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Title:
PROCESS FOR RESOLVING MIXTURES OF CARBOCYCLIC STEREOISOMERS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1998/024741
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
A process for the preparation of carbocyclic stereoisomers of formulae (I), (I'), (IIA'), (IIB'), (VA') and (VB'), including enantiomerically pure (IIA'), (I) and (I') utilising fractional crystallisation of salts formed with a chiral base; a reducing agent; a protecting group removing agent or a protecting group providing agent.

Inventors:
Sickles, Barry Riddle (Glaxo Wellcome Inc, Five Moore Drive Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, US)
Ingold, Kenneth James (Glaxo Wellcome Inc, Five Moore Drive Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, US)
Wallis, Christopher John (Glaxo Wellcome plc, Gunnels Wood Road Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, GB)
Application Number:
PCT/EP1997/006782
Publication Date:
June 11, 1998
Filing Date:
December 04, 1997
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GLAXO GROUP LIMITED (Glaxo Wellcome House, Berkeley Avenue Greenford, Middlesex UB6 0NN, GB)
Sickles, Barry Riddle (Glaxo Wellcome Inc, Five Moore Drive Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, US)
Ingold, Kenneth James (Glaxo Wellcome Inc, Five Moore Drive Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, US)
Wallis, Christopher John (Glaxo Wellcome plc, Gunnels Wood Road Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, GB)
International Classes:
C07B57/00; C07C213/00; C07C215/42; C07C229/48; C07C269/06; C07C269/08; C07C271/24; C07D209/52; (IPC1-7): C07B57/00
Foreign References:
EP0590685A11994-04-06
Other References:
CSUK, RENE ET AL: "Biocatalytical transformations. IV. Enantioselective enzymic hydrolyses of building blocks for the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides" TETRAHEDRON: ASYMMETRY (1994), 5(2), 269-76 CODEN: TASYE3;ISSN: 0957-4166, 1994, XP002063687
DALUGE, SUSAN ET AL: "Synthesis of carbocyclic aminonucleosides" J. ORG. CHEM. (1978), 43(12), 2311-20 CODEN: JOCEAH;ISSN: 0022-3263, 1978, XP002063688
TAYLOR S J C ET AL: "DEVELOPMENT OF THE BIOCATALYTIC RESOLUTION OF 2-AZABICYCLO 2.2.1HEPT-5-EN-3-ONE AS AN ENTRY TO SINGLE -ENANTIOMERCARBOCYCLIC NUCLEOSIDES" TETRAHEDRON: ASYMMETRY, vol. 4, no. 6, 1993, pages 1117-1128, XP002041316
ALLAN R D ET AL: "SYNTHESIS OF ANALOGUES OF GABA. XV. PREPARATION AND RESOLUTION OF SOME POTENT CYCLOPENTENE AND CYCLOPENTANE DERIVATIVES" AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, vol. 39, no. 6, 1986, pages 855-864, XP000650953
S.J.C. TAYLOR ET AL.: "Chemoenzymatic synthesis of (-)-Carbovir using a whole cell catalyses resolution of 2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one" JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY, CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS., 1990, LETCHWORTH GB, pages 1120-1121, XP002063689 cited in the application
M KONISHI ET AL.: "Cispentacin, a new antifungal antibiotic" JOURNAL OF ANTIBIOTICS., vol. XLII, no. 12, 1989, TOKYO JP, pages 1749-1755, XP002063690
TOYOTA, AKEMI ET AL: "Synthesis of nucleotides and related compounds. Addition of molecular fluorine to bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene derivatives and conversion to fluorine-containing carbocyclic nucleosides" TETRAHEDRON LETT. (1994), 35(31), 5665-8 CODEN: TELEAY;ISSN: 0040-4039, 1994, XP002063691
See also references of EP 0946496A2
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Crawley, Karen (Glaxo Wellcome plc, Glaxo Wellcome House Berkeley Avenu, Greenford Middlesex UB6 0NN, GB)
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. A process for the manufacture of an enantiomerically pure compound of formula (11A') wherein P is a protecting group; comprising of the fractional crystallisation from a suitable solvent of a mixture of diastereomeric salts of the compound of formula (IIA') and the compound of formula (IIB') wherein P is a protecting group; with a base of formula (IV) wherein R, R' and R2 are independently selected from H or any hydrocarbyl group provided that the groups R, R' and R2 are each different.
2. A process for the manufacture of enantiomerically pure compound of formula (I') wherein P is a protecting group comprising, in addition to the process steps described in claim 1, reducing an enantiomerically pure compound of formula (IIA') with a reducing agent.
3. A process for the manufacture of enantiomerically pure compound of formula (I) wherein P is H comprising, in addition to the process steps described in claim 2, removal of the protecting group attached to enantiomerically pure compound of formula (I').
4. A process for the manufacture of an enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (IIA') and a compound of formula (IIB'). wherein P is a protecting group; comprising the hydrolysis of an enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (VA') and a compound of formula (VB'). wherein P is a protecting group.
5. A process for the manufacture of an enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (VA') and a compound of formula (VB') in which P is a protecting group, comprising the addition of a protecting group to an enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (VA) and a compound of formula (VB) by treatment with an appropriate reagent.
6. A process for the manufacture of an enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (IIA') and a compound of formula (IIB'). wherein P is a protecting group; comprising the addition of a protecting group to an enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (VA) and a compound of formula (VB) by treatment with an appropriate reagent, and the subsequent hydrolysis of the product in a single 'onepot' reaction.
7. A process as claimed in either claim 1 or 2 wherein the groups R, R' and R2 in the compound of formula (IV) are independently selected from H, C, alkyl, C26 alkenyl, C26 alkynyl, aryl, C16 alkylaryl and C36 cycloalkyl.
8. A process as claimed claim 7 wherein the compound of formula (IV) is (R) (+)1 phenylethylamine.
9. A process as claimed in any of claims 1, 2, 4, 5 or 6 wherein the protecting group P is selected from the group consisting of C1C6 alkyloxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, C2C6 alkenyloxycarbonyl, C16 alkylaryloxycarbonyl and C36 cycloalkyloxycarbonyl.
10. 1 0.A process as claimed in claim 8 wherein the protecting group P is tertbutoxycarbonyl.
Description:
Process for Resolving Mixtures of Carbocyclic Stereoisomers The present invention relates to processes for the preparation of compounds of formula (I) or of formula (I'), substantially free of the corresponding enantiomer, involving resolving an enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (I IA') and a compound of formula (IIB') by formation of a salt with an optically pure base and fractional crystallisation.

Enantiomerically pure compounds of formula (I) and (II) (I) wherein P is H, (I') wherein P is a protecting group; are used as intermediates in the manufacture of (-)-(1 S, 4R)4-[2-amino4- (cyclopropylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-cyclopentene-1 -methanol (1 592U89), a compound currently undergoing clinical investigation as an anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) drug.

The compound 1592U89 is described in EP 0434450 and has the following structure: There exists, at the present time, the need to synthesise large quantities of 1 5J2v89 for clinical trials. In the fÜturU, once 1 592us9 has been approved by the national medicines regulatory agencies, for example the Food and Drug Administration in the US, large quantities of 1592U89 will be required for sale as a prescription medicine for the treatment of HIV infections.

Such processes for the manufacture of 1592U89 using enantiomerically pure compounds of formula (I) are described generally in GB patent application No.

9607052.9 and PCT Application No. WO91/15490.

An alternative to such synthetic routes would be to synthesise 1592U89 using enantiomerically mixed intermediates and then resolve the final product, such as described in Example 7 of EP 0434450. However, such a route is not economically viable since purification techniques are not sufficiently efficient to resolve the mixture on such a large scale and would lead to wastage of the final product not in the desired enantiomeric form.

At present there exists two commercially viable routes for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure compounds of formula (I). A) cb : HO,C:Tf NY (VA) (IIA) (IlA) o (Racemic) (VB) (VB) B) H¼2c-y NH2 (IlA) (IIA) (VA) Route A) is an enantioselective hydrolysis of the racemic lactam (VA and VB) using selective enzymes (lactamases) to produce the desired enantiomerically purelenriched aminocyclopentene carboxylic acid (I IA), such processes are described in European Patent No. 0424064.

Route B) is a non-selective hydrolysis of enantiomerically purelenriched lactam to produce the desired enantiomerically purelenriched aminocyclopentene carboxylic acid (I IA). Processes for producing enantiomerically purelenriched lactam are described in European Patent No. 0424064 and Taylor et al J.

Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. (1990) 112b.

The compound of formula (IIA) may be converted to the compound of formula (I) by reduction with reagents capable of converting carboxylic acids to alcohols, for example lithium aluminium hydride or borane.

Routes A) and B) are unsatisfactory, producing the amino cyclopentene carboxylic acid (IIA) at a relatively high cost since routes A) and B) involve the use of expensive enzyme technology.

We have found a fast, efficient and cost effective resolution process for enantiomeric mixtures of the compound of formula (I IA') and the compound of formula (lIB'), defined below, thus producing the required enantiomer of formula (IIA') at low cost and high yield and, therefore, avoiding the expense of route A) or B).

The process involves the reaction of a chiral base in solution with an enantiomeric mixture of N-protected-cis-4-amino-2-cyclopentene-l -carboxylic acid the compound of formula (IIA') and the compound of formula (IIB'); wherein P is a protecting group; to produce: in a diastereoselective manner by fractional crystallisation. the salt of the compound of formula (IIA') as a substantially pure diastereomer.

Thus presented as the first feature of the present invention is a process for the manufacture of an enantiomerically pure compound of formula (IIA')

wherein P is a protecting group; comprising the fractional crystallisation from a suitable solvent of a mixture of the diastereomeric salts of the compound of formula (IIA') and the compound of formula (lIB') wherein P is a protecting group; formed with a base of formula (IV) wherein R, R', and R2 are independently selected from H or any hydrocarbyl group provided that each R, R', and R2 group is different.

Preferably R, R1 and R2 are independently selected from H, C1 alkyl, C2 alkenyl, C2-6 alkynyl, aryl, C1-6 alkylaryl and C36 cycloalkyl.

Particularly preferred are compounds of formula (IV) wherein R is H, R1 is methyl and R2 is phenyl. The compound of formula (IV) is preferably (R)-(+)-1 - phenylethylamine.

By use of the term aryl it is meant either phenyl, optionally substituted phenyl, or naphthyl, preferably phenyl.

Suitable solvents in which to produce and crystallise the diastereomerically pure salts include water; C1-6 alkanols such as ethanol, ethanol, 2-propanoi, 1 - propanol and 1-butanol; C36 alkylmethylketones such as acetone and methyl

iso-butyl ketone; cyclic ethers such as dioxane and tetrahydrofuran; mixtures of any of these; aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene and xylene; C68 cycloalkanes such as cyclohexane; Cos10 alkanes such as n-hexane and n- heptane; and alkyl nitriles such as acetonitrile. Particularly preferred solvents are ethanol and 2-propanol and mixtures of these solvents.

By the term fractional crystallisation it is meant that either the diastereomerically pure salt of the desired compound of formula (I IA') crystallises leaving the diastereomer salt of undesired compound of formula (IIB') in solution or all undesired forms crystallise first leaving the diastereomerically pure salt of the desired compound of formula (IIA') in solution.

By the term substantially pure it is meant that the undesired enantiomer or diastereomer is present to the extent of less than 10% w/w and preferably to the extent of less than 5% w/w.

The salt of the compound of formula (IIA') is readily isolatable by, for example, filtration.

Enantiomerically pure compound of formula (IIA') can be obtained from the diastereomerically pure salt by neutralisation with a mineral acid such as hydrochloric, sulphuric or phosphoric acid.

As a further optional step, the compound of formula (IIA) can be subsequently produced by removing the protecting group of the compound of formula (IIA') with standard methodology such as described in Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, Green and Wuts, 2nd Ed., 1991 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The compound of formula tIIA) may be easily converted to the compound of formula (II) by reduction with reagents capable of converting carboxylic acids to alcohols, for example lithium aluminium hydride or borane, preferably borane.

This process step represents a further feature of the invention.

1 he enantiomeric mixture of compounds of formuia (ill') and (11(3') may be synthesised either:

a) by addition of a protecting group to an enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (IIA) and a compound of formula (IIB) by treatment with an appropriate reagent.

b) from enantiomeric mixtures of the compound of formula (VA') and the compound of formula (VB') wherein P is a protecting group; by hydrolysis of the cyclic amide bond.

The enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (VA') and a compound of formula (VB') may be synthesised from an enantiomeric mixture of a compound of formula (VA) and a compound of formula (VB) by addition of a protecting group by treatment with an appropriate reagent.

Mixtures of compounds of formula (VA) and (VB), preferably a racemic mixture (the racemic lactam), are commercially available.

Suitable protecting groups include those described in Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, Green and Wuts, 2nd Ed., 1991 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. as well as methods for their formation and cleavage. Preferred protecting groups are C1-C6 alkyloxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C6 alkenyloxycarbonyl, C1-6 <BR> <BR> <BR> aikylaryloxycarbonyl and C3-6 cy(;ioalkyloxyrbonyi. By use of the ter,l, dI aryi il is

meant either phenyl, optionally substituted phenyl or naphthyl. A particularly preferred protecting group is the tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) group.

The addition of the protecting group to mixtures of compounds of formula (VA) and (VB) and subsequent hydrolysis to mixtures of compounds to formula (IIA') and (IIB') occurs in a single "one-pot" reaction without the need to isolate the mixtures of compounds of formula (VA') and (VB') prior to hydrolysis. This represents a further feature of the invention.

The following scheme illustrates the invention using a specific protecting group, tert-butoxycarbonyl, and using (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine as the base, and is not intended to limit the scope of the invention. - (Boc)20, DMAP 2 1M NaOH (let). 20 o THF IBoc 2. 2.1MHC(1eq). 2 HO2c, ..NHBoc Me NHBic (1) Racemic lactam (2) Not isolated MH )1RNH2 IPA Me Me HO2C,, X NHBoc X NH2 + Ho2c¼NHB.oc HNH2 Recrystallise from propan-2-ol/;ethanol { Me H°2C ~X~ %½$HNH2 a 2M H,PO HOH2C~ NHBoc BH3. THF HO2C s NHBoc (6) (5) O Me KEY: Boc= o I/ Me

The following examples are intended to illustrate the invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

As used herein the terms listed have the following meanings: DMAP is 4-dimethylaminopyridine, THF is tetrahydrofuran.

Examples Example 1 - Preparation of racemic cisA-[[(1,I-Dimethylethoxy)carbonyl] amino]-2-cyclopentene -I -carboxylic acid (3) Di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (968g) was added to a stirred solution of racemic 2-aza bicyclo[2.2. I ]hept-5-ene-3-one (1)(4409) in tetrahydrofuran (THF)(1800ml). A catalytic amount of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)(4.9g) was added as a single bolus and the solution stirred at ca 25-300C until the evolution of carbon dioxide had ceased. A solution of sodium hydroxide (177.4g) in water (4400ml) was added to the thus formed 3-oxo-2-azabicydo2.2. 1 ]hept-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 1,1 -dimethylethyl ester (2) and the reaction heated to 400C for 15 hours.

The reaction mixture was cooled and partitioned with toluene (3500ml). The phases were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with more toluene (1700ml). The aqueous layer was treated with activated charcoal (44g) at ambient temperature, filtered and then acidified to pH3.6 with concentrated hydrochloric acid (400ml). The precipitated product was filtered off, washed with water (400ml) then dried in vacuo at 500C. The yield of 4-[1(1,1- dimethylethoxy)carbonyl] amino]-2-cyclopentene-1 -carboxylic acid was 882g, 96% of theory. Mp 1 25-280C.

Example 2 - Preparation of (1 S-cis)-4-[[(1 , I -dimethylethoxy)carbonyl] amino]-2-cyclopentene-1 -carboxylic acid, compound with (R)-(+)-1 - phenylethylamine (4) To a hot solution of racemic 4-[[(1 ,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-2 cyclopentene -1-carboxylic acid (3)(227.3g) in propan-2-ol (784ml) and ethanol (174ml) was added (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine (90.89g). The solution was cooled to ambient temperature and the resulting solid filtered off, washed with cold propan-2-ol (4 x 100ml) and dried in vacuo at 450C. The yield of (R)-(+)-1 - phenylethylamine salt was 126.449, 36% of theory. HPLC analysis (Chiracel OD column) indicated a 96.8:3.2 ratio of enantiomeric acids.

The above (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine salt was dissolved in a mixture of propan-2-ol (567ml) and ethanol (126ml) under reflux. The solution was cooled to approximately 600C, seeded, and cooled further to ambient temperature. The product was filtered off, washed with cold propan-2-ol (4 x 100ml) and dried in vacuo at 450C. The yield of (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine salt (4) was 103.39, 85% of theory, Mp 173-40C HPLC analysis (Chiracel OD column) indicated a 99.83:0.17 ratio of enantiomeric acids.

Example 3 - Preparation of (1S-cis)4-[«1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl] amino]-2-cyclopentene-1 -carboxylic acid (5) To a suspension of (1 S-cis)-4-[[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-2- cyclopentene-1-carboxylic acid (4), compound with (R)-(+)-1 -phenylethylamine (34.849) in toluene (100ml) and water (100ml) was added dropwise, over 5min, phosphoric acid (11.539). Ethyl acetate (200ml) was added and a clear biphasic mixture obtained. The phases were separated and the organic layer concentrated in vacuo at approximately 500C to about one quarter of the original volume. The solution was cooled to ambient temperature and the resulting solid filtered off, washed with toluene (50ml) followed by 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (50ml) then dried in vacuo at 350C. The yield of (1 S-cis)-tt(1 1 -dimethyl ethoxy)carbonyliamino]-2-cyclopentene-1 -carboxylic acid was 21.019, 92% of theory, Mp = 153-50C.

Example 4 - Preparation of (IR-cis)-[4-(hydroxymethyl )-2-cyclopentene-1 - yl]carbamic acid, 1,1-dimethylethyl ester (6) To a solution of (1S-cis)-4-[[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-2- cyclopentene-1 -carboxylic acid (113.59) in tetrahydrofuran (800ml) at -1 50C under nitrogen was added dropwise over 1 hour a solution of borane/tetrahydrofuran complex in tetrahydrofuran (500ml of 1.0M solution). The reaction was stirred for 3 hours whereupon a solution of sodium hydroxide (40g) in water (400ml) was added at -1 50C, the mixture allowed to attain ambient temperature and stirring continued for a further 2 hours. Water (200ml) and toluene (500ml) were added and the biphasic mixture separated. The organic phase was washed with 1 N hydrochloric acid (200ml) followed by water (200ml) then concentrated in vacua. The resulting oil was crystallised from a mixture of toluene (110ml) and hexane (180ml). The product was collected by filtration, washed with a mixture of toluene and hexane (1:1, 50ml) and dried in vacuo at 350C. The yield of (1R-cis)-j4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-cyclopentene-1 -yl]carbamic acid, 1,1 -dimethylethyl ester was 54.0g, 51% of theory. Mp = 68-700C.

A further 22.0g of product was recovered from the crystallisation liquors.