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Title:
PROTEIN FOOD BAR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/169433
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Provided herein is a protein food product containing protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof, one or more gelling agents. one or more flavouring agents, and one or more sweetening agents, in which the total protein content of the food product is at least about 20% by weight, the total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight and the total lipid content is less than about 50% by weight. Methods of making said protein food product are also provided.

Inventors:
LEGGE, Matthew (Suite 19B, 3-15 Dennis RoadSpringwood, Queensland 4127, 4127, AU)
DOIDGE, Jeff (Suite 19B, 3-15 Dennis RoadSpringwood, Queensland 4127, 4127, AU)
KAPELERIS, John (Suite 19B, 3-15 Dennis RoadSpringwood, Queensland 4127, 4127, AU)
DOIDGE, Toni (Suite 19B, 3-15 Dennis RoadSpringwood, Queensland 4127, 4127, AU)
Application Number:
AU2019/050185
Publication Date:
September 12, 2019
Filing Date:
March 05, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ATP INSTITUTE PTY LTD (Suite 19B, 3-15 Dennis RoadSpringwood, Queensland 4127, 4127, AU)
International Classes:
A23J3/04; A23J3/06; A23P30/10
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SPRUSON & FERGUSON (GPO BOX 3898, Sydney, New South Wales 2001, 2001, AU)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A protein food product comprising:

protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof;

one or more gelling agents;

one or more flavouring agents; and

one or more sweetening agents;

wherein the total protein content of the food product is at least about 20% by weight, the total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight and the total lipid content is less than about 50% by weight.

2. The protein food product of Claim 1, wherein the protein that includes collagen peptides or derivatives thereof comprises gelatin and a collagen hydrolysate.

3. The protein food product of Claim 1 or Claim 2, wherein the gelling agent is, or comprises, agar.

4. The protein food product of any preceding claim wherein the one or more sweetening agents comprise erythritol and/or stevia.

5. The protein food product of any preceding claim which further comprises one or more humectants and/or one or more colouring agents.

6. The protein food product of any preceding claim, which comprises substantially no lipid.

7. The protein food product of any preceding claim, further comprising one or more pH modifiers.

8. The protein food product of Claim 7, wherein the pH modifiers comprise organic acids such as malic acid and/or ascorbic acid.

9. The protein food product of any preceding claim which further comprises one or more humectants.

10. The protein food product of any preceding claim which is aerated, having a specific gravity/density of 0.4-0.8.

11. The protein food product of Claim 10, which is a“marshmallow” style bar.

12. The protein food product of any one of Claims 1-9 which is a“gummy style” food product having a specific gravity/density of about 1.2 to 1.6.

13. The protein food product of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the total lipid content is less than about 10% by weight of the protein food product.

14. The protein food product of any one of Claims 1 to 12, wherein the total lipid content is between about 10% to about 50% by weight.

15. The protein food product of Claim 14, which is or comprises a ketogenic protein bar.

16. The protein food product of Claim 14 or Claim 15, wherein the protein food product promotes, enhances and/or prolongs ketosis in a subject.

17. A layered protein food product comprising a first layer comprising the protein food product according to Claim 10 or Claim 11 and a second layer comprising the protein food product according to Claim 12.

18. A method of producing a protein food product including the steps of combining:

protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or amino acids or derivatives thereof;

one or more gelling agents;

one or more flavouring agents;

one or more colouring agents; and

one or more sweetening agents;

and forming the protein food product, wherein the total protein content of the food product is at least about 20% by weight, the total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight and the total lipid content is less than about 50% by weight.

19. The method of Claim 18, which further includes combining one or more humectants and/or one or more colouring agents.

20. The method of Claim 18 or Claim 19, which further includes the step of moulding the protein food product.

21. The method of any one of Claims 18-20, wherein the protein food product is according to any one of Claims 1-17.

22. A method of promoting, enhancing and/or prolonging ketosis in a subject, including the step of administering to the subject an effective amount of a protein food product according to any one of Claims 14 to 16.

Description:
TITLE

PROTEIN FOOD BAR TECHNICAL FIELD

THIS INVENTION relates to a high protein food product and method of producing the high protein food product.

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION

Protein is a nutrient that is essential to healthy body function. Dietary protein is a source of amino acids including the essential amino acids phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine which cannot be synthesized by the human body. While most healthy diets include numerous different protein sources ( e.g . meat, dairy products, eggs, legumes, grains etc ) the amount and quality of the protein can vary between these different sources.

Accordingly, food and dietary supplements have been prepared for human consumption that seek to make up for deficiencies in dietary protein or to provide a particular amino acid content or profile designed for a particular purpose, such as sarcopenia prevention and/or treatment, bodybuilding or weight training. However, many of these protein foods and supplements have an unpleasant, artificial taste or include “hidden” calories, sugar alcohols, fats and/or carbohydrates that detract from the nutritional benefit of these foods and dietary supplements. Many dietary protein supplements contain allergens; dairy, soya, egg and nut allergies are becoming increasingly common and the prescribed restrictive diets can be a cause of dietary protein deficiency and a need for a protein supplementation with a product with lower allergenic potential.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a protein food product that provides an optimal source of protein, while also having a pleasant taste and texture. In a preferred object, the protein food product has a relatively low level of lipids and carbohydrates and/or low allergenic potential.

The present invention is therefore broadly directed to a protein food product, such as a food bar, comprising relatively high amounts of protein and relatively low amounts of carbohydrates and lipids.

In a first aspect, the invention provides a protein food product comprising: (i) protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof;

(ii) one or more gelling agents;

(iii) one or more flavouring agents; and

(iv) one or more sweetening agents;

wherein the total protein content of the food product is at least about 20% by weight, the total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight and the total lipid content is less than about 50% by weight.

In one embodiment, the total lipid content is less than about 10% by weight of the protein food product.

In an alternative embodiment, the total lipid content is between about 10% to about 50% by weight, and more preferably, about 30% to about 50% by weight of the protein food product. With respect to such embodiments, the protein food product suitably promotes, enhances and/or prolongs ketosis in a subject.

The protein food product may further comprise one or more humectants and/or one or more colouring agents.

In a second aspect, the invention provides a layered protein food product comprising a first layer comprising the“marshmallow” style bar according to the first aspect and a second layer comprising the“gummy” style bar according to the first aspect.

In a third aspect, the invention provides a method of producing a protein food product including the steps of combining:

(i) protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof;

(ii) one or more gelling agent(s);

(iii) one or more flavouring agents; and

(iv) one or more sweetening agents.

and forming the total protein content of the food product is at least about 20% by weight; the total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight, and the total lipid content is less than about 50% by weight.

The method may further include combining one or more humectants and/or one or more colouring agents.

Suitably, the method includes the further step of forming the food product in a mould. Preferably, according to the aforementioned aspects, the protein that includes collagen peptides or derivatives thereof is a combination of gelatin and a collagen hydrolysate.

A preferred gelatin is GELITA ® 250 bloom bovine hide gelatin.

A preferred collagen hydrolysate is GELITA ® BodyBalance™ bioactive collagen peptide.

Preferably, the gelling agent(s) is a hydrocolloid.

Suitably, the protein food product is that of the first aspect.

In a fourth aspect, the invention provides a method of promoting, enhancing and/or prolonging ketosis in a subject, including the step of administering to the subject an effective amount of a protein food product according to the first aspect.

Throughout this specification, unless otherwise indicated, “ comprise”, “ comprises” and“ comprising” are used inclusively rather than exclusively, so that a stated integer or group of integers may include one or more other non- stated integers or groups of integers.

As used in this specification the indefinite articles“a” and“mz” may refer to one entity or a plurality of entities and are not to be read or understood as being limited to a single entity.

As used in this specification, the term“ about” refers to a variation or tolerance in a stated amount, concentration, ratio or proportion, preferably defined as being no more than 10%, 5%, 2% or 1% above or below a stated amount, concentration, ratio or proportion.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to a protein food product, such as a food bar, comprising relatively high amounts of protein and relatively low amounts of carbohydrates and lipids.

An aspect of the invention provides a protein food product comprising:

(i) protein that optionally includes collagen peptides, amino acids and/or derivatives thereof;

(ii) a gelling agent;

(iii) one or more flavouring agents; and

(iv) one or more sweetening agents. wherein the total protein content of the protein food product is at least about 20% by weight, the total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight and the total lipid content is less than about 50% by weight.

The protein food product may further comprise one or more humectants and/or one or more colouring agents.

As generally used herein, the stated concentration, proportion or mass of any particular component or constituent of the protein food product may be made with reference to the concentration, proportion or mass of the particular component or constituent used to produce the protein food product, or may be the concentration, proportion or mass of the particular component or constituent in the final product.

It is also noted that the stated concentrations, proportions or masses of each component or constituent may be readily varied by a person of skill in the art. It will also be appreciated that concentrations, proportions or masses expressed in the range“x-y” include all values and sub-ranges within the stated range.

As used herein the term“ protein” includes any amino acid polymer comprising D- or L- amino acids, natural or non-natural amino acids as known in the art. Proteins, peptides and/or amino acids may be in the form of extracts, hydrolysates, purified, chemical synthetic, enriched or partially-purified forms.

In some embodiments, proteins may be obtained, derived, obtainable or derivable from natural sources such as plants and/or animals.

Animal sources include vertebrates such as mammals, reptiles, fish, and/or birds and invertebrates such as shellfish, crabs, lobsters and/or insects, although without limitation thereto. Non-limiting examples include whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, hydrolysed whey, casein, milk protein isolate, proteins from egg albumin, beef, lamb, pork, veal, venison, bison, goat, kangaroo, chicken, turkey, duck, emu, rabbit, fish, shellfish, crabs, lobster and/or crocodile, although without limitation thereto.

Plant sources include trees, vines, plant seeds, bark, roots, leaves, bulbs, tubers, nuts and/or fruit, although without limitation thereto. Plants may include grasses, cereals, legumes, seaweed, leafy vegetables, cruciform vegetables and fungi, although without limitation thereto. Non-limiting examples include soy protein, tofu, tempeh, pea protein, rice protein, bean proteins, com protein, chickpea, faba bean, mungbean, chia protein, quinoa protein, spirulina protein, hemp seeds, lentils, nut proteins, heat germ protein, sorghum protein and proteins obtained, derived, obtainable or derivable from vegetables and/or fruit such as spinach, watercress, kale, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, mushrooms, parsley, lettuce, zucchini, cucumber, capsicum, artichokes, cabbage, celery, eggplant, tomatoes, onion, beets, squash, pumpkin, potato, yams and/or sweet potato.

In particular embodiments, the protein comprises hydrolysed collagen protein, amino acids and/or peptides, or derivatives thereof.

As used herein,“ peptides” are proteins having no more than about 70 contiguous amino acids. In the specific context of collagen, this is a structural protein typically present in connective tissue or other tissues located in animal bodies. Collagen may be fibrillar or non-fibrillar and may be classified into types, of which Types I-V are the most common. Collagen peptides may be produced by enzymatic (e.g., collagenase), acid or alkali partial hydrolysis of collagen protein.

Non-limiting sources of the collagen protein, amino acids and peptides, include gelatin and/or collagen hydrolysates.

Suitably, gelatin is present at a concentration of about 1-30% by weight or preferably at about 5-8% by weight. Suitably, the gelatin is produced or derived from beef skin, such as by alkaline and/or acid treatment of collagen in the beef skin. A preferred gelatin bloom value is about 225-280. Preferably, the bloom value is about 250.

A preferred gelatin is GELITA ® 250 bloom bovine hide gelatin.

Suitably, collagen hydrolysate is present at a concentration of about 10- 60% by weight or preferably about 35-50% by weight. A preferred collagen hydrolysate is GELITA ® BodyBalance™ bioactive collagen peptide.

The gelling agent(s) may be or comprise any substance capable of creating a substantially homogeneous glutinous, thickened, semi-solid or jelly-like state. Preferably, the gelling agent is a hydrocolloid. Non-limiting examples of gelling agents include starch, modified starch, agar, xanthan, galactomannans like guar gum and locust bean gum (LBG), gum Arabic or acacia gum, gellan gum, gum karaya, gum tragacanth and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The thickening effect produced by gelling agents such as hydrocolloids depends on the type of hydrocolloid used, its concentration, the food system in which it is used and also the pH of the food system and temperature.

Suitably, the gelling agent is, or comprises, agar. Typically, the gelling agent such as agar is present at a concentration of about 0.1-1% by weight, or preferably about 0.3-0.5% by weight. A preferred agar is DavisJ3 ® agar.

The flavouring agents may be any natural or non-natural substance which adds or enhances flavour. The flavouring agents may also comprise natural or non-natural stabilizers, anti-caking and/or flow agents. Flavouring agents are typically comprised of a flavoured substance(s) and complexes manufactured or extracted from nature in liquid or powdered form to impart a particular flavour into a product. Excipients are added to preserve, stabilize and maintain form and colour. Typical excipients may include flow agents, anticaking agents, antioxidants, including but not exclusively, MCT oil, ethanol, maltodextrin, gum acacia, tapioca starch, propylene glycol and triacetin.

The sweetening agents may be any natural or artificial sweetening agent inclusive of sugar alcohols or polyols (e.g erythritol, mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol, maltitol), aspartame, stevia, honey, corn syrup, neotame, agave nectar, rice malt, saccharin and sucralose, sucrose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup, fructose, dextrose, ribose, maltose, thaumatin, glycine, monk fruit, magrosides, although without limitation thereto. Suitably, the sweetening agent or combination of sweetening agents are present at a concentration of about 0.1-35% by weight, more preferably about 7-12% by weight or more preferably about 9-11% by weight.

Preferably, the sweetening agent is not, or does not comprise, a sugar such as sucrose or fructose.

Preferably, the sweetening agent comprises erythritol and stevia. According to this embodiment, a preferred ratio of a sugar alcohol, such as erythritol, to stevia is about 300:1-600:1 by weight.

The protein food product may further comprise one or more humectants. By ‘‘ humectanf’ is meant a molecule, compound or substance that facilitates, promotes or enhances retention of moisture in the protein food product. Typical humectants comprise one or more hydrophilic groups that can form hydrogen bonds with water. Non-limiting examples include polyols such as polydextrose and sugar alcohols such as glycerol, sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol, although without limitation thereto.

Additional ingredients that may be present in the protein food product include “gummy” bits or other flavoured gel-like particles, fruit pieces or powders, nuts, cacao nibs, coffee nibs and/or a gel or sauce swirl such as chocolate or caramel, although without limitation thereto.

In some embodiments, the protein food product may be coated, such as with a chocolate or other coating. In embodiments where the protein food bar comprises a chocolate coating, the coating process would be as typically used in the art. Preferably, the chocolate coating would be a low sugar or sugar-free coating, dairy free and/or comprise added protein.

In a particular aspect, the protein food product comprises:

(a) protein that includes collagen protein, peptides and/or amino acids or derivatives thereof;

(b) one or more gelling agents;

(c) one or more flavouring agents;

(d) one or more sweetening agents;

(e) one or more colouring agents;

(f) one or more humectants;

(g) one or more pH modifiers;

wherein the total protein content of the food product is at about 40-60%, the total carbohydrate content is about 0.2-3% by weight and the total lipid content is about 0.1 to 1 % by weight.

Preferably, the protein in (a) comprises gelatin and a collagen hydrolysate.

Suitably, gelatin is present at a concentration of about 6-8% by weight.

A preferred gelatin is GELITA ® 250 bloom bovine gelatin.

Suitably, collagen hydrolysate is present at a concentration of about 38- 50% by weight. A preferred collagen hydrolysate is GELITA® BodyBalance™ bioactive collagen peptide.

Typically, the gelling agent is agar. Preferably, the gelling agent such as agar is present at a concentration of about 0.4-0.5% by weight. A preferred agar is Davis J3® agar.

Suitably, the sweetening agent is present at a concentration of about 5- 15% by weight, more preferably about 7-12% by weight or more preferably about 9-11% by weight. Preferably, the sweetening agent comprises a sugar alcohol such as erythritol and stevia. According to this embodiment, a preferred ratio of a sugar alcohol such as erythritol to stevia is about 400:1-500:1 by weight

The pH modifiers may be any agent, substance or molecule that facilitates obtaining and/or maintaining an optimal pH for the food product. The pH modifier may be a buffering agent, acid or base that facilitates achieving an acidic pH, an alkaline pH or neutral pH (i.e about pH 7). Typically, the pH modifier is an acid, such as an organic acid. Organic acids may be any food grade acid, such as a carboxylic acid, that is suitable for human consumption and includes salts of said organic acids. Non-limiting examples include tartaric acid, citric acid, lactic acid, benzoic acid, acetic acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, oxalic acid and their salts ( e.g tartrates, citrates, lactates etc). Preferred organic acids are citric malic acid and ascorbic acid.

Suitably, the pH modifiers are present at a concentration of about 1-5% by weight in total, or preferably about 2-3% by weight in total. In an embodiment, malic acid is present at about up to 1.0% by weight and ascorbic acid is present at about 1.2-2.0 % by weight.

Humectants are as hereinbefore described.

According to a first particular embodiment the protein food product is suitably aerated with a specific gravity or density of about 0.4 - 0.8 or preferably about 0.5-.0.7. The marshmallow- style bar typically comprises an aerated mass with uniform air bubbles throughout. Appearance is an off white or pastel/lightly coloured (depending on flavour of the bar), texture is similar to a short-textured marshmallow, highly elastic and has a clean bite with no“stickiness”. The marshmallow bar may have relatively low water content and water activity. By way of example, water content may be below about 20% and a w around 0.7-0.9, although without limitation thereto

A non-limiting example of a“marshmallow” style, aerated protein bar according to this embodiment is described in Example 1.

In a second particular embodiment the protein food product is referred to herein as a“gummy” style protein bar. Suitably, the protein food product of this second embodiment is not aerated and has a more dense texture compared to the marshmallow bar. Suitably, the protein food product of this second embodiment has a specific gravity or density substantially greater than that of the first particular embodiment. The“gummy” bar would have a density of about 1.2- 1.6 or preferably about 1.3 - 1.45. Typically, the gummy bar is non-aerated or de aerated with no visible bubbles in the food mass. Appearance is of a transparent gel with deep colouring based on flavours, texture very short and elastic similar to a gelatine confectionery with a clean bite. Preferably, the gummy bar has a higher water content than the marshmallaow bar.

A non-limiting example is described in Example 2.

In a third particular embodiment, the protein food product is a layered protein food product that comprises at least two layers, a first of said two layers comprising the protein food product of the first particular embodiment and a second of said two layers comprising the protein food product of the second particular embodiment, wherein the total protein content of the food product is at about 35-60% by weight, the total carbohydrate content is about 2-3% by weight and the total lipid content is about 0-3% by weight.

A preferred mass ratio of the protein food product of the first particular embodiment and the protein food product of the second particular embodiment is about 1: 1-3:1, preferably about 2:1.

In a fourth particular embodiment the protein food product is referred to herein as a ketogenic protein bar. As will be appreciated by the skilled artisan, a ketogenic food product, which may form part of a ketogenic diet, generally derives a significant proportion of its energy from fat or lipid (e.g., about 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75% and any range therein) and only a small proportion of energy from carbohydrates (e.g., about 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10% and any range therein). Such food products or diets are typically designed to force the body to bum fats rather than carbohydrates for energy. Accordingly, following consumption, digestion and metabolism, a ketogenic food product or diet generally provides ketones as a major energy source. These ketonic compounds include, for example, aceto acetate, D-3 hydroxy butyrate and acetone. A ketogenic food product or diet may induce a metabolic state known as ketosis, characterised by elevated levels of circulating ketone bodies (e.g., serum ketone body levels over 0.5 millimolar), together with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose. In particular embodiments, the protein food product promotes, enhances and/or prolongs ketosis in a subject. Accordingly, for the protein food product of this fourth embodiment, the total lipid content is suitably between about 10% to about 50% by weight, and more preferably, about 30% to about 50% by weight of the protein food product.

Additionally, the total protein content of the food product of this fourth embodiment is at about 35-60% by weight and the total carbohydrate content is about 0-5% by weight.

A non-limiting example is described in Example 3.

Another particular aspect of the invention provides a method of producing a protein food product including the steps of combining:

(i) protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or amino acids or derivatives thereof;

(ii) one or more gelling agents;

(iii) one or more flavouring agents;

(iv) one or more sweetening agents;

(v) one or more colouring agents;

(vi) one or more humectants;

(vii) one or more pH modifiers

and subsequently forming the protein food product, wherein the total protein content of the food product is at least about 20% by weight, the total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight and the total lipid content is less than about 50% by weight.

Preferably, the method includes the steps of:

• heating the gelling agent(s) in water to produce a mixture;

• heating the sweetener and humectant in the above mixture once the gelling agent is dissolved;

• dissolving and heating the protein that includes collagen peptides or derivatives thereof in water;

• adding the protein that includes collagen peptides or derivatives thereof to the first mixture;

• adding the one or more pH modifiers, one or more colouring agents, one or more flavouring agents and the one or more sweetening agents to the mixture;

• aerating or deaerating the mixture; and • placing the mixture in a mould.

In one embodiment, the method is for producing the protein food of the first embodiment, whereby the mixture is produced by combining the gelling agent, as hereinbefore described, with water and heating, such as to about l00°C for about 1 minute. The collagen peptides are dissolved separately in water and heated to 70 degrees. Once the gelling agent is heated and ‘activated’ the gelatine and erythritol are included into the cook and are cooked until the gelatine has dissolved. The humectant is then added to this solution and cooked until a suitable solids content is reached. The first mixture is then added to the collagen/water mixture and incorporated well before adding the flavours, colours, acid and sweetener (stevia). Suitably, the one or more flavouring agents, the one or more sweetening agents and one or more organic acids, such as hereinbefore described, are added to the mixture. The mixture is then aerated to a specific gravity/ density between 0.5 and 0.7. The mixture may be held at about 70°C in its aerated form until ready to deposit.

Subsequently, the mixture is placed into a mould, such as a silicone or plastic mould. Preferably, the mould has been sprayed with a neutral flavoured oil to ensure the product can easily be removed once set. The product is allowed to cool and partially set for between 1-2 hours before demoulding and packing.

In the second embodiment, the method is for producing the protein food of the second embodiment, whereby the mixture is produced by combining the gelling agent, as hereinbefore described, with water and heating, such as to about l00°C for about 1 minute. The collagen peptides are dissolved separately in water and heated to 70 degrees. Once the gelling agent is heated and‘activated’ the gelatine and erythritol are included into the cook and are cooked until the gelatine has dissolved. The humectant is then added to this solution and cooked until a suitable solids content is reached. The first mixture is then added to the collagen/water mixture and incorporated well before adding the flavours, colours, acid and sweetener (stevia). Suitably, the one or more flavouring agents, the one or more sweetening agents and one or more organic acids, such as hereinbefore described, are added to the mixture. The mixture is then deaerated to remove all air bubbles either in an ultrasonic chamber or pressurised chamber. The mixture may be held at about 70°C in this form until ready to deposit. Subsequently, the mixture is placed into a mould, such as a silicone or plastic mould. Preferably, the mould has been sprayed with a neutral flavoured oil to ensure the product can easily be removed once set. The product is allowed to cool and partially set for between 1-2 hours before demoulding and packing.

In another embodiment, the method is for producing the protein food of the third embodiment. Accordingly, the method includes producing first and second layers, the first layer produced by the method of the first embodiment and the second layer produced by the method of the second embodiment.

Subsequently, the mixture is placed into a mould, such as a silicone or plastic mould, as a second layer combined with a first layer comprising the protein food of the first embodiment.

A preferred mass ratio of the protein food product of the first particular embodiment and the coconut flavoured protein food product of the second particular embodiment is about 1 : 1-3 : 1 , preferably about 2:1. Typically, this is l5:30g.

Suitably, according to the aforementioned aspects and embodiments, the total protein content of the food product is at least about 20% by weight and up to about 80% (e.g., 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 % and any range therein) by weight, 25-75% by weight, preferably about 30-70%, by weight, or advantageously about 40-55% or 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53 or 54 % by weight, or any range between these stated values.

Suitably, the total carbohydrate content is less than about 10% by weight, such as 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9% by weight, or any range between these stated values, although without limitation thereto.

In alternative embodiments, the total carbohydrate content could be up to about 50% (e.g., 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50% and any range therein) by weight such as where the carbohydrates are “low GI” carbohydrates. By low“GI” or low“glycaemic index” is meant a GI of less than about 60%, more preferably less than about 50%, advantageously less than about 40% or less than 30%, 20% or 10%. Suitably, the total lipid content is less than about 50% by weight, such as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50% by weight, or any range between these stated values, although without limitation thereto.

In particular embodiments, the total lipid content is suitably less than about 10% by weight, such as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9% by weight, or any range between these stated values, although without limitation thereto.

In alternative embodiments, the total lipid content is between about 10% to about 50% by weight, and more preferably, about 30% to about 50% by weight of the protein food product. With respect to such embodiments, the protein food product suitably promotes, enhances and/or prolongs ketosis in a subject.

In some embodiments, the protein food product comprises substantially no fibre. In other embodiments, the protein bar includes fibre, such as up to about 20% (e.g., 0, 5, 10, 15, 20% and any range therein).

By “fibre” is meant substantially indigestible complex carbohydrates inclusive of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, such as including arabinoxylans, polydextrose, cellulose, starch, lignins, pectins, alginates, dextrins, chitins, poly- and oligo-saccharides typically, although not exclusively, derived from plants.

Other optional components of the food product disclosed herein include vitamins and/or minerals, particular vitamins from plant sources. Non-limiting examples include vitamin A, B complex vitamins, ( e.g vitamins Bi , B 3 , Be, Bn, folate/Bg), vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and/or vitamin K, although without limitation thereto.

Minerals may include elements such as iron, zinc, calcium, selenium, potassium, manganese and/or magnesium, inclusive of salts and complexes containing these elements, although without limitation thereto.

Yet further optional components of the food product disclosed herein include fruit extracts such as strawberry, raspberry, coconut, blueberry, apple, banana, pineapple, citrus and/or grape extracts, although without limitation thereto.

In another aspect, the invention provides a method of promoting, enhancing and/or prolonging ketosis in a subject, including the step of administering to the subject an effective amount of a protein food product described herein. In this regard, the protein food product preferably comprises a total lipid content of between about 10% to about 50% by weight, and more preferably, about 30% to about 50% by weight of the protein food product.

Accordingly, the present method can further include the further step of providing a protein food product comprising:

protein that optionally includes collagen protein, peptides and/or one or more amino acids or derivatives thereof;

one or more gelling agents;

one or more flavouring agents; and

one or more sweetening agents;

wherein the total protein content of the food product is about 35-60% by weight and the total carbohydrate content is about 0-5% by weight and the total lipid content is between about 10% to about 50% by weight, and more preferably, about 30% to about 50% by weight of the protein food product.

By“ effective amount” it is meant an amount of the protein food product that promotes, enhances and/or prolongs ketosis in the subject. Such amounts or concentrations can be determined routinely by those of ordinary skill in the art, for example, based upon blood based assays for detecting ketosis, such as described herein or through other art-recognized means.

So that particular embodiments of the invention may be fully understood and put into practical effect, reference is made to the following non-limiting examples.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

A protein“marshmallow” style bar is to have a minimum of l5g daily serving of BODYBALANCE™ with up to 40g of protein in total, further nutritional requirements are to include no more than 5 grams of carbohydrates and 2 grams or less of sugar.

PRODUCT 1 - Marshmallow Bar

A· DAVIS® J3 Agar 0.47 %

Water 9.38 %

B: GELITA® BODYBALANCE™ 46.97 %

Water 9.38 % C: Erythritol 9.28 %

Gelatine 6.84 %

D: Polydextrose 10.03 %

Water 3.75 %

E: Flavours 0.70 %

Colours 0.09 %

Stevia 0.05 %

Malic Acid 0.95 %

Ascorbic Acid 1.90 %

Tryptophan 0.02 %

Cultured Dextrose 1.88 %

PROCESS

1. Cook part A to boiling and hold for 1 minute, once partially thickened add part C and mix well and cook until. Mix part B together and heat and hold at

70 degrees while other ingredients cook. Add part D to part A and C mixture and continue to cook. Once syrup reaches a specific solids content, add to mixture B and mix well. Add in components of part E and incorporate well, once incorporated aerate the mixture to a specific gravity/density of 0.5 - 0.7. Keep the mixture at around 70°C in a hopper or holding tank until ready to deposit.

2. Deposit the syrup into oiled silicone or plastic moulds. Dry the bars at room temperature for 1 - 2hrs, remove bars from moulds and pack.

3.

NUTRITIONAL PANEL

Example 2

A protein“gummy/jelly” style bar is to have a minimum of l5g daily serving of BODYBALANCE™ with up to about 40g of protein in total, further nutritional requirements are to include no more than 5 grams of carbohydrates and 2 grams or less of sugar.

PRODUCT 2- Gummy style bar

A· DAVIS® J3 Agar 0.42 %

Water 9.78 %

B: GELITA® BODYBALANCE™ 37.17 %

Water 18.59 %

C: Erythritol 7.34 %

Gelatine 6.36 %

D: Polydextrose 12.23 %

Water 4.89 %

E: Flavours 0.73 %

Colours 0.19 %

Stevia 0.04 %

Malic Acid 0.88 %

Ascorbic Acid 0.39 %

Tryptophan 0.01 %

Cultured Dextrose 0.98 %

PROCESS

1. Cook part A to boiling and hold for 1 minute, once partially thickened add part C and mix well and cook until. Mix part B together and heat and hold at 70 degrees while other ingredients cook. Add part D to part A and C mixture and continue to cook. Once syrup reaches a specific solids content, add to mixture B and mix well. Add in components of part E and incorporate well, once incorporated deaerate the mixture until solution is clear. Keep the mixture at around 70°C in a hopper or holding tank until ready to deposit.

2. Deposit the syrup into oiled silicone or plastic moulds. Dry the bars at room temperature for 1 - 2hrs, remove bars from moulds and pack. NUTRITIONAL PANEL

Example 3

A ketogenic protein bar is embodied below, which provides a source of calories from the below listed macronutrients for a ketogenic diet:

· Calories from carbohydrates: 3%

• Calories from Protein: 9%

• Calories from Fat: 68%

The below link (which is incorporated by reference herein) explains how a ketogenic diet provides support for these parameters: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499830/.

Recipe

Nutritional Panel

It will therefore be appreciated from the foregoing that the invention provides a protein food product that provides an optimal source of protein, while also having a pleasant taste and texture and a relatively low level of lipids and carbohydrates.

Throughout this specification, the aim has been to describe the preferred embodiments of the invention without limiting the invention to any one embodiment or specific collection of features. Various changes and modifications may be made to the embodiments described and illustrated herein without departing from the broad spirit and scope of the invention.

All patent, technical and scientific literature referred to herein is incorporated herein by reference.