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Title:
PROCESS AND SYSTEM FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF VEGETABLE DOUGH
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/224871
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A process and system is provided for the manufacture of vegetable dough using only water as an ingredient of the dough, and for a time interval ranging between 5 minutes and up to 10 minutes, wherein the vegetable is selected from vegetables and grains.

Inventors:
CARIDIS, Andrew Anthony (Madera Avenue 31, San Carlos, CA, 94070, US)
ARAO TOYOHARA, Ernesto Isam (Lomas del Libano, 2158Col. Lomas de Atemaja, Zapopan Jalisco, 45178, MX)
SANDOVAL AVILA, Jesús Adolfo (Marino Mosco, 7Col. Presidentes Ejidale, Coyoacán Ciudad de México, 04470, MX)
GONZÁLEZ GRANADOS, Sergio (Emiliano Zapata, 311 Interior 2Col. Las Liebre, Tlaquepaque Jalisco, 45588, MX)
GÓMEZ ANGULO, Miguel Angel (Dr Toribio Gonzalez, 559Col. Villa de los Belene, Zapopan Jalisco, 45150, MX)
LORENZANA SAUCEDO, Mario (Monserrat, 80Col. Coto Monserrat,Fraccionamiento Loret, Tlaquepaque Jalisco, 45602, MX)
LORENZANA GUERRERO, Arturo (Cerrada del Armadillo, 71Col. 2da Seccion Bugambilia, Zapopan Jalisco, 45238, MX)
Application Number:
IB2017/055566
Publication Date:
December 13, 2018
Filing Date:
September 14, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
HEAT AND CONTROL, INC. (Cabot Boulevard, 21121Hayward, CA, 94545, US)
International Classes:
A21D10/02; A21D10/04; A21D13/04; A21D13/42; A23L7/10
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A manufacturing process for vegetable dough comprising: pulverize by means of a micro cutter a dehydrated raw vegetable to obtain particles (flour) with different granulometries; separate and classify the particles (flour) according to their granulometry; gelatinize by means of cutting and friction the starches present in the particles (flour) mixing the particles (flour) classified with water to obtain a vegetable dough.

2. The process for manufacturing vegetable dough according to claim 1, wherein the raw vegetable is selected from the group of tubers, vegetables, legumes or grains, wherein the grain Is dehydrated com grain. 3. The process for manufacturing vegetable dough according to claim 2, wherein prior to pulverizing the raw dehydrated vegetable grain, the method comprises the step of separating ferrous materials from the com grain by means of a magnetic trap.

4. The process for manufacturing vegetable dough according to claim 2, wherein prior to pulverizing the raw dehydrated vegetable grain, the raw dehydrated corn grain Is subjected to a dry polish to separate the sub product from the dehydrated grain; wherein said dry polishing Is achieved by means of a degermlnator machine comprising an entry gate and an exit gate, through the entry gate the grain Is fed by means of a worm to a polishing chamber, once the polishing chamber becomes full, the raw vegetable Is propelled against a rotor and Is brushed against some perforated meshes of a screening drum, the retention of the grain within the polishing chamber Is adjusted to the exit gate by moving two counterweights, causing the sub product to become detached; wherein said removed sub product Is transported, classified and stored for Its later use within the process or may be treated as waste.

5. The process for manufacturing vegetable dough according to claim 2, wherein the raw dehydrated vegetable Is subjected to a precut step, wherein raw pre cut vegetable is obtained which presents smaller sizes than the original size; wherein said precut Is obtained from a precuttlng machine, which comprises a plurality of flaps of a driver which drive the grain at a high speed against a plurality of vertical knife blades.

6. The process for manufacturing vegetable dough according to claim 2. wherein the degermlnated raw polished vegetable Is fed to the cutting step at a variable feeding speed; wherein the pulverizing Is carried out by means of a micro cutting machine, In such a way that the time during which the raw vegetable remains In the micro cutting machine during the pulverizing step Is lesser than one second; wherein the raw vegetable particles are extracted from the micro cutting machine by means of a pressure differential system and wherein said a pressure differential system uses both positive and negative pressure.

7. The process for manufacturing vegetable dough according to claim 2, wherein the granulometry of the raw vegetable particles (flour) are sorted according to the required size; wherein said sorting is achieved by means of a vibratory sorter comprising at least one mesh; wherein the particles are stored In storage tanks, one per each one of the raw vegetable particle granulometrles (flour) and one for the sub product.

8. The process for manufacturing vegetable dough according to claim 2, wherein prior to the gelatinizing step a weighing step Is carried out In a weighing device, to achieve adequate size combination of the partldes and water; wherein lime is added to the weighing device in an amount from 0.3 to 2.5 % by total weight; wherein sub product Is added to the weighing device; wherein said sub product can be complete or in sub particles.

9. The process for manufacturing vegetable dough according to claim 2, wherein a sub product Is fed to the gelatinizing step; wherein lime Is fed to the gelatinizing step In an amount from 0.3 to 2.5 % by total weight; and wherein the total time for the process lasts between 5 minutes and up to 30 minutes. 10. Manufacturing system for vegetable dough comprising: a micro cutting machine comprising a head with vertical knife blades, by means of which the raw dehydrated vegetable Is pulverized In order to obtain particles with different granulometries; a separator and a sorter for dehydrated raw vegetable particles, through which the particles are separated and sorted according to their size; a gelatinizer comprising in its inner part an arrow with blades, temperature sensors and a motor reducer, said gelatinizer undertakes the gelatinizing during at least one step by means of cutting forces exercised by the blades. 11. The manufacturing system for vegetable dough according to claim 10, wherein the raw dehydrated vegetable Is selected from tubers, vegetables and grains; wherein the grain preferably comprises a grain of corn.

12. The manufacturing system for vegetable dough according to claim 11, wherein it additionally comprises a magnetic trap prior to the cutter, wherein the ferrous materials are separated from the raw dehydrated vegetable; wherein It additionally comprises a degermlnatlng machine In dry, prior to the cutting, wherein the sub product Is separated from the raw dehydrated vegetable; wherein said degermlnatlng machine for polishing In dry which comprises an entry gate and an exit gate, the vegetable is fed through the entry gate by means of a worm to a polishing chamber, once the polishing chamber becomes full, the raw dehydrated vegetable is propelled against a rotor and Is brushed against some perforated meshes of a screening drum, the retention of the raw dehydrated vegetable within the chamber Is adjusted to the exit gate by moving two counterweights, causing the sub product to become detached.

13. The manufacturing system for vegetable dough according to claim 11, wherein It additionally comprises a pre cutting machine prior to the cutting In which pre cut raw dehydrated vegetable Is obtained which presents smaller sizes than the original sizes, said pre cutting machine comprises a plurality of flaps from a driver which propel the raw dehydrated vegetable at a high speed against a plurality of vertical knife blades.

14. The manufacturing system for vegetable dough according to claim 11, wherein the raw dehydrated vegetable particles are extracted from the micro cutting machine by means of a pressure differentiation system; wherein said pressure differentiation system uses both negative pressure as well as positive pressure.

15. The manufacturing system for vegetable dough according to dalm 11, wherein the separator and the sorter for the raw dehydrated vegetable particles comprises a vibratory separator which comprises at least one mesh set on a steel frame; wherein the particles are stored In storage tanks, one per each particle granulometry (flour) and one for the sub product.

16. The manufacturing system for vegetable dough according to claim 11, wherein prior to the gelatlnlzer, a weighing system Is found, wherein the different sizes of the particles and water are weighed in order to achieve an adequate combination; wherein lime is added to the weighing device in an amount from 0.3 to 2.5% by total weight; wherein the sub product Is added In the weighing device; wherein said sub product may be complete or In particles.

17. The manufacturing system for vegetable dough according to claim 11, wherein a sub product Is fed to the gelatlnlzer; wherein lime Is fed to the gelatlnlzer In an amount from 0.3 to 2.5% by total weight. 18. The manufacturing system for vegetable dough according to any of claims 10 or 11, wherein the number of subsequent steps varies from 1 to 4; wherein a first step Is carried out at a first speed wherein the particles are integrated with the water until they form a raw dough and at least a second step Is carried out at a second speed wherein the raw dough Is precooked, wherein the second speed Is at least two times greater than the first speed.

Description:
Process and System for the Manufacture of Vegetable Dough

Object of the Invention

Present invention refers to a process for the manufacture of vegetable dough, preferably grains, for example com grains, using water as an Ingredient for the dough, singly. In a time lapse ranging between 5 minutes up to 30 minutes.

Background

Nlxtamallzatlon Is the process through which the cooking of corn with water and lime is undertaken, in order to obtain the nlxtamal, which after having been ground, will give rise to the dough, which In turn will be used for the manufacture of corn dough products In general. There are many proofs that this process was originated in Mesoamerica (specifically in the Mexican high planes). The word "nixtamal" is originally nahuatl nextli ("lime ashes") and tamalll ("cooked com dough"); this concoction has many uses, some which have current origins and others which have a historical origin. The com may be used freshly or may be dried for later use.

The first step in nlxtamallzatlon consists In placing the com dough grains to cook In an alkaline solution at a temperature near the boiling point. After the cooking, the corn Is left Immersed In the broth for a certain amount of time. The cooking and soaking times for the com vary depending on the type of corn, the local traditions and the types of foods to be prepared. It can be cooked for a time period of several minutes up to one hour, and can be left soaking from several minutes up to around one day.

During the cooking and the soaking, a series of chemical changes take place in the com grains, given the components of the cell membrane of the grains, among which amylose and amylopectln are Included, which are highly soluble In alkaline solutions, the grains are softened and their pericarps (shells) become loosened. The grain Is hydrated and absorbs calcium and potassium (depending on the compounds used) along the entire process. The starches are dissolved and become gelatinized, and some are dispersed in the liquid. Certain chemical products from the germ are freed, which allow the cooked grain become easier to crush. Cooking produces changes to the main protein In the com, which causes the proteins and nutrients of the endosperm of the nucleus be more assimilable to the human body.

After the cooking, the alkaline broth (known as nejayote), which contains the dissolved shells), the com starch and other substances, is decanted and disposed of. To know whether the process was successful, the com grain must be easily peeled between the fingers upon scrubbing. The grains are completely washed In order to clean them from the nejayote remains, which have a disagreeable taste. The pericarp Is disposed of and only the grain germ Is preserved.

Afterwards the grain Is used by Itself or Is ground for obtaining corn dough. This process has been modernized and currently the grinding takes place mainly through the use of machines or Industrial mills, however In rural areas the use of the "metate" persists, which Is a manual stone mill.

Nixtamalization is undertaken by hand: by traditional means or in small scale preparations, or mechanically; on a larger scale or In Industrial production.

In the processes used in the state of the art, the grinding of the cooked grains is undertaken by means of at least one of friction and knocking, which affects the starch particles which are present In the com; similarly In light that It Is necessary to soak the com grain In a water with lime solution, water Is produced as a wasted product

Said process belonging to the state of the art have several disadvantages, among which should be highlighted the amount of time it takes for the preparation of the dough, which lies between 12 and 14 hours, the waste of water and other materials, the grain waste etc.

Through use of the process of present invention said existing disadvantages in the state of the art are eliminated.

Brief Description of the Invention In a preferred embodiment of the Invention, the process for the manufacture of vegetable dough comprises the following steps:

Pulverizing the dehydrated raw vegetable using a micro cutter to obtain particles (raw flour) with different granulometries; separate and classify the particles (flour) according to their granulometries; undertake the mixing of classified particles (flour) and water to obtain a mixture; gelatinize the mixture by means of cutting and friction forces In order to produce dough. The type of raw dehydrated vegetable to be used can be selected from potato, yucca, and grains such as bean, chickpeas, maize, beans, sorghum, wheat, millet and amaranth.

In a preferred embodiment the raw dehydrated com grain Is used.

It should be mentioned that different types of dehydrated com can be used In Instant Invention. In an alternative embodiment the raw dehydrated vegetable, for example selected from among grains Is made to pass through a magnetic trap, where the foreign ferrous bodies which could be transported alongside the grain could be retained; said retention attempts to avoid damage to the micro cutter. As an example of said ferrous bodies, are nails, screws etc.

In an alternative embodiment, several features of the structure of the vegetable can be eliminated as a function of their usefulness to what the vegetable dough Is destined for, for example, the final product which will be manufactured from said dough. As will be obvious to one skilled In the art, the vegetable dough may have a wide variety of uses, among which for example, are the manufacturing of fried stuffs, baked products, cooked products, tortillas, tostadas etc. could be mentioned.

Advantageously, the system and process of Instant Invention allow for the manipulation of different parameters of the vegetable, such as the particle size, the vegetable structure In order to obtain a vegetable dough which Is able to meet the requirements of the final product.

The type of treatment which can be applied to the vegetable will be In function of the type of vegetable and the requirements for the final product:

In the particular case of com, at least one of the pericarp, the pedicel and the germ (commonly referred to as sub product) are removed from the dehydrated raw com grain; the removal of said sub product is controlled by the user, who determines the percentage of sub product to be removed within a range of IX to 100%.

The bean, for its part, may be soaked in water in a first step, to eliminate tastes and toxins and afterwards will be dehydrated.

In the potato, the peel Is eliminated and then cut Into cubes for its later dehydration. Optionally, these treatments can be eliminated. In an alternative embodiment; specifically when dealing with grains, the dehydrated raw grain Is precut, using cutting scissors, thus decreasing the size of the raw grain. In such a way that the yield at the time of undertaking the micro cut is Increased.

In an alternative embodiment the grain particles can be classified and stored according to their size. In an alternative embodiment, the mixing Is undertaken based on the weight of the components. In such a way that said components are weighed In an additional step.

In an alternative embodiment specifically when dealing with grains, specifically when working with com, the mixing Is carried out by adding lime In an amount between 0.3 to 2.5 percent by total weight of the composition, in order to obtain nixtamalized corn dough. In said alternative embodiment previously described, the cooking and the soaking steps of the com grain which are present In the known processes of the state of the art are eliminated, thus allowing for decrease In both time and costs of the process. The use of vapor Is also not required. Additionally, upon eliminating the soaking of the corn grain step, the use of water Is decreased to a significant degree and furthermore, no effluents are generated, which entails important advantages over the known state of the art, as are the elimination of water discharge Into the drainage, as well as the costs associated with the processing and said discharge.

In an alternative embodiment the gelatinizing is undertaken in at least one gelatinization step, preferably from one to four steps, depending on the required dough.

In an alternative embodiment, specifically when dealing with grains, said sub product is classified and pulverized using a micro cutter for generating particles, same which will be stored, which will be Included In the final mixture.

Similarly, a device which is specifically conceived for carrying out said method is also described.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1 shows an Isometric view of the system of present Invention.

Figure 2 shows a frontal perspective view of the system of present Invention. Figure 2a shows a cut view of the degermlnator machine of the system of present Invention.

Figure 3 shows a frontal perspective view of the micro cutter of the system of present Invention.

Figure 4 shows a back perspective view of the micro cutter of the system of present Invention.

Figure 5 shows a frontal perspective view of the gelatlnlzer of the system of present Invention. Figure 6 shows a back perspective view of the gelatlnlzer of the system of present Invention.

Figure 7 shows a cross cut of the gelatlnlzer of the system of present Invention, wherein a plurality of blades can be seen.

Figure 8 shows a lateral view of the gelatlnlzer of the system of present Invention.

Detailed Description of the Invention

With the end goal of delimiting the scope of the claimed Invention, the following definitions are provided:

The use of the term "approximately" provides a determined additional range. The term Is defined In the following manner. The additional range provided by the term Is +10%. By way of example, but not In a limitative manner, if it states "approximately between 25º and 41»", the exact range lies between 22.5» and 45.1», or yet between 27.5» and 45.1 or yet between 22.5 º and 36.9» or between 27.5» and 36.9». Any of the possibilities described above are covered through the use of the term "approximately".

In a similar manner, the term "vegetable" should be Interpreted as being derived from plants or all elements related to them. In such a way that If speaking of a "vegetable dough" It Is to be understood that dough can be maked from a leguminous (for instance garbanzo, broad bean, lentils), a fruit (for instance mango, banana), a tuber (for Instance potatoes), a root (for Instance carrots), a grain (for Instance com, wheat), a seed (for Instance beens, pees, soya), etc.

The manufacturing process for vegetable dough Is carried out In a device which Is specially conceived for the process of present Invention, references figures 1 through 8 In an Indistinct manner. For the end purposes of Illustrating the system and process of Instant Invention, com grains will be used. Notwithstanding, as will become evident to a person skilled In the art, the system and process of the Invention can be employed using any type of dehydrated raw vegetable.

The corn grain Is pulverized by means of micro cutting to be shrunk to a particle level size (flour) In different granulometries; depending on the desired granulometry different micro cutters will be used with different knife blade numbers, from 50 up to 120 knife blades to achieve an adequate particle size for the final product. In such a way that said particles present a size between 2 mm up to 200 μm, to achieve an adequate size for the granulometry of the partlde. It Is necessary to feed the corn grain flow to the micro cutting machine (10) by means of a dosage system.

The dosage speed of the corn grain will depend on the variety of com to be used, given that each com species presents different properties, such as size, dampness, hardness, amount of starch etc.

The dosage system Is carried out with a variable speed worm, which Is required In order to be able to adjust the feeding of the micro cutting machine, and also. It must be taken Into account that many varieties of com exist and that each one has different properties.

The com knocks against the cutting borders of the knife blades which are exposed on a head with great speed. This action results In the elimination of small particles until the decrease of the com grain Is completed. The particles are discharged through the spaces between the knife blades.

Depending on the number of knife blades set on the micro cutting machine (10), will then determine the size of the particles to be obtained. In such a way that by Increasing the number of knife blades, the size of the particle will be decreased, while decreasing the number of knife blades will increase the size of the particle. Given that the driver turns at high speeds, the product remains In the micro cutting machine (10) only for a fraction of a second, thereby avoiding that the com grains be knocked and become overheated. The particles obtained present the greatest amount of viable starch given the use of the micro cutting, decreasing the corn grains in a soft manner to avoid damage to the starch, thus avoiding the use of hammer mills.

To be able to increase the extraction speed of the particles of the micro cutting machine, a pressure differentiation system (20) Is used, being able to use both negative pressure as well as positive pressure, thus avoiding that the particles remain for a longer period of time than necessary In the Inner part of the micro cutting machine (10), given that the risk exists that said particles become burnt given the temperature Increase In the knife blades caused by the friction with the corn grains to be pulverized.

In an alternative embodiment, prior to the pre cutting step, a step for the separation of the ferrous material Is carried out. In such a way that the com grain passes through a magnetic trap, which traps the ferrous materials In the com grain, thus avoiding that said materials be introduced into the micro cutting machine, in such a manner that the knife blades of the micro cutting machine are maintained In optimal state.

In an alternative embodiment, the vegetable, preferably grain and even more preferably dehydrated raw grain can have the at least one germ, the pedicel and the pericarp, which Jointly are known as the sub product, removed In a controlled manner, thereby obtaining complete or Incomplete raw com, depending on whether one or more of the above parts have been removed.

The raw grain com Is fed to a degermlnator machine (30) through a hopper (31), said degermlnator machine (30) presents an entry gate (32) and an exit gate (33), through the entry gate the grain Is fed by means of a worm to a polishing chamber (35), once the polishing chamber becomes full, the grain Is propelled against a rotor and Is brushed against some perforated meshes (34) of a screening drum (36), the retention of the grain within the polishing chamber Is adjusted to the exit gate by moving two counterweights, causing the sub product to become detached. Said removed sub product is transported, classified and stored for its later use within the process or may be treated as waste. It should be mentioned that said polishing Is carried out In a dry manner.

If it is the intention to use the sub product in the flour manufacturing process, said sub product will be transported to a vibratory sorter (40). In a similar manner, said sub product may be processed by a micro cut or any other process.

In an alternative embodiment, said vegetable, preferably grain, even more preferably com grain Is subjected to a precut. In such a way that the size of the grain Is decreased. In such a way that the micro cutting process Is eased and its efficiency Increased.

Said pre cutting machine comprises a plurality of driver flaps which propel the com grain at a high speed against the plurality of vertical knife blades, thereby obtaining the precut com grain; the number of knife blades of said precuttlng machine Is much lower than the number of knife blades used In the micro cutting machine, despite them presenting the same functioning principle, the results are different Returning to the main embodiment, once the vegetable particles are obtained, these are transported for their separation, wherein they are classified according to their granulometry; In this step, the smallest particles may or may not be separated from the larger sized particles.

Said (flour) particles are transported to the vibratory sorter (40), where they are classified according to their granulometry; the vibratory sorter (40) is a screening device designed to separate the smallest particles from the larger sized particles, and to separate the sub product. The sorter (40) comprises at least one mesh set on a steel frame, the meshes used are from number 10 meshes up to number 100 meshes; the number of meshes will depend on the number of separations wishing to be undertaken.

From the exits, the particles are stored In storage tanks (50), one per each one of the particle granulometrles (flour) and one for the sub product.

Each tank has sensors for both high and low levels, the transport system (cyclone and fan), the fluldlzatlon system, vibration system and feeding valves.

When the particles reach the low level sensor, the com grain feeding system Is started, when the particles reach the high level sensor, the feeding gate for the corn grain into the micro cutter is closed. Similarly, two systems are present which aid the particles being transported avoiding clogging, a first system which uses fluidizatlon injecting air Into the lower part of the tank and a second system which uses the strategically placed vibrators.

The process will be undertaken in a gelatlnizer (60) which comprises in its inner part an arrow (61) with blades (62), temperature sensors, a motor system (63) with a motor reducer, to move the arrow with the blades and a turning system (64). The blades (62) are designed to exercise mechanical work with a cutting and friction force, with flaps which are directed and distributed for gelatinlzatlon, wherein the grade of gelatlnlzation will be in function of the final product.

Merely for the purposes of citing one example, a first step comprises undertaking a mixing at a first speed, preferably low speed, between 20 and 30 RPM, to achieve a homogenous mixing of the particles and the water with the objective of obtaining a raw dough, the ratio of particles and water depends on the final product to be manufactured with the dough, preferably the percentage of water varies from approximately 35% to approximately 5696; while a second step comprises undertaking a gelatinizing from the cut and friction force in said raw dough, given that the blades from the equipment turn at a second speed, preferably a high speed, up to 500 RPM, Imprinting heat Into the dough, causing Its gelatlnlzatlon, both the time as well as the temperature are variables to be controlled within said equipment, the above Is based on the type of dough seeking to be obtained, the temperature range Is found between approximately 35»C and up to approximately 60"C. In an alternative embodiment; the sub product is fed into said gelatinizer, whether it is in particle forms or complete; If the sub product must be fed In particle form, said sub product must be processed by means of using the micro cutting machine.

In an alternative embodiment, lime Is added to said mixture to obtain corn dough which Is nlxtamallzed, the percentage of lime used In said mixture varies from approximately 0.3 to approximately 2.5% by weight, which differs very much from the amount of lime used for the conventional nlxtamallzatlon processes.

In an alternative embodiment, said stored particles (flour) are weighed to achieve an adequate size combination. In an embodiment, the lime Is weighed along with the selected particles, and thus, it consists with a weighing system, wherein the stored particles (flour) are weighed to achieve a combination according to requirements for the final product, which Is added Into the passage device or directly Into the equipment where the mixing and the gelatlnlzatlon are carried out.

A mechanical device Is used for raising and lowering the hopper, the signal for lowering the hopper Is determined by the temperature and/ or time of the dough, to raise It, It Is necessary that the dough has been unloaded. The type of device is chosen from the group of pistons, pulleys, bands etc.

It should be noted that said alternative embodiments may be carried out separately or in combination with the main embodiment.

Alterations to the process described In present application, may be foreseen by those persons skilled in the art. However, it must be understood that present description is described with the preferred embodiments of the Invention, which are merely for Illustrative purposes and must not be understood as a limitation to the Invention. All embodiments which would be considered obvious within the spirit of the Invention, such as changes in shape, material and sizes of the features which make up the invention, shall be considered as hying within the scope of the attached claims.