Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
PROCESS FOR THE SELECTIVE DEPROTONATION AND FUNCTIONALIZATION OF 1-FLUORO-2-SUBSTITUTED-3-CHLOROBENZENES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2009/089310
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
1-Fluoro-2-substituted-3-chlorobenzenes are selectively deprotonated and functionalized in the position adjacent to the fluoro substituent.

Inventors:
ARNDT, Kim (13563 Spring Farms Drive, Carmel, IN, 46032, US)
EMONDS, Mark (2561 Wilder Road, Midland, MI, 48642-8701, US)
RENGA, James (5801 North Central Avenue, Indianapolis, IN, 46220, US)
OPPENHEIMER, Jossian (1501 Carolina Street, Midland, MI, 48642, US)
Application Number:
US2009/030372
Publication Date:
July 16, 2009
Filing Date:
January 08, 2009
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
DOW AGROSCIENCES LLC (9330 Zionsville Road, Indianapolis, IN, 46268-1054, US)
ARNDT, Kim (13563 Spring Farms Drive, Carmel, IN, 46032, US)
EMONDS, Mark (2561 Wilder Road, Midland, MI, 48642-8701, US)
RENGA, James (5801 North Central Avenue, Indianapolis, IN, 46220, US)
OPPENHEIMER, Jossian (1501 Carolina Street, Midland, MI, 48642, US)
International Classes:
C07F1/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2009029735A12009-03-05
WO2004024663A12004-03-25
Foreign References:
EP1878717A12008-01-16
Other References:
SCHLOSSER ET AL: "Organometallics in Synthesis, A Manual passage", ORGANOMETALLICS IN SYNTHESIS. A MANUAL, XX, XX, 1 January 2002 (2002-01-01), pages 223 - 247,341, XP002228264
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MIXAN, Craig (9330 Zionsville Rd, Indianapolis, Indiana, 46268, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A process for the preparation of a lithiobenzene of Formula I

wherein

X represents F, OR 1 or NR 2 R 3 ;

Y represents H or F; and

R 1 , R 2 and R 3 independently represents a Ci-C 4 alkyl group; which comprises contacting a substituted fluorobenzene of Formula II

wherein X, Y, R 1 , R 2 and R 3 are as previously defined with an alkyl lithium in an inert organic solvent.

2. The process of Claim 1 in which the alkyl lithium is H-butyl lithium.

3. The process of Claim 1 in which the inert organic solvent is an hydrocarbon, an ether or mixtures thereof.

4. The process of Claim 1 in which X represents OR 1 .

5. The process of Claim 1 in which the reaction mixture is further contacted with an electrophilic reagent.

6. The process of Claim 5 in which the electrophilic reagent is boronic acid esters, carbon dioxide, N,N-dialkylformamides or alkyl formates.

7. A compound of the formula

wherein

X represents OR 1 or NR 2 R 3 ;

Y represents H or F;

Z represents -CO 2 H or -CHO; and

R 1 , R 2 and R 3 independently represents a Ci-C 4 alkyl group.

8. The compounds of Claim 7 in which X represents OCH 3 and Y represents H.

Description:

PROCESS FOR THE SELECTIVE DEPROTONATION AND

FUNCTIONALIZATION OF 1-FLUORO-2-SUBSTITUTED-3-

CHLOROBENZENES

This application claims the benefit of United States Provisional Application Serial Number 61/010,918 filed on January 11, 2008. The present invention concerns a process for the selective deprotonation and functionalization in the position adjacent to the fluoro substituent of certain l-fluoro-2-substituted- 3-chlorobenzenes.

U.S. Patents 7,314,849 and 7,300,907 describe respectively certain 6- (poly-substituted aryl)-4-aminopicolinate and 2-(poly-substituted aryl)-6-amino-4- pyrimidinecarboxylic acid compounds and their use as herbicides. 2-Fluoro-3- substituted-4-chlorophenylboronic acid derivatives are useful intermediates for the preparation of these herbicides.

In U.S. Patents 7,314,849 and 7,300,907, for instance, 2-fluoro-3- substituted-4-chlorophenyl-boronic acids derivatives are prepared by halogen- metal exchange of l-bromo-2-fluoro-3-substituted-4-chlorobenzenes with H -butyl lithium followed by quenching with a boronic acid ester.

It would be advantageous to produce these materials by direct deprotonation rather than by halogen-metal exchange. This allows the use, for instance, of less complex starting materials and avoids the formation of a brominated waste stream.

The present invention concerns the highly selective deprotonation of 1- fluoro-2-substituted-3-chlorobenzenes in the position adjacent to the fluoro substituent with alkyl lithium compounds. The resulting lithiobenzenes are further derivatized or functionalized by reaction with electrophilic reagents. More

particularly, the present invention concerns a process for the preparation of a lithiobenzene of Formula I

wherein

X represents F, OR 1 or NR 2 R 3 ;

Y represents H or F; and

R 1 , R 2 and R 3 independently represents a Ci-C 4 alkyl group;

which comprises contacting a substituted fluorobenzene of Formula II

wherein X, Y, R 1 , R 2 and R 3 are as previously defined

with an alkyl lithium in an inert organic solvent. In another aspect of the present invention, the lithiobenzenes are further contacted with an electrophilic reagent. Preferred electrophilic reagents include esters of boronic acid, carbon dioxide, N,N- dialkylformamides and alkyl formates .

-?-

The term alkyl and derivative terms such as alkoxy, as used herein, include straight chain, branched chain and cyclic groups. Thus, typical alkyl groups are methyl, ethyl, 1-methylethyl, propyl, cyclopropyl, butyl, 1,1- dimethylethyl, cyclobutyl and 1-methylpropyl. Methyl and ethyl are often preferred. Alkyl groups are sometimes referred to as normal(«), iso (/), secondary (s), or tertiary (t).

The l-fluoro-2-substituted-3-chlorobenzene starting materials are known compounds and can be prepared by procedures well known to those skilled in the art.

Selective deprotonation in the position adjacent to the fluoro substituent is achieved by contacting the l-fluoro-2-substituted-3-chlorobenzene starting material with an alkyl lithium in an inert organic solvent.

The alkyl lithium compound serves as a strong base. Any alkyl lithium compound can be employed; commercially available alkyl lithium compounds like methyl lithium, H-butyl lithium and s-butyl lithium are preferred. While complete conversion would require one equivalent of the alkyl lithium base, it is often more beneficial to conduct the reaction with a slight excess of the alkyl lithium. Typically a 1 to a 10 percent molar excess of alkyl lithium is preferred with a 2 to a 5 percent molar excess being more preferred.

The reaction is conducted under anhydrous conditions in an inert organic solvent, i.e., an organic material in which the reactants are at least partially soluble and which is chemically inert to the reactants. By being chemically inert to the reactants is meant that the solvent is at least less reactive than the l-fluoro-2- substituted-3-chlorobenzenes are to the strong alkyl lithium base. Suitable inert organic solvents include C 5 -C 8 straight-chain, branched or cyclic hydrocarbons, such as pentanes, hexanes, cyclohexane and ώø-octane, and ethers, such as diethyl

ether, tetrahydrofuran, dioxane and glycol ethers. Ethers are generally preferred. Mixtures of hydrocarbons and ethers are often preferred, with mixtures of tetrahydrofuran or 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane and commercial mixtures of octanes being most preferred. The deprotonation is conducted at a temperature from - 100 0 C to O 0 C depending upon the nature of the substituent X, the solvent and the alkyl lithium employed. The optimal temperature can be readily determined by routine optimization. For example, when X is F or Cl, the preferred temperature for deprotonation is from -100 0 C to -5O 0 C. When X is OR 1 or NR 2 R 3 , the preferred temperature for deprotonation is from -7O 0 C to -5O 0 C.

The process is not sensitive to pressure and is usually carried out at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. The process is preferably conducted under a dry inert atmosphere such as that provided by a nitrogen blanket.

The lithiobenzenes of Formula I are not typically isolated but, are reacted with an electrophilic reagent. An electrophilic reagent is defined as a reagent that seeks a pair of electrons. Suitable electrophilic reagents include but are not limited to bromine, iodine, sulfur, disulfides, sulfur dioxide, boronic acid esters, carbon dioxide, sulfuryl halides, phosphoryl halides, aldehydes, amides and alkyl or acyl halides. Boronic acid esters, carbon dioxide, N,N-dialkyl-formamides and alkyl formates are particularly preferred electrophilic reagents. The lithiobenzene reaction mixture can be cooled and the electrophilic reagent added to the reaction solution. Alternatively, the lithiobenzene can be added to the electrophilic reagent at -7O 0 C to -50°C when X represents OR 1 or NR 2 R 3 and at -100°C to -6O 0 C when X represents F or Cl. The final product, whose properties will depend upon the nature of the electrophilic reagent, can be isolated and recovered by conventional procedures well known to those skilled in the art.

In a typical reaction, a l-fluoro-2-substituted-3-chlorobenzene starting material is dissolved in a dry ethereal solvent under a nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture is cooled and the alkyl lithium compound is added; the reaction mixture is allowed to stir until deprotonation is complete. The reaction mixture is again cooled and then treated with an electrophilic reagent. After the lithiobenzene is completely quenched, the reaction mixture is worked up to recover the product.

The following examples are presented to illustrate the invention.

EXAMPLES

1. Preparation of 2-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxy-phenyl)- [ 1 ,3 ,21-dioxaborinane r diol

To a solution of 2-chloro-6-fluoroanisole (100 g) in 1 liter (L) of dry 1,2- dimethoxyethane (DME), cooled to -70 0 C, was added 274 milliliters (niL) of 2.5 M H-BuLi in hexane over 12 minutes (min) with good magnetic stirring. During the addition the reaction warmed to -58°C. The dry ice bath was removed and the reaction allowed to warm to -50 0 C for 20 min to allow a small amount of a white solid to dissolve. A small sample was drawn up directly into a 1 mL syringe containing 0.15 mL of MeSSMe. The sample was diluted with ether and extracted with water. The organic phase was checked by GC. Only 4% starting material was present in the scan.

The solution was cooled to -70 0 C, before adding 74.4 grams (g) of trimethyl borate, dropwise. The addition took 15 min and the temperature was

held below -45°C. The colorless solution was warmed to 0° C with a warm water bath before 140 g of 37% aq. HCl was added nearly at once. The near colorless solution gave off a gas and reached 27°C and was stirred for 20 min before transferring the two phase mixture to a separatory funnel. The lower viscous water layer (285 mL) was separated and reserved. The organic phase was placed in a 2 L roto-vap flask and 62 g of 1,3-propanediol was added to the cloudy colorless solution. The reserved water layer was extracted once with 300 mL of ether and the phases were separated into 195 mL of the aqueous fraction and 390 mL of organic phase. The organic phase was added into the 2 L roto-vap flask. This cloudy solution was concentrated and warmed to 60-70 0 C to give an near colorless oil with some water present. The mixture was taken into 700 mL of methylene chloride, dried with MgSO 4 , filtered and concentrated to 156 g of a colorless oil. 1 H NMR and GC indicated 5% by weight of excess propanediol.

The oil was heated on the Kugelrohr at 10-12 mm Hg vacuum to 160 0 C for ten minutes. Some light material came over and the sample weighed 152 g. GC showed a 2% improvement in purity to 94.2%. 1 H NMR (CDCl 3, 300 MHz): δ 7.15 (dd,lH, J=6.0, 8.3 Hz,), 6.95 (dd, 1H,J=1.3, 8.3 Hz), 4.05 (t, 4H, J=5.7), 3.8 (s, 3H), 1.95 (m, 2H, J=5.7 Hz).

2. Preparation of 4-chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenylboronic acid

A solution of 2-chloro-6-fluoroanisole (40.2 g) in anhydrous 1,2- dimethoxyethane (313 mL) was prepared in a 1 -liter three- necked flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer, thermowell with thermocouple temperature probe, a rubber septum, and a condenser with a nitrogen pad. The solution was stirred and cooled to -69.6 0 C using a dry ice/acetone bath. A solution of butyllithium (115 mL of 2.5 M butyllithium in hexanes) was added slowly over 4.15 hours using a syringe pump, maintaining the reaction temperature below -65 0 C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at -70.3 0 C to -72.6 0 C, then trimethyl borate (43 mL) was added slowly over 1.6 hours using a syringe pump, maintaining temperature below -65 0 C. Upon completion of the trimethyl borate addition, the reaction mixture was allowed to slowly warm to ambient temperature overnight.

A solution of potassium hydroxide in water (69.2 g of 45% KOH solution diluted with 485 mL of deionized water) was added to the reaction mixture (at ambient temperature = 23.3 0 C) over 26 minutes using an addition funnel. The mixture was stirred for 60 minutes, and then it was transferred to a separatory funnel where the phases were allowed to separate. The aqueous layer was washed with fe?t-butyl methyl ether (2 x 305 mL) to remove unreacted 2-chloro-6- fluoroanisole. The aqueous layer was then transferred to a 1 -liter Erlenmeyer flask and acidified by the drop wise addition of 6 M aqueous hydrochloric acid (161 mL). The mixture first turns milky, then the bulk of the product separates as a yellow oil. The product was extracted from the acidified mixture using ethyl acetate (2 x 304 mL). The ethyl acetate layers were combined, washed with

saturated aqueous sodium chloride (304 mL), dried with anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated on a rotary evaporator to obtain a white solid. The solid product was dried in vacuo overnight at ambient temperature to obtain 45.1 g of 4-chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenylboronic acid (88.3% yield); MP. 233- 234°C; 1 H NMR (CD 3 CN, 300 MHz) δ 3.92 (d, 3H, J HF = 1.2 Hz), 6.25 (br s, 2H), 7.23 (dd, IH, / = 8.1, 1.5 Hz), 7.35 (dd, IH, / = 8.1, 6.2 Hz) ppm.

3. Alternate Preparation of 4-chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenylboronic acid solution in acetonitrile

A solution of 2-chloro-6-fluoroanisole (9.6 g) in anhydrous 1,2- dimethoxyethane (75 mL) was prepared in a 100-mL three-necked flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer, thermowell with thermocouple temperature probe, a rubber septum, and a condenser with a nitrogen pad. The solution was stirred and cooled to -71.O 0 C using a dry ice/acetone bath. A solution of butyllithium (31.5 mL of 2.5 M butyllithium in hexanes) was added slowly over 1.57 hours using a syringe pump, maintaining the reaction temperature below -65 0 C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at -72.O 0 C to -73.4 0 C, then trimethyl borate (10.5 mL) was added slowly over 43 minutes using a syringe pump, maintaining temperature below -65 0 C. Upon completion of the trimethyl borate addition, the reaction mixture was allowed to slowly warm to ambient temperature overnight.

A solution of potassium hydroxide in water (133 mL of 5.6% aqueous potassium hydroxide, approximately 1 M) was added to the reaction mixture (at ambient temperature = 23.1 0 C) over 17 minutes using an addition funnel. The

mixture was stirred for 60 minutes, and then it was transferred to a separatory funnel where the phases were allowed to separate. The aqueous layer was washed with tert-buty\ methyl ether (2 x 73 mL) to remove unreacted 2-chloro-6- fluoroanisole. The aqueous layer was then transferred to a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask, diluted with acetonitrile (76 mL), and acidified by the drop wise addition of 6 M aqueous hydrochloric acid (40 mL). The organic layer (27.87 g) was separated and found to contain 5.00 g of the product 4-chloro-2-fluoro-3- methoxyphenylboronic acid by gas chromatographic assay. The aqueous layer was extracted with additional acetonitrile (2 x 76 mL) and the two additional organic layers (24.88 g and 156.48 g) were likewise assayed. The total recovered product in acetonitrile solution was 9.85 g (80.3% yield).

4. Preparation of 4-chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxybenzoic acid

To a magnetically stirred solution of 2-chloro-6-fluoroanisole (16.06 g) in 100 mL of anhydrous DME, cooled to -70 0 C, was added 44 mL of 2.5 M H-BuLi in hexanes over 30 min, while keeping the reaction temperature below -55°C. After stirring the reaction for an additional 60 min at -70 0 C, dry carbon dioxide was bubbled into the reaction mixture for 60 min, while keeping the temperature below -60 0 C. Upon warming to room temperature, the reaction mixture was added to 150 mL of ether and acidified with 37% aq. HCl. The aqueous layer was washed with 2x150 mL of ether, and the combined organic layers were washed with sat. NaCl and were dried (Mg 2 SO 4 ). Solvent removal gave 20.3 g of a white solid, which was recrystallized from ether/hexane to give 16.4 g (80 % yield) of 4- chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxybenzoic acid; MP 183-184°C; 1 H NMR (d 6 -DMSO,

300 MHz) δ 13.5 (brs, IH), 7.60 (dd, IH, J = 1.8, 8.8 Hz), 7.42 (dd, IH, J = I. 8.8 Hz), 3.95 (s, 3 H).

5. Preparation of 4-chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

3 ) HCl /water

To a solution of 2-chloro-6-fluoroanisole (321.2 g) in 2 L of dry tetrahydrofuran (THF), cooled to -70 0 C, was added 890 mL of 2.5 M H-BuLi in hexane over 30 min with good mechanical stirring. During the addition the reaction warmed to -48 to -50 0 C and was held there for 15 min after addition was complete. The solution was cooled to -75°C before a solution of 177 g of dimethylformamide (DMF) in 100 mL of THF was added keeping the temperature below -50 0 C. The reaction was warmed to room temperature and 260 g of 37% aqueous HCl was slowly added and stirring was continued for 2 hours. The phases were separated and the organic phase concentrated and taken into 2 L of ether. The solution was washed twice with 500 mL of aqueous 10% HCl. The organic phase was dried over MgSO 4 , filtered and concentrated to 372 g of a light gold oil (93% pure by GC). This oil was distilled bulb to bulb to give 282 g (75% yield) of a light gold oil that solidified upon standing. A small sample was crystallized from pentane to give fine white needles; MP 44-45°C; 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ 10.3 (s, IH); 7.5 (dd,lH, J = 6.6, 8.5 Hz); 7.3 (m, IH); 4.0 (s, 3H).