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Title:
PROTEIN-RICH, CARBOHYDRATE-POOR, WHEAT-, GRAIN-, NUT- AND GLUTEN-FREE FLOUR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/134858
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a gluten-free powder having an average particle size less than 200 micron, comprising 60-85 % of protein, and comprising 20-30 % of calcium caseinate, 20-25 % of egg-albumin, 10-15 % of pea protein, and 10-20 % of soya protein (all % by weight). The powder further comprises up to 15% of carbohydrates, the carbohydrates comprising up to 6 % of fibers and up to 9 % of sugars, and up to 9 % of fat. By adding 3-25 % by weight of structure-modifying ingredients such as emulsifiers, baking powders, sorbitol, fat-powder and/or enzymes, the powder is a well-balanced gluten-free substitute for wheat flour and other types of flour.

Inventors:
VAN TENDELOO, Jef (p/a Fitr Foods bvba, Liersesteenweg 17, 2288 Bouwel, BE)
Application Number:
EP2016/025020
Publication Date:
September 01, 2016
Filing Date:
February 26, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
FITR FOODS BVBA (Liersesteenweg 17, 2288 Bouwel, BE)
International Classes:
A23L33/185; A21D2/26; A21D13/00; A21D13/06; A23L7/10; A23L7/109; A23L23/00; A23L29/281; A23L33/19; A23L33/20; A61P1/06; A61P3/10; A61P37/00
Domestic Patent References:
2015-01-22
2013-12-19
Foreign References:
US20050031773A12005-02-10
US20060292284A12006-12-28
US20050271787A12005-12-08
CN103689325A2014-04-02
US20100063254A12010-03-11
US20050031773A12005-02-10
Other References:
RONDA FELICIDAD ET AL: "Influence of acidification on dough viscoelasticity of gluten-free rice starch-based dough matrices enriched with exogenous protein", LWT- FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 59, no. 1, 11 June 2014 (2014-06-11), pages 12 - 20, XP028862743, ISSN: 0023-6438, DOI: 10.1016/J.LWT.2014.05.052
RONDA FELICIDAD ET AL.: "Influence of acidification on dough viscoelasticity of gluten-free rice starch-based dough matrices enriched with exogenous protein", LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 11 June 2014 (2014-06-11), pages 12 - 20
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
THEUNIS, Patrick (Langbosweg 19, 2550 Kontich, BE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. Gluten-free powder having an average particle size less than 200 micron,

comprising 60-85 % by weight of protein, and said powder comprising the following ingredients in the % by weight as indicated:

- 20-30 % of calcium caseinate,

- 20-25 % of egg-albumin,

- 10-15 % of pea protein, and

- 10-20 % of soya protein.

2. Powder according to claim 1, comprising between 45 and 65 percent by weight of pure protein.

3. Powder according to claim 1 or 2, further comprising up to 15% of carbohydrates, the carbohydrates comprising up to 6 % of fibers and up to 9 % of sugars, and the powder further comprising up to 9 % of fat.

4. Powder according to anyone of the above claims, whereby the ingredients are derived from naturally occurring raw materials.

5. Powder according to anyone of the above claims, further comprising 3-25 % by weight of one or more structure-modifying ingredients selected from the following list: emulsifiers, baking powders, sorbitol, colorants, fat-powder and/or enzymes.

6. Powder according to anyone of the above claims, comprising baking powder in an amount from 4 - 12 %, preferably from 5 - 10 % by weight.

7. Powder according to anyone of the above claims, not containing added sugars, preservatives, wheat or nuts.

8. Powder according to anyone of above claims, comprising a complete amino-acid profile.

9. Use of the powder according to anyone of the claims 1 up through 8 as gluten substitute in gluten-free products.

10. Use of the powder according to anyone of the claims 1 up through 8 as substitute for wheat flour in an amount comprised between 60 and 70 % by weight of the wheat flour.

11. Use of the powder according to anyone of the claims 1 up through 8 as substitute for wheat flour and other types of flour, preferably in the preparation of one or more of the products selected from the following list: pizza, pasta, pancakes, waffles, cake, bread, instant pancakes, pasta- and pizza base mix, finished products, oven-ready products, deep-frozen products.

12. Use of the powder according to anyone of the claims 1 up through 8 as binder, preferably in sauces or soups.

13. Use of the powder according to anyone of the claims 1 up through 8 as a basis for the preparation of vegetarian products.

Description:
Title of the Invention

Protein-rich, carbohydrate-poor, wheat-, grain-, nut- and gluten-free flour. Description

Related Applications

This application claims the benefit of priority of Belgian Patent Application Serial Number BE 2015/0080, filed February 27, 2015, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference as if recited in full herein.

Field of the invention

The present invention relates to a new composition for a flour, as well as the use of this flour in various food preparations.

More in particular the invention relates to a protein-rich, carbohydrate-poor, wheat-, grain-, nut- and gluten-free flour.

Background of the invention

The basis of many of our daily foodstuffs is wheat flour. This ingredient can be found in various food components such as bread, pasta, pizza, cakes ...

Wheat flour comprises a high amount of carbohydrates and contains gluten.

Wheat flour is characterized by a low content of proteins and as such contains only a quite small amount of valuable nutritious substances, resulting from the production methods applied in practice.

Some manufacturers try to counteract same by adding nutrients such as vitamins and minerals to the wheat flour.

As a result of the high content of carbohydrates in wheat flour, all products made on such basis, or all products wherein wheat flour has been incorporated, also contain a high amount of carbohydrates.

Because wheat flour comprises a high amount of carbohydrates, the consumption of wheat flour will lead to a quick, high and prolonged increase of the blood sugar content. This on its turn results in a quick, high and prolonged increase of the insulin content.

The high levels of blood sugar and insulin are related to obesity and diabetes, and so cause an ever-increasing concern in today's society.

Obesity and diabetes on their turn are the cause of many subsequent health deficiencies and result in a heavy burden for our society in general.

Obese persons and persons having diabetes need to lower their carbohydrate consumption so as to have a more more healthy and balanced live.

Given the high carbohydrate content of wheat flour, these persons should avoid consuming too much carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs. So these persons should avoid the consumption of all products containing or based upon wheat flour.

So as to offer a solution for the above issues, manufacturers have put on the market substitute products for wheat flour, that are characterized by a low carbohydrate content.

However, such products can only be used in specific circumstances and cannot serve a a real basis for various foodstuffs.

On top hereof the present carbohydrate-poor substitute products in most cases contain gluten.

Wheat flour indeed also contains gluten, that can be subdivided in various kinds. Gliadines are among the most discussed type of gluten.

These are gluten that should be avoided by persons having coeliac (most commonly designated as gluten-intolerance or gluten-over-sensitivity) or one of the other fifty- five diseases that are related to gluten-intolerance or gluten-oversensitivity).

Persons having coeliac need to eat 'gluten-free', this meaning that they should avoid the consumption of gliadines, as they cannot tolerate or digest gluten.

The consumption of gliadines by such persons causes through an auto-immune reaction damage or injury to the intestines, this in turn causing a decreased intake of nutrients from consumed food. When all products comprising gliadines are avoided, the intestines recover and nutrients can again be absorbed. The intestines however do not permanently recover; the recovery as such as a result is not complete. The renewed consumption of gluten containing food will again cause a renewed damage on top of the injuries already occasioned previously.

Quite a number of persons do have a lower degree of gluten-intolerance, whereby the above described phenomena are less recognizable or visible.

Nevertheless the health condition of such persons will also be positively influenced by the avoidance of gluten.

The present gluten-free products in most cases contain a large amount of

carbohydrates, currently with a high glycemic index. The consumption of this kind of foodstuff will reduce or avoid the infection in the intestines but another problem then arises, namely diseases occasioned by the influence of insulin sensitivity caused by the consumption of large amounts of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index.

The present gluten substitutes are not a flour as such, but should be added to flour or to a flour-like product. These gluten substitutes are high in carbohydrates and have a carbohydrate basis (mostly added with gums and the like).

Apart from the persons with gluten intolerance or over-sensitivity, there are also many persons having an allergy for wheat in general and other allergies such as for nuts.

Persons suffering from diabetes that wish to avoid the consumption of wheat flour or its present alternatives with a high carbohydrate content presently do hardly have a choice. Unfortunately most people nowadays consume too much carbohydrates (with a high glycemic content), too much unhealthy fat (saturated fat in particular) and not enough proteins and unsaturated fat (single as well as multiple).

Nearly always, we consume too much carbohydrates for the simple reason that the present food industry misuses the addictive effect of carbohydrates ( in particular high glycemic carbohydrates such as sugar), often combined with fat. This fact, combined with the low cost of carbohydrates (more in particular sugar) and its positive effect on the shelf life and taste of products, results in their common use as a basis for many nutrition products, in spite of its multiple health drawbacks.

The nutritive value of foodstuffs is the sum of the energy (expressed in kilocalories and/or kilojoules) contained in proteins, carbohydrates and fat per 100 gram or 100 ml. Not only the nutrition value is important but also the ratio between the various macro nutrients.

The macro nutrients can be divided into three groups: carbohydrates, proteins and fat. Carbohydrates:

The basis of the carbohydrate-rich nutrition is practically always wheat flour or other types of flour or products rich in carbohydrates and low in proteins.

A substitute product for wheat flour and other types of flour or products with a high carbohydrate content, characterized on the contrary by a low carbohydrate content and a healthy amount of proteins would significantly enhance the nutritive value of the present products.

This in turn would lead to a reduction of amongst other obesity, diabetes and other diseases caused by a (too) high intake of carbohydrates.

It so would yield a general improvement of the health condition of consumers.

Proteins:

Proteins do form an important basis and energy source for all of us.

Our body is made up to a large extent by protein structures, such as bones, hair, nails, blood, connective tissue, tendons, muscles, organs, hormones and enzymes.

So it is important to consume a sufficient amount of proteins.

Proteins are split into amino acids in the small intestine. The enzymes that split the proteins are proteases. Through the blood the amino acids are fed to the body cells. Our body uses amino acids amongst others for the following functions:

the production of body-proteins for organs and tissues;

- the production of enzymes;

the production of hormones and neurotransmitters; the desintoxication of tissues;

the production of various organic compounds;

and quite a number of other functions... All in total there are 20 naturally occurring amino acids, each having its own properties. Apart from this, amino acids can be coupled to each other, these are the so-called peptides. Hundreds of combinations of amino acids are possible.

The combination as well as the spatial structure of the protein determines its function. The latter also determines the reaction and the effect of the protein when used in our nutrition, such as the effect or the reaction (rising of the product, coloration such as the Maillard reaction, binding effect, increase of elasticity, etc.) during processes such as baking, cooking, ...

So the end products is determined by the specific properties and their structure.

Although in the past efforts have been performed to develop nutrient products and components that could effectively contribute to healthy foodstuffs and a healthy way of life, these do not meet actual needs and constraints.

The document entitled "Influence of acidification on dough viscoelasticity of gluten- free rice starch-based dough matrices enriched with exogenous protein", by Ronda Felicidad et al, LWT-Food Science and Technology, Part 59, Nr. 1, June 11, 2014 (pages 12-20), XP028862743, ISSN 0023-6438, DOI : 10.1016/J.LWT.2014.05.052 has been cited in the search report of the Belgian Patent Application BE 2015/0080, the priority whereof has been called upon by the present application. This document describes a high protein powder/dough, containing calcium caseinate, egg-albumin, peas and soya protein, fibers, emulsifiers and enzymes.

However the document does not contain any information as to the amounts wherein such protein compounds are used.

This document is further commented upon at the end of the present specification. Further also the US patent publication US 2005/031773 Al (Schmidt James Carl, published February 10, 2005, has been cited in the search report of the Belgian Patent Application BE 2015/0080, the priority whereof has been called upon by the present application.

Also for this document further comments are set forth at the end of the present specification.

So there remains a need for a healthy food composition that do not contain the drawbacks as set forth above. Summary of the invention

The goal of the present invention is to offer a solution for the drawbacks and disadvantages abovementioned.

To that end the inventors have developed a powder as set forth in the present main claim 1.

More in particular the invention comprises the powder and its use as described in the claims attached hereto.

Description of the invention:

The invention relates to a gluten-free powder characterized by the following features:

- an average particle size less than 200 micron;

- comprising 60-85 % by weight of protein, and

- comprising the following ingredients in the % by weight as indicated:

- 20-30 % of calcium caseinate,

- 20-25 % of egg-albumin,

- 10-15 % of pea protein, and

- 10-20 % of soya protein.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the powder comprises between 50 and 85, more preferably between 60 and 70 % by weight of pure protein.

According to a further preferred embodiment, the powder comprises up to 15% of carbohydrates, the carbohydrates comprising up to 6 % of fibers and up to 9 % of sugars, and the powder further comprises up to 9 % of fat. According to a still further preferred embodiment, the powder solely comprises ingredients derived from naturally occurring raw materials.

According to a still further preferred embodiment, the pure protein content of the powder according to the invention is comprised between 50 and 70 % by weight, more preferably between 55 and 65 % by weight.

According to a still further preferred embodiment of the invention, the protein- content of the protein-containing components of the powder according to the invention is within the following ranges:

83 - 97 % for the calcium caseinate,

S 70 - 90 % for the egg-albumin,

45 - 65 % for the pea protein, and

60 - 80 % for the soya protein.

On the basis of the above preferred embodiments, the pure protein content of the powder according to the invention is then made up by proteins derived from the various components in the % as indicated hereinafter. The amounts indicated between brackets indicate the most preferred amounts:

✓ calcium caseinate 20 - 30 % (22 %)

✓ egg-albumin 15 - 25 % (19 %);

✓ pea protein 7 - 15 % ( %);

✓ soya protein 8 - 15 % (11 %).

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the powder does not contain added sugar, preservatives, wheat, nuts or gluten.

According to a further preferred mode of the invention, the powder may comprise additional components such as herbs, salt, water and other conventional additives selected as a function of the application at hand. According to a still further preferred embodiment of the invention, baking powder is added to the powder according to the invention. Further preferred embodiments of the powder according to the invention are set forth in the dependent claims hereinafter. The term calcium caseinate refers to an isolated form of casein protein. This is a protein produced on the basis of casein. In case of a neutral or acid pH it is relatively insoluble in water and easily separable from other milk proteins, sugars and minerals. Thereafter the casein is dissolved at a high pH with calcium hydroxide, and thereafter the solution is dried. In most instances spray drying is used as drying technique.

Calcium caseinate usually contains approximately 17 % of glutamic acid.

The term egg-albumin refers to chicken-protein powder. This is a high-grade egg- product that often is used as curing or binding agent in the food industry. Usually it is offered on the market place as a spray dried product, containing a protein percentage of around 87 %. The carbohydrate content is usually below 10 % and the fat amount is to be neglected.

The term pea protein refers to a vegetable protein derived from peas. Peas are known as a rich resource of easily absorbable vegetable proteins. Pea protein is not produced from green peas, but from yellow peas, known under the term split peas. Production hereof can be as described hereinafter. The peas are cleaned and ground to flour, whereby the latter is split up in water in its various components, including protein. The protein obtained in this way is then solidified to a paste that on its turn is dissolved, dried by spraying and offered to the marketplace in powdery form. The pea protein so obtained is characterized by a high protein concentration, usually around 85 %. Pea protein has an excellent profile of essential and non-essential amino acids. It is available on the marketplace for example in the form of a vegetable protein powder.

The term soybean protein refers to a protein derived from soya beans. This is a 100 % vegetable product and it contains usually 85 up to 90 % of protein. The level of 90 % is usually reached when the powder has been dried. The advantage of using soya proteins is that the amino acid composition hereof is complete, or differently phrased, all of the important amino acids, such as those for the build-up of muscles, are sufficiently present herein. Regarding the function of proteins in general:

Proteins do react under the influence of heat. Proteins are chains of amino acids. Under normal (biologically active) state these chains are partially folded. The various segments fold together and as such are made up of a ball or clew. Various protein chains may clit together and as a result form a larger complex structure.

When proteins are heated, this may lead to a difference in the structure of the proteins. The chains may unfold, expand or obtain quite different properties. The specific combination of the proteins used and as a result hereof the specific composition of the amino acids results in the fact that upon heating the flour according to the invention obtains the properties described above.

I n the description that follows the term powder is used to designate the product according to the invention. The term powder is used herein as a term equivalent to the term flour that also is used in the present description. However the term 'flour' in the present description is used in a manner that has no relation with the traditional term wheat flour. When the term flour is being used, one should take into account the fact that the average powder size hereof is below 200 micrometer.

I N the present description the term 'flour' hence does not designate a conventional wheal flour. The term flour refers to a finely ground nutritive compound the average powder size is below 200 micrometer. As such this finely ground product may serve as starting material for the production of quite a number of foodstuff.

I n the present description and claims the term "carbohydrate poor flour" refers to a flour as described above, the carbohydrate content whereof is not only as low as specified by law (according to law XC of 1995 regarding foodstuff (USA)).

A nutritive compound is considered to be suitable for use by diabetici when the amount of carbohydrates of bakery products and industrial pastes at least is 30 % lower that the amount of corresponding conventional products), but much lower, namely maximum 8 % by weight.

In the calculation of the above 8% the carbohydrates comprised in the fibers of the powder according to the invention are not taken into account. Indeed, the fibers do contain a large amount of insoluble carbohydrates and as such do not have a nutritive value.

Unless explicitly denoted otherwise, all percentages put forward in the present specification, the description as well as the claims, are denoted in weight percentage. The specific combination of raw materials and the amount of the used raw materials results in a flour according to the invention that is gluten-free, but that has

nevertheless properties comparable to gluten-containing products.

In view hereof it can be used as a carbohydrate gluten and wheat substitute. The advantage of the flour according to the invention is that it can replace wheat flour and as such can be used as a basis for finished foodstuffs.

Thanks to its unique composition the flour according to the invention has the property to replace gluten without using carbohydrates or presently available gluten surrogates.

This type of flour limits substantially the consumption of carbohydrates and as a result it limits in a substantial way the influence on the insulin level. In particular for persons suffering from diabetes it is in particular beneficial since it does not compromise their food habits.

The flour according to the invention thus is able to replace wheat flour and can be used as a basis for various, differing foodstuffs.

As this flour is gluten-free (free of all gluten, not only gliadines) and can be used as a surrogate for wheat flour and as a result also for all products wherein wheat flour is processed, it is a healthy alternative for amongst others persons suffering from coeliac. The flour according to the invention is the first of its kind as all-in-one surrogate. The replacement of the present wheat flour and its variants in nowadays foodstuffs not only yields an improvement of the nutritive value of the products but in particular also an improvement of the ratio between the various macronutrients.

The flour according to the invention can be used as a gluten-free, grain-free, nut-free and wheat-free surrogate that is poor in carbohydrate content and rich in protein content. This is quite contrary to the variants of wheat flour that are poor in proteins and that are presently available on the market. On top hereof the flour according to the invention can be used as surrogate of the usual wheat flour in all food preparations without compromising the finally finished foodstuff.

The product also is an all-in-one instant product for pasta, pizza and pancakes.

It is a gluten surrogate in existing products.

It serves as a binding product (for sauces and the like).

It serves as a basis for the preparation of vegetarian products (meat surrogates etc.). A general characteristic of the flour according to the invention is that this flour is not only gluten-free, grain-free, wheat-free and nut-free but also that it is carbohydrate- poor, but above all that it contains a high level of protein.

The balanced composition of the flour results in a quite universal application for the foodstuff industry and the processing in finished foodstuffs, oven-ready products and deep-fried products.

As set forth above, according to a preferred embodiment of the invention, baking powder is added to the powder according to the invention.

Such baking powder may be added in an amount ranging from 4-12 % by weight of the powder according to the invention, more preferably from 5-10 %, still more preferable about 7.5 % by weight. This corresponds approximately with the use of 5 g of baking powder for 65 gr of powder according to the invention.

Such baking powder may comprise an agent or compound for controlling the acidity of the powder, such as di-sodium-pyrophosphate (E 450) and compound enabling the powder to raise such as sodiumbicarbonate (E 500). As an alternative for di-sodium-pyrophosphate (E 450), citric acid or tartaric acid may be used as acidity controlling agent.

Provided such baking powder product has been added to the powder according to the invention, the resulting product can be fully used as an alternative to self-raising wheat flour.

As a summary this is the basis of the flour according to the invention, namely:

the use of specific proteins;

with a specific sequence and spatial structure of amino acids;

- in amounts precisely determined by the inventors;

that by their individual and combined properties can be used for the applications described above.

According to a preferred mode of the invention, in order to arrive at a well-balanced finished product on the basis of the protein-rich flour according to the invention, additional components may be added. The proteins act as basic structure and as gluten-substitute in the flour. As soon as such additional components are added, the composition may be used as a complete surrogate for wheat-based flour.

As regards such additional components, the powder or flour may comprise a.o. up to 15% of carbohydrates, the carbohydrates comprising up to 6 % of fibers and up to 9 % of sugars, and the powder may further comprise up to 9 % of fat.

Further the powder or flour may comprise 3-25 % by weight of structure-modifying ingredients such as emulsifiers, baking powders, sorbitol, fat-powder and/or enzymes.

When such preferred ingredients or components are added, the powder or flour can be used as a fully-balanced nutritive surrogate or substitue for wheat-based flour.

Optionally, a colorant can also be added to the powder or flour according to the invention. The human digestion takes care of the split up of the proteins into their individual amino acids. These amino acids are absorbed by the human body and are used to produce new amino acids in the human body. The human body is able to produce some amino acids starting from other amino acids. The human body however cannot produce all the necessary amino acids, this resulting in turn into the necessity for a specified number of amino acids (8) to be available by intake of foodstuff.

These 8 essential amino acids are leucine, isoleucine, valine, teonine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and lysine. Kids appear also not to be able to generate in sufficient amounts the amino acid histidine.

All animal and vegetable cells contain proteins.

The flour according to the invention contains all amino acids, as well the essential as the non-essential amino acids and as a result is characterized by a complete amino profile.

Apart from the amount of protein, the quality of the protein is also important. Proteins that contain a high amount of essential amino acids have a high biological value (quality). In general animal proteins have a higher biological value that vegetable proteins.

An exception to this rule is the soya-bean protein that is characterized by a high biological value. Soya-protein is one of the raw materials of the flour according to the invention. Thanks to the specific composition of the flour according to the invention, this flour does indeed have a high biological value.

The flour according to the invention, thanks to its unique composition, also contributes to a better environment, since it is characterized by a small ecological footprint.

The reason hereof is that this flour has as a basis a protein composition that is made up by partially vegetable raw materials. This on its turn contributes to a more positive effect on the environment as compared to other protein-rich products on the basis of substantially animal-based proteins. So as to arrive at a balanced composition of the nutritive value of foodstuffs that are presently on the market, one often needs to add proteins. In most cases, proteins of animal origin are then added, which has a quite negative impact on the environment, differently phrased, which has a quite high ecological footprint.

As an example, we can mention the addition of meat, fish or poultry to pasta or pizza. When the latter addition does not take place, an optimal balance between the various foodstuffs in the finished product is not attained.

When the flour according to the invention is used, there is no need any more for adding any protein, irrespective its source - animal or vegetable- so as to arrive at a well-balance finished end product.

As set forth supra, this in turn clarifies why the use of the flour according to the invention has a positive influence on the environment (ecological footprint).

Examples:

By means of examples, hereinafter are set forth detailed compositions of flours according to the invention:

For 100 gram of flour according to the invention:

• 60-85 % by weight of protein, more in particular:

- 27.88 g of calcium caseinate: dried milk protein, derived from skimmed milk; - 27.88 g of chicken protein: egg albumin powder;

- 18.59 g of peas protein powder: protein powder derived from yellow peas (+ 80%);

- 18.59 g of soya-bean protein IP: soya protein concentrate (+ 69 % protein).

• 2-7 % by weight of fibers, more in particular: 3.35 g Hi Maize, this is a non- dissolvable fiber;

• up to 25 %, preferably up to 18 %, preferably at least 3% by weight of

compounds that may alter the structure of the product such as soya lecithin, hi maize, sorbital, fat powder and baking powder, emulsifiers, enzymes, with the proviso however that these compounds are free of wheat and gluten and have an average powder size less than 200 micron, more in particular:

3.72 g of soya lecithin, being an emulsifier. Comprised in the above compounds is an acid regulater and a carbonate. An emulsifier is a compound that helps various compounds to mix although such compounds normally are not or on difficult to mix. In this way an emulsion is formed. Emulsifiers are tension-active compounds, usually characterized by a lipophilic and an hydrophilic moiety. Grease and water tend to repel one another, this causing an emulsion without the use of an emulsifier to split apart. The use of an emulsifier prevents such splitting as the hydrophilic part contacts the water and the lipophilic part contacts the oil or grease. Hereinafter the specifications of the products as used in the present example are set forth:

• calcium caseinate EM9 can be for example Excellion EM9, obtainable from

DMV, the Netherlands;

• chicken protein powder can be for example Egg Albumin Powder Regular (EAP- R) from Pulviver sprl, Belgium;

• Pea protein powder can be for example Pisane B9 from Cosucra Groupe

Warcoing S.A., Belgium;

• Soya protein powder IP can be for example Solcon IP Non-GMO, obtainable from CHS;

· HI Maize can be for example Hl-Maize 260, obtainable from Ingredion Germany GmbH, this is an insoluble fiber;

• Soya lecithin (emulsifier) can be for example: Texturas Lecite 300 gr

Emulsification by Ferran Adria

• as regards components such as fat powder, baking powder, sorbitol, colorant and gum, these are available from sources known or easily obtainable for the person skilled in the art.

The nutritive value of the flour according to the invention per 100 g:

(the calculation below is approximate according to the data obtained from Caldic) Energy: 407.5 kcal

Carbohydrates: 8 g; Protein: 76 g; Fat: 8.5 g; Fiber: 3.5 g. As a substitute for wheat flour in various foodstuffs, 100 g of wheat flour corresponds to 65-70 g of flour or powder according to the invention.

Modifications may be required for specific recipes. For example for pancakes the flour is used as an instant mix (without addition of eggs), and for some recipes or products a complete new product or concept is available on the basis of the flour according to the invention. Such may be the case for the preparation of vegetarian meat-substitutes, as binder for sauces, ...

By way of example are described hereinafter some recipes wherein the flour according to the invention has been used.

Example 1 :

Recipe for a pasta wherein the flour according to the invention is used:

(the pasta based upon the flour according to the invention is designated as pasta*)

The ingredients, modes of preparation and nutritive values set forth below relate to pasta without the addition of sauce or the like. The amounts relate to 1 portion (small, average). · Ingredients:

Pasta* Normal pasta (wheat) Gluten-free pasta (corn)

(gluten-free) (contains gluten) (gluten-free

30 g of flour 50 g of wheat flour 50 g of gluten-free flour (corn)

22 g of water 0.5 egg (30 g) 0.5 egg (30 g)

1 g of olive oil 5 ml of olive oil 3 ml of olive oil

salt up to taste salt up to taste salt up to taste

gum of xanthan

• Preparation method of the pasta: Mixing of the various ingredients, followed by intense kneading. Processing of the pasta by hand in a pasta apparatus up to the desired thickness and form. Cooking depending on form and thickness. · Nutritive value of the various pastas:

Pasta* Usual Pasta Gluten-free pasta

wheat basis corn basis

Energy 124 kcal 260 kcal 252 kcal

Carbohydrates2.4 g 34.9 g 37.5 g

) Protein 3 g 9.5 g 8.3 g

Fat 2.5 g 8.8 g 7.4 g

Fibers 1.0 g 0.5 g 0.1 g

The pasta* prepared according to the method set forth above is a fully natural gluten- and wheat-free pasta, poor in carbohydrate content and based upon a healthy amount of protein with a high biological value.

Compared to the other more conventional or state-of-the-art pasta, the pasta* contains:

50-60 % less calories;

- 93% less carbohydrates;

250-300 % (this is 2.5 up to 3 times) more proteins;

- 60-75 % less fat;

- 200-1000 (this is 2 up to 10 times) more fibers.

The proteins in the pasta* do have a complete amino acid profile and a high biological value as compared to the more conventional pastas.

The processing of the flour according to the invention so as to prepare a pasta is the same as the processing of a more conventional pasta.

The taste and the structure is the same as compared to a 'usual or conventional' pasta on the basis of wheat flour (cooked al dente). When a pasta* prepared as above is used, no additional protein source such as meat, poultry, cheese or the like needs to be added so as to obtain a complete meal in terms of nutritive value.

As a result, the pasta* used as a finished products still remains vegetarian.

Finishing with vegetables, vegetable sauce or pesto yields a perfectly balanced meal with the right balance of the various ingredients, ideally suited for a healthy condition.

The proteins used in this pasta* contain a complete amino acid profile and a high biological value, ac compared and contrary to the aminoacid composition in a usual pasta (with proteins derived from gluten from wheat flour), which is incomplete and has a low biological value.

The fact that no additional protein should be added so as to obtain a balanced and complete meal, results in a beneficial cost for the pasta*. Further this yields a pasta* having a lower impact on the environment (lower ecological footprint).

Example 2:

Recipe for a pizza wherein the flour according to the invention has been used:

(the pizza based upon the flour according to the invention is denoted as pizza*).

The data set forth hereinafter relate to 1 pizza of medium size.

The ingredients, preparation method and nutritive value as set forth hereinafter relate to the pizza-base without sauce or the like being added.

• Ingredients:

Pizza * Conventional Pizza Gluten-free pizza

(gluten-free) (wheat-based, (gluten-free)

containing gluten)

105 g flour 175 g wheat flour 200 g gluten-free flour

60 g water (self-raising) (self-raising)

4 g olive oil 12 cl milk 40 ml water salt 30 g butter 3 ml olive oil salt (up to taste) salt (up to taste) salt (up to taste)

gum of xanthan

• Preparation method:

Pour the flour in a bowl, add the other ingredients and knead the dough a few minutes until everything is finely mixed.

As an alternative, pour the flour on the worktop and add the ingredients in a cavity in the middle of the flour. Knead all of the components for a few minutes.

A further alternative is to prepare same in a kitchen robot or suitable apparatus.

For the conventional and gluten-free pizza:

As soon as the dough is ready, leave it for half an hour to rest, covered by some plastic foil. Thereafter it can be further processed and baked.

For the pizza according to the invention:

No need for a rest. It may instantly be further processed and baked.

• Nutritive value for one medium pizza-base:

Pizza * Conventional Pizza Gluten-free pizza

Energy 430 kcal 914 kcal 773 kcal

Carbohydrates 8.4 g 134.5 g 175.2 g

Protein 80 g 29.5 g 2.8 g

Fat 9 g 26.8 g 5.2 g

Fibers 3.7 g 3.1 g 3.2 g The nutritive value for one portion of medium pizza-base, representing approx. one quarter of the above-mentioned pizza-base is one quarter of the figures set forth above.

The pizza-base according to the invention (pizza*) is a completely gluten- and wheat- free pizza-base, poor in carbo-hydrates, and based upon a healthy amount of proteins with a high biological value.

Compared to other more conventional pizza-bases, the pizza* base contains:

- 45-55 % less calories;

- 93-95% less carbo-hydrates;

- 270 % (this is 2.7 up to 20 times) more protein;

- approximately as much or a little bit more of fibers .

The proteins in the pizza*base have a complete amino-acid profile and a high biological value as compared to other more conventional pizza-bases.

In case of usual pizzas made of wheat flour, the proteins mainly are found in the gluten.

Gluten however have an incomplete amino-acid profile and a low biological value. In case of gluten-free pizza, the gluten are separated from the flour, resulting in the fact that hardly any proteins are present. The processing of the flour according to the invention to prepare the pizza* is nearly identical as the conventional way of preparation.

The pizza* so made can immediately be processed and does not need a rest before it can be processed and baked.

The taste and the structure is the same as with a conventional pizza (without yeast, not raised) made of wheat flour.

When the pizza* is used, no additional protein source such as meat, poultry, cheese or the like still need to be used so as to arrive at a complete meal.

As a result the pizza* as finished product still has a vegetarian character.

Finishing with some vegetable, vegetable sauce or pesto suffices to obtain a perfectly balanced meal, characterized by a perfect ratio of the various feedstuffs, being extremely beneficial for health.

The proteins in the pizza* base have a complete amino-acid profile and a high biological value, contrary to the amino-acid composition of more conventional pizza- bases (comprising proteins derived from gluten originating from wheat flour). The latter are incomplete and have a low biological value.

There is no need for a comparison with a gluten-free pizza since the only source of protein, namely gluten, has been extracted from the product. The fact that no additional protein should be added so as to obtain a balanced and complete meal, results in a beneficial cost for the pizza*. Further this yields a pizza* having a lower impact on the environment (lower ecological footprint).

Example 3:

Recipe of a pancake wherein the flour according to the invention has been used:

(the pancake based upon the flour according to the invention is denoted as pancake*)

• Ingredients used for one portion (small, medium):

Pancake* Conventional pancake Gluten-free pancake

(wheat based) (gluten-free)

30 g flour 50 g wheat flour 50 g gluten-free flour (corn)

1 egg (60 g) 1 egg (60 g)

80 g skimmed milk 125 g skimmed milk 125 g skimmed milk · Preparation method:

Mix the ingredients and stir intensively. Heat the pan and bake the pancakes.

Normally sugar is added to the ingredients and the baking occurs in the presence of butter or oil, when conventional or gluten-free pancakes are prepared.

This however is not done when the pancakes* are used, so we did not add same to the nutritive values of the two other pancakes; this enables a better comparison between the ingredients and properties of the various types of pancakes.

• Nutritive value of the various types of pancakes (two pieces):

Pancake* Conventional pancake Gluten-free pancake

(wheat based) (gluten-free) Energy 134.8 kcal 302 kcal 314 kcal

Carbohydrates 6.5 g 41.3 g 50.4 g

Protein 31.9 g 18.1 g 13.1 g

Fat 1.6 g 6.9 g 6.3 g

Fibers 1.0 g 0.9 g 0.8 g

The pancake* is a completely natural gluten- and wheat-free pancake, poor in carbohydrates and based upon a healthy amount of proteins with a high biological value.

As compared to conventional state-of-the art pancakes, the pancake * contains :

- 55-65 % less calories;.

- 74-88 % less carbohydrates;

- 176-240 % (=1.7 up to 2.4 times) more protein;

- 65 % less fat.

The proteins in the pancake* comprise a complete amino-acid profile and a high biological value as compared to conventional pancakes.

The processing of the flour according to the invention for the preparation of pancakes is the same as with the conventional pancakes.

The taste and the structure is the same as with the conventional pancakes made on the basis of wheat flour.

Because the pancakes* are poor in carbohydrates, fruit or other sources of carbohydrates may be added without running the risk to have a meal with too much carbohydrates.

Regarding the document by Ronda Felicidad, earlier mentioned in the present specification: this document does not relate to a product "rich" in protein content.

According to the abstract, this publication describes the influence of the incorporation of acids in rice-starch based dough's, "enriched" with various types of proteins.

The amounts used to this end are 0.5 and 10 % respectively. As an example of protein has been disclosed egg-albumin, calcium-caseinate, pea protein and soya protein. The aim of the disclosure is the preparation of a gluten-free bread (see a. o. the last sentence of the abstract).

The goal of the addition of the protein from various sources is the enhancement of the nutritive and functional value of the gluten-free products prepared on such basis (see page 13, left column, lines 10-11).

Page 13 right column, line 18 of this document sets forth that the rice-starch based matrix has been enriched with various proteins.

Enrichment of this basic rice-starch product with proteins means that to this basic product made up of rice-starch a limited amount of proteins has been added, without however modifying the nature and kind of the basic rice-starch product.

The basic constituent component of the dough's subject of this publication remains rice-starch, whereby only as an "enrichment" a limited amount of a specific protein has been added.

Page 13 right column last line and page 14 left column first line indicate the amounts added: all proteins together are added in an amount of respectively 0.5 and 10 g/100 g-

In the maximum case of enrichment of the rice-starch basic compound with 10 g of protein, the weight amount of the protein in the total composition is 10/110, this is 9.10 %.

Also in Table 1 of this document, page 14 left column at the bottom, all in total 18 experimental formulae are presented whereby each time one single protein is used for enriching the rice-starch product described in this publication.

In two of the 18 samples no protein has been added, in eight samples 5 g of one specific protein has been added and in eight other samples 10 g of one specific protein has been added. This clearly differs from the powder according to the present invention: according to the invention a mixture of four different proteins is used all together, and these four proteins make up up to at least 60 weight percent of the final powder composition. Also the samples mentioned in tables 2 and 3 of this publication confirm the above findings: for each sample only one protein has been added to the rice-starch basic product, and this happens to be in an amount of 0 g (thus a non-protein enriched Mixture), either 5 % protein addition, or 10 % protein addition.)

The conclusions of this publication set forth clearly on page 20 left column, first three lines under the title "4 Conclusions" that a gluten-free formulation based on rice- starch can be obtained by a combination of a suitable protein with an acid.

From the global context and teaching of this document it appears that the protein has been added in a quite limited amount, so only as an enrichment of the rice-starch basic product.

The powder according to our invention differs clearly from the content of this document in that the basic ingredient of the product itself is the protein, this compound being present in a minimum amount of 60 %.

Further our invention cannot be derived in an obvious way from the teaching of this document as according to our invention the protein content is a factor 6 higher as compared to the maximum protein content of the examples of this document.

Nowhere in the document there is an explicit disclosure, nor a implicit hint or suggestion to increase the protein content of the rice-starch composition so as to arrive at the powder composition according to our invention.

On top hereof, this publication does indeed disclose the four types of proteins that are used in the powder according to the present invention, but in the general description of this disclosure, as well as in its specific samples and examples, always only one single protein compound has been used for addition to the rice-starch product.

Nowhere in the general description, nor in the specific samples or examples, there is an explicit disclosure or implicit hint or suggestion to complement or enhance the nutritive value of the basic product by the combined addition of more that one protein compound, and surely not for the combination of the four protein types according to the present invention. The sole aim set forth in this publication is to enhance the rheological properties of an end product by the combined addition of one protein in combination with a certain amount of acid.

This is fully different from the goal of the present invention, namely to provide a substitute for a gluten-rich product, wheat flour, by a gluten-free alternative, based primarily on proteins.

This publication however starts from rice-starch as a basic product, which is already gluten-free. Hence there is no need to substitute this product entirely or to a large extent by gluten-substitutes such as the proteins selected in the powder of the present invention.

For this reason, the amount of proteins used in the products according to this document remains quite low, and there is no incentive to enhance same substantially so as to arrive at the amounts of the present invention. Regarding the possible relevance of the teaching of US 2005/031773 Al to the present invention, our comments are as follows:

In this document a waffle has been described, the protein content whereof is comprised between 26 and 99 %, according to the abstract.

The baking mix for the preparation of this waffle comprises protein in an amount ranging from 1 % to approximately 65 % (reference is made e.g. to paragraph 0012). This baking mix comprises five different types of protein that are mixed together (paragraph 0013).

The protein used in this case comprises, apart from other types, whey and whey- isolates (paragraph 0014). Paragraph 0015 of this patent publication extensively deals with the use of whey-protein.

According to the examples mentioned in this patent, the whey always is present in the waffle baking mix. Example 1, table la, mentions the presence of "whey protein isolate" in an amount of 24.8 weight % as compared to a total protein amount of 38.5. The whey thus represents 24.8/38.5, this is 64 % of the total protein content of the waffle baking mix. Also example 2, table 2a, mentions an amount of whey of 14.9 % in the protein slurry of the waffle baking mix.

Quite contrary hereto, whey is not used in the protein composition of the powder according to the present invention.

(The reason for this is that this product has a strong dehydrating effect on the finished product; incorporation of this protein in the powder would substantially reduce its universal field of application.)

Another characteristic of the powder according to the invention is the presence of up to 15 % of carbohydrates.

However, according to paragraph 26 of this patent publication, the waffle may contain starch up to 65 %. Also, according to this same paragraph, the added starch may contain "pastry flour" , i.e. wheat flour, so containing gluten !

According to paragraph 27 this wheat flour may be present in the waffle baking mix in a concentration of approximately 30 %, and in the waffle of approximately 64 %.

Also these features are quite contrary with the aim and purpose of the present invention and the characteristics as set forth in the main claim appended hereto.

The aim of the present invention is the development of a gluten-free product.

This however clearly is not contemplated by this prior art document.

Quite to the contrary, paragraph 31 sets forth in a quite explicit manner that in the preparation of the composition according to this patent "wheat based proteins of gliadin, glutenir and gluten may be added...".

According to the teaching of this document gluten and the characteristic gluten ingredient gliadine are added to the baking mix of the waffle without any reservation or reserve. This teaching is put into practice in example 2 of this document wherein a protein slurry and a starch slurry are mixed together. The starch slurry comprises

"pastry flour", i.e. wheat flour, so comprising gluten.

This is quite the opposite of the present invention, the aim whereof is the

development of a gluten free composition.

The teaching of this document consequently is fully incompatible with the teaching of the present invention, and for this reason alone a person skilled on the art, based on the teaching of this document, either combined with the previous document or not, would not arrive at the invention as set forth in the present set of claims. In the claims as set forth hereinafter, the word "comprising" does not exclude other elements or steps, and the indefinite article "a" or "an" does not exclude a plurality. The mere fact that certain measures are recited in mutually different dependent claims does not indicate that a combination of these measures can not be used to advantage.

In the claims, the claimed methods are not limited to the order of any steps recited unless so stated.