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Title:
PRODRUGS OF CLOFARABINE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/085307
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention provides prodrugs of clofarabine. The compounds of the invention have formula (I), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is H or -C(=0)-X-R3 and R2 is H or -C(=0)-Y-R4, wherein X and Y are each independently O, CH2 or CH(NH2), provided R1 and R2 are not both H; and R3 and R4 are each independently selected from the group of alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aryl, substituted aryl, arylalkyl, substituted arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl and substituted heteroalkyl. Compositions of formula (I) and methods for the treatment of cancer are also provided.

Inventors:
WU LAURENCE (TW)
Application Number:
US2017/059420
Publication Date:
May 11, 2018
Filing Date:
November 01, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
WU LAURENCE I (TW)
International Classes:
C07H19/20; A61P35/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2015162175A12015-10-29
Foreign References:
US20120010397A12012-01-12
US20040039190A12004-02-26
US20030023078A12003-01-30
Other References:
DATABASE Pubmed 10 June 2013 (2013-06-10), ANONYMOUS: "CID 71465249", XP055600670, retrieved from Pubchem Compound Database accession no. 71465249
ZENG ET AL.: "3-Butenyloxycarbonyl as a new hydroxyl protecting group in carbohydrate synthesis", TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 57, 20 May 2016 (2016-05-20), pages 2935 - 2938, XP029570900, Retrieved from the Internet
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HUANG, Angela (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS: 1. A compound according to formula I,

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

wherein R1 is H or -C(=0)-X-R3 and R2 is H or -C(=0)-Y-R4, wherein X and Y are each independently O, CH2 or CH( H2), provided R1 and R2 are not both H; and

R3 and R4 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aiyl, substituted aiyl, arylalkyl, substituted arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl and substituted heteroalkyl. 2. The compound according to claim 1, wherein R1 is -C(=0)-X-R3, wherein X is O, CH2 or CH(NH2). 3. The compound according to claim 2, wherein R2 is H. 4. The compound according to claim 3, wherein R1 is -C(=0)-0-R3. 5. The compound according to any of claims 1-4, wherein R3 is a member selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, arylalkyl and substituted arylalkyl.

6 A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

wherein R1 is H or -C(=0)-X-R3, and R2 is H or -C(=0)-Y-R4, wherein X and Y are each independently O, CH2 or CH( H2), provided R1 and R2 are not both H; and

R3 and R4 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aiyl, substituted aiyl, aiylalkyl, substituted aiylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl and substituted heteroalkyl; and

a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. 7. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 6, wherein R1 is - C(=0)-X-R3, wherein X is O, CH2 or CH( H2). 8. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 7, wherein R2 is H. 9. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 8, wherein R1 is - C(=0)-0-R3. 10. The pharmaceutical composition according to any of claims 6-9, wherein R3 is a member selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aiylalkyl and substituted aiylalkyl. 11. A method for treating cancer in a subject, the method comprises administering to the subject an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition

according to any one of claims 6-10.

12. The method according to claim 11, further comprising administering to the subject an anti-cancer agent. 13 The method according to claim 12, wherein the anti-cancer agent is selected from the group consisting of a conventional chemotherapeutic agent, a targeted therapeutic agent, a radiotherapeutic agent and a mixture thereof.

14 The method according to claim 12, wherein the anti-cancer agent is selected from the group consisting of cytarabine, decitabine, fludarabine, gemcitabine, azacitidine, capecitabine, sorafenib, sunitinib, idarubicin, daunorubicin, busulfan, etoposide, mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, thiopeta, bendamustine, melphalan, vincristine, vinorelbine, entinostat, dexamethasone, methotrexate, lenalidomide, topotecan, temsirolimus, rituximab, alemtuzumab, filgrastim, epratuzumab and thymoglobulin. 15. The method according to claim 11, wherein administering the composition is conducted orally. 16. The method according to claim 11, wherein administering the composition is conducted parenterally. 17. The method according to claim 11, wherein the cancer is selected from the group consisting of leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome, breast cancer and pancreatic cancer.

Description:
PRODRUGS OF CLOFARABINE

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/417,081, filed on November 3, 2016, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety to the extent permitted by law.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Clofarabine is an antimetabolite purine nucleoside. Clofarabine has a structure that is halogenated at both the purine and ribose rings, and thus, the molecule is known to inhibit DNA synthesis at two critical junctures: DNA polymerase I as well as RNA reductase. [0003] The drug is typically administered by intravenous infusion for treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after at least two prior regimens.

[0004] US Patent No. 5,661, 136 to Montgomery discloses certain 2'-fluoro-2-substituted purine nucleotides which are toxic to cancerous cell lines. [0005] US Pat. Pub. No. 2010/0249055 to Mueller et al. discloses specific phospholipidesters of clofarabine and the use of such lipidesters in the treatment of tumors.

[0006] US Patent No. 7,772,206 discloses methods of treating or preventing an autoimmune disorder comprising the administration of clofarabine to a patient in need of such treatment. The invention further relates to methods of treating or preventing an autoimmune disorder comprising the administration of clofarabine and an additional therapeutic agent to a patient in need of such treatment.

[0007] In general, a prodrug is a medication or compound, which after it is administered, it is metabolized into a pharmacologically active drug. The prodrug releases the biologically active compound in vivo via a chemical or physiological process {e.g., by reaching physiological pH or through enzyme action is converted to the biologically active compound). A prodrug itself may either lack or possess the desired biological activity. In many cases, the prodrug will reduce side-effects and have better pharmacokinetic parameters than the drug itself. [0008] There is a need in the art for prodrugs of clofarabine. The present invention satisfies these and other needs.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] The present invention provides prodrugs of clofarabine to improve pharmacokinetic parameters. As such, in one embodiment, the present invention provides a compound according to formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

wherein R 1 is H or -C(=0)-X-R 3 and R 2 is H or -C(=0)-Y-R 4 , wherein X and Y each independently O, CH 2 or CH(NH 2 ), provided R 1 and R 2 are not both H; and

R 3 and R 4 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aiyl, substituted aiyl, aiylalkyl, substituted aiylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl and substituted heteroalkyl.

[0010] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition, comprising a compound according to formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

wherein R 1 is H or -C(=0)-X-R 3 and R 2 is H or -C(=0)-Y-R 4 , wherein X and Y each independently O, CH 2 or CH(NH 2 ), provided R 1 and R 2 are not both H; R 3 and R 4 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aiyl, substituted aiyl, aiylalkyl, substituted aiylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl and substituted heteroalkyl; and

a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0011] In yet another embodiment, the present invention provides a method for treating a cancer, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a

pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

wherein R 1 is H or -C(=0)-X-R 3 and R 2 is H or -C(=0)-Y-R 4 , wherein X and Y are each independently O, CH 2 or CH( H 2 ), provided R 1 and R 2 are not both H;

R 3 and R 4 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aiyl, substituted aiyl, aiylalkyl, substituted aiylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl and substituted heteroalkyl; and

a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, to treat the cancer.

[0012] These and other aspects, objects and embodiments will become more apparent when read with the accompanying detailed description and figure which follows. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0013] FIG 1 is the line graph illustrating the results of an in vitro metabolic conversion assay carried out at 37 °C in accordance with one embodiment of the present disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

I. Definitions [0014] As used herein, the term "prodrug" refers to a precursor compound that, following administration, releases a biologically active compound in vivo via a chemical or physiological process {e.g., a prodrug on reaching physiological pH or through enzyme action is converted to the biologically active compound). A prodrug itself may either lack or possess the desired biological activity.

[0015] As used herein, the term "salt" refers to an acid or base salt of a compound of the invention. Illustrative examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts are mineral acid salts (prepared using hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, phosphoric acid, and the like), organic acid salts (prepared using acetic acid, propionic acid, glutamic acid, citric acid, methanesulfonic acid, maleic acid, and the like), and quaternary ammonium salts (prepared using methyl iodide, ethyl iodide, and the like). It is understood that the pharmaceutically acceptable salts are non-toxic. Additional information on suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be found in Remington: The Science & Practice of Pharmacy, 20th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa., 2000, which is incorporated herein by reference. [0016] Salts of acidic compounds are formed with bases, namely cationic species such as alkali and alkaline earth metal cations {e.g., sodium, lithium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions), as well as ammonium cations {e.g., ammonium, trimethylammonium, diethylammonium, and tm-(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-ammonium ions). Salts of basic compounds are salts formed with mineral acids, organic carboxylic acids, organic sulfonic acids, and the like. The neutral forms of the compounds can be regenerated by contacting the salt with a base or acid and isolating the parent compound in the conventional manner. The parent form of the compound differs from the various salt forms in certain physical properties, such as solubility in polar solvents, but otherwise the salts are equivalent to the parent form of the compound for the purposes of the present invention. [0017] As used herein, the term "aryl" refers to an aromatic ring system having any suitable number of ring atoms and any suitable number of rings. Aryl groups can include any suitable number of ring atoms, such as, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 ring atoms, as well as from 6 to 10, 6 to 12, or 6 to 14 ring members. Aryl groups can be monocyclic, fused to form bicyclic or tricyclic groups, or linked by a bond to form a biaryl group. Representative aryl groups include phenyl, naphthyl and biphenyl. Other aryl groups include benzyl, having a methylene linking group. Some aryl groups have from 6 to 12 ring members, such as phenyl, naphthyl or biphenyl. Other aryl groups have from 6 to 10 ring members, such as phenyl or naphthyl. Some other aryl groups have 6 ring members, such as phenyl. "Substituted aryl" groups can be substituted with one or more groups selected from halo, hydroxy, amino, alkylamino, amido, acyl, nitro, cyano, and alkoxy.

[0018] Aryl groups also include heteroaryl groups. "Heteroaryl" refers to a monocyclic or fused bicyclic or tricyclic aromatic ring assembly containing 5 to 16 ring atoms, where from 1 to 5 of the ring atoms are a heteroatom such as N, O or S. Additional heteroatoms can also be useful, including, but not limited to, B, Al, Si and P. The heteroatoms can also be oxidized, such as in groups including, but not limited to, -S(O)- and -S(0) 2 -. Heteroaryl groups can include any number of ring atoms, such as, 3 to 6, 4 to 6, 5 to 6, 3 to 8, 4 to 8, 5 to 8, 6 to 8, 3 to 9, 3 to 10, 3 to 11, or 3 to 12 ring members. Any suitable number of heteroatoms can be included in the heteroaryl groups, such as 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, or 1 to 2, 1 to 3, 1 to 4, 1 to 5, 2 to 3, 2 to 4, 2 to 5, 3 to 4, or 3 to 5. Heteroaryl groups can have from 5 to 8 ring members and from 1 to 4 heteroatoms, or from 5 to 8 ring members and from 1 to 3 heteroatoms, or from 5 to 6 ring members and from 1 to 4 heteroatoms, or from 5 to 6 ring members and from 1 to 3 heteroatoms. The heteroaryl group can include groups such as pyrrolyl, pyridyl (2-, 3-, and 4-isomers), imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, triazinyl (1,2,3-, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5- isomers), thiophenyl, furanyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxazolyl, and isoxazolyl. The heteroaryl groups can also be fused to aromatic ring systems, such as a phenyl ring, to form members including, but not limited to, benzopyrroles such as indolyl and isoindolyl, benzopyridines such as quinolinyl and isoquinolinyl, benzopyrazinyl (quinoxaline), benzopyrimidinyl (quinazoline), benzopyridazines such as phthalazinyl and cinnolinyl, benzothiophenyl, and benzofuranyl.

Other heteroaryl groups include heteroaryl rings linked by a bond, such as bipyridyl.

"Substituted heteroaryl" groups can be substituted with one or more groups selected from halo, hydroxy, amino, alkylamino, amido, acyl, nitro, cyano, and alkoxy.

[0019] As used herein, the term "alkyl" refers to a straight or branched, saturated, aliphatic radical having from 1 to about 10 carbon atoms. Alkyl can include any number of carbons, such aS Cl-2, Cl-3, Cl-4, Cl-5, Cl-6, Cl-7, Cl-8, Cl-9, Cl-10, C 2 -3, C2-4, C 2 -5, C2-6, C3-4, C3-5, C3-6, C4-5, C4-6 and C5-6. For example, Ci- 6 alkyl includes, but is not limited to, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, hexyl, etc. Alkyl can also refer to alkyl groups having up to 20 carbons atoms including, but not limited to, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, etc. "Substituted alkyl" groups can be substituted with one or more groups selected from halo, hydroxy, amino, alkylamino, amido, acyl, nitro, cyano, and alkoxy.

[0020] As used herein, the term "alkenyl" refers to a straight chain or branched hydrocarbon having at least 2 carbon atoms and at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Alkenyl can include any number of carbons, such as C 2 , C 2-3 , C 2-4 , C 2-5 , C 2-6 , C 2-7 , C 2-8 , C 2-9 , C 2-10 , C 3 , C 3-4 , C 3-5 , C 3-6 , C 4 , C4-5, C4-6, C 5 , C5-6, and C 6 . Alkenyl groups can have any suitable number of double bonds, including, but not limited to, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or more. Examples of alkenyl groups include, but are not limited to, vinyl (ethenyl), propenyl, isopropenyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, isobutenyl, butadienyl, 1-pentenyl, 2-pentenyl, isopentenyl, 1,3-pentadienyl, 1,4-pentadienyl, 1-hexenyl, 2-hexenyl, 3-hexenyl, 1,3-hexadienyl, 1,4-hexadienyl, 1,5-hexadienyl, 2,4-hexadienyl, or 1,3,5-hexatrienyl. "Substituted alkenyl" groups can be substituted with one or more groups selected from halo, hydroxy, amino, alkylamino, amido, acyl, nitro, cyano, and alkoxy.

[0021] As used herein, the term "alkynyl" refers to either a straight chain or branched hydrocarbon having at least 2 carbon atoms and at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. Alkynyl can include any number of carbons, such as C 2 , C 2-3 , C 2-4 , C 2-5 , C 2-6 , C 2-7 , C 2-8 , C2-9, C 2-10 , C , C -4, C -5, C -6, C 4 , C4-5, C4-6, C 5 , C5-6, and C 6 . Examples of alkynyl groups include, but are not limited to, acetylenyl, propynyl, 1-butynyl, 2-butynyl, isobutynyl, sec-butynyl, butadiynyl, 1-pentynyl, 2-pentynyl, isopentynyl, 1,3-pentadiynyl, 1,4-pentadiynyl, 1-hexynyl, 2-hexynyl, 3-hexynyl, 1,3-hexadiynyl, 1,4-hexadiynyl, 1,5-hexadiynyl, 2,4-hexadiynyl, or 1,3,5-hexatriynyl. "Substituted alkynyl" groups can be substituted with one or more groups selected from halo, hydroxy, amino, alkylamino, amido, acyl, nitro, cyano, and alkoxy.

[0022] As used herein, the term "arylalkyl" refers to a radical having an alkyl component and an aryl component, where the alkyl component links the aryl component to the point of attachment. The alkyl component is as defined above, except that the alkyl component is at least divalent (i.e., an alkylene), to link to the aryl component to the point of attachment. The alkyl component can include any number of carbons, such as C 1-6 , C 1-2 , C 1-3 , C 1-4 , C 1-5 , C 1-6 , C 2-3 , C 2-4 , C2-5, C2-6, C -4, C -5, C -6, C4-5, C4-6 and C5-6. The aryl component is as defined above. Examples of arylalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, benzyl and ethyl -benzene. "Substituted arylalkyl" groups can be substituted with one or more groups selected from halo, hydroxy, amino, alkylamino, amido, acyl, nitro, cyano, and alkoxy. [0023] As used herein, the term "cycloheteroalkyl" refers to a saturated ring system having from 3 to 12 ring members and from 1 to 4 heteroatoms of N, O and S. Additional heteroatoms can also be useful, including, but not limited to, B, Al, Si and P. The heteroatoms can also be oxidized, such as is groups including, but not limited to, -S(O)- and -S(0) 2 -. Cycloheteroalkyl groups can include any number of ring atoms, such as, 3 to 6, 4 to 6, 5 to 6, 3 to 8, 4 to 8, 5 to 8, 6 to 8, 3 to 9, 3 to 10, 3 to 11, or 3 to 12 ring members. Any suitable number of heteroatoms can be included in the cycloheteroalkyl groups, such as 1, 2, 3, or 4, or 1 to 2, 1 to 3, 1 to 4, 2 to 3, 2 to 4, or 3 to 4. The cycloheteroalkyl group can include groups such as aziridinyl, azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, azepanyl, azocanyl, quinuclidinyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, piperazinyl (1,2-, 1,3- and 1,4-isomers), oxiranyl, oxetanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, oxanyl

(tetrahydropyranyl), oxepanyl, thiiranyl, thietanyl, thiolanyl (tetrahydrothiophenyl), thianyl (tetrahydrothiopyranyl), oxazolidinyl, isoxalidinyl, thiazolidinyl, isothiazolidinyl, dioxolanyl, dithiolanyl, morpholino, thiomorpholino, di oxanyl, or dithianyl. The cycloheteroalkyl groups can also be fused to aromatic or non-aromatic ring systems to form members including, but not limited to, indolinyl. Cycloheteroalkyl groups can be unsubstituted or substituted. "Substituted cycloheteroalkyl" groups can be substituted with one or more groups selected from halo, hydroxy, amino, alkylamino, amido, acyl, nitro, cyano, alkoxy, and oxo.

[0024] As used herein, the term "heteroalkyl" refers to an alkyl group of any suitable length and having from 1 to 3 heteroatoms such as N, O and S. Additional heteroatoms can also be useful, including, but not limited to, B, Al, Si and P. The heteroatoms can also be oxidized, such as in groups including, but not limited to, -S(O)- and -S(0) 2 -. For example, heteroalkyl can include ethers, thioethers and alkyl-amines. The heteroatom portion of the heteroalkyl can replace a hydrogen of the alkyl group to form a hydroxy, thio or amino group. Alternatively, the heteroatom portion can be the connecting atom, or be inserted between two carbon atoms.

"Substituted heteroalkyl" groups can be substituted with one or more groups selected from halo, hydroxy, amino, alkylamino, amido, acyl, nitro, cyano, and alkoxy.

[0025] As used herein, the term "alkoxy" refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, having an oxygen atom that connects the alkyl group to the point of attachment (i.e., alkyl-O-). Alkoxy groups can have any suitable number of carbon atoms, such as Ci- 6 . Alkoxy groups include, for example, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, isopropoxy, butoxy, 2-butoxy, isobutoxy, sec-butoxy, tert-butoxy, pentoxy, hexoxy, etc. [0026] As used herein, the term "acyl," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a radical containing an alkyl group, as defined herein, bound to the carbon atom of a carbonyl group, the carbonyl carbon atom further being the point of attachment of the radical.

[0027] As used herein, the term "amino," by itself or as a part of another substituent, refers to a radical containing a nitrogen atom bound to two or three atoms selected from hydrogen and carbon, the nitrogen atom further being the point of attachment of the radical.

[0028] As used herein, the term "amido," by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a radical containing an acyl group, as defined herein, bound to the nitrogen atom of an amino group, the carbonyl carbon atom or the nitrogen atom further being the point of attachment of the radical.

[0029] As used herein, the term "composition" is intended to encompass a product comprising the specified ingredients in the specified amounts, as well as any product, which results, directly or indirectly, from combination of the specified ingredients in the specified amounts. By "pharmaceutically acceptable" it is meant the carriers, diluents or excipients in the composition must be compatible with other ingredients and not deleterious to the recipient thereof.

[0030] As used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" refers to a substance that aids the administration of an active agent to and absorption by a subject. Pharmaceutical carriers useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to, binders, fillers,

disintegrants, lubricants, coatings, sweeteners, flavors and colors. One of skill in the art will recognize that other pharmaceutical carriers are useful in the present invention.

[0031] As used herein, the terms "treat", "treating" and "treatment" refer to any indicia of success in the treatment or amelioration of cancer or an injury, pathology, condition, or symptom (e.g., pain) related to cancer, including any objective or subjective parameter such as abatement; remission; diminishing of symptoms or making the symptom, injury, pathology or condition more tolerable to the patient; decreasing the frequency or duration of the symptom or condition; or, in some situations, preventing the onset of the symptom or condition. The treatment or amelioration of symptoms can be based on any objective or subjective parameter; including, e.g., the result of a physical examination.

[0032] As used herein, the term "cancer" refers to conditions including solid cancers, lymphomas, and leukemias. Examples of different types of cancer include, but are not limited to, lung cancer (e.g., non-small cell lung cancer or NSCLC), ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer (i.e., hepatocarcinoma), renal cancer (i.e., renal cell carcinoma), bladder cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, pleural cancer, pancreatic cancer, uterine cancer, cervical cancer, testicular cancer, anal cancer, bile duct cancer, gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, esophageal cancer, gall bladder cancer, appendix cancer, small intestine cancer, stomach

(gastric) cancer, cancer of the central nervous system, skin cancer, choriocarcinoma, head and neck cancer, blood cancer, osteogenic sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, neuroblastoma, glioma, melanoma, B-cell lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, Small Cell lymphoma, Large Cell lymphoma, monocytic leukemia, myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma.

[0033] As used herein, the term "subject" refers to animals such as mammals, including, but not limited to, primates (e.g., humans), cows, sheep, goats, horses, dogs, cats, rabbits, rats, mice and the like. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human.

[0034] As used herein, the term "administering" refers to oral, topical, parenteral,

intraperitoneal, intramuscular, intralesional, intranasal, subcutaneous, or intrathecal

administration of a compound or composition of the invention to a subject, as well as

administration via suppository or implantation of a slow-release device, e.g., a mini-osmotic pump.

[0035] As used herein, the term "effective amount" refers to a dose of a compound or composition that produces therapeutic effects for which it is administered. The exact dose will depend on the purpose of the treatment, and will be ascertainable by one skilled in the art using known techniques (see, e.g., Lieberman, Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms (vols. 1-3, 1992);

Lloyd, The Art, Science and Technology of Pharmaceutical Compounding (1999); Pickar,

Dosage Calculations (1999); and Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 20th Edition, 2003, Gennaro, Ed., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins). In sensitized cells, the therapeutically effective dose can often be lower than the conventional therapeutically effective dose for non-sensitized cells.

II. Prodrugs of Clofarabine

[0036] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a compound according to formula I: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

wherein R 1 is H or -C(=0)-X-R 3 and R 2 is H or -C(=0)-Y-R 4 , wherein X and Y are each independently O, CH 2 or CH( H 2 ), provided R 1 and R 2 are not both H; and

R 3 and R 4 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aiyl, substituted aiyl, aiylalkyl, substituted aiylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl and substituted heteroalkyl.

[0037] In certain aspects, R 1 is H. In other aspects, R 2 is H. In formula I, R 1 and R 2 are not both simultaneously H.

[0038] In certain aspects, R 1 is -C(=0)-X-R 3 , wherein X is O, CH 2 or -CH(NH 2 )-.

[0039] In certain aspects, R 1 is -C(=0)-0-R 3 or -C(=0)-CH 2 -R 3 or -C(=0)-CH( H 2 )-R 3 and R 2 is H.

[0040] In certain aspects, R 1 is -C(=0)-0-R . [0041] In certain aspects, R 1 is -C(=0)-0-R 3 and R 2 is H.

[0042] In certain aspects, R 2 is -C(=0)-Y-R 4 , wherein Y is O, CH 2 or -CH(NH 2 )-.

[0043] In certain aspects, R 2 is -C(=0)-0-R 4 or -C(=0)-CH 2 -R 4 or -C(=0)-CH( H 2 )-R 4 and R 1 is H.

[0044] In certain aspects, R 2 is -C(=0)-0-R 4 . [0045] In certain aspects, R 2 is -C(=0)-0-R 4 and R 1 is H.

[0046] In certain aspects, R 3 is selected from the group of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aiylalkyl and substituted aiylalkyl.

[0047] In certain aspects, R 3 is alkyl or substituted alkyl. Suitable alkyl groups include, for example, a straight or branched, saturated, aliphatic radical having from 1 to about 10 carbon atoms. Alkyl can include any number of carbons, such as C 1-2 , C 1-3 , C 1-4 , C 1-5 , C 1-6 , C 1-7 , C 1-8 , Ci-9, Ci-io, C2-3, C2-4, C2-5, C 2 -6, C3-4, C3-5, C3-6, C4-5, C4-6 and C 5- 6. For example, C 1-6 alkyl includes, but is not limited to, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, hexyl, and the like. [0048] Substituted alkyl group can be substituted with one or more groups selected from halo, hydroxy, amino, alkylamino, amido, acyl, nitro, cyano, and alkoxy.

[0049] In certain aspects, R 3 is arylalkyl or substituted arylalkyl. In certain instances, the arylalkyl group is a heteroarylalkyl group, and substituted arylalkyl group is a substituted heteroarylalkyl group. Suitable heteroaryl groups include, for example, pyrrolyl, pyridinyl (2-, 3-, and 4-isomers), imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, triazinyl (1,2,3-, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-isomers), thiophenyl, furanyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxazolyl, and isoxazolyl.

[0050] In certain aspects, R 1 is -C(=0)-0-R 3 ; R 2 is H and R 3 is arylalkyl or substituted arylalkyl or a heteroarylalkyl group. [0051] In certain aspects, a compound of formula I is selected from the following group:

1. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2- (hydroxymethyl)oxolane;

2. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy carbonyloxy-2- (ethoxycarbonyloxymethyl)-4-fluoro-oxolane;

3. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2-(ethoxycarbon yloxymethyl)-4-fluoro- oxolan-3-ol; 4. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy carbonyloxy-2-

(butyloxycarbonyloxymethyl)-4-fluoro-oxolane;

5. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2-(butyloxycarb onyloxymethyl)-4- fluoro-oxolan-3-ol; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2- (2-methylpropyloxycarbonyloxymethyl)oxolane; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(2-m ethylpropyloxy- carbonyloxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2- (pentyloxycarbonyloxymethyl)oxolane; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(pen tyloxycarbonyloxy- methyl)oxolan-3-ol; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2- (hexyloxycarbonyloxymethyl)oxolane; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(hex yloxycarbonyloxy- methyl)oxolan-3-ol; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2- (hepty 1 oxy carb ony 1 oxy methy l)oxol ane; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(hep tyloxycarbonyloxy- methyl)oxolan-3-ol; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2- (3-phenylpropanoyloxymethyl)oxolane; (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(3-p henylpropanoyloxy- methyl)oxolan-3-ol; 16. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2- (3-(3-pyridyl)propanoyloxymethyl)oxolane;

17. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(3-( 3-pyridyl)propanoyloxy- methyl)oxolan-3-ol;

18. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2-[(2S)-2-(tert -butoxycarbonylamino)- propanoyloxymethyl]-3-tert-butyloxycarbonyloxy-4-fluoro-oxol ane; 19. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2-[(2S)-2-(tert -butoxycarbonylamino)- propanoyloxymethyl]-4-fluoro-oxolan-3-ol; and

20. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2-[(2S)-2-amino propanoyloxymethyl]-4- fluoro-oxolan-3 -ol .

III. Pharmaceutical Compositions

[0052] In another aspect, the invention provides pharmaceutical compositions containing one or more compounds according to formula I as described above, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds. [0053] In certain aspects, the present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition, comprisinga compound according to formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

wherein R^s H or -C(=0)-X-R 3 and R 2 is H or -C(=0)-Y-R 4 , wherein X and Y are each independently O, CH 2 or CH( H 2 ), provided R 1 and R 2 are not both H; R and R 4 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aryl, substituted aryl, arylalkyl, substituted arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl and substituted heteroalkyl; and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0054] The pharmaceutical compositions for the administration of the compounds of the invention can be prepared by any of the methods well known in the art of pharmacy and drug delivery. The compositions can be conveniently prepared and/or packaged in unit dosage form. Methods of preparing the compositions include the step of bringing the active ingredient into association with a carrier containing one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the pharmaceutical compositions are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing the active ingredient into association with a liquid carrier or a finely divided solid carrier or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product into the desired formulation.

[0055] The pharmaceutical compositions can be in the form of a sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspension. This suspension can be formulated according to the known art using those suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents which have been mentioned above. The sterile injectable preparation may also be a sterile injectable solution or suspension in a non-toxic parenterally-acceptable diluent or solvent, for example as a solution in 1,3-butane diol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water, Ringer's solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil can be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. In addition, fatty acids such as oleic acid find use in the preparation of injectables.

[0056] Aqueous suspensions contain the active materials in admixture with excipients suitable for the manufacture of aqueous suspensions. Such excipients include, but are not limited to: suspending agents such as sodium carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, oleagino- propylmethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinyl-pyrrolidone, gum tragacanth and gum acacia; dispersing or wetting agents such as lecithin, polyoxyethylene stearate, and polyethylene sorbitan monooleate; and preservatives such as ethyl, ^-propyl, and ^-hydroxybenzoate. [0057] Oily suspensions can be formulated by suspending the active ingredient in a vegetable oil, for example, arachis oil, olive oil, sesame oil or coconut oil, or in a mineral oil such as liquid paraffin. The oily suspensions may contain a thickening agent, for example beeswax, hard paraffin or cetyl alcohol. These compositions can be preserved by the addition of an anti-oxidant such as ascorbic acid.

[0058] Dispersible powders and granules suitable for preparation of an aqueous suspension by the addition of water provide the active ingredient in admixture with a dispersing or wetting agent, suspending agent and one or more preservatives. Suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents are exemplified by those already mentioned above. Additional excipients, can also be present.

[0059] The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may also be in the form of oil-in- water emulsions. The oily phase can be a vegetable oil, for example olive oil or arachis oil, or a mineral oil, for example liquid paraffin or mixtures of these. Suitable emulsifying agents can be naturally-occurring gums, for example gum acacia or gum tragacanth, naturally-occurring phosphatides, for example soy bean, lecithin, and esters or partial esters derived from fatty acids and hexitol anhydrides, for example sorbitan monooleate, and condensation products of the said partial esters with ethylene oxide, for example polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate. The emulsions may also contain sweetening and flavoring agents.

[0060] The pharmaceutical compositions containing the active ingredient can be in a form suitable for oral use, for example, as tablets, troches, lozenges, aqueous or oily suspensions, dispersible powders or granules, emulsions, hard or soft capsules, syrups, elixirs, solutions, buccal patches, oral gels, chewing gums, chewable tablets, effervescent powder and effervescent tablets. Compositions intended for oral use can be prepared according to any method known to the art for the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions and such compositions may contain one or more agents selected from sweetening agents, flavoring agents, coloring agents, antioxidants and preserving agents in order to provide pharmaceutically elegant and palatable preparations. Tablets contain the active ingredient in admixture with non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, which are suitable for the manufacture of tablets. These excipients include, but are not limited to: inert diluents such as cellulose, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, glucose, mannitol, sorbitol, lactose, calcium phosphate and sodium phosphate; granulating and disintegrating agents such as corn starch and alginic acid; binding agents such as PVP, cellulose, PEG, starch, gelatin and acacia; and lubricating agents such as magnesium stearate, stearic acid, and talc. The tablets can be uncoated or coated, enterically or otherwise, by known techniques to delay disintegration and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby provide a sustained action over a longer period. For example, a time delay material such as glyceryl monostearate or glyceryl distearate can be employed. They may also be coated by the techniques described in the U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,256, 108; 4,166,452; and 4,265,874 to form osmotic therapeutic tablets for control release.

[0061] Formulations for oral use may also be presented as hard gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with an inert solid diluent (such as calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, or kaolin), or as soft gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with water or an oil medium (such as peanut oil, liquid paraffin, or olive oil). Additionally, emulsions can be prepared with a non-water miscible ingredients such as oils and stabilized with surfactants such as mono-diglycerides, PEG esters, and the like. [0062] The compounds of the present invention may also be administered in the form of suppositories for rectal administration of the drug. These compositions can be prepared by mixing the drug with a suitable non-irritating excipient which is solid at ordinary temperatures but liquid at the rectal temperature and will therefore melt in the rectum to release the drug. Such materials include cocoa butter and polyethylene glycols. Additionally, the compounds can be administered via ocular delivery by means of solutions or ointments. Still further, transdermal delivery of the subject compounds can be accomplished by means of iontophoretic patches and the like. For topical use, creams, ointments, jellies, solutions or suspensions, etc., containing the compounds of the present invention are employed. As used herein, topical application is also meant to include the use of mouth washes and gargles, as well as eye-drops for opthalmological use.

[0063] The compounds of the invention can be formulated for depositing into a medical device, which may include any of variety of conventional grafts, stents, including stent grafts, catheters, balloons, baskets or other device that can be deployed or permanently implanted within a body lumen. As a particular example, it would be desirable to have devices and methods which can deliver compounds of the invention to the region of a body which has been treated by interventional technique. The term "deposited" means that the inhibitory agent is coated, adsorbed, placed, or otherwise incorporated into the device by methods known in the art. For example, the inhibitory agent can be embedded and released from within ("matrix type") or surrounded by and released through ("reservoir type") polymer materials that coat or span the medical device. In the later example, the inhibitory agent can be entrapped within the polymer materials or coupled to the polymer materials using one or more the techniques for generating such materials known in the art. In other formulations, the inhibitory agent can be linked to the surface of the medical device without the need for a coating by means of detachable bonds and release with time, can be removed by active mechanical or chemical processes, or are in a permanently immobilized form that presents the inhibitory agent at the implantation site.

IV. Methods of Inhibiting Cancer

[0064] In a third aspect, the invention provides methods for treating cancer in a subject. The methods include administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound or

pharmaceutical composition of the invention. In therapeutic use for the treatment of cancer, the compounds and compositions of the present invention can be administered such that the initial dosage of a clofarabine prodrug ranges from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 1000 mg/kg daily. A daily dose of about 0.01-500 mg/kg, or about 0.1-200 mg/kg, or about 1-100 mg/kg, or about 10- 50 mg/kg, or about 10 mg/kg, or about 5 mg/kg, or about 2.5 mg/kg, or about 1 mg/kg can be used. [0065] The dosages can be varied depending upon the requirements of the patient, the severity of the cancer being treated, and the clofarabine prodrug being employed. For example, dosages can be empirically determined considering the type and stage of cancer diagnosed in a particular patient. The dose administered to a patient should be sufficient to result in a beneficial therapeutic response in the patient over time. The size of the dose will also be determined by the existence, nature, and extent of any adverse side-effects that accompany the administration of a particular clofarabine prodrug in a particular patient. Determination of the proper dosage for a particular situation is within the skill of the typical practitioner. Generally, treatment is initiated with smaller dosages which are less than the optimum dose of the clofarabine prodrug.

Thereafter, the dosage is increased by small increments until the optimum effect under the circumstances is reached. The total daily dosage can be divided and administered in portions during the day.

[0066] The compositions can be administered alone in the methods of the invention, or in combination with other therapeutic agents. In some embodiments, the methods further include administering to the subject an anti-cancer agent. In certain instances, the methods include a combination of anti-cancer agents. Any suitable anti-cancer agent can be used in the methods of the invention. In some embodiments, the anti-cancer agent is selected from a conventional chemotherapeutic agent, a targeted therapeutic agent, and a radiotherapeutic agent.

[0067] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method for treating a cancer, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

wherein R 1 is H or -C(=0)-X-R 3 and R 2 is H or -C(=0)-Y-R 4 , wherein X and Y are each independently O, CH 2 or CH( H 2 ), provided R 1 and R 2 are not both H;

R 3 and R 4 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aryl, substituted aryl, arylalkyl, substituted arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl and substituted heteroalkyl; and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, to treat the cancer.

[0068] In certain aspects, the method includes further administering to the subject an anticancer agent.

[0069] In certain aspects, the anti-cancer agent is a conventional chemotherapeutic agent, a targeted therapeutic agent, a radiotherapeutic agent and a mixture thereof. [0070] In certain aspects, the anti-cancer agent is selected from the group consisting of cytarabine, decitabine, fludarabine, gemcitabine, azacitidine, capecitabine, sorafenib, sunitinib, idarubicin, daunorubicin, busulfan, etoposide, mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, thiopeta, bendamustine, melphalan, vincristine, vinorelbine, entinostat, dexamethasone, methotrexate, lenalidomide, topotecan, temsirolimus, rituximab, alemtuzumab, filgrastim, epratuzumab and thymoglobulin.

[0071] In certain aspects, administering the composition is conducted orally.

[0072] In certain aspects, wherein administering the composition is conducted parenterally.

[0073] In certain aspects, the cancer to be treated is selected from the group consisting of leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome, breast cancer and pancreatic cancer.

[0074] Suitable conventional chemotherapeutic agents include, but are not limited to, anthracycline antibiotics, DNA synthesis inhibitors, alkylating agents, antifolate agents, metabolic inhibitors and combinations thereof. Examples of anthracycline antibiotics include, but are not limited to, doxorubicin, epirubicin, mitoxantrone and the like. Examples of DNA synthesis inhibitors include, but are not limited to, mitomycin C, 5FU (5-fluorouracil), capecitabine, irinotecan hydrochloride, thymitaq and the like. Examples of alkylating agents include, but are not limited to, cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, mitoxantrone and the like. Examples of metabolic inhibitors include, but are not limited to, etoposide, rottlerin and the like. Examples of antifolate agents include, but are not limited to, nolatrexed and the like. [0075] Targeted cancer therapies are medications which inhibit the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis and cancer growth, rather than by simply interfering with rapidly dividing cells (e.g. with conventional chemotherapeutic agent). Targeted cancer therapy can include kinase inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, HER2/neu receptors, or combinations thereof.

Examples of kinase inhibitors include, but are not limited to, lapatinib, sorefenib, sunitinib, erotinib, ABT-869, ARQ 197 and the like. Examples of angiogenesis inhibitors include, but are not limited to, Avastin, Brivanib, Bevacizumab, Ramucirumab and the like. Examples of EGFR inhibitor include, but are not limited to, Cetuximab, Gefitinib and the like. Exanples of

HER2/neu receptor include, but are not limited to, Trastuzumab and the like. [0076] Radiotherapeutic agents are those conventionally adopted in the therapeutic field of cancer treatment and include photons having enough energy for chemical bond ionization such as, for instance, alpha (a), beta (B), and gamma (γ) rays from radioactive nuclei as well as x-rays. The radiation may be high-LET (linear energy transfer) or low-LET. LET is the energy transferred per unit length of the distance. High LET is said to be densely ionizing radiation and Low LET is said to be sparsely ionizing radiation. Representative examples of high-LET are neutrons and alpha particles. Representative examples of low-LET are x-ray and gamma rays. Low LET radiation including both x-rays and γ rays is most commonly used for radiotherapy of cancer patients. The radiation may be used for external radiation therapy that is usually given on an outpatient basis or for internal radiation therapy that uses radiation that is placed very close to or inside the tumor. In case of internal radiation therapy, the radiation source is usually sealed in a small holder called an implant. Implants may be in the form of thin wires, plastic tubes called catheters, ribbons, capsules, or seeds. The implant is put directly into the body. Internal radiation therapy may require a hospital stay. The ionizing radiation source is provided as a unit dose of radiation and is preferably an x-ray tube since it provides many advantages, such as convenient adjustable dosing where the source may be easily turned on and off, minimal disposal problems, and the like. A unit dose of radiation is generally measured in gray (Gy). The ionizing radiation source may also comprise a radioisotope, such as a solid radioisotopic source (e.g., wire, strip, pellet, seed, bead, or the like), or a liquid radioisotopic filled balloon. In the latter case, the balloon has been specially configured to prevent leakage of the radioisotopic material from the balloon into the body lumen or blood stream. Still further, the ionizing radiation source may comprise a receptacle in the catheter body for receiving radioisotopic materials like pellets or liquids. The radioisotopic material may be selected to emit α, B and γ. Usually, a and B radiations are preferred since they may be quickly absorbed by the surrounding tissue and will not penetrate substantially beyond the wall of the body lumen being treated.

Accordingly, incidental irradiation of the heart and other organs adjacent to the treatment region can be substantially eliminated. The total number of units provided will be an amount determined to be therapeutically effective by one skilled in treatment using ionizing radiation. This amount will vary with the subject and the type of malignancy or neoplasm being treated. The amount may vary but a patient may receive a dosage of about 30-75 Gy over several weeks. [0077] Additional anti-cancer agents can include, but are not limited to, 20-epi-l,25

dihydroxyvitamin D3,4-ipomeanol, 5-ethynyluracil, 9-dihydrotaxol, abiraterone, acivicin, aclarubicin, acodazole hydrochloride, acronine, acylfulvene, adecypenol, adozelesin, aldesleukin, all-tk antagonists, altretamine, ambamustine, ambomycin, ametantrone acetate, amidox, amifostine, aminoglutethimide, aminolevulinic acid, amrubicin, amsacrine, anagrelide, anastrozole, andrographolide, angiogenesis inhibitors, antagonist D, antagonist G, antarelix, anthramycin, anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein- 1, antiestrogen, antineoplaston, antisense oligonucleotides, aphidicolin glycinate, apoptosis gene modulators, apoptosis regulators, apurinic acid, ARA-CDP-DL-PTBA, arginine deaminase, asparaginase, asperlin, asulacrine, atamestane, atrimustine, axinastatin 1, axinastatin 2, axinastatin 3, azacitidine, azasetron, azatoxin, azatyrosine, azetepa, azotomycin, baccatin III derivatives, balanol, batimastat, benzochlorins, benzodepa, benzoylstaurosporine, beta lactam derivatives, beta-alethine, betaclamycin B, betulinic acid, BFGF inhibitor, bicalutamide, bisantrene, bisantrene hydrochloride,

bisaziridinylspermine, bisnafide, bisnafide dimesylate, bistratene A, bizelesin, bleomycin, bleomycin sulfate, BRC/ABL antagonists, breflate, brequinar sodium, bropirimine, budotitane, busulfan, buthionine sulfoximine, cactinomycin, calcipotriol, calphostin C, calusterone, camptothecin derivatives, canarypox IL-2, capecitabine, caracemide, carbetimer, carboplatin, carboxamide-amino-triazole, carboxyamidotriazole, carest M3, carmustine, cam 700, cartilage derived inhibitor, carubicin hydrochloride, carzelesin, casein kinase inhibitors, castanospermine, cecropin B, cedefingol, cetrorelix, chlorambucil, chlorins, chloroquinoxaline sulfonamide, cicaprost, cirolemycin, cisplatin, cis-porphyrin, cladribine, clomifene analogs, clotrimazole, collismycin A, collismycin B, combretastatin A4, combretastatin analog, conagenin,

crambescidin 816, crisnatol, crisnatol mesylate, cryptophycin 8, cryptophycin A derivatives, curacin A, cyclopentanthraquinones, cyclophosphamide, cycloplatam, cypemycin, cytarabine, cytarabine ocfosfate, cytolytic factor, cytostatin, dacarbazine, dacliximab, dactinomycin, daunorubicin hydrochloride, decitabine, dehydrodidemnin B, deslorelin, dexifosfamide, dexormaplatin, dexrazoxane, dexverapamil, dezaguanine, dezaguanine mesylate, diaziquone, didemnin B, didox, diethylnorspermine, dihydro-5-azacytidine, dioxamycin, diphenyl spiromustine, docetaxel, docosanol, dolasetron, doxifluridine, doxorubicin, doxorubicin hydrochloride, droloxifene, droloxifene citrate, dromostanolone propionate, dronabinol, duazomycin, duocarmycin SA, ebselen, ecomustine, edatrexate, edelfosine, edrecolomab, eflomithine, eflomithine hydrochloride, elemene, elsamitrucin, emitefur, enloplatin, enpromate, epipropidine, epirubicin, epirubicin hydrochloride, epristeride, erbulozole, erythrocyte gene therapy vector system, esorubicin hydrochloride, estramustine, estramustine analog, estramustine phosphate sodium, estrogen agonists, estrogen antagonists, etanidazole, etoposide, etoposide phosphate, etoprine, exemestane, fadrozole, fadrozole hydrochloride, fazarabine, fenretinide, filgrastim, finasteride, fiavopiridol, flezelastine, floxuridine, fluasterone, fiudarabine, fiudarabine phosphate, fluorodaunorunicin hydrochloride, fluorouracil, fluorocitabine, forfenimex, formestane, fosquidone, fostriecin, fostriecin sodium, fotemustine, gadolinium texaphyrin, gallium nitrate, galocitabine, ganirelix, gelatinase inhibitors, glutathione inhibitors, hepsulfam, heregulin, hexamethylene bisacetamide, hydroxyurea, hypericin, ibandronic acid, idarubicin, idarubicin hydrochloride, idoxifene, idramantone, ifosfamide, ilmofosine, ilomastat,

imidazoacridones, imiquimod, immunostimulant peptides, insulin-like growth factor- 1 receptor inhibitor, interferon agonists, interferon alpha-2A, interferon alpha-2B, interferon alpha-Nl, interferon alpha-N3, interferon beta-IA, interferon gamma-IB, interferons, interleukins, iobenguane, iododoxorubicin, iproplatin, irinotecan, irinotecan hydrochloride, iroplact, irsogladine, isobengazole, isohomohalicondrin B, itasetron, jasplakinolide, kahalalide F, lamellarin-N triacetate, lanreotide, lanreotide acetate, leinamycin, lenograstim, lentinan sulfate, leptolstatin, letrozole, leukemia inhibiting factor, leukocyte alpha interferon, leuprolide acetate, leuprolide/estrogen/progesterone, leuprorelin, levamisole, liarozole, liarozole hydrochloride, linear polyamine analog, lipophilic disaccharide peptide, lipophilic platinum compounds, lissoclinamide 7, lobaplatin, lombricine, lometrexol, lometrexol sodium, lomustine, lonidamine, losoxantrone, losoxantrone hydrochloride, lovastatin, loxoribine, lurtotecan, lutetium texaphyrin, lysofylline, lytic peptides, maitansine, mannostatin A, marimastat, masoprocol, maspin, matrilysin inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, maytansine, mechlorethamine hydrochloride, megestrol acetate, melengestrol acetate, melphalan, menogaril, merbarone, mercaptopurine, meterelin, methioninase, methotrexate, methotrexate sodium, metoclopramide, metoprine, meturedepa, microalgal protein kinase C inhibitors, MIF inhibitor, mifepristone, miltefosine, mirimostim, mismatched double stranded RNA, mitindomide, mitocarcin, mitocromin, mitogillin, mitoguazone, mitolactol, mitomalcin, mitomycin, mitomycin analogs, mitonafide, mitosper, mitotane, mitotoxin fibroblast growth factor-saporin, mitoxantrone, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, mofarotene, molgramostim, monoclonal antibody, human chorionic gonadotrophin, monophosphoryl lipid a/myobacterium cell wall SK, mopidamol, multiple drug resistance gene inhibitor, multiple tumor suppressor 1 -based therapy, mustard anticancer agent, mycaperoxide B, mycobacterial cell wall extract, mycophenolic acid, myriaporone, n- acetyldinaline, nafarelin, nagrestip, naloxone/pentazocine, napavin, naphterpin, nartograstim, nedaplatin, nemorubicin, neridronic acid, neutral endopeptidase, nilutamide, nisamycin, nitric oxide modulators, nitroxide antioxidant, nitrullyn, nocodazole, nogalamycin, n-substituted benzamides, 06-benzylguanine, octreotide, okicenone, oligonucleotides, onapristone, ondansetron, oracin, oral cytokine inducer, ormaplatin, osaterone, oxaliplatin, oxaunomycin, oxisuran, paclitaxel, paclitaxel analogs, paclitaxel derivatives, palauamine, palmitoylrhizoxin, pamidronic acid, panaxytriol, panomifene, parabactin, pazelliptine, pegaspargase, peldesine, peliomycin, pentamustine, pentosan polysulfate sodium, pentostatin, pentrozole, peplomycin sulfate, perflubron, perfosfamide, perillyl alcohol, phenazinomycin, phenylacetate, phosphatase inhibitors, picibanil, pilocarpine hydrochloride, pipobroman, piposulfan, pirarubicin, piritrexim, piroxantrone hydrochloride, placetin A, placetin B, plasminogen activator inhibitor, platinum complex, platinum compounds, platinum-triamine complex, plicamycin, plomestane, porfimer sodium, porfiromycin, prednimustine, procarbazine hydrochloride, propyl bis-acridone, prostaglandin J2, prostatic carcinoma antiandrogen, proteasome inhibitors, protein A-based immune modulator, protein kinase C inhibitor, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors, purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors, puromycin, puromycin hydrochloride, purpurins, pyrazofurin, pyrazoloacridine, pyridoxylated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate, RAF antagonists, raltitrexed, ramosetron, RAS farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors, RAS inhibitors, RAS-GAP inhibitor, retelliptine demethylated, rhenium RE 186 etidronate, rhizoxin, riboprine, ribozymes, RII retinamide, RNAi, rogletimide, rohitukine, romurtide, roquinimex, rubiginone Bl, ruboxyl, safingol, safingol hydrochloride, saintopin, sarcnu, sarcophytol A, sargramostim, SDI 1 mimetics, semustine, senescence derived inhibitor 1, sense oligonucleotides, signal transduction inhibitors, signal transduction modulators, simtrazene, single chain antigen binding protein, sizofuran, sobuzoxane, sodium borocaptate, sodium phenylacetate, solverol, somatomedin binding protein, sonermin, sparfosate sodium, sparfosic acid, sparsomycin, spicamycin D, spirogermanium hydrochloride, spiromustine, spiroplatin, splenopentin, spongistatin 1, squalamine, stem cell inhibitor, stem-cell division inhibitors, stipiamide, streptonigrin, streptozocin, stromelysin inhibitors, sulfinosine, sulofenur, superactive vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist, suradista, suramin, swainsonine, synthetic glycosaminoglycans, talisomycin, tallimustine, tamoxifen methiodide, tauromustine, tazarotene, tecogalan sodium, tegafur, tellurapyrylium, telomerase inhibitors, teloxantrone hydrochloride, temoporfin, temozolomide, teniposide, teroxirone, testolactone, tetrachlorodecaoxide, tetrazomine, thaliblastine, thalidomide, thiamiprine, thiocoraline, thioguanine, thiotepa, thrombopoietin, thrombopoietin mimetic, thymalfasin, thymopoietin receptor agonist, thymotrinan, thyroid stimulating hormone, tiazofurin, tin ethyl etiopurpurin, tirapazamine, titanocene dichloride, topotecan hydrochloride, topsentin, toremifene, toremifene citrate, totipotent stem cell factor, translation inhibitors, trestolone acetate, tretinoin, triacetyluridine, triciribine, triciribine phosphate, trimetrexate, trimetrexate glucuronate, triptorelin, tropisetron, tubulozole

hydrochloride, turosteride, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, tyrphostins, UBC inhibitors, ubenimex, uracil mustard, uredepa, urogenital sinus-derived growth inhibitory factor, urokinase receptor antagonists, vapreotide, variolin B, velaresol, veramine, verdins, verteporfin, vinblastine sulfate, vincristine sulfate, vindesine, vindesine sulfate, vinepidine sulfate, vinglycinate sulfate, vinleurosine sulfate, vinorelbine, vinorelbine tartrate, vinrosidine sulfate, vinxaltine, vinzolidine sulfate, vitaxin, vorozole, zanoterone, zeniplatin, zilascorb, zinostatin, zinostatin stimalamer, or zorubicin hydrochloride. In some embodiments, the anti-cancer agent is selected from methotrexate, taxol, L-asparaginase, mercaptopurine, thioguanine, hydroxyurea, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, nitrosoureas, cisplatin, carboplatin, mitomycin, dacarbazine, procarbizine, topotecan, nitrogen mustards, Cytoxan, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, BCNU, irinotecan, camptothecins, bleomycin, doxorubicin, idarubicin, daunorubicin, dactinomycin, plicamycin, mitoxantrone, asparaginase, vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine, paclitaxel, and docetaxel. In some embodiments, the anti-cancer agent is selected from cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, cetuximab, zalutumumab, minotuzumab, and matuzumab.

[0078] Compounds and compositions as described above can be administered via any suitable route when used in the methods of the invention. In some embodiments, administering the compound or composition is conducted orally. In some embodiments, administering the compound or composition is conducted parenterally. Other routes of administration can be useful in the methods of the invention. [0079] A number of cancers can be treated according to the methods of the invention. Cancers contemplated for treatment using the methods of the invention include solid tumors such as fibrosarcoma, myxosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, endotheliosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, lymphangioendotheliosarcoma, synovioma, mesothelioma, Ewing's tumor, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, non-small cell lung cancer, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, bone cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, esophogeal cancer, stomach cancer, oral cancer, nasal cancer, throat cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sweat gland carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, papillary

adenocarcinomas, cystadenocarcinoma, medullary carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatoma, bile duct carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, Wilms' tumor, cervical cancer, uterine cancer, testicular cancer, small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, lung cancer, epithelial carcinoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, pinealoma, hemangioblastoma, acoustic neuroma, oligodendroglioma, meningioma, skin cancer, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and retinoblastoma. Cancers also include blood-borne cancers, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute lymphoblastic B-cell leukemia, acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), acute monoblastic leukemia, acute erythroleukemic leukemia, acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, acute nonlymphocyctic leukemia, acute undifferentiated leukemia, chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), hairy cell leukemia, and multiple myeloma. Cancer also includes acute and chronic leukemias such as lymphoblastic, myelogenous, lymphocytic, and myelocytic leukemias. Cancer also includes lymphomas such as Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, heavy chain disease, and polycythemia vera. Some embodiments of the invention provide methods for treating cancer as described above, wherein the cancer is selected from leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome, breast cancer and pancreatic cancer.

[0080] In a related aspect, the invention provides methods for inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. The methods include contacting the cells with an effective amount of any of the compounds of the invention. In some embodiments, the methods further include contacting the cells with an anti-cancer agent. In some embodiments, the anti-cancer agent is selected from cytarabine, decitabine, fludarabine, gemcitabine, azacitidine, capecitabine, sorafenib, sunitinib, idarubicin, daunorubicin, busulfan, etoposide, mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, thiopeta, bendamustine, melphalan, vincristine, vinorelbine, entinostat, dexamethasone, methotrexate, lenalidomide, topotecan, temsirolimus, rituximab, alemtuzumab, filgrastim, epratuzumab and thymoglobulin. In some embodiments, the anti-cancer agent is selected from cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, cetuximab, zalutumumab, minotuzumab, and matuzumab. In some embodiments, the cancer cells are selected from the group consisting of leukemia cells, lymphoma cells, abnormal blood cells, breast cancer cells and pancreatic cancer cells. V. Examples

[0081] In the reactions described hereinafter, it may be necessary to protect reactive functional groups, for example hydroxy, amino, imino, thio or carboxy groups, where these are desired in the final product, to avoid their unwanted participation in the reactions. Conventional protecting groups can be used in accordance with standard practice, for examples see T.W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts in "Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry" John Wiley and Sons, 1999.

Methods of Making

[0082] Scheme I below shows various methods of the invention to make the compounds of formula I. Starting with commercially available clofarabine (A), compound 1 is synthesized using Boc 2 0, NaOH, THF, H 2 0 (Method A) as is described in detail in Example 1. As shown in the scheme, compound 2, the dicarbonate is made starting from 1 using Method B of

ROC(=0)Cl, TMEDA, CH 2 C1 2 . Compound 3 is prepared in excellent yield starting from 2 using Method C.

[0083] Alternative methods of the invention are shown in the scheme. For example, starting from compound 1 and using Method D, compounds 16 or 18 or similar are prepared. Methods C or E are used to prepare compounds 17 or 20 (or similar) starting from 16 or 18 or similar.

Scheme I. imiiar

Method C i-PrOH, H 2 0, heat

-PrOH, H 2 0, heat or

Method E T.FA, CH 2 C1 2

Example 1

[0084] Method A: Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert- butyloxycarbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane (1)

1

[0085] To a solution of clofarabine (1.0 g, 3.3 mmol) and sodium hydroxide (265 mg, 6.6 mmol) in 26 mL of tetrahydrofuran and 7 mL of water was added di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (791 mg, 3.6 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 18 h, concentrated in vacuo and then extracted twice with EtOAc. The organic extracts were combined, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. Purificationof the residue by flash column chromatography (1: 1→2: 1→4: 1 EtOAc/Hexane) afforded 1 as a colorless solid

(793 mg, 58% yield): 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.33 (s, 1H), 7.99 (s, 2H), 6.40-6.35 (dd, 1H), 5.63-5.51 (d, 1H), 5.39-5.35 (d, 1H), 5.22 (t, 1H), 4.12 (s, 1H), 3.73 (t, 2H), 1.50 (s, 9H).

[0086] Method B: Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert- butyloxycarbonyloxy-2-(ethoxycarbonyloxymethyl)-4-fluoro-oxo lane (2)

2 [0087] To a solution of 1 (100 mg, 0.25 mmol) and tetramethylethylenediamine (58 mg, 0.5 mmol) in 2.5 mL of dichloromethane at 0 °C was added ethyl chloroformate (30 mg, 0.27 mmol). The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1 h, then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between EtOAc and water, the aqueous layer was again extracted with EtOAc. The organic extracts were combined, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was then purified by flash column chromatography (1 :2 EtOAc/Hexane) to give 2 as a colorless solid (99 mg, 84% yield): 1 HNMR(400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.24 (s, IH), 7.98 (s, 2H), 6.44-6.39 (dd, IH), 5.70-5.58 (tt,

IH), 5.48-5.44 (d, IH), 4.54-4.43 (m, 2H), 4.38-4.35 (m, IH), 4.19-4.14 (m, 2H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.26-1.22 (t, 3H).

[0088] Method C: Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2- (ethoxycarbonyloxymethyl)-4-fluoro-oxolan-3-ol (3)

3

[0089] A solution of 2 (99 mg, 0.21 mmol) in 1 mL of isopropyl alcohol and 1 mL of water was heated at 90-100 °C with stirring for 2 h, cooled to room temperature and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between EtOAc and water, and the aqueous layer was again extracted with EtOAc. The organic extracts were combined, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to provide 3 as a colorless solid (76 mg, 99% yield): 1 HNMR(200 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.23-8.22 (d, IH), 7.96 (s, 2H), 6.45-6.35 (dd, IH), 6.21 (s, IH), 5.45-5.15 (tt, IH), 4.57-4.41 (m, 3H), 4.21-4.09 (m, 3H), 1.27-1.20 (t, 3H).

Example 2

[0090] Preparation of(2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert- butyloxycarbonyloxy-2-(butyloxycarbonyloxymethyl)-4-fluoro-o xolane (4)

4 [0091] Using Method B and butyl chloroformate, 1 was converted to 4 (colorless solid, 96% yield): 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.24 (s, IH), 7.98 (s, 2H), 6.44-6.39 (dd, IH), 5.70-5.57 (tt, IH), 5.48-5.44 (d, IH), 4.54-4.44 (m, 2H), 4.39-4.35 (m, IH), 4.14-4.11 (t, 2H), 1.62-1.58 (t, 2H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.37-1.32 (t, 2H), 0.92-0.88 (t, 3H).

[0092] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2-(butyloxy- carbonyloxymethyl)-4-fluoro-oxolan-3-ol (5)

5

[0093] Using Method C, 4 was converted to 5 (colorless solid, 80% yield): 1 HNMR (200 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.23-8.22 (d, IH), 7.95 (s, 2H), 6.45-6.35 (dd, IH), 6.25-6.22 (d, IH), 5.45-5.14 (tt,

IH), 4.58-4.42 (m, 3H), 4.19-4.08 (m, 3H), 1.62-1.55 (t, 2H), 1.38-1.31 (t, 2H), 0.92-0.85 (t, 3H).

Example 3

[0094] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert

carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2-(2-methylpropyloxycarbonyloxymethy l)oxolane (6)

6

[0095] Using Method B and isobutyl chloroformate, 1 was converted to 6 (colorless solid, 99% yield): 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.24 (s, IH), 7.98 (s, 2H), 6.45-6.40 (dd, IH), 5.70-5.57 (tt, IH), 5.49-5.44 (d, IH), 4.55-4.45 (m, 2H), 4.40-4.36 (m, IH), 3.93-3.91 (d, 2H), 1.96-1.89 (m, IH), 1.50 (s, 9H), 0.92-0.90 (d, 6H).

[0096] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(2-m ethyl- propyloxycarbonyloxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol (7)

[0097] Using Method C, 6 was converted to 7 (colorless solid, 74% yield): 1 HNMR (200 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.23-8.22 (d, IH), 7.97 (s, 2H), 6.45-6.36 (dd, IH), 6.22-6.20 (d, IH), 5.45-5.15 (tt,

IH), 4.60-4.43 (m, 3H), 4.12-3.90 (m, 3H), 1.99-1.85 (m, IH), 0.92-0.89 (d, 6H).

Example 4

[0098] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy - carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2-(pentyloxycarbonyloxymethyl)oxolane (8)

8

[0099] Using Method B and amyl chloroformate, 1 was converted to 8 (colorless solid, 94% yield): 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.24 (s, IH), 7.97 (s, 2H), 6.44-6.39 (dd, IH), 5.70-5.57 (tt, IH), 5.48-5.44 (d, IH), 4.54-4.44 (m, 2H), 4.39-4.35 (m, IH), 4.13-4.10 (t, 2H), 1.63-1.60 (t, 2H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.31-1.30 (m, 4H), 0.89-0.85 (t, 3H). [0100] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(pen tyloxy- carbonyloxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol (9)

9

[0101] Using Method C, 8 was converted to 9 (colorless solid, 66% yield): 1 HNMR (200 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.23 (d, IH), 7.96 (s, 2H), 6.45-6.35 (dd, IH), 6.22-6.19 (d, IH), 5.45-5.14 (tt, IH),

4.60-4.42 (m, 3H), 4.14-4.07 (m, 3H), 1.64-1.57 (t, 2H), 1.32-1.25 (m, 4H), 0.90-0.87 (t, 3H).

Example 5 [0102] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl) -3-tert- butyloxycarbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2-(hexyloxycarbonyloxymethyl)ox olane (10)

10

[0103] Using Method B and hexyl chloroformate, 1 was converted to 10 (colorless solid, 76% yield): 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.23 (s, IH), 7.96 (s, 2H), 6.44-6.39 (dd, IH), 5.70-5.57 (tt, IH), 5.48-5.43 (d, IH), 4.53-4.44 (m, 2H), 4.38-4.36 (m, IH), 4.12-4.09 (t, 2H), 1.61-1.58 (t, 2H), 1.49 (s, 9H), 1.30-1.23 (m, 6H), 0.87-0.84 (t, 3H).

[0104] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(hex yloxy- carbonyloxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol (11)

11

[0105] Using Method C, 10 was converted to 11 (colorless solid, 81% yield): 1 HNMR (200 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.23 (s, 1H). 7.96 (s, 2H), 6.45-6.35 (dd, 1H), 6.22-6.20 (d, 1H), 5.42-5.16 (tt, 1H), 4.57-4.44 (m, 3H), 4.14-4.11 (m, 3H), 1.60 (s, 2H), 1.27 (s, 6H), 0.86 (s, 3H).

Example 6

[0106] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy - carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2-(heptyloxycarbonyloxymethyl)oxolane (12)

12

[0107] Using Method B and heptyl chloroformate, 1 was converted to 12 (colorless solid, 88% yield): 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.23 (s, 1H). 7.96 (s, 2H), 6.44-6.39 (dd, 1H), 5.70-5.57 (tt, 1H), 5.48-5.43 (d, 1H), 4.54-4.44 (m, 2H), 4.39-4.34 (m, 1H), 4.13-4.09 (t, 2H), 1.61-1.58 (t, 2H), 1.49 (s, 9H), 1.31-1.22 (m, 8H), 0.87-0.84 (t, 3H).

[0108] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(hep tyloxy- carbonyloxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol (13)

13

[0109] Using Method C, 12 was converted to 13 (colorless solid, 50% yield): 1 HNMR (200 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.23-8.22 (d, IH), 7.96 (s, 2H), 6.45-6.35 (dd, IH), 6.23 (s, IH), 5.44-5.14 (tt, IH), 4.59-4.42 (m, 3H), 4.14-4.07 (m, 3H), 1.63-1.56 (t, 2H), 1.25 (s, 8H), 0.89-0.82 (t, 3H).

Example 7

[0110] Method D: Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert- butyloxycarbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2-(3-phenylpropanoyloxymethyl)o xolane (14)

14

[0111] A solution of 1 (100 mg, 0.25 mmol), 3-phenylpropanoic acid (45 mg, 0.3 mmol), 4- dimethylaminopyridine (3 mg, 0.02 mmol) in 2.5 mL dichloromethane at 0 °C was added Ν,Ν'- dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (61 mg, 0.3 mmol). The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature, stirred for 18 h, filtered and then concentrated in vacuo. Purification of the residue by flash column chromatography (1 :2→1 : 1 EtOAc/Hexane) provided 14 (colorless oil, 99% yield): 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.25 (s, IH), 7.97 (s, 2H), 7.30-7.18 (m, 5H), 6.43-6.38 (dd, IH), 5.70-5.56 (tt, IH), 5.50-5.44 (d, IH), 4.46-4.36 (m, 2H), 4.33-4.31 (m, IH), 2.90-2.86 (t, 2H), 2.71-2.68 (t, 2H), 1.49 (s, 9H).

[0112] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(3-p henyl- propanoyloxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol (15)

15

[0113] Using Method C, 14 was converted to 15 (colorless solid, 52% yield): 1 HNMR (200 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.25-8.24 (d, IH), 7.96 (s, 2H),7.32-7.19 (m, 5H), 6.44-6.35 (dd, IH), 6.19

(s, IH), 5.46-5.15 (tt, IH), 4.59-4.49 (d, IH), 4.41-4.33 (m, 2H), 4.10-4.00 (m, IH), 2.91-2.84 (t, 2H), 2.73-2.66 (t, 2H).

Example 8 [0114] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-3-tert-butyloxy - carbonyloxy-4-fluoro-2-(3-(3-pyridyl)propanoyloxymethyl)oxol ane (16)

16

[0115] Using Method D and 3-(3-pyridyl)propanoic acid, 1 was converted to 16 (colorless solid, 94% yield): 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.48 (s, IH), 8.42-8.41 (d, IH), 8.27 (s, IH), 8.00 (s, 2H), 7.68-7.67 (d, IH), 7.31-7.28 (t, IH), 7.43-7.38 (dd, IH), 5.70-5.58 (d, IH), 5.49- 5.44 (d, IH), 4.46-4.37 (m, 2H), 4.34-4.30 (m, IH), 2.91-2.88 (t, 2H), 2.77-2.73 (t, 2H), 1.49 (s, 9H).

[0116] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(3-( 3- pyridyl)propanoyloxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol (17)

17

[0117] Using Method C, 16 was converted to 17 (colorless solid, 73% yield): 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.49 (s, IH), 8.43-8.41 (d, IH), 8.25 (s, IH), 7.96 (s, 2H), 7.69-7.67 (d, IH), 7.32-7.29 (t, IH), 6.42-6.37 (dd, IH), 6.19-6.17 (d, IH), 5.38-5.24 (d, IH), 4.57-4.51 (d, IH), 4.40-4.31 (m, 2H), 4.06 (s, IH), 2.90 (t, 2H), 2.75 (t, 2H).

Example 9

[0118] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2-[(2S)-2-(tert - butoxycarbonylamino)propanoyloxymethyl]-3-tert-butyloxycarbo nyloxy-4-fluoro-oxolane (18)

18

[0119] Using Method D and N-Boc-L-alanine, 1 was converted to 18 (colorless solid, 83% yield): 1 HNMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.27-8.26 (d, IH), 7.99 (s, 2H), 7.39-7.35 (d, IH), 6.46- 6.35 (dd, IH), 5.75-5.38 (tt, IH), 5.49-5.48 (d, IH), 4.44-4.43 (m, 2H), 4.36-4.31 (t, IH), 4.11- 4.01 (m, IH), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.38 (s, 9H), 1.29-1.25 (d, 3H).

[0120] Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2-[(2S)-2-(tert - butoxycarbonylamino)propanoyloxymethyl]-4-fluoro-oxolan-3-ol (19)

[0121] Using Method C, 18 was converted to 19 (colorless solid, 93% yield): 1 HNMR (200 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.24-8.23 (d, IH), 7.95 (s, 2H), 7.38-7.35 (d, IH), 6.44-6.35 (dd, IH), 6.18 (s, IH), 5.44-5.14 (tt, IH), 4.59-4.44 (tt, IH), 4.40-4.36 (m, 2H), 4.11-4.00 (m, 2H), 1.38 (s, 9H), 1.29-1.25 (d, 3H).

[0122] Method E: Preparation of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2-[(2S)- 2- aminopropanoyloxymethyl]-4-fluoro-oxolan-3-ol (20)

[0123] To a solution of 18 (100 mg, 0.17 mmol) in 1.5 mL of dichloromethane at 0 °C was slowly added trifluoroacetic acid (0.5 mL). The resulting reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature, stirred for 2 h and neutralized with aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, then extracted twice with EtOAc. The organic extracts were combined, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfateand concentrated in vacuo to afford 20 as a colorless solid (54 mg, 79% yield): 1 HNMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.26-8.25 (d, IH), 7.96 (s, 2H), 6.44-6.35 (dd, IH), 6.21 (s, IH), 5.45-5.15 (tt, IH), 4.60-4.51 (d, IH), 4.39-4.36 (m, 2H), 4.12-4.07 (m, IH), 1.22-1.18 (d, 3H).

Example 10 [0124] Method F: In Vitro Metabolic Conversion Assay Using Human Plasma. A representative compound (Example 1, Compound 3) was incubated with human plasma (Innovative Research) at 15 μ§/ιηΙ.. Incubations were carried out at 37 °C in a shaker water bath. Samples were taken at 0, 10, 30 and 60 minutes, quenched with 25 μΐ ^ of tnfluoroacetic acid, and then centrifuged at 25,000 g for 3 minutes at 4 °C. The supernatant of each sample was collected and analyzed using HPLC to monitor the formation of clofarabine. FIG 1 illustrates the results for incubations performed at 37 °C.

[0125] After incubation with human plasma for 60 minutes at 37 °C, depletion of 3 was observed along with the formation of clofarabine as its metabolite.

Example 11

[0126] Method G: In Vitro Anti-proliferative Assay Using Human U-937 Lymphoma Cell Line. A representative compound (Example 1, Compound 3) was assessed for its antiproliferative activity against human U-937 lymphoma cell line (Bioresource Collection and Research Center) at various concentrations ranging from 10 μΜ to 0.005 μΜ in triplicates.

Incubations were carried out at 37 °C, 5% C0 2 , under humidifed atmosphere for 72 hours. After incubation, cell viability was examined by CellTiter 96 Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell

Proliferation Assay (Promega). Compound 3 was found to inhibit the proliferation of the human U-937 lymphoma cells effectively, with an IC 50 value of 0.082±0.003 μΜ.

[0127] Although the foregoing has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity and understanding, one of skill in the art will appreciate that certain changes and modifications can be practiced within the scope of the appended claims. In addition, each reference provided herein is incorporated by reference in its entirety to the same extent as if each reference was individually incorporated by reference.