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Title:
PROCESS FOR PREPARING FAT CONTINUOUS EMULSIONS ON A SMALL SCALE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/097505
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A batch process for preparing edible fat-continuous emulsions (such as spreads) which process is such that it enables production of such emulsions on small to very small scale (amounts of products produced e.g. from 200 g to 2 kg), in relative short amounts of time.

Inventors:
MELNIKOV, Sergey, Michailovich (Grüner Deich 110, Hamburg, 20097, DE)
Application Number:
EP2016/076564
Publication Date:
June 15, 2017
Filing Date:
November 03, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNILEVER N.V. (Weena 455, 3013 AL Rotterdam, 3013 AL, NL)
UNILEVER PLC (a company registered in England and Wales under company no. of Unilever House, 100 Victoria Embankment, London Greater London EC4Y 0DY, EC4Y 0DY, GB)
UNILEVER BCS EUROPE B.V. (Weena 455, 3013 AL Rotterdam, 3013 AL, NL)
UNILEVER BCS LIMITED (Unilever House 100 Victoria Embankment, London EC4Y 0DY, EC4Y 0DY, GB)
UNILEVER BCS US INC. (700 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 07632, US)
International Classes:
A23D7/02; A23D7/00
Foreign References:
EP0199398A11986-10-29
US6468578B12002-10-22
US4362758A1982-12-07
US20150230423A12015-08-20
Other References:
"Ullmans Encyclopedia", vol. A 16, pages: 156 - 158
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WURFBAIN, Gilles, Lodewijk (Patent Group Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen, 3133 AT, NL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Batch-wise process for preparing a fat-continuous emulsion, which emulsion comprises 20-55% of an aqueous phase and 45-80% of a fat phase, said fat phase comprising an oil and a structuring fat and which process comprises the steps of:

a. providing the aqueous phase at a temperature of between 0°C and

12°C;

b. providing the oil at a temperature of between 0°C and 12°C;

c. providing the structuring fat in melted form and at a temperature that it is high enough for the structuring fat to be liquid but below 50°C; d. providing a mixture of the aqueous phase of a., the oil of b. and the

melted structuring fat of c. in a weight ratio of oil : melted structuring fat of from 0.5 : 1 to 5 : 1 and in a ratio aqueous phase : oil phase + melted structuring fat such that the desired amount of aqueous phase is present in the complete mixture;

e. subjecting the mixture of step d. for 20 seconds to 10 minutes to high shear mixing to provide a pourable emulsion;

f. processing a batch of 200 g to 2000 g of the emulsion of step e. in a scraped surface heat exchanger with a wall temperature of -25°C to +5°C and which scraped surface heat exchanger has a volume of 0.5 to 10 liter for 2 minutes to 15 minutes.

Process according to claim 1 , wherein the mixture in step d. is provided by the following successive steps:

combining the aqueous phase and oil phase,

applying high shear to create an emulsion;

adding the melted structuring fat

applying high shear.

3. Process according to claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the oil phase is gradually

added to the water phase.

Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein continuous high shear mixing is applied from combining the aqueous phase and oil phase to transferring the material from the high shear mixing operation to the scraped surface heat exchanger of step e.

Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the structuring fat in liquid form of c. comprises one or more of shea butter, Allanblackia oil, palm oil or palm oil stearin, coconut oil or coconut oil fraction, or butter fat fraction

Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the structuring fat of c. is prepared by a process comprising the steps of blending the individual ingredients and storing such at a temperature of 30°C to 50°C, preferably at a temperature of 35°C to 45°C.

7. Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the amounts of oil of b. and liquid structuring fat the oil of c. are added in a weight ratio of oil : liquid structuring agent of from 0.8 : 1 to 3 : 1

8. Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the high shear

mixing in step e. is effected by a domestic immersion mixer. 9. Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the scraped surface heat exchanger in step f. is a domestic ice cream making machine.

10. Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the fat continuous emulsion is a spreadable emulsion.

1 1. Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the fat continuous emulsion has a fat content of between 55% and 75% by weight, based on the total emulsion. 12. Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the aqueous phase in step a. is provided at a temperature of between 0°C and 10°C.

13. Process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the oil in step b. is provided at a temperature of between 0°C and 10°C.

14. Use of a scraped surface heat exchanger with a volume of 0.2 to 5 liter to manufacture batch-wise edible spreadable non-frozen emulsions having a fat content of 45-80% by weight, based on the total emulsion, wherein the scraped surface heat exchanger is a domestic ice cream making machine.

Description:
PROCESS FOR PREPARING FAT CONTINUOUS EMULSIONS ON A SMALL SCALE

Field of invention

The present invention relates to a process for preparing edible fat-continuous emulsions (such as spreads) which process is such that it enables production of such emulsions on small to very small scale (amounts of products produced from 200 g to 2 kg), in relative short amount of time.

Background of invention

Edible water-in-oil emulsions, which comprise a continuous fat phase and a dispersed aqueous phase, are well known in the art and include for example margarine.

The fat phase of margarine and similar water-in-oil emulsions is typically a mixture of liquid oil (i.e. fat that is liquid at ambient temperature) and fat which is solid at ambient temperatures. The solid fat, also called structuring fat or hardstock fat, serves to structure the fat phase and helps to stabilize the aqueous phase (e.g. in the form of droplets) by forming a fat crystal network. Ideally the structuring fat has such properties that it melts or dissolves at mouth temperature otherwise the product may have a heavy and/or waxy mouthfeel.

Margarine is generally defined as a composition containing at least 80 wt. % fat and about 20 wt. % aqueous phase. In contrast, (spreadable) emulsions containing less than 80 wt. % fat are generally called spreads. Nowadays the terms margarine and spread are sometimes used interchangeably although in some countries the commercial use of the term margarine is subject to certain regulatory requirements. In the market place margarine is generally sold as one of three principal types of water- in-oil emulsion:

• hard or stick margarine (also referred to as wrappers);

• (typically softer) tub margarine (typically named "spreads)"; and

• liquid or pourable margarine. Wrapper margarines and tub margarines are non-pourable and generally contain a higher amount of hardstock fat than liquid or pourable margarines.

The general process for the manufacture of water-in-oil emulsions, using the votator or churn process, encompasses the following steps:

1. Mixing of the liquid oil, the hardstock fat and the water-phase at a temperature at which the hardstock fat is definitely liquid;

2. cooling of the mixture under high shear to induce crystallization of the hardstock fat to create an emulsion;

3. formation of a fat crystal network to stabilize the resulting emulsion and give the product some degree of firmness;

4. modification of the crystal network to produce the desired firmness, confer plasticity and reduce the water droplet size. These steps are usually conducted on an industrial scale in a process that involves apparatus that allow heating, cooling and mechanical working of the ingredients, such as the churn process or the votator process. The churn process and the votator process are described in the Ullmans Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, Volume A 16, pages 156-158. With this sort of process and equipment spreads are produced on a scale of 1 to 15 tons per hour.

Often, high production volumes are desired, e.g. for commercial purposes. Smaller versions (pilot plant or similar) of such votator processes are also available for purposes of research and development, but these still produce volumes of about 100 kg per hour and do not easily allow switching recipes (e.g. changing oil blends or the aqueous phase). However, there has now also arisen a demand for a process which can produce edible fat-continuous emulsions such as spreads on a much smaller scale, e.g. in volumes of 200 g to 2 kg, in fairly short time (e.g. less than 15 minutes) and which easily allows changing recipes (e.g. changing the oil or oil blend used in such emulsion) from one batch to another. This allows e.g. quick testing (e.g. on flavour, appearance) and evaluating the inclusion of e.g. flavoured oils or flavoured water phases or other particular ingredients like colourants in the emulsions like spreads. Summary of the invention

Hence, here is a need for a process to be able to produce edible fat-continuous emulsions such as e.g. spreads on small scale (e.g. batches of 200-2000 g), and which process easily allows changing the recipe, e.g. changing the oil or oil blend or the aqueous phase. It is also desired that such batches can be prepared in a relatively short time frame, e.g. less than 15 minutes, preferably less than 10 minutes.

It was found that these objectives can be met, at least in part, by a batch-wise process for preparing a fat-continuous emulsion, which emulsion comprises 20-55% of an aqueous phase and 45-80% of a fat phase, said fat phase comprising an oil and a structuring fat and which process comprises the steps of:

a. providing the aqueous phase at a temperature of between 0°C and 12°C; b. providing the oil at a temperature of between 0°C and 12°C;

c. providing the structuring fat in melted form and at a temperature that it is high enough for the structuring fat to be liquid but below 50°C;

d. providing a mixture of the aqueous phase of a., the oil of b. and the melted structuring fat of c. in a weight ratio of oil : melted structuring fat of from 0.5 : 1 to 5 : 1 and in a ratio aqueous phase : oil phase + melted structuring fat such that the desired amount of aqueous phase is present in the complete mixture; e. subjecting the mixture of step d. for 20 seconds to 10 minutes to high shear mixing to provide a pourable emulsion;

f. processing a batch of 200 g to 2000 g of the emulsion of step e. in a scraped surface heat exchanger with a wall temperature of -25°C to +5°C and which scraped surface heat exchanger has a volume of 0.5 to 10 liter for 2 minutes to 15 minutes.

The process of the present invention comprises the steps of combining a pre-cooled waterphase, pre-cooled oil phase, and a melted structuring fat to an emulsification step followed by subjecting such mixture to a small batch-wise scraped surface heat exchanger. With this process, it was surprisingly found that small batches of spread could be manufactured in a short time (e.g. less than 10 minutes, provided all the ingredients are stored at the right temperature). As an unexpected benefit, it was found the process can be carried out using domestic appliances, rather than factory or laboratory equipment. On that, it was found that the emulsification in the present invention can effected by something as simple as a domestic immersion mixer ("staafmixer"), and the scraped surface heat exchanger in this can be of the type as in use for manufacturing ice cream in the consumers home (i.e. a domestic ice cream making machine). Hence, the invention further relates to the use of a scraped surface heat exchanger with a volume of 0.2 to 5 liter to manufacture batch-wise edible spreadable non-frozen emulsions having a fat content of 45-80% by weight, based on the total emulsion. Preferably, the scraped surface heat exchanger in the above is a domestic ice cream making machine.

Thus, the invention further relates to a method for making fat-continuous, edible, non- frozen spreads having a fat content of 45-85% on a small scale, the method comprising the steps of:

pre-cooling an aqueous phase to a temperature of 0-12°C,

- pre-cooling an oil to a temperature of 0-12°C,

pre-heating a structuring fat to be melted,

combining the pre-cooled aqueous phase, the pre-cooled oil and the melted structuring fat to form a mixture,

apply shear to the mixture to provide an emulsion,

- process 200-2000 g of the emulsion in a domestic ice cream making machine for 1 -10 minutes until a spread is obtained.

Detailed description of the invention

"Structuring fat" is herein to be understood to be an edible fat that is solid at ambient temperature as understood by the person skilled in the art. Preferably, for reasons of consumer acceptance and the image of being all natural, the hardstock fat comprises at least 70% (more preferably at least 80%) of triglyceride esters of fatty acids (TAG's), by weight based on the total hardstock fat.

It was found to work particularly well if the mixture in step d. is provided by the following successive steps:

combining the aqueous phase and oil phase,

applying high shear to create an emulsion;

- adding the melted structuring fat applying high shear.

In the present invention, in preparing the emulsion (and for "combining the aqueous phase and oil phase" in the above), the oil phase is preferably gradually added to the water phase. "Gradually" can be understood herein as taking time from 5 seconds to 1 minute to add one phase to the other or the mixture at issue, and preferably such takes 10 seconds to 60 seconds.

In order to create the emulsion and preferably maintain it as much as possible prior to transferring to the scraped surface heat exchanger, it is preferred in the process according to the present invention that continuous high shear mixing is applied from combining the aqueous phase and oil phase to transferring the material from the high shear mixing operation to the scraped surface heat exchanger of step e.

The aqueous phase of the process according to the present invention may be prepared using water as basis for it, but (dairy) milk, buttermilk, cream, and mixtures thereof may also be used. Dairy-originating aqueous phases such as milk or cream may impart a preferred flavour profile, real or perceived. To this aqueous phase components like salt (for flavour), a colourant (for example carrot juice, as a source of carotenoids), and preservatives may be added. Hence, it is preferred that in the present invention the aqueous phase of step a. in the above process comprises water, milk, cream or mixtures thereof. If salt is desired to be included in the formation, it is in this stage that it is preferred to incorporate salt. Thus, it may be preferred that the aqueous phase of process step a. is prepared by a process comprising mixing one or more of water, milk, buttermilk, cream or mixtures thereof with 0.1 to 3% of salt, by weight on the aqueous phase, and storing such at a temperature of between 0°C and 15°C.

An important part of the present invention is the pre-cooling of the aqueous phase and/or of the oil phase. Thus, in the present invention it is preferred that the aqueous phase in step a. is provided at a temperature of between 0°C and 10°C, and even more preferably at a temperature of between 2°C and 8°C, which is also conveniently the temperature of domestic fridges.

As to the oil phase, various oils of triglyceride nature that are liquid at room

temperature may be used, such as the oils commonly used in spreads manufacture: sunflower oil, rape seed oil, linseed oil, bean oil, and other vegetable or non-vegetable oils. Also particular oils may be incorporated in the oil blend to yield the emulsion a particular flavour, for example nut oils (preferred are walnut oil, hazelnut oil, almond oil), but also olive oil, lemon oil, and other flavoured oils. Preferably, from a health perspective the oil as used in step b. comprises vegetable oil, and preferably it is a blend of different vegetable oils such as those just mentioned.

As mentioned, pre-cooling of the aqueous phase and/or of the oil phase is relevant for the present invention. Hence, in the present invention it may be preferred that the oil in step b. is provided at a temperature of between 0°C and 10°C, or even more preferably at a temperature of between 2°C and 8°C. Clearly, if oils are stored for long at such temperature (e.g. days) some fractions may crystallise. This is undesired, but as crystallisation only occurs after prolonged storage, it works well if the oils that are to be processed on a certain day are stored for that day at the temperature indicated, and used. By doing so, no or hardly any undue crystallisation occurs.

The purpose of the structuring fat (also known as hardstock fat) is to provide fat crystals that both stabilise the water droplets in the emulsion, and to form a network in the fat continuous phase, so that the emulsion can have some firmness, thus enabling it to be spread. The structuring fats suitable in the present invention can be those that are known for application in spreads made in a conventional way. Preferred structuring fats are those having an all-natural image, which have not been subjected to hardening and/or interesterification, but only blending and/or fractionation. It is therefore preferred in the present invention that the structuring fat in liquid form as applied in step c.

comprises one or more of shea butter, Allanblackia oil, palm oil or palm oil stearin, coconut oil or coconut oil fraction, or butter fat fraction.

In the process of the present invention the structuring fat needs to be mixed with the other ingredients in liquid form. Hence, it needs to be brought at an elevated temperature so that the solid fat content is below 10%, preferably below 5%, and most preferably the structuring fat is fully melted. However, as the structuring fat will need to crystallise again in the process, it is preferred that the structuring fat is not heated to a very high temperature, as then unnecessary cooling would be needed. Following this, in the process according to the present invention it is preferred that the structuring fat of process step c. is prepared by a process comprising the steps of blending the individual ingredients that form the structuring fat (it can also be one fat, not needing any blending) and storing such at a temperature of 30°C to 50°C, preferably at a temperature of 35°C to 45°C. The amount of structuring fat used is a bit higher than in factory processes for making emulsions such as spreads, as in factory processes the product usually further "ripens" either in a storage tank for a few hours and/or for several days or weeks in pack in a warehouse, during which storage period the fat crystals change shape and occurrence. The process of the present invention however, is targeted at providing an emulsion like a spread fast, e.g. for quick evaluation of flavours when e.g. using flavoured oils, and therefor they lack the ripening period. Following such, the amount of hardstock used needs to be a bit higher than for conventional factory emulsions. Thus, in the present process it is preferred that the amounts of oil of step b. and liquid structuring fat the oil of process step c. are added in a weight ratio of oil : liquid structuring agent of from 0.8 : 1 to 3 : 1. More preferably this ratio is from 1 : 1 to 2 : 1.

The process of the present invention comprises (apart from the steps of providing the three main streams of ingredients aqueous phase, oil and structuring agent two distinct key steps: a step in which the emulsion or mixture is made (d. and e. in the process as set out above) first and a subsequent step in which the emulsion or mixture is cooled so that structuring fat crystals form / grow).

For preparing the emulsion or mixture all three streams can be combined in one go, followed by or under continuous application of high shear, but it was found beneficial for forming the emulsion to first mix the aqueous phase and the oil together (so that the emulsion may be formed in the absence of fat crystals) after which the structuring fat is added. The fat crystals that then form, as the liquid structuring agent is mixed with the pre-cooled aqueous phase and the pre-cooled oil phase, can then start with its stabilising action. Hence, in the present invention it is preferred that the mixture in process step d. is preferably provided by combining under continuous high shear mixing first the (pre-cooled) aqueous phase and the (pre-cooled) oil phase (followed by adding the melted structuring fat. During and/or after the addition of the structuring fat to the emulsion it is beneficial that further high shear is applied, e.g. to maintain the emulsion as not sufficient structuring crystals may be available in these initial stages of the product. Thus, it may be preferred that the application of structuring fat to the mixture of oil and aqueous phase is followed by further high shear mixing as set out in step e.

Some design rules can be applied and/or trial and error by the skilled person to the formation of the mixture of oil and aqueous phase as an emulsion in step d, and it turned out that it is preferred that the high shear mixing is of such intensity (shear and time) that the high shear mixing in step e. has sufficient shear to effect emulsification of water droplets in oil, and preferably such that the water droplets have an average droplet size d3.3 of less than 15 micrometer. It was found that the emulsification action can be carried out by simple equipment, e.g. a domestic immersion mixer.

As was mentioned before, apart from the pre-cooling of the aqueous phase and/or oil phase and use of the structuring fat in melted form but not much hotter than that, and the emulsification step, an important step is subjecting the formed mixture or emulsion to a scraped surface heat exchanger. There is no need for the very low temperatures applied by the Votator A-units, which work with liquid ammonia often. The scraped surface heat exchanger in the present invention preferably has a wall temperature of between -20°C and 0°C. As only small batches are required, it is preferred that such scraped surface heat exchanger has a volume of 0.5 to 10 liter and the product is processed in such for a time period of 2 minutes to 15 minutes. For the sake of simplicity, it is preferred in the present invention that the scraped surface heat exchanger in step f. has a speed of rotation of between 20 and 200 rpm.

It was surprisingly found that a domestic ice cream making machine (i.e. a machine that is marketed for consumers to enable them to make ice cream or sherbets at home) performs well as scraped surface heat exchanger. Also it has the desired volume for the batch sizes preferred. Hence, in the present invention it is preferred that the scraped surface heat exchanger in step f. is a domestic ice cream making machine. Although the process according to the present invention may yield liquid emulsion products like liquid margarines, it is preferred that the fat continuous emulsion made by this process is a spreadable emulsion. A spreadable emulsion is an emulsion of the composition as described herein, which furthermore has a Stevens value of between 30 and 300 gram, when measured at 5°C. Hence, in the present invention it is preferred that fat continuous emulsion is a spreadable emulsion (and thus has a Stevens value directly after making at 5°C of between 30 and 300 gram, when measured following the protocol as set out in the experimental section herein).

It should be understood that the process according to the invention provides an edible, non-frozen fat continuous emulsion.

The process of the present invention works well with moderate to full fat levels, and not for very low fat levels. Thus, it is preferred in the present process that the fat continuous emulsion made by the process of the present invention has a fat content of between 55% and 75% by weight, based on the total emulsion.

The emulsions of the present process may be made without incorporating ingredients like emulsifiers such as fatty acid monoglyceride esters and lecithin, in particular when the products are intended for quick evaluation of e.g. the application of flavoured oils in spreads (and do not need to be stable for weeks or months). Hence, in the process of the present invention it is preferred that no fatty acid monoglyceride emulsifier and no lecithin is added to the emulsion. Examples

Methods

Stevens value

Stevens values indicates a products hardness or firmness. The Stevens value was measured with a Stevens penetrometer (Brookfield LFRA Texture Analyser (LFRA 1500), ex Brookfield Engineering Labs, UK) equipped with a stainless steel probe with a diameter of 6.35 mm and operated in "normal" mode. Temperature of the sample: about 5°C. The probe is pushed into the product at a speed of 2 mm/s, a trigger force of 5 gram from a distance of 10 mm. The force required is read from the digital display and is expressed in grams.

Examples 1 -4

Four different spreads were made using the process as set out below and with the composition as in table 1 . Table 1 : composition of the spreads of examples 1 -4, amounts in gram (and approximate weight % on final product).

Base oil blend: 6% linseed oil, 59% sunflower oil, 35% rape seed oil (wt % on base oil blend).

Nut oil blend: 33.3% walnut oil, 33.3% hazelnut oil, 33.3% almond oil (wt % on nut oil blend).

Olive oil infused with lemon was an oil commercially available in Dutch supermarkets, and it was an olive oil which is infused with lemon flavour/aroma.

Shea butter: refined, blached, deodorised, as supplied by Loders Croklaan

Palm oil: fully refined, as supplied by Cargill.

Coconut oil: refined, as supplied by Sime Darby - Unimills.

The shea butter, palm oil and coconut oil were non-fractionated fats and oils as obtained from the supplier.

The structuring fat phase was palm oil, shea butter and coconut oil for examples 1 and 3, and palm oil and shea butter for examples 2 and 4. The milk (full fat) and cream (35% fat) were of the brand Milbona, and are intended for consumer use, and were obtained in a Dutch supermarket.

Carrot juice (for consumer use, brand Zonnatura, obtained in a Dutch supermarket) was used as colouring agent, lemon juice of fresh lemons was used for acidification. No other ingredients, e.g. no mono- or diglyceride emulsifiers or lecithin was added.

Processing for all examples 1 -4 was identical.

Preparation

The individual oils, the water, cream, milk and carrot juice were cooled in a refrigerator at 5°C (+/-2°).

An oven was preheated to 37°C (+/- 2°C), and the mixtures of the structuring fats (palm oil, shear butter and coconut oil for examples 1 and 3, palm oil, palm oil and shea butter for examples 2 and 4) were prepared and put in the oven until fully melted. The scraped surface heat exchanger (machine for domestic ice cream making:

Magimix ice maker "La Turbine a Glace", Compacte, type 1 1 194, volume 1.6 liter) was pre-cooled for 20 minutes.

The hand held mixer in use was a domestic high speed kitchen immersion mixer ("staafmixer"), Braun, 300 watt.

Steps per batch (all amounts in gram as in table 1 ).

1. salt and carrot juice were added to water at 5°C in a bowl. 10 drops of lemon juice were added, and this was mixed with the hand held immersion mixer,

2. the base oil blend and flavouring oil (nut oil mix for examples 1 , 2 and olive oil for examples 3,4) were mixed in a second mixing bowl,

3 the water phase of step 1 was slowly added to the oil of step 2 under

continuous mixing by the immersion mixer for 30 seconds,

4 cream (examples 2, 4) or milk (examples 1 , 3) at a temperature of 5°C were slowly added, while mixing for another 30 seconds.

5 the warm (about 37°C) mixture of structuring fats was slowly added and mixed with the immersion mixer for 60 more seconds,

6 then the mixer was stopped and taken out of the bowl, and the obtained

emulsion (oil continuous) was left for 30 seconds,

7 the immersion mixer was used for another 45 seconds to further smoothen the emulsion, 8. the immersion mixer was taken out of the mixing bowl and the emulsion was immediately transferred to the ice cream machine, which was used with continuous stirring (setting....) for about 6 minutes. For examples 1 and 3 both stirring and cooling were on, for examples 2 and 4 only the stirring was on, and the cooling was off (though the bowl was pre-cooled, see under "preparation" above.

9. after about 6 minutes stirring was stopped and the ready product was removed from the ice cream machine

The mixing was continued (i.e. not interrupted) during steps 3, 4, 5 whilst the various ingredients were added / poured in.

Results

The resulting products had the appearance of a spread, the texture of a spread, and had a taste of a spread yet modified with the flavouring oils (nut oils, and olive oil with lemon).

The Stevens value of the spreads (9 different batches) was between 65 and 90 g, when measured directly after production (i.e. indicating spreadability).

Examples 5, 6

Two different spreads were made using the process as set out below and with the composition as in table 2, now with water as basis for the aqueous phase.

Table 2: composition of the spreads of examples 5 and 6, amounts in gram (and approximate weight % on final product).

Ingredient Example 5 Example 6

Base oil blend 31 1 (40%) 31 1 (40%)

Nut oil blend 15 (2%) -

Olive oil infused with 15 (2%)

lemon

Palm oil + wfSHstearin 170 (22%) 170 (22%)

Coconut oil 50 (6%) 50 (6%)

Water 195 (25%) 195 (25%) Carrot juice 36 (5%) 36 (5%)

Salt 3 (0.4%) 3 (0.4%)

Lemon juice 10 drops 10 drops

780 780

Base oil blend: 6% linseed oil, 59% sunflower oil, 35% rape seed oil (wt % on base oil blend).

Nut oil blend: 33.3% walnut oil, 33.3% hazelnut oil, 33.3% almond oil (wt % on nut oil blend).

Olive oil infused with lemon was an oil commercially available in Dutch supermarkets, and it was an olive oil which is infused with lemon flavour/aroma.

Palm oil: fully refined, as supplied by Cargill.

Coconut oil: refined, as supplied by Sime Darby - Unimills.

The palm oil and coconut oil were non-fractionated fats and oils as obtained from the supplier.

The structuring fat phase was palm oil and a wet-fractionated shea stearin fraction and coconut oil for examples 5 and 6.

Carrot juice (for consumer use, brand Zonnatura, obtained in a Dutch supermarket) was used as colouring agent, lemon juice of fresh lemons was used for acidification. No other ingredients, e.g. no mono- or diglyceride emulsifiers or lecithin was added.

Processing for examples 5 and 6 was identical. Preparation

The individual oils, the water, cream, milk and carrot juice were cooled in a refrigerator at 5°C (+/-2°).

An oven was preheated to 37°C (+/- 2°C), and the mixtures of the structuring fats (palm oil, shea fraction and coconut oil) were prepared and put in the oven until fully melted. The scraped surface heat exchanger (machine for domestic ice cream making:

Magimix ice maker "La Turbine a Glace", Compacte, type 1 1 194, volume 1 .6 liter) was pre-cooled for 20 minutes.

The hand held mixer in use was a domestic high speed kitchen immersion mixer ("staafmixer"), Braun, 300 watt.

Steps per batch (all amounts in gram as in table 2). 1. salt and carrot juice were added to water at 5°C in a bowl. 10 drops of lemon juice were added, and this was mixed with the hand held immersion mixer,

2. the base oil blend and flavouring oil (nut oil mix for example 5 and lemon- flavoured olive oil for example 6) were mixed in a second mixing bowl,

3. the water phase of step 1 was slowly added to the oil of step 2 under

continuous mixing by the immersion mixer for 60 seconds.

4. the warm (about 37°C) mixture of structuring fats was slowly added and mixed with the immersion mixer for 60 more seconds,

5. then the mixer was stopped and taken out of the bowl, and the obtained

emulsion (oil continuous) was left for 30 seconds,

6. the immersion mixer was used for another 45 seconds to further smoothen the emulsion,

7. the immersion mixer was taken out of the mixing bowl and the emulsion was immediately transferred to the ice cream machine, which was used with continuous stirring for about 6 minutes. For examples 5 and 6 both stirring and cooling were on,

8. after about 6 minutes stirring was stopped and the ready product was removed from the ice cream machine

The mixing was continued (i.e. not interrupted) during steps 3 and 4 whilst the various ingredients were added / poured in.

Results

The resulting products had the appearance of a spread, the texture of a spread, and had a taste of a spread yet modified with the flavouring oils (nut oils, and olive oil with lemon).