mukaiyama's reagent, NDPP, NMM, N0 2 -PyBOP, MSNT, Oxyma, PIC, PS-DCC, PS-EDC, PEC, PS-TBTU, PTF, PyAOP, PyBOP, PyBroP, PyCloP, PyDOP, PyCloK, PyPOP, PyDAOP, PyFOP, PyFNBOP, PyNOP, PyOxm, PyTOP, SOMP, TATU, TAs, TBs, TBCR1, TBCR2, TBCR3, TBTU, TDBTU, TCFH, TCP, TDATU, TDTU, TEFFH, TFMS-DEP, TFFH, TNTU, TODT, TOTT, TOTU, TPTU, TSTU, TOPPipU, T3P, TPFTU, TPhTU, and TPP.

[0043] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the activator is a uronium or phosphonium activator, preferably selected from AOP, BMP-C1, BOMP, BOP, BOP- Cl, BroP, CF3-BOP CF3-HBTU CF 3 -N0 2 -PyBOP, CIOP, COMU, HAE2PipU,

HAE2PyU, HAM2PipU, HAM2PyU, HAMTU, HAMDU, HAPipU, HAPyU, HAPyTU, HAPTU, HATTU, HATU, HATeU, HBE2PipU, HBE2PyU, HBM2PipU, HBM2PyU, HBMTU, HBPTU, HBTeU, BMDU, HBPipU, HBPyU, HBTU, HDATU, HDAPyU, HDTU, HDATU, HDPyU, HOTU, HPyOPfp, HPFTU, HPTU, HPyONP, HPyOTCp, HPySPfp, HSTU, HTODC, HTODeC, N-HATU, N-CF 3 -HBTU, N-CF 3 -TBTU, N- HAPyU, N-HATTU, N-HBPyU, N-HBTU, N-TATU, N-TBTU, N0 2 -PyBOP, PS-TBTU, PTF, PyAOP, PyBOP, PyBroP, PyCloP, PyDOP, PyCloK, PyPOP, PyDAOP, PyFOP, PyFNBOP, PyNOP, PyOxm, PyTOP, TATU, TBTU, TDBTU, TDATU, TDTU, TNTU, TODT, TOTT, TOTU, TPTU, TSTU, TOPPipU, TPFTU, and TPhTU, as defined herein.

[0044] In some embodiments of the present invention, the base is selected from NR 3 wherein R can be H, alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkenyl, alkynyl, benzyl or allyl; disilazanes; heterocyclic bases including DABCO, 1,5 diazobicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene, 1,8- diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, DMAP, 2,6 lutidine, piperidine, pyrrole, 3-pyrroline, 2H- pyroole 2-pyrroline, pyrrolidine, carbazole, azaindole, isoindole, indole, 3-H indole, indolizine, indoline, pyridine, piperidine, quinuclidine 4-H quinolizine, isoquinoline, quinoline, 1,8 naphthyridine, tetrahydroquinoline, acridine, oxazole, isoxazole, benoxazole, benzothiazole, isothiazole, thiazole, benzimidazole, imidazole 2, imidazole, imidazolidine, tetrazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,2,3-tetrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, benzotriazole, imidazolepyridines, indazole, oxadiazole, phenodiazene, thiomorpholine, dithiane, phenoxazine, morpholine, pyrazole, 2-pyrazoline, pyrazolidine, quinazoline, cinnoline, pyrimidine, pteridine, phthalazine, 1,2,4-triazline, 1,3,5-triazine, piperazine, quinoxaline, phenazine, IH-indazole, pyridazine, hydantoins, cinnolines, cyclazines, triazolepyridines, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, 2,8,9-triisobutyl-2,5,8,9-tetraaza-l- phosphabicyclo[3.3.3]undecane, 2,8,9-triisopropyl-2,5,8,9-tetraaza-l- phosphabicyclo[3,3,3]undecane, 2,8,9-trimethyl-2,5,8,9-tetraaza-l- phosphabicyclo[3.3.3]undecane and substituted derivatives thereof; phosphazines where phosphazene base P 2 -R, where R is R = alkyl, aryl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroaryl, benzyl, allyl, carbocyclic such as, 2-tert-butylamino-l-methyl-2-

[tris(dimethylamino)phosphoranylidenamino]-perhydro-l,3,2 -diazaphosphorinium iodide, 2-tert-butylimino-2-diethylamino- 1 ,3 -dimethylperhydro- 1 ,3,2-diazaphosphorine, 1, 1, 1,3,3,3 -hexakis(dimethy lamino)diphosphazenium tetrafluoroborate, imino- tris(dimethylamino)phosphorane, l, l,3,3,3-pentakis(dimethylamino)- 5^5- diphosphazene 1 -oxide phosphazene base P l-?-Bu, phosphazene base P4-?-Bu, phosphazene base P l-i-Bu-tris(tetramethylene), phosphazene base P2-Et, phosphazene base Pl-?-Oct; metal alkoxide or hydroxide bases: M-OR where M = Be, Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Cs, Sc, Ti, Mg, Cu, Al and R = H, alkyl, aryl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroaryl, benzyl, allyl, carbocyclic; solid supported bases including l,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane hydrochloride, polymer-bound, l,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, polymer-bound, 2,6- di-tert-butylpyridine, polymer-bound, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine, polymer-bound morpholine, polymer-bound, piperidine, polymer-bound, NR3 polymer-bound, where R= H, alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, benzyl, allyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl, heteroaryl, carbocyclic, 2-tert- butylimino-2-diethylamino- 1 ,3 -dimethylperhydro- 1 ,3 ,2-diazaphosphorine, polymer- bound, phosphazene base P2-?-Bu on polystyrene, l,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene bound to polystyrene; chiral bases including tetramisole, quinine, quinine acetate, quinidine gluconate, dihydroquinine, 9-epi-quinine, 3 -hydroxy quinine, quinine N-oxide, hydroquinine 4-chlorobenzoate, hydroquinine-9-phenanthryl ether, quinidine, quinidine N-oxide, hydroquinidine, hydroquinidine 9-phenanthryl ether hydroquinidine 4-methyl-2- quinolyl ether, hydroquinine 4-methyl-2-quinolyl ether, O-desmethyl quinidine, hydroquinidine 4-chlorobenzoate, L-(-)-a-amino-e-caprolactam hydrochloride, D-(+)-a- amino-e-caprolactam hydrochloride, (R)-(-)-l-amino-2-propanol, (S)-(+)-l-amino-2- propanol, chiral amino acids, brucine, cinchonine, cinchonidine, dihydro-cinchonidine, dihydrocinchonine, O-methylcinchonidine, cinchonan-6',9-diol, cinchonan-9-ol, (9S)-(±)- 10,1 l-dihydro-6'-methoxy-cinchonan-9-ol, 7'-(trifluoromethyl)-10, l 1-dihydrocinchonan- 9-ol, cupreine, β-isocupreidine, euprocin, ethylhydrocupreine, (+)-dehydroabietylamine, (+)-dehydroabietylamine, (S)-(-)-N,a-dimethylbenzylamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, (S)-a-methyl-2-pyridinemethanol (R)-a-methyl-2-pyridinemethanol, strychnine,

2R,4S,5R)-2-hydroxymethyl-5-ethylquinuclidine, (2S,4S,5R)-2-aminomethyl-5- ethylquinuclidine, (2R,5R)-(+)-5-vinyl-2-quinuclidinemethanol, N-[3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N'-[(8a,9S)-10, l l-dihydro-6'-methoxy-9- cinchonanyljthiourea, N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N'-[(9R)-6'-methoxy-9- cinchonanyl]thiourea, N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N'-[(8a,9S)-6'-methoxy-9- cinchonanyljthiourea, quinine ethyl carbonate, 9-acetoxyrubanone, (DHQD)2PHAL, (DHQ)2PHAL, (DHQD)2Pyr, (DHQ)2Pyr, (DHQD)2AQN and modifications thereof. Preferred bases include triethylamine, Hunig's base, DMAP, DBU or 1,8- diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene.

[0045] According to some embodiments of the present invention, the coupling of the phosphoramidate to the nucleoside is done in the presence of an activator, a base, and optionally an additive. Additives may be the same or different than the base. A preferred additive is a quinine or quinine derivative. However, any of the following are

contemplated: R 3 where R is H, alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkenyl, alkynyl, benzyl or allyl; disilazanes; TMEDA, TMP; heterocyclic bases including DABCO, 1,5

diazobicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene, l,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, DMAP, 2,6 lutidine, piperidine, pyrrole, 3-pyrroline, 2H-pyroole 2-pyrroline, pyrrolidine, carbazole, azaindole, isoindole, indole, 3-H indole, indolizine, indoline, pyridine, piperidine, quinuclidine 4-H quinolizine, isoquinoline, quinoline, 1,8 naphthyridine,

tetrahydroquinoline, acridine, oxazole, isoxazole, benoxazole, benzothiazole, isothiazole, thiazole, benzimidazole, imidazole 2, imidazole, imidazolidine, tetrazole, 1,3,4- thiadiazole, 1,2,3-tetrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, benzotriazole, imidazolepyridines, indazole, oxadiazole, phenodiazene, thiomorpholine, dithiane, phenoxazine, morpholine, pyrazole, 2-pyrazoline, pyrazolidine, quinazoline, cinnoline, pyrimidine, pteridine, phthalazine, 1,2,4-triazline, 1,3,5-triazine, piperazine, quinoxaline, phenazine, lH-indazole, pyridazine, hydantoins, cinnolines, cyclazines, triazolepyridines, 2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine, 2,8,9-triisobutyl-2,5,8,9-tetraaza-l- phosphabicyclo[3.3.3]undecane, 2,8,9-triisopropyl-2,5,8,9-tetraaza-l- phosphabicyclo[3,3,3]undecane, 2,8,9-trimethyl-2,5,8,9-tetraaza-l- phosphabicyclo[3.3.3]undecane and substituted derivatives thereof; phosphazines where phosphazene base P 2 -R, where R is R = alkyl, aryl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroaryl, benzyl, allyl, carbocyclic. This may include 2-tert-butylamino-l-methyl-2- [tris(dimethylamino)phosphoranylidenamino]-perhydro-l,3,2-di azaphosphorinium iodide, 2-tert-butylimino-2-diethylamino- 1 ,3 -dimethylperhydro- 1 ,3,2-diazaphosphorine, 1, 1, 1,3,3,3 -hexakis(dimethy lamino)diphosphazenium tetrafluoroborate, imino- tris(dimethylamino)phosphorane, l, l,3,3,3-pentakis(dimethylamino)- 5^5- diphosphazene 1 -oxide phosphazene base P l-?-Bu, phosphazene base P4-?-Bu, phosphazene base P l-i-Bu-tris(tetramethylene), phosphazene base P2-Et, phosphazene base Pl-?-Oct; metal alkoxide or hydroxide bases: M-OR where M = Be, Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Cs, Sc, Ti, Mg, Cu, Al and R = H, alkyl, aryl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroaryl, benzyl, allyl, carbocyclic; solid supported bases including l,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane hydrochloride, polymer-bound, l,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, polymer-bound, 2,6- di-tert-butylpyridine, polymer-bound, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine, polymer-bound morpholine, polymer-bound, piperidine, polymer-bound, NR3 polymer-bound, where R= H, alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, benzyl, allyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl, heteroaryl, carbocyclic, 2-tert- butylimino-2-diethylamino- 1 ,3 -dimethylperhydro- 1 ,3 ,2-diazaphosphorine, polymer- bound, phosphazene base P2-?-Bu on polystyrene, l,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene bound to polystyrene; chiral bases including tetramisole, quinine and quinine derivatives such as quinine acetate, quinidine gluconate, dihydroquinine, 9-epi-quinine, 3 -hydroxy quinine, quinine N-oxide, hydroquinine 4-chlorobenzoate, hydroquinine-9-phenanthryl ether, quinidine, quinidine N-oxide, hydroquinidine, hydroquinidine 9-phenanthryl ether hydroquinidine 4-methyl-2-quinolyl ether, hydroquinine 4-methyl-2-quinolyl ether, O- desmethyl quinidine, hydroquinidine 4-chlorobenzoate, L-(-)-a-amino-e-caprolactam hydrochloride, D-(+)-a-amino-e-caprolactam hydrochloride, (R)-(-)-l-amino-2-propanol, (S)-(+)-l-amino-2-propanol, chiral amino acids, brucine, cinchonine, cinchonidine, dihydro-cinchonidine, dihydrocinchonine, O-methylcinchonidine, cinchonan-6',9-diol, cinchonan-9-ol, (9S)-(±)-10, l l-dihydro-6'-methoxy-cinchonan-9-ol, 7'-(trifluoromethyl)- 10,1 l-dihydrocinchonan-9-ol, cupreine, β-isocupreidine, euprocin, ethylhydrocupreine, (+)-dehydroabietylamine, (+)-dehydroabietylamine, (S)-(-)-N,a-dimethylbenzylamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, (S)-a-methyl-2-pyridinemethanol (R)-a-methyl-2- pyridinemethanol, strychnine, 2R,4S,5R)-2-hydroxymethyl-5-ethylquinuclidine, (2S,4S,5R)-2-aminomethyl-5-ethylquinuclidine, (2R,5R)-(+)-5-vinyl-2- quinuclidinemethanol, N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N'-[(8a,9S)-10, l l-dihydro-6' methoxy-9-cinchonanyl]thiourea, N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N'-[(9R)-6'- methoxy-9-cinchonanyl]thiourea, N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N'-[(8a,9S)-6'- methoxy-9-cinchonanyl]thiourea, quinine ethyl carbonate, 9-acetoxyrubanone, (DHQD)2PHAL, (DHQ)2PHAL, (DHQD)2Pyr, (DHQ)2Pyr, (DHQD)2AQN and modifications thereof.

[0046] According to one preferred embodiment of the present invention, a process making a compound havi d:

IV

comprising contacting a compound having Formula V:

with a compound having For

VI in the presence of an activator, such as a phosphonium or uronium activator, a base, such as Hunig's base and optionally an additive, such as quinine or a quinine derivative.

[0047] According to one embodiment of the present invention, a process for making a compound having the following Formula X is presented:

comprising contacting a compoun having the Formula XI:

XI

with a compound having the Formula

or a salt thereof in the presence of an activator, a base, and an optional additive, such as those described herein.

[0048] According to one embodiment of the present invention, a compound having the following Formula II is provided:

Formula II

wherein

R 4 and R 5 are independently selected from hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl optionally substituted with alkylthio, benzyl optionally substituted with one or more

halo,Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy, phenyl optionally substituted with one or more halo, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 alkoxy;

R 6 is selected from Ci-Cioalkyl, Cs-Cscycloalkyl, Cs-Cscycloalkyl-alkyl-, phenyl(Ci-C6)alkyl- optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, and halo, indanyl and heterocycloalkyl; and

phenyl, naphthyl,

, any of which are optionally substituted with Ci-C 6 alkyl,

Ci-C 6 alkoxy, di(Ci-C6)alkylamino or Ci-C 6 alkylcarboxy(Ci-C6)alkyl-.

[0049] Compounds of Formula II may form salts, hydrates or solvates by way of example only, calcium, zinc, DBU or Hunig's base salts, as neat forms, hydrates or solvates.

[0050] According to one embodiment of the present invention, a compound having the following Formula XII is provided:

and may exist as a salt, hydrate or solvate, such as by way of example only, calcium, zinc, DBU or Hunig's base salts, as neat forms, hydrates or solvates.

[0051] While the invention has been described with reference to particularly preferred embodiments and examples, those skilled in the art recognize that various modifications may be made to the invention without departing from the spirit and scope thereof. General Synthetic Methods

[0052] The compounds of this invention can be prepared from readily available starting materials using the following general methods and procedures. It will be appreciated that where typical or preferred process conditions (i.e., reaction temperatures, times, mole ratios of reactants, solvents, pressures, etc.) are given, other process conditions can also be used unless otherwise stated. Optimum reaction conditions may vary with the particular reactants or solvent used, but such conditions can be determined by one skilled in the art by routine optimization procedures.

[0053] Additionally, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art, conventional protecting groups may be necessary to prevent certain functional groups from undergoing undesired reactions. Suitable protecting groups for various functional groups as well as suitable conditions for protecting and deprotecting particular functional groups are well known in the art. For example, numerous protecting groups are described in Greene, T.W. et al, Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis, Third Edition, Wiley, New York (1999), and references cited therein.

[0054] The following acronyms as used herein are defined as follows: AOMP 5 -(7-azabenzotriazol- 1 -yloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 -methyl 2H-pyrrolium hexachloroantimonate

AOP (7-azabenzotriazol- 1 -yl)oxytris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

BDDC bis [[4-(2,2-dimethyl-l, 3 -dioxolyl)] -methyl] -carbodiimide

BDMP 5 -( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 -methyl 2H-pyrrolium hexachloroantimonate

BDP benzotriazol- 1 -yl diethylphosphate

BEC N-tert-butyl-N'-ethylcarbodiimide

BEMT 2-bromo-3-ethyl-4-methyl thiazolium tetrafluoroborate

BEP 2-bromo-l -ethyl pyridinium tetrafluoroborate

BEPH 2-bromo-l -ethyl pyridinium hexachloroantimonate

BMP-C1 Ν,Ν'-bismorpholinophosphinic chloride

Boc ?-butyloxycarbonyl

BOMP 2-(benzotriazol- 1 -yloxy)- 1 ,3 -dimethyl-2-pyrrolidin- 1 -yl- 1,3,2- diazaphospholidinium hexafluorophosphate

BOP benzotriazol- 1 -yloxytris(dimethylamino)phosphonium

hexafluorophosphate

BOP-C1 N,N'-bis(2-oxo-3-oxazolidinyl)phosphinic chloride

BroP bromotris(dimethylamino)phosphoniumhexafluorophosphate

Bsmoc 1 , 1 -dioxobenzo[b]thiophene-2-ylmethyloxycarbonyl

Bspoc 2-(tert-butylsulfonyl)-2-propyloxycarbonyl

Bts-Fmoc 2,7-bis(trimethylsilyl)-9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl

BTFFH bis(tetramethylene)fluoroformamidiniumhexafluorophosphate

BPMP 1 -( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yloxy )phenylmethylene pyrrolidinium

hexachloroantimonate

BTC triphosgene

BTCFH bis(tetramethylene)chlororformamidinium hexafluorophosphate (PyClU)

Bts-Cl benzothiazol-2-sulfonyl chloride

Cbz, Z benzyloxycarbonyl

CDMT 2 -chloro-4, 6-dimethoxy- 1,3,5 -triazine DCMT 2,4-dichloro-6-methoxy-l,3,5-triazine

DECP diethylcyanophosphonate

DEPAT 3-(diethoxyphosphoryloxy)-l,2,3-pyridino-[b]triazin-4-(3H)-o ne

DMCH N-(chloro(morpholino)methylene)-N-methylmethanaminium

hexafluorophosphate

DPPAT 3-(diphenoxyphosphoryloxy)-l,2,3-pyridino-[b]triazin-4-(3H)- one

DOEPBI phosphoric acid diethyl ester 2-phenylbenzimidazol-l-yl ester

DOPPBI phosphoric acid diphenyl-2-phenylbenzimidazol-l-yl ester

DPPBI diphenylphosphinic acid 2-phenylbenzimidazol-l-yl ester

CC cyanuric chloride

CDPOP pentachlorophenyl diphenyl phosphate

CDPP pentachlorophenyl diphenyl phosphinate

CF cyanuric fluoride

CF 3 -BOP [6-(trifluoromethyl)benzotriazol-l-yl]-Noxy- tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

CF 3 -HBTU 2-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-benzotriazol-l-yl]-l, l,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

CF3-NO2- [4-nitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzotriazol-l-yl)-oxy]tris(pyrr olidino) PyBOP

6-Cl-HOBI 6-chloro-N-hydroxy-2-phenylbenzimidazole phosphonium

hexafluorophosphate

CF 3 -PyBOP [6-(trifluoromethyl)-benzotriazol-l-yl]-N-oxytris- (pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

6-Cl-HOBt 6-chloro- 1 -hydroxybenzotriazole

CIC N-cyclohexyl,N'-isopropyl carbodiimide

CIP 2-chloro- 1 ,3 -dimethylimidazolidinium hexafluorophosphate

CloP chloro-tris(dimethylamino)phosphoniumhexafluorophosphate

CMBI 2-chloro-l,3-dimethyl IH-benzimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

CMPI 2-chloro- 1 -methylpyridinium iodide

COMU l-[(l-(cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylideneaminooxy)-dimethylamino - morpholinomethylene)]methanaminium hexafluorophosphate

Cpt-Cl 1 -oxo-chlorophospholane CPC N,N'-dicyclopentylcarbodiimide

CPP 2-chloro-l,3-dimethylpyrimidiniumhexafluorophosphate

DCC N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide

DEBP diethyl 2-(3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-l,2-benzisosulfonazolyl)phosphonate

DEPB diethyl phosphorobromidate

DEPBO N-diethoxyphosphoryl benzoxazolone

DEPBT 3 -(diethoxyphosphoryloxy)- 1 ,2,3 -benzotriazin-4(3 H)-one

DEPC diphenyl phosphorochloridate

DFIH 1 ,3-dimethyl-2-fluoro-4,5-dihydro- lH-imidazolium

hexafluorophosphate

DIC N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide

DEFFH 1 ,2-diethyl-3 ,3 -tetramethylne fluoroformamidinium

hexafluorophosphate

DMCH N-(chloro(morpholino)methylene)-N-methylmethanaminium

hexafluorophosphate

DMCT 2 -chloro-4, 6-dimethy 1- 1,3,5 -triazine

DMFFH l,2-dimethyl-3,3-tetramethylene fluoroformamidinium

hexafluorophosphate

DMFH N-(fluoro(morpholino)methylene)-N-methylmethanaminium

hexafluorophosphate

DMTMM 4-(4,6-dimethoxy[l,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride

DNAs 3 H- [ 1 ,2,3 ]triazolo [4,5 -b]pyridin-3 -yl 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonate

DNBs lH-benzo[d][l,2,3]triazol-l-yl 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonate

DOMP 5-(30,40-dihydro-40-oxo-10,20,30-benzotriazin-30-yloxy)-3,4- dihydro- 1 -methyl-2H-pyrrolium hexachloroantimonate

DOPBO N-(2-oxo-l,3,2-dioxaphosphorinanyl)-benzoxazolone

DOPBT 3-[0-(2-oxo-l,3,2-dioxaphosphorinanyl)-oxy]-l,2,3-benzotriaz in- 4(3H)-one

DPP-C1 diphenylphosphinic chloride

DPPA diphenylphosphoryl azide

Dtb-Fmoc 2,7-di-tert-butyl-9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl

EDC l-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride FDMP 3 ,5 -bis(trifluoromethylphenyl)phenyl diphenylphosphinate

FDPP pentafluorophenyl diphenyl phosphinate

FEP 2-fluoro-l -ethyl pyridinium tetrafluoroborate

FEPH 2-fluoro-l -ethyl pyridinium hexachloroantimonate

FIP 2-fluoro- 1 ,3 -dimethylimidazolidiniumhexafluorophosphate

Fmoc 9-fluorenylmethyloxcarbonyl

FOMP 5-(pentafluorophenyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-l-methyl-

2H-pyrrolium hexachloroantimonate

HAE2PipU 0-( 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo [4,5-b]pyridin- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 -diethyl-3 ,3 - pentamethyleneuronium

HAE2PyU 0-( 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo [4,5-b]pyridin- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 -diethyl-3 ,3 - tetramethyleneuronium hexafluorophosphate

HAM2PipU 0-( 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo [4,5 -b]pyridin- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 -dimethyl-3 ,3 - pentamethyleneuronium hexafluorophosphate

HAM2PyU 0-( 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo [4,5 -b]pyridin- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 -dimethyl-3 ,3 - tetramethyleneuronium hexafluorophosphate

HAMTU 0-(7-azabenzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 ,3 -dimethyl- 1 ,3 -trimethyleneuronium hexafluorophosphate hexafluorophosphate

HAMDU 0-(7-azabenzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 ,3 -dimethyl- 1 ,3 -dimethyleneuronium hexafluorophosphate

HAPipU 0-(7-azabenzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 ,3 ,3 -bis(pentamethylene)uronium hexafluorophosphate

HAPyU 1 -( 1 -pyrrolidinyl- 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo[4,5 -b] -pyridin- 1 - ylmethylene)pyrrolidinmium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide

HAPyTU 1 -( 1 -pyrrolidinyl- 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo[4,5 -b] -pyridin- 1 - ylmethylene)pyrrolidinmium hexafluorophosphate N-sulfide

HAPTU (7-azabenzotriazol-yl)- 1 , 1 ,3-trimethyl- 1 -phenyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HATTU S-(7-azabenzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 ,3 ,3 -tetramethyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HATU 0-(7-azabenzotriazol-l-yl)-l, l,3,3-tetramethyluronium

hexafluorophosphate HATeU 0-( 1H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 ,3,3 -tetraethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

HBE2PipU 0-( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 -diethyl-3, 3 -pentamethyleneuronium

hexafluorophosphate

HBE2PyU 0-( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 -diethyl-3 ,3 -tetramethyleneuronium

hexafluorophosphate

HBM2PipU 0-( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 -dimethyl-3 ,3 -pentamethyleneuronium hexafluorophosphate

HBM2PyU 0-( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 -dimethyl-3 ,3 -tetramethyleneuronium hexafluorophosphate

HBMTU 0-(benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 ,3 -dimethyl- 1 ,3 -trimethyleneuronium

hexafluorophosphate

HBPTU (7-benzotriazol-yl)- 1 , 1 ,3 -trimethyl- 1 -phenyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HBTeU 0-( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 ,3 ,3 -tetraethyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HBMDU 0-(benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 ,3 -dimethyl- 1 ,3 -dimethyleneuronium

hexafluorophosphate

HBPipU 0-(benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 ,3 ,3-bis(pentamethylene)uronium

hexafluorophosphate

HBPyU 0-(benzotriazol- 1 -yl)oxybis(pyrrolidino)-uronium hexafluorophosphate

HBTU 0-(benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1,1,3,3 -tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

HDATU 0-(3 ,4-dihydro-4-oxo-5 -azabenzo- 1 ,2,3 -triazin-3 -yl)- 1,1,3,3- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

HDAPyU 0-(3 ,4-dihydro-4-oxo-5 -azabenzo- 1 ,2,3 -triazin-3 -yl)- 1,1,3,3- bis(tetramethylene)uronium hexafluorophosphate

HDTU 0-(3 ,4-dihydro-4-oxo- 1 ,2,3 -benzotriazin-3 -yl)- 1,1,3,3- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

HDATU 0-(3 ,4-dihydro-4-oxo-5 -azabenzo- 1 ,2,3 -triazin-3 -yl)- 1,1,3,3- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

HDMA 1 -((dimethylamino)-(morpholino)methylene)- 1 H- [ 1 ,2,3 ]triazolo[4,5 - b]pyridinium hexafluorophosphate-3 -oxide 4-HDMA 3-((dimethylamino)-(morpholino)methylene)-lH-[l,2,3]triazolo [4,5- b]pyridinium hexafluorophosphate- 1 -oxide

HDMB 1 -((dimethylamino)(morpholino)methylene)- 1 H-benzotriazolium

hexafluorophosphate-3 -oxide

HDMC 6-chloro- 1 -((dimethylamino)(morpholino)-methylene)- 1 H- benzotriazolium hexafluorophosphate-3 -oxide

6-HDMFB 6-trifluoromethyl- 1 -((dimethylamino)(morpholino)methylene)- 1 H- benzotriazolium hexafluorophosphate-3 -oxide

HDMODC 1 -[( 1 -(dicyanomethyleneaminooxy)- dimethylaminomorpholinomethylene)]methanaminium hexafluorophosphate

HDMODeC 1 -[( 1 ,3 -diethyoxy- 1 ,3-dioxopropan-2-ylideneaminooxy)- dimethylamino-morpholinomethylene)]methanaminium hexafluorophosphate

HDMOPC N-[(cyano(pyridine-2-yl)methyleneaminooxy)-

(dimethylamino)methylene]-N-morpholinomethanaminium

hexafluorophosphate

HDMP l-((dimethylamino)(morpholino))oxypyrrolidine-2,5-dione

methanaminium hexafluorophosphate

HDMPfb 1 -((dimethylamino)-

(morpholino))oxypentafluorophenylmetheniminium

hexafluorophosphate

HDmPyODC l-[(l-(cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylideneaminooxy)- dimethylaminopyrrolodino methylene)] methanaminium hexafluorophosphate

HDPyU 0-(3 ,4-dihydro-4-oxo- 1 ,2,3 -benzotriazin-3 -yl)- 1, 1,3,3- bis(tetramethylene)uronium hexafluorophosphate

HDTMA 1 -((dimethylamino)(thiomorpholino)methylene)- 1H-[1 ,2,3]triazolo[4,5- b]pyridinium hexafluorophosphate-3 -oxide

HDTMB l-((dimethylamino)(thiomorpholino)methylene)-l H-benzotriazolium hexafluorophosphate-3 -oxide HDmPyODeC 1 -[( 1 ,3 -diethyoxy- 1 ,3-dioxopropan-2-ylideneaminooxy)-dimethylamino pyrrolodinomethylene)]methanaminium hexafluorophosphate

HDmPyOC 1 -[( 1 -(cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylideneaminooxy)-dimethylamino- pyrrolodinomethylene)]methanaminium hexafluorophosphate

HMPyODC l-((dicyanomethyleneaminooxy)morpholinomethylene)pyrrolidini um hexafluorophosphoate

HMPA hexamethylphosphoramide

HMPyOC 1 -(( 1 -cyano-2-ethoxy-2- oxoethylideneaminooxy)(morpholino)methylene)pyrrolidinium hexafluorophosphate

HOAt 1 -hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole

4-HOAt 4-aza- 1 -hydroxybenzotriazole

5-HOAt 5 -aza- 1 -hydroxybenzotriazole

6-HOAt 6-aza- 1 -hydroxybenzotriazole

HOBI N-hy droxy-2 -pheny lbenzimidazole

HOBt 1 -hydroxybenzotriazole

HOCt ethyl- 1 -hydroxy- 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazole-4-carboxylate

HODhbt 3 ,4-dihydro-3 -hydroxy -4-oxo- 1,2,3 -benzotriazine

HODhad 3-hydroxy-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-5-azabenzo-l,3-diazene

HODhat 3 -hydroxy-4-oxo-3 ,4-dihydro-5-azabenzo- 1 ,2,3 -triazene

HODT S-( 1 -oxido-2-pyridinyl)- 1 ,3 -dimethyl- 1 ,3-trimethylenethiouronium hexafluorophosphate

HOSu N-hydroxysuccinimide

HOI N-hydroxyindolin-2-one

6-N0 2 -HOBt 1 -hydroxy-6-nitrobenzotriazole

HONP p-nitrophenyl active ester

HOPy 1 -hydroxy-2-pyridinone

6-CF 3 -HOBt 6-trifluoromethyl- 1 -hydroxy benzotriazole

PS-S0 2 -HOBt polymer-supported 1 -hydroxy-6-disulfoxide benzotriazole

PS-HOSu polymer-supported N-hydroxysuccinimide

PS-DCT polymer-supported 2,4-dichloro-l,3,5-triazine HONB N-hydroxy-5-norbornene-endo-2,3-dicarboxyimide

HOTT S-( 1 -oxido-2-pyridinyl)- 1, 1,3,3 -tetramethylthiouronium

hexafluorophosphate

HOTT S-( 1 -oxido-2-pyridinyl)- 1, 1,3,3 -tetramethylthiouronium

hexafluorophosphate

HOTU 0-[cyano(ethoxycarbonyl)methyleneamino]-N,N,N',N'- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

HPyOPfp N,N,N',N'-bis(tetramethylene)-0-pentafluorophenyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HPFTU N,N,N',N'-bis(tetramethylene)-0-pentafluorophenyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HPTU 2-(2-oxo- 1 (2H)-pyridyl- 1 , 1 ,3 ,3-tetramethyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HPyONP N,N,N',N'-bis(tetramethylene)-0-2-nitrophenyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HPyOTCp N,N,N',N'-bis(tetramethylene)-0-pentafluorophenyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HPySPfp N,N,N',N'-bis(tetramethylene)-S-pentafluorothiophenyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HSTU 2-succinimido- 1 , 1 ,3 ,3-tetramethyluroniumhexafluorophosphate

HTODC 0-[(dicyanomethylidene)-amino]- 1 , 1 ,3,3-tetramethyluronium

hexafluorophosphate

HTODeC 0-[(diethoxycarbonylmethylidene)amino]- 1 , 1 ,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

HTOPC N-[(cyano(pyridine-2-yl)methyleneaminooxy)- (dimethylamino)methylene)-N-methyl methanaminium hexafluorophosphate

NAs 3-((naphthalen-2-ylsulfonyl)methyl)-3H-[l,2,3]-triazolo[4,5- b]pyridine

2-NAs 3 H- [ 1 ,2,3 ]triazolo [4,5-b]pyridin-3 -yl 2-nitrobenzenesulfonate

4-NAs 3 H- [ 1 ,2,3 ]triazolo [4,5-b]pyridin-3 -yl 4-nitrobenzenesulfonate

NBs 1 -((naphthalen-2-ylsulfonyl)methyl)- lH-benzo-[d] [1 ,2,3]triazole

2-NBs lH-benzo[d][l,2,3]triazol-l-yl 2-nitrobenzenesulfonate 4-NBs lH-benzo[d][l,2,3]triazol-l-yl 4-nitrobenzenesulfonate

NDPP norborn-5-ene-2,3-dicarboximidodiphenylphosphate

N-HATU N- [(dimethylamino)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo [4,5-b] -pyridin- 1 -ylmethylene] - N-methylmethanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide

N-CF 3 -HBTU N- [6-trifluoromethyl( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- (dimethylamino)methylene]-N-methylmethanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide

N-CF3-TBTU N- [6-trifluoromethyl( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yl)-

(dimethylamino)methylene]-N-methylmethanaminium tetrafluoroborate N-oxide

N-HAPyU 1 -( 1 -pyrrolidinyl- 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo [4,5 -b]pyridin- 1 - ylmethylene)pyrrolidinium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide

N-HATTU N- [(dimethylamino)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo [4,5-b] -pyridin- 1 -ylmethylene] - N-methylmethanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-sulfide

N-HBPyU ( 1 H-benzotriazol- 1 -yl)( 1 -pyrrolidinylmethylene)pyrrolidinium

hexafluorophosphate N-oxide

N-HBTU N-[(lH-benzotriazol-l-yl)(dimethylamino)-methylene]-N- methylmethanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide

N-TATU N- [(dimethylamino)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazolo [4,5-b] -pyridin- 1 -ylmethylene] - N-methylmethanaminium tetrafluoroborate N-oxide

N-TBTU N-[(lH-benzotriazol-l-yl)(dimethylamino)-methylene]-N- methylmethanaminium tetrafluoroborate N-oxide

MPTA dimethylphosphinothioyl azide

MPTO 3-dimethylphosphinothioyl-2(3H)-oxazolone

Mspoc 2-methylsulfonyl-3 -phenyl- 1 -prop-2-enyloxycarbonyl

Mukaiyama's 2-chloro- 1 -methylpyridinium iodide

reagent

NDPP norborn-5-ene-2,3-dicarboximidodiphenylphosphate

NMM N-methylmorpholine

N0 2 -PyBOP (6-nitrobenzotriazol- 1 -yloxy)tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium

hexafluorophosphate

Oxyma ethyl 2-cyano-2-(hydroxyimino)acetate PIC N-phenyl,N-isopropylcarbodiimide

PS polymer supported

PS-DCC polymer cyclohexylcarbodiimide

PS-EDC polymer l-ethyl-3-(30-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide

PEC N-ethyl, N-phenylcarbodiimide

PS-TBTU N-[(lH-benzotriazol-l-yl)(dimethylamino)-methylene]-N- methylmethanaminium tetrafluoroborate N-oxide

PTF benzyltriphenylphosphonium dihydrogen trifluoride

PyAOP [(7-azabenzotriazol- 1 -yl)oxy]tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium

hexafluorophosphate

PyBOP benzotriazol- 1 -yloxytri(pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

PyBroP bromotri(pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

PyCloP chlorotri(pyrrolidino)phosphoniumhexafluorophosphate

PyDOP [(3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-l,2,3-benzotriazin-3-yl)oxy]- tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

PyCloK (6-chloro-benzotriazol- 1 -yloxy)tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium

hexafluorophosphate

PyPOP (pentafluorophenyloxy)tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium

hexafluorophosphate

PyDAOP [(3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-5-azabenzo-l,2,3-triazin-3- yl]tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

PyFOP [ [6-(trifluoromethyl)benzotriazol- 1 -yl] oxy] - tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

PyFNBOP [4-nitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- oxy]tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

PyNOP [(6-nitrobenzotriazol- 1 -yl)oxy]tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium

hexafluorophosphate

PyOxm 0-[(cyano(ethoxycarbonyl)methyliden)-amino]- yloxytri(pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

PyTOP (pyridyl-2-thio)tris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate

SOMP 5 -(succinimidyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-l -methyl 2H-pyrrolium

hexachloroantimonate TATU 0-(7-azabenzotriazol-l-yl)-l, l,3,3-tetramethyluronium

tetrafluoroborate

TAs 3 H- [ 1 ,2,3 ]triazolo [4,5 -b]pyridin-3 -yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate

TBs lH-benzo[d][l,2,3]triazol-l-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate

TBCR1 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium

tetrafluoroborate

TBCR2 l-(4,6-dimethoxy-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-l-methylpiperydinium

tetrafluoroborate

TBCR3 l-(4,6-dimethoxy-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)quinuclidinium tetrafluoroborate

TBTU O-benzotriazol- 1 -yl- 1 , 1 ,3,3 -tetramethy luronium tetrafluoroborate

TDBTU 2-(3 ,4-dihydro-4-oxo- 1 ,2,3 -benzotriazin-3 -yl)- 1, 1,3,3- tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate

TCFH tetramethylchloroformamidinium hexafluorophosphate

TCP 2,4,5-trichlorophenyl active ester

TDATU 0-(3 ,4-dihydro-4-oxo-5 -azabenzo- 1 ,2,3 -triazin-3 -yl)- 1,1,3,3- tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate

TDTU 2-(3 ,4-dihydro-4-oxo- 1 ,2,3 -benzotriazin-3 -yl)- 1, 1,3,3- tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate

TEFFH tetraethylfluoroformamidinium hexafluorophosphate

TFMS-DEP diphenyl(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)phosphoramidate

TFFH tetramethylfluoroformamidiniumhexafluorophosphate

TNTU 2-(5-norbornene-2,3 -dicarboximido)- 1, 1,3,3 -tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate

TODT S-( 1 -oxido-2-pyridinyl)- 1 ,3 -dimethyl- 1 ,3-trimethylenethiouronium tetrafluoroborate

TOTT S-( 1 -oxido-2-pyridinyl)- 1, 1,3,3 -tetramethylthiouronium

tetrafluoroborate

TOTU 0-[cyano(ethoxycarbonyl)methyleneamino]-N,N,N',N'- tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate

TPTU 2 -(2 -oxo-1 (2H)-pyridyl- 1, 1,3,3 -tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate

TSTU 2-succinimido- 1 , 1 ,3 ,3-tetramethyluroniumtetrafluoroborate TOPPipU 2-[2-Oxo- 1 (2H)-pyridyl]- 1 , 1 ,3,3-bis(pentamethylene)uronium tetrafluoroborate

T3P; PPAA 2-propanephosphonic acid anhydride

TPFTU N,N,N',N'-bis(tetramethylene)-0-pentafluorophenyluronium

tetrafluoroborate

TPhTU 2-phthalimido- 1 , 1 ,3,3 -tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate

TPP triphenylphosphine carbon tetrachloride

[0055] The starting materials for the following reactions are generally known compounds or can be prepared by known procedures or obvious modifications thereof. For example, many of the starting materials are available from commercial suppliers such as Aldrich Chemical Co. (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA), Bachem (Torrance, California, USA), Emka-Chemce or Sigma (St. Louis, Missouri, USA). Others may be prepared by procedures, or obvious modifications thereof, described in standard reference texts such as Fieser and Fieser's Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Volumes 1-15, John Wiley and Sons (1991), Rodd's Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, Volumes 1-5 and Supplemental, Elsevier Science Publishers (1989), Organic Reactions, Volumes 1-40, John Wiley and Sons (1991), March's Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, and Larock's Comprehensive Organic Transformations, VCH Publishers Inc. (1989). Specifically, the compounds of this invention may be prepared by various methods known in the art of organic chemistry in general and nucleoside and nucleotide analogue synthesis in particular. General reviews of the preparation of nucleoside and nucleotide analogues include 1) Michelson, A.M., The Chemistry of Nucleosides and Nucleotides, Academic Press, New York (1963), 2) Goodman, L., Basic Principles in Nucleic Acid Chemistry, Vol. 1, Ch. 2, Academic Press, New York (1974), and 3) Zorbach, W. et al, eds., Synthetic Procedures in Nucleic Acid Chemistry, Vols. 1 and 2, Wiley, New York (1973).

[0056] Embodiments of the present invention will now be described by way of example only with respect to the following Examples.

Preparation of Compounds

Step 1

[0057] Charge MTBE (3.06 kg, ca.4L) to a 10L CHEMGLASS® reactor flushed with nitrogen. The reactor was cooled with a chiller which was set at -40 °C. POCI3 (201.25 g, 1.3 mol) was added in one portion, followed by 1-naphthol (187.38 g, 1.3 mol). The crude was agitated for 5 minutes, and then triethylamine (131.52 g, 1.3 mol) was added over a course of 30 minutes, while maintaining internal temperature below -25 °C throughout the addition. The resulting white slurry was agitated for additional 30 minutes. To the reactor was charged with (S)-neopentyl 2-aminopropanoate

hydrochloride salt (254.34 g, 1.3 mol) in one portion, followed by slow addition of triethylamine (263.04 g, 2.6 mol) over a course of 30 minutes. Agitation was resumed for an additional 2 hours before warming up to 0 °C. The white slurry was filtered and rinsed with MTBE (2 X100 mL). The filtrate was collected and used as is for next step without further purification (77% solution yield, 10.3 wt% in MTBE). Step 2: Preparation of Calcium Salt

2

[0058] Charge phosphoric chloride as a solution in MTBE (1.49 kg, 10.3 wt%, 0.4 mol) to a 2 L CHEMGLASS® reactor. The reactor was cooled with a chiller which was set at 5 °C. DABCO (134.83 g, 1.2 mol) was added in one portion. The crude was agitated for 30 minutes, and then water (72.18 g, 4.0 mol) was added over a course of 10 minutes, with internal temperature maintaining below 10 °C throughout the addition. The resulting crude was agitated for additional 3 hours, at which point the hydrolysis reached completion. Solvent swap by distillation into 2-propanol (500 mL). The resulting slurry was warmed up to 50 °C, and water (750 mL) was charged in one portion. To the solution was charged with aq. solution of calcium chloride (22.23 g, 0.2 mol, as a solution in 250 mL water). Resume agitation for additional 30 minutes at 50 °C. The crude was charged with seeds (0.2 wt%), cooled to 20 °C over 1 hour and held at this temperature over 12 hours. The white slurry was filtered, rinsed with IP A/water (20/80 vol%, 2 X 100 mL), and dried in vacuum oven at 50 °C. The calcium salt was obtained as white crystalline solid with desired quality (93 g, 60%). ¾ NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , 23 °C) δ = 0.78 (s, 18 H), 1.20 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 6 H), 3.49 (d, J = 10.4 Hz, 2 H), 3.62 (d, J = 10.4 Hz, 2 H), 3.68 (b, 2 H), 3.94 - 4.00 (m, 2 H), 7.32 (dd, J = 7.3, 7.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.38 - 7.46 (m, 6 H), 7.61 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 7.77 (dd, J = 1.5, 7.8 Hz, 2 H), 8.16 - 8.18 (m, 2 H); 31P-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d 6 , 23 °C) δ = -1.89 (m).

Alternate Step 2: Preparation of Quinine Salt

[0059] Charge phosphoric chloride as a solution in MTBE (745 g, 10.3 wt%, 0.2 mol) to a 2 L CHEMGLASS® reactor. The reactor was cooled with a chiller which was set at 5 °C. tert-Amyl alcohol (500 mL) was charged, followed by quinine (194.58 g, 0.6 mol) in one portion. The crude was agitated for 30 minutes, and then water (36.02 g, 2.0 mol) was added over a course of 10 minutes, with internal temperature maintaining below 15 °C throughout the addition. The resulting crude was agitated for additional 18 hours, at which point the hydrolysis reached completion. MTBE was removed by distillation at 200 torr. Upon end of distillation, the resulting slurry was warmed up to 50 °C, and methanol (250 mL) was charged to the crude, followed by water (300 mL). Agitation was resumed for additional 30 minutes at 50 °C and the crude was cooled to 20 °C over 1 hour and held at this temperature over 12 hours. The white slurry was filtered, rinsed with tert-amyl alcohol/MeOH/water (50/20/30 vol%, 2 X 100 mL), and dried in vacuum oven at 50 °C. The quinine salt was obtained as white crystalline solid with desired quality (69 g, 51%). ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CD 2 C1 2 , 23 °C) δ = 0.85 (s, 9 H), 1.26 (d, J =

6.9 Hz, 3 H), 1.21 - 1.27 (m, 1 H), 1.64 - 1.71 (m, 1 H), 1.99 - 2.07 (m, 5 H), 2.53 - 2.58 (m, 1 H), 2.80 - 2.85 (m, 1 H), 2.94 - 3.00 (m, 1 H), 3.16 (t, J = 10.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.29 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.55 (d, J = 10.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.71 (d, J = 10.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.81 (s, 3 H), 4.04 -

4.10 (m, 1 H), 4.23 - 4.30 (m, 1 H), 4.95 - 5.00 (m, 2 H), 5.50 - 5.57 (m, 1 H), 6.34 (s, 1 H), 7.25 - 7.30 (m, 3 H), 7.36 - 7.43 (m, 2 H), 7.48 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.54 (ddd, J = 0.9,

1.2, 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.62 - 7.63 (m, 1 H), 7.75 - 7.77 (m, 1 H), 7.95 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 1 H), 8.23 - 8.25 (m, 1 H), 8.61 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1 H); 31P-NMR (500 MHz, CD 2 C1 2 , 23 °C) δ = +3.18 (s).

Step 2b: Preparation of the DBU Salt

2b

[0060] To a cooled solution (0 °C) of chlorophosphate in MTBE (0.23M, 230mL, 52.4 mmol) was added with water (9.5 mL, 0.52 mol, 10 equiv) followed by triethylamine (75mL, 0.52 mol, 10 equiv) in one portion. Stirred at ambient temperature for 3h. To this solution was added DBU-carbonate (aq. 0.30M, 530mL, 2 equiv). The layers were separated and the aqueous later was extracted with CH 2 C1 2 (2x 250mL). The solution was dried over MgS0 4 . Filtered to provide the titled compound (21.7g, 80% yield) as a 4.8 wt% solution in DCM. X H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 , 23 °C) δ = 0.87 (s, 9 H), 1.26 (t, J = 7.4, Hz, 3H) 1.30 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 3 H), 1.65 - 1.72 (m, 3H), 1.75-1.80 (m, 2 H), 1.95 -

2.01 (m, 2 H), 1.98-2.0 (m, 2 H), 2.60 - 2.63 (m, 2 H), 2.80 - 2.85 (m, 2 H), 3.1 1 (q, J = 7.3 Hz, 2 H), 3.28 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 2 H), 3.49 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 2 H), 3.56-3.57 (m, 2H), 3.58 (d, J = 10.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.67 (d, J = 10.4 Hz, 1 H), 4.04(dq, J = 7.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.35 - 7.40 (m, 1 H), 7.45 - 7.50 (m, 2 H), 7.53 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (d, J = 8.2, Hz, 1 H), 7.8 - 7.83 (m, 1 H), 8.29 - 8.31 (m, 1 H); 31P-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 , 23 °C) δ = +1.65 (s).

Step 3 : Preparation of Phosphoramidate Side Chain

2 3

[0061] To a 30 mL sep funnel was added the calcium salt, 2 (1.00 g, 1.24 mmol) and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (10.0 mL). Salts 2a and 2b may also be used. The suspension was washed with a 1 N aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid (2 x 10.0 mL), after which the clear homogeneous organic layer was washed with brine (2 x 10.0 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford a clear oil (630 mg, 69%). The oil was dissolved in THF (6.7 mL). PHENOMENEX® Kinetex C18 2.6um 4.6 x 150mm. A = 0.05% TFA MeOH (20%)/water (80%); B = 0.05% TFA MeOH

(80%)/water (20%). Gradient: A=100%; t=5 B=30; t=25 B=50; t=30 B=100. Flow rate = lmL/min; Compound 3 rt=22.13min.

Step 4

[0062] The chloro-nucleoside can be prepared readily from the tetrabenzoate and a chloro-purine derivative, as shown above. This chemistry is well described in the literature (WO 2004/003138; J. Med. Chem., 47:2283 (2004); WO 2006/122207; Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 17:2456 (2007); WO 2010/081082; Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 20:4850 (2010); Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 21 :6007 (201 1); WO 201 1/123586; Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 21 :6788 (2011); WO 2012/048013). Methoxylation of the chloro-purine derivative with sodium methoxide has also been described in detail (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 21, 6007 (201 1); WO 2011/123586; Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 20:4850 (2010); WO 2010/081082), the disclosures of which are herein incorporate by reference.

Step 5

[0063] A solution of the phosphoric acid (6.4mmol) in 2MeTHF (13mL) was treated with Hunig's base (560μΚ) and HATU (2.4 g). The nucleoside (lg) and quinine (938mg) were then added and the mixture heated to 50 °C for 4h. In-process analysis indicated product in 90% yield as a 6.7: 1 diastereomeric mixture favoring P(«S). PHENOMENEX® Kinetex CI 8 2.6μιη 4.6 x 150mm. A = 0.05% TFA MeOH (20%)/water (80%); B = 0.05% TFA MeOH (80%)/water (20%). Gradient: A=100%; t=5 B=30; t=25 B=50; t=30 B=100. Flow rate = lmL/min; V(R) isomer rt=23.59min; P(5) isomer rt =24.7 lmin.