|The claims that define the invention are as follows:
1 . A method of producing sawn timber sections in which a log is held relative to a chosen or assigned longitudinal centre that is a rotational centre or axis, and around which the log can be rotated, or a processing means is rotatable around, or multiple cutting and machining devices are arranged around or relative to the longitudinal centre, with a cutting means producing one and more than one of a longitudinally extending cut face in the log, or a remaining portion of the log so, that a cut face:
a. has an edge that is effectively or essentially the same distance from the longitudinal centre along the full length of the log
b. is a cut face that is parallel to and offset from a radial plane emanating from the longitudinal rotational centre
c. is a cut face produced by cutting or machining into a log an intended depth with that depth being able to be defined relative to a plane at a right angle to or normal to the radial plane from which the cut face is offset
d. is a cut face produced by the making of what is referred to as an offset parallel cut
e. is a cut face referred to as a cut parallel face that can be produced:
i. with its edge at any position within the log or a remaining portion of the log
ii. At any chosen or designated or required angle relative to
1 . a designated radial plane of the log
2. any other cut parallel face created while producing sawn timber from the log.
2. A method according to Claimi in which the production of target width sections of timber is enabled by the calculation of and or determination of the position of offset parallel cuts made into a log and the position of cut parallel faces created in the log.
3. A method according to Claim 1 in which the cutting pattern applied is based on the deepest offset parallel cuts being made relative to three chosen evenly spaced radial planes with angles between the planes of 120 degrees and in which further and shallower offset parallel cuts may be made relative to planes that divide evenly spaced planes and so on so that cut parallel faces can be produced relative to three evenly spaced radial planes, to six evenly spaced radial planes, to twelve evenly spaced radial planes and so on so that the number of divisions that are required to produce the target timber products are made.
4. A method according to Claim 1 in which cut parallel faces are produced relative to four chosen evenly spaced radial planes with angles between the planes of 90 degrees and in which further cut parallel faces may be produced relative to planes that divide evenly
(Rule 26)RO/AU spaced planes and so on so that cut parallel faces can be produced relative to four evenly spaced radial planes, to eight evenly spaced radial planes, to sixteen evenly spaced radial planes and so on so that the number of divisions that are required to produce the target timber products are made.
5. A method according to Claim 1 in which angles between chosen planes are uneven or irregular so as best to produce target size and target quality products.
6. A method according to Claim 1 in which computer numeric control and data recording and transferring are applied as part of the production method by the application of such means as the applying of Cartesian coordinates or similar so that:
a. at any point along the log the y axis would be on a radial plane and the x axis would be on a radial plane normal to or at right angles to the y axis
b. the (0,0) coordinates would be the chosen or designated centre of the log c. the depth for cutting and machining and offsetting distances and an edge of a cut parallel face are defined relative to (x,y) coordinates
d. the peripherals of the log can be defined relative to (x,y) coordinates
e. the angle of cut can be defined relative to the coordinates or by any other means.
7. A method according to Claim 5 in and independent of Claim 5 and according to Claim 1 which the computer controlling or computing means is linked to and used to and transfers data relative to:
a. Scanning of logs to determine shape length volume quality
b. Positioning of cuts and or sequencing of processing operations
c. Allocating of log sections to further or future processing operations
d. Facilitating the production of timber requirements associated with orders or manufacturing needs
e. Facilitating marketing and supplying and delivering
f. calculating and recording and the volume of log processed and sawn timber produced from the log relative to carbon storage and carbon sequestration g. Calculating and recording data for royalties or taxes or collection or statistics and records
8. A method according to Claim 1 in which the cutting means is a saw blade that produces adjacent cut parallel faces that are parallel.
9. A method according to Claim 1 in which the cutting means is an angled cutter that produces adjacent cut parallel faces that are not parallel and that produces at the same time a cut parallel face at a different angle so as to facilitate production by reducing the number of operations required for the production of target timber and or the elimination of solid wood waste by chipping or shaving the wood to shaving, dust, chips or particles.
10. A method according to Claim 1 in which at any stage of the timber producing process cut parallel faces are produced which meet or effectively meet and in doing so form a section of timber that can be removed from or be separated from the log or a remaining portion of the log.
1 1 . A method according to Claim 1 in which the producing of the sawn timber may involve a step of cutting along a radial plane or generally or essentially along a radial plane so that the cut radial plane face produced by the cutting along the radial plane intersects with a cut parallel face.
12. A method according to Claim 1 in which an oval or irregular shaped log is processed by steps that include the making of a cut or cuts tangential or essentially tangential to a particular part or to parts of the log with offset parallel cuts being made relative to the cut tangential face or faces so that two cut parallel faces with uncut wood between are offset different distances from the new chosen radial cutting plane with that cutting plane and the cut parallel faces being at right angles or essentially at right angles to the tangential face or faces.
13. A method according to Claim 1 in which at any stage of the process of producing sawn timber a step is taken of cutting or machining a face normal to or at a right angle to a cut parallel face with the produced face being a face referred to as a cut right angle face
14. A method according to Claim 1 in which the section of timber which has meeting cut parallel faces is separated and removed from the log so as to enable the producing of either a cut radial face or a cut right angle face without the cutting through or into the wood that was removed following the cutting of the meeting cut parallel faces.
15. A method according to Claim 1 involving the producing of two cut parallel faces that are parallel or essentially parallel to each other and each cut parallel face is produced at any required distance from a radial plane and at any required depth and which may:
a. be a different depth to each other or the same depth as each other and which may:
b. be separated by solid or uncut wood, or
c. may have further parallel cut parallel faces between them.
16. A method according to Claim 1 which involves a sawblade or cutter producing a cut parallel face a certain distance from a chosen or designated radial plane and another cut parallel face is created an equal distance or effectively an equal distance from the radial plane and on the opposite side of the radial plane and at an equal depth and distance or effectively equal depth and distance from the longitudinal centre as the opposite cut face. 17. A method according to Claims 1 , 15 and 16 in which the said cut parallel faces are produced concurrently or at different times.
18. A method according to Claims 1 , 15 and 16 in which:
(Rule 26)RO/AU a. cut parallel faces and or one or more machined faces are produced by the relative moving in a direction parallel to the log's longitudinal axis of the log and the cutting and machining means, and in which
b. cutting and or machining operations can be or may be carried out back and forth in a reciprocating process and can be made or may be made in one direction of travel or in both directions of travel.
19. A method according to Claim 1 which involves the producing of slabs of timber or sections of timber with two parallel or essentially parallel cut parallel faces parallel to and on either side of a radial centre plane so that the annular growth rings are tangential or essentially or generally tangential to a right angle to the radial plane
20. A method according to Claims 1 and 19 in which the slab or section of timber is separated from the log or remaining portion of the log by making two radial cuts that intersect with or meet each cut parallel face.
21 . A method according to Claims 1 and 19 in which the slab or section of timber is separated from the log or remaining portion of the log by making two offset parallel cuts that intersect with or meet each cut parallel face.
22. A method according to claim 15 in which the slab or section of timber is separated from the log or remaining portion of the log by making a right angle cut that produces a cut right angle face.
23. A method according to Claim 1 which involves the taking of additional steps such as drying or the further cutting of the slab to backsawn or quartersawn boards or sections 24. A method according to Claim 1 in which at any stage of the sawn timber production process a cut is made in the same plane as a parallel face cut and the cut goes all the way through the log or remaining portion of the log.
25. A method in which a machine or device with the capacity to cut according to claim 1 is used for:
a. making cuts on or essentially on a radial plane
b. cutting at any possible angle to a radial cut.
26. A method according to Claims 1 and 25 in which, wedge sectors are produced by cutting on radial planes and a tangential face which is essentially a cut parallel face is cut or machined along the bark edge and in which the parallel face can be used to facilitate re- sawing and as a reference for the re-sawing of wedge sectors on a separate apparatus to backsawn or quartersawn sections.
27. A method according to Claim 1 in which the log or remaining portion of the log or a cut and separated portion of the log is held by any:
a. retractable means that can be retracted as necessary to allow for the making of a required cut along the full length of a log
(Rule 26)RO/AU b. means that can hold the log and be retracted and returned to a holding position at any stage of the log processing
c. means that allows the making of a required cut along the full length of the log d. means that allow the holding of a cut section of timber after it has been cut and essentially separated from the remainder of the log or another portion of the log.
28. A method according to Claims 1 which involves the producing of rectangular quartersawn or backsawn timber from a log.
29. A method according to Claims 1 which involves the producing of square timber sections from a log.
30. A method according to Claims 1 in which a curved log is sawn and a commensurate curved centre line is chosen or designated and the said cut parallel faces of Claim I are produce or created in the log relative to or approximately relative to the chosen curved centre.
31 . A method according to Claims 1 , 7 and 26 in which the curved centre line is plotted by such means as (x,y) coordinates to facilitate the productions of sawn timber.
32. A method according to Claims 1 in which the outside of the log or a section of a log that contains part of the outside of the log or is adjacent to the outside of the log is sawn or machined to a flat face so that section and additional sections cut from that part of the log has a face and faces that follow or generally follow the outside of the log so as to produce a cut tapered face so as to achieve what is commonly referred to as taper sawing and so that
a. the tapering cut is not parallel to a chosen or designated center of the log b. a section of timber produced is produced along its length the greatest most practical distance from the centre and from the defective and refractory core wood which is generally weaker and causes twisting and distortion
c. the wood strength, quality and age in the section is relatively consistent, or the most consistent that it can practically be, along its full length
33. A method according to Claims 1 and 32 in which the taper sawing is achieved by:
a. cutting or machining a face or faces on a section of timber after it has been removed from a log or
b. moving a cutting or machining means laterally further from or closer to the chosen log longitudinal centre or
c. offsetting the log holding means so that:
i. the outside of the log is parallel or effectively parallel to a cutting or machining line that normally cuts along a line parallel to the rotational centre
(Rule 26)RO/AU ii. a cut tapered face is produced that is not parallel to the normal chosen rotational centre line.
34. A method according to Claim 1 of making cuts by moving the cutting or machining means laterally and or by moving the log laterally relative to the cutting or machining means with the lateral movement being relative to the longitudinal log axis.
35. A method according to Claims 1 of producing timber from growth stressed logs involving the actions of minimizing the effect or impact on sawn product by the lateral movement of the log caused by growth stresses being released during sawing by such means as: a. Alternatively cutting or producing or removing sawn section of timber from opposite sides of a log, or
b. Concurrently cutting or producing or removing sawn section of timber from opposite sides of a log, or
c. Progressively cutting or producing or removing sawn section of timber of the thinnest target thickness from around the outsides of a log, or
d. Holding a cut section of timber during and after cutting so that the cut section holds the cut section and the remaining portion of the log in the same relative position
e. inserting a spacer or spacing device between the cut section of timber during and or after cutting thereby facilitating the cutting and the holding of the cut section and the remaining portion of the log in the same relative position
f. exerting lateral or directional pressure which may also be applied to a long thin log to hold the log in position to stop it vibrating or sagging so as to correct or control movement caused by growth stress during cutting with pressure being exerted on any part of the log or a remaining portion of a log.
36. A method according to Claim 1 involving processing patterns which enable the efficient diversion to different processing streams or subsequent actions and production of either quartersawn or backsawn timbers as the result of ascertaining wood quality by the removal and revealing of sections of timber during the processing operation.
37. The use of the timber processing method according to Claim 1 for the creation of business method or systems involving each of or any of the following attributes or enablements or enactments of:
a. the practical and efficient attainment of taper sawing reducing the age and size requirements for plantations and forest thinnings changing and improving the utilisation and economics of plantations and forests
b. the practical and efficient increase in the production of target products changing and improving the economics of timber production
(Rule 26)RO/AU c. the practical and efficient production of stronger timber from young and shorter rotation logs
d. systems of cost efficient low energy input housing construction and manufacturing
e. systems of resource efficient labour intensive manufacturing and construction f. economic systems involving wood based and related acts of growing harvesting manufacturing construction and sale
g. the fostering of plantation establishment and carbon sequestration in existing forests as the result of the reduction of need to rely on old growth and large logs for efficient timber production.
38. The use of the timber processing method according to Claim 1 for the enablement of change in management and operation of timber plantations relative to:
a. Improving economic outputs and net and future value of plantations
b. Enabling and fostering silvicultural and management activities such as thinning and pruning
c. Reducing plantation cycle times and enabling such operations as the closer planting of trees to facilitate branch suppression and a reduction in knot size
39. The use of the timber processing method according to Claim 1 for the enablement of and establishment of carbon sequestration and accounting and rights an entitlements transfer systems
40. The use of the timber processing method according to Claim 1 for the enablement of and establishment of timber frame and truss and girder and beam manufacture.
41 . The use of the timber processing method according to Claim 1 for the enablement of and establishment of aid and development schemes for developing countries fostering or enabling each of or any of the creation of employment, plantation establishment, efficient use of existing resources, cost and energy efficient housing and manufacturing and economic systems and that may create a tracked and recorded carbon sequestration benefit for a donor or associated body.
42. Timber products produced according to the method including further processed products produced from produced timber sections.
43. An apparatus that enables the production of timber according to Claim 1 .
44. An apparatus according to Claim 1 in which comprises at least one saw blade that is movable laterally relative to its cutting plane, or the log is movable laterally relative to the sawblade or blades cutting plane, and the cutting tip of the saw blade or blades can be positioned to cut at any depth into the log or though the log and the log is rotatable, or the cutting means is rotatable relative to the log, so that the apparatus can make multiple
(Rule 26)RO/AU longitudinally extending cuts at any relative angle along the full length of the log either through the log or into the log at any chosen or designated position.
45. An apparatus that accords to Claims 1 and 44 that incorporates cutters or machining heads to produce cut faces by the removal of solid wood as chips dust shavings or particles
46. An apparatus according to Claims 1 and 45 that is fitted with different diameter and thickness sawblades to minimise wastage in making different depth cuts.
47. An apparatus that accords to Claims 1 and 44 and in which the sawblade or sawblades and cutters or cutters can be angled as required
48. An apparatus according to Claim 1 that includes at least two cutting means that produce four or more cut parallel faces concurrently.
49. An apparatus that accords to Claim 1 in which more than one sawblade or machining means are angled or arranged around the longitudinal axis of the log so as to reduce the number of sawing passes required to produce target products.
50. An apparatus that accords with Claim 1 in which retractable holding means hold particular parts or portions of a log and certain means can be retracted at certain times to allow the making or particular cuts or the release of particular cut portions of the log or the whole of the log or the remainder of the log and which at any time of the production process the means can be retracted and then returned to a holding position so as to enable a cut to be made or safely made.
51 . An apparatus that accords to Claim 1 in which retractable pins or rods contact particular parts or portions of the end of the log being processed and the pins are moved towards the log or retracted from the log by either the use of screw threads, or hydraulic or pneumatic means.
The present invention is for a method that enables the efficient producing of target rectangular quartersawn and backsawn timber or lumber and timber slabs. An apparatus that operates according to the invention may also be used to produce wedge or sector based timber sections. Particular aspects and attributes of the invention and the use of the invention enable new and associated systems and operations.
The current wood and log processing industry involves production systems which range from small portable type mills that may be very rudimentary to large high capacity mills with sophisticated computer control and moving and positioning systems. Generally, there are three different sawing systems or methods applied. Live sawing makes all broad cuts in the log parallel. While live sawing is cheap and easy not all logs are suited to live sawing and cut timber is prone to spring and bow and distortion. Backsawing attempts to make all broad faces as parallel as possible to annular growth rings. Quartersawing attempts to produce boards with the growth rings as close as possible to a right angle to the broad face. In mainstream and usual backsawing and quartersawing, broad cuts are made that are at right angles to each other. Due to growth and drying stress and distortion and the difficulty of aligning circular growth rings relative to right angle cuts, a significant percentage of a log does not end up as target backsawn or quartersawn product. In quartersawing a lot of turning of the log is required. The turning required is time consuming, difficult and expensive. In United States Patent 6032708 Radial sawing log holder and method the current inventor describes a method of radial cutting wedge sectors and the further processing of the wedge sectors to backsawn boards, quartersawn boards and other sectors. The invention has advantage in that the log rotation creates high volumes of true backsawn and quartersawn sections but is limited in that rectangular or parallel sided sections cannot be produced at the initial stage of production and the further processing is at least difficult on conventional further processing means such as a saw bench, or requires specialised machines. In addition, the sawing of the wedge sector to backsawn boards produces a high volume of different width boards which may create marketing and production difficulties where there is a large variation in log sizes processed.
Other inventions such as US 5109899 and US 4895197 disclose methods related to radial methods that are based on wedge sectors and US 6286571 involves the production of parallel sided sections and sectors. Theses cited inventions are all are restricted in their means of production and product outputs and the log type and size processed.
l Disclosure of Invention
The present invention enables a simplification of the sawn timber production process, an increase in the production of target quality product and an increase in the versatility of timber production and its use. The method makes timber production and the use of timber and more direct. The method has characteristics of use that enable the introduction of systems that incorporate the invention and involve the use of the invention. Longitudinally extending cuts are made into a log to a chosen, designated or calculated depth with the cuts being made offset from and parallel to a radial plane that emanates from a chosen or allocated longitudinally extending central axis or rotational centre of the log. The offset parallel cuts can be made relative to any chosen or designated radial plane emanating from the rotational centre. Other operations such as making cuts at a right angle to the offset parallel cuts are carried out to complete the timber production process.
A brief description of the drawings
Figure 1 shows sawing patterns 10A, 10B, 10C and 10D included in Knorr's United States Patent 6032708.
Figure 2a represents a live sawing structural cutting pattern applied to the small end of a small log.
Figure 2b represents a live sawing structural cutting pattern as would typically arise at the large end of the small log as the result of taper.
Figure 3a represents a typical wide board backsawing pattern for logs with growth stressed and refractory wood.
Figure 3b represents a typical narrow board backsawing pattern for logs with growth stressed and refractory wood.
Figure 3c shows a wide backsawn cutting pattern applied in an experimental sawing and drying trial carried out in the Australian state of Tasmania.
Figure 4a represents a quartered log typically produced in a mainstream quartersawing process with a typical pattern superimposed.
Figure 4b shows the quarter ready for initial cutting relative to the reference support and sawing guide.
Figure 4c shows the quarter with the first cut section removed and ready for turning in the direction of the arrow.
Figure 4d shows the same quarter turned or rotated 90 degrees to make to a second cut with the guide shown in the new necessary position.
Figure 5 shows the lateral movement of portions of a log caused by stress release during log cutting.
Figure 6 shows a basic embodiment of the invention relative to saw movement and log rotation. Figure 7 shows elements of the invention used to define the production aspect of the invention and relative to the use of Cartesian coordinates
Figure 8 shows a small log cut according to the method.
Figure 9 shows how triangular sections or sections with angled offset parallel faces produced by the method can be further shaped and used.
Figure 10a shows a wide backsawn sawn board sawing pattern that accords with the invention.
Figure 10b shows a narrow board pattern and certain definitional elements of the current invention.
Figure 1 1 shows a breakdown pattern for producing radial slabs from larger logs.
Figure 12 shows a radial parallel quartersawn cutting pattern that can be carried out on one apparatus operating according to the invention.
Figure 13a shows how the same machine by the application of parallel cuts can be used to make wedge based products such as the interlocking "drop segments" a product as earlier described by the current inventor in other invention specifications.
Figure 13b shows how wedge sectors can be produced with a tangential face to facilitate re- sawing on a separate apparatus.
Figure 14 depicts the effect of stress release when sections are sawn according to the invention.
Figure 15 depicts the application of force to counteract effect of stress release or support a thin log during processing.
Figure 16 depicts a side view of a device that would enable the carrying out of the invention. Figure 17a shows a plate pattern with pin holes with the blacked out holes showing inserted pins and indicative pin holding positions for accompanying sawing patterns.
Figure 17b shows a log section that can be "edged" and re-sawn on a log breaking down apparatus with holding means such as shown in 17a or re-sawn on a separate apparatus as shown.
Figure 18 shows a sawing arrangement for high speed or lineal sawing of radial slabs.
Figure 19 shows a variation of sawing to a small log pattern in a linear process with multiple saws.
Figure 20 shows how twin saws cutting concurrently or alternatively could speed cutting times in a twin saw reciprocating system.
Figure 21 shows parallel and taper sawing embodiments relative to a chosen longitudinal cutting centre or axis.
Figure 22a shows the representation of the small end of a log with a radial parallel three section structural pattern superimposed and broken lines representing offset parallel cuts made. Figure 22b shows the representation of the large end of the log with made offset parallel cuts depicted and with the radial parallel three section structural pattern in a taper cut position. Figure 23 is used as a reference for a description of a carrying out of an embodiment relative to the processing of a small log.
Figure 24 is used as a reference for a description of a carrying out of an embodiment relative to the processing of a larger log.
Figure 25 shows a pattern that accords with the method for the sawing of a high percentage of target width true backsawn boards.
Figure 26 shows the backsawing of an oval log.
Figure 27 represents a log around 300mm in diameter cut to a substantially conventional pattern by an apparatus processing according to the invention.
Figure 28 shows a T type chord cut and machined from a wedge sector.
Figure 29 shows an end section of an arrangements of chords and struts.
Figure 30 shows a side view with 45 degree struts cut with right angle ends.
Figure 31 shows a cutting pattern to enable the making of chords and struts.
Figure 32 shows a T chord could be machined on an apparatus that accords with the invention.
Figure 33 shows the end section pattern of a method for the making of a wall frame.
Figure 34 shows a side view of a framing section with opposed vertical struts.
Figure 35 shows a side view of a truss with indicative alternative layout for webbing and struts.
Figure 36 depicts "T" chords used in an " type beam or structural member.
Figure 37a shows an end section view of an alternative circular rebate strutting connection methodology as applied to a timber section.
Figure 37b shows a side view of the alternative circular rebate strutting connection methodology as applied to a timber section.
Figure 38 shows a circular cutter making a partial rebate to enable connection.
Figure 39a shows a circular ended strut.
Figure 39b shows the circular ended strut inserted into a rebated top and bottom chord. Figure 40 represents graphically the effect of growth stress on a backsawn structural section of timber.
Figure 41 shows wall frame components arranged to balance the growth stress bow.
Figure 42 shows frame components fixed in a wall frame.
Figure 43a shows a 400mm log cut to target standard green framing sizes according to the invention. Figure 43b shows the same size log cut to similar sizes and to the same backsawn standard on a conventional mill when target framing timber sizes are cut and only right angle cuts are made as is normal to the industry.
Detailed Description of the Drawings and the Invention
The present invention provides a method of cutting radially oriented slabs and rectangular timber sections. The produced timber sections can be further processed to timber products normal to timber sawmill and further value adding industries. The method also allows for the production of a wide range of sector based products if required. The method can be referred to or described as radial parallel sawing.
Figure 1 shows sector based sawing patterns disclosed in the present inventor's United States Patent 6032708 titled Radial sawing log holder and method. The present invention has for its objective the efficient production on the one machine of target rectangular sections or the production of slabs that can be easily processed to target rectangular sections on other devices as well as the production of sectors that could be processed as pictured in Figure 1 or in ways later described in this specification.
Figure 2a represents a live sawing small log pattern commonly applied in high speed mills with the pattern superimposed on circles representing the small end of a log showing annular growth rings and 2b representing the same pattern on the large end on the same log with typical growth taper for a fast grown log of 6 metres length. High speed live sawing mills typically make parallel cuts along the log length. The parallel cuts increasingly cut into, and the sawn timber is significantly comprised of, lower density and weaker younger wood and core wood that is prone to twist and distortion.
Figure 3a represents a typical backsawing pattern for logs with growth and drying stresses. A 400mm diameter log is shown with 107mm by 28mm boards and 162 by 28mm boards which are typical target green sawn sizes suited to drying and value adding. Significant waste occurs next to the 162 boards. In a growth stressed log if boards are cut in this region with faces parallel to the other boards, they are subject to spring and bow and uneven drying distortion and are low quality sections of timber. Wider backsawn boards will generally not be cut due to excesses in cupping and shrinkage during drying and use in such products as flooring. Backsawn boards generally shrink around twice as much across their broad face as quartersawn boards do during drying. Backsawn boards are less stable in use. Wide backsawn boards used as flooring tends to lift and cup and open up gaps. For these type of uses it may be much more desirable to cut narrower backsawn boards. Figure 3b highlights the problem of excessive waste and the difficulty when producing narrower and more stable backsawn boards from the same size log. The figure shows boards cut to 107mm by 28m being a standard green-cut size suited for drying and machining. Saw kerf used is 5mm and core wood exclusion is 100mm in both diagrams. The diagram shows how much more waste occurs in cutting true backsawn narrow boards. Figure 3c shows a deduced cutting pattern based on boards recorded produced from a particular size log during an experimental sawing trial carried out in the Australian state of Tasmania. The trial report is titled Processing backsawn Tasmanian regrowth eucaluptus obliqua Innes et al FIFAC 2008. The log is 490mm diameter and wide boards cut are 220mm. These boards are too wide for practical use or for use as high value products. The report records high levels of drying degrade in these boards. Cutting narrower and acceptable width backsawn boards (with the best target widths likely being around 107mm for producing 90mm dried and dressed product) from this type and size of log highlights the level of wastage that would occur. The pattern applied indicates the general inefficiency of processing growth stressed logs that are difficult to dry without distortion and loss. This trial was carried out to see if recovery could be increased by backsawing as opposed to the traditional quartersawing that is predominately carried out in that State. The Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) annually publishes Tasmanian figures for recovery of sawn hardwood timber as a percentage of log volume. The recovery is generally around and below 30% and is consistent with other analysis and saw patterns compared in this specification.
Figure 4a represents a quartered log typically produced in a mainstream quartersawing process with a typical cutting pattern superimposed upon it. 4b shows the quarter ready for initial cutting relative to the reference support and sawing guide and 4c shows the same quarter turned or rotated 90 degrees to make to a second cut. 4d shows the guide in the new necessary position. In a high volume production system repositioning the fence or repositioning the quarter relative to a changed guide is very complex as all infeed and outfeed operations change. Generally, or often, the quarter for cutting is rotated or reversed so that the flitch can be fed with the guides in the same position. This is also a capital intensive and complex operation taking time and a large footprint to achieve. Many mills reduce the number of turns making more cuts before turning and reversing the flitch. This reduces the quality of sawn timber output taking it further from true quartersawn. In some species this can lead to extra problems with drying degrade and a loss of quality and value of sawn timber output. Analysis of sawing patterns disclosed in available sawing and drying trial reports reveal the failure to align growth rings "correctly" leads to a low recovery of target quality timber and economic loss.
Many sawmills that are not automated have a very high skill requirement for the production of quality timber. Volume recovery and product quality can be very highly dependence on alignment decisions as related to the first and subsequent cuts and the amount of turning and the timing of turning during the processing of logs to cants and cants to final product. The current invention enables the simplification of the method of producing target products, the production of best possible quality product from a given log, and highest possible volumes of those products with a reduced reliance on the skills of the sawyer and operator. Figure 5 shows a drawing depicting what happens in the conventional sawing of a growth stressed log with a single saw. If a section of a log is cut off on the side of a log the sections "bows" away as is shown. The remaining portion of the log curves out as the stress is balanced in the remaining portion of the log. The curve is relative to the dotted line which is straight. If a straight cut is made along the dotted line it produces a piece of timber that is thick in the middle and thin on the ends. A lot of waste occurs when sawing growth stressed logs by this method as it produces uneven thickness timber.
Figure 1 shows a typical sawing pattern for a small log where two medium sections are produced at the outside and a wide centre section is produced. In many logs particularly quick growing species of both pine and hardwood this centre section is low quality and prone to splitting, twist and undesirable distortion. It generally has a low value to the two outside sections and in quickly grown hardwood would generally be unusable. If the centre is sawn out of the wide section and the core wood excluded two very small sections are produced. While excluding the core in this way increases the quality and stability of the timber, these small sections are of comparative low value. The present invention allows for the increased production of "medium" sized target boards and the elimination or minimisation of the production of wide boards with undesirable use properties.
Generally, the object of the industry in log sawing is to produce sawn timber that is quartersawn timber (growth rings basically at right angles to the broad face) or backsawn timber (growth rings generally or on average tangential to the broad face) and not bastardsawn timber (timber that generally has growth rings at an angle around say 45 degrees to the broad face). In growth stressed logs a bastardsawn section of timber contains "spring" and bow and is of very low quality due to both stress and drying distortion. In certain species backsawn boards cannot left to remain wide as excessive splitting and distortion occurs in drying and in use. A significant amount of wastage occurs in conventional sawing when cutting a wide backsawn board to an acceptable width narrower section. A wide backsawn board cannot be cut down the middle as two bastardsawn timbers are produced and the resultant boards distort in two planes and contain spring and bow. The backsawn board is cut so as to produce a backsawn board and two bastardsawn wing boards which are generally waste. This particularly makes it difficult to cut straight narrow boards as the only place a straight board can be produced in conventional sawing is at the centre of the backsawn section. Cutting it narrow produces a very high level of waste.
The present invention allows for the efficient cutting of narrow or target width backsawn boards and the increased production of quartersawn timber and the elimination or virtual elimination of the production of bastard sawn timber. Figure 6 shows a general representation of an aspect of the invention:
i. shows the end section of a log
ii. shows the bark edge or natural edge of the log
iii. shows a saw blade in a radial cut position
iv. shows one of the arrows that represent the movement and the cutting range of the saw blade
v. shows the centre of the log or a chosen longitudinal centre for the log that is the centre or axis the log is rotated around (or the apparatus is rotated around or positioned relative to or around which multiple cutting and or machining devices are arranged) during the cutting process.
The saw is able to cut towards, to, or through the centre or a chosen centre of the log and the saw (or another saw or saws) is able to be moved and positioned sideways as shown by arrows and so that at least one of an offset parallel cut can be made with that cut being a cut that is offset and parallel to a radial plane emanating from the centre. The offset parallel cut is able to be offset any practical distance from the radial plane and can be made to any depth in the log. In certain circumstances what is a parallel offset cut may be made all the way though the log. A cut parallel face produced or created by an offset parallel cut is able to be offset any practical distance from the radial plane and have an edge at any depth in the log and may be parallel to another cut parallel face and have solid or uncut wood between them. The depth in the log can be defined relative to a line or plane that is at right angles to or normal to the radial plane from which the offset parallel cut is offset. The edge of a made cut parallel face will stay in a constant relative position or essentially in a constant relative position to the centre of the log along the full length of the log. The rotation of the log (or cutting around the centre of, but which will herewith be referred to as rotation of the log) allows for cuts to be made at any required angle to any other offset parallel cut that is made or any radial cut that may be made.
An offset parallel cut made with a sawblade will produce two parallel cut parallel faces with two edges. An angled cutter could be used to machine two cut parallel faces that are not parallel.
Parallel cuts could be made by two or more saws as is convenient and one after the other or concurrently but the one saw apparatus can be used to make both radial and offset parallel cuts and cuts that are at right angles or normal to those cuts. Cuts could be by circular or band saws as is practical. If there is a need to make a longitudinal machined cut along the length of the log that is either parallel to the centre of the log or is basically parallel to the outside of the log, the device could be fitted with suitable shaping, chipping, shaving or hogging devices. One or more cut parallel faces can be produced, or any other cutting or machining operations carried out by the relative moving, in a direction parallel to the log's longitudinal axis, of the log and the cutting and machining means. Cutting and or machining operations can be carried out back and forth in a reciprocating process and can be or may be carried out in one direction of travel, or in both directions of travel.
The sawing devices and processing means or sawing or machining means could be manually or mechanically controlled or positioned or computer numeric controlled by such means as referred to as CNC or positioned by use of scanning and positioning devices and in ways normal to automation and efficient manufacture. The use of computers can be applied to the use of the method and as part of the method.
Figure 7 shows elements of the invention used to define the production aspect of the invention and the application of the use of Cartesian coordinates:
i. shows a chosen or designated or allocated longitudinal rotational centre around which the log can be rotated or around which cutting and machining and machining carried out and to which the Cartesian coordinates (0,0) have been applied
ii. shows the y-axis which is on a radial plane which emanates from the (0,0) centre iii. shows the x-axis which is on a radial plane which emanates from the (0,0) centre and is at right angles or normal to the y-axis
iv. shows a log that can have its peripherals and associated attributes plotted and recorded relative to (x,y) coordinates and that during processing can be treated as a fixed object relative to (x,y) coordinates or as a rotatable object so that on the rotation of the log, operations are carried out relative to the same (x,y) coordinates relative to new and different radial planes
v. shows an arrow representing the ability to rotate the log around a chosen axis or the (0,0) coordinates
vi. shows one of the arrows representing the positions a cutting tip of a sawblade can be shifted to
vii. shows an offset parallel cut that must be made to a defined and calculated and or determined depth and offset position so as to produce target width section of timber and so as not to cut into further target sections of timber with the definitional position able to be defined relative to (x,y) coordinates
viii. shows adjacent and parallel cut parallel faces produced by a saw blade
ix. shows the edge of a cut parallel faces produced by the tip of the saw blade
x. shows two non-parallel cut parallel faces produced by an angled cutter that may be used to reduce the number of passes required to produce target products and or to eliminate the production of solid waste by turning the timber to shaving, dust, chips or particles xi. shows a radial cut that can be made on any radial plane
xii. shows two cut parallel faces which meet or intersect and form a section of timber that can be removed from or be separated from the log
xiii. shows a section of timber that can be removed from a log
xiv. shows a radial cut that can be made after a section of timber is removed from the log and with the section of timber being removed so that is not cut into and divided by the radial cut with the removal of sections of timber to enable cutting also applying to making further offset parallel cuts
xv. shows a cut right angle face which is a face produced by making a right angle cut or a cut normal to a cut parallel face with that cut itself being a further offset parallel cut and which can be tangential to the logs annular growth rings
xvi. shows the (x,y) coordinates which in this instance indicate the defining of the position of an offset parallel cut and the intended creation of two cut parallel faces that meet at different angles and that form an interesting point or edge.
In computer assisted cutting of a curved log (x,y) coordinates other that (0,0) can be used to define the curved centre to facilitate the cutting of a curved log and to define the position and depth of the offset parallel cuts and cut right angle faces and the associated positioning and alignment of cutters and saws.
Cartesian coordinates can be effectively used to define and apply cutting patterns in any embodiment of the invention whether computer assisted or not. The method is enabled by the determination of the depth of cut relative to width of target product. This determination of cutting position is essential to the enablement of the method.
Data arising from computer use can be transferred relative to:
1 . Scanning of logs to determine shape length volume quality
2. Positioning of cuts and or sequencing of processing operations
3. Allocating of log sections to further or future processing operations
4. Facilitating the production of timber requirements associated with orders or manufacturing needs
5. Facilitating marketing and supplying and delivering and selling
6. calculating and recording and accounting of the volume of log processed and sawn timber produced from the log relative to carbon storage and carbon sequestration and associated rights
7. Calculating and recording data for royalties or taxes or collection or statistics and records.
Figure 8 shows a small log cut according to the method and is the alternative according with the current invention for the conventional or normal sawing pattern shown in Figure 1 . The purpose of this pattern and method is to increase the production of target quality and fit for purpose timber. In refractory and difficult logs the centre section shown in figure 1 would normally be rejected for use as structural or higher grade timber. Cutting according to the current embodiment of the invention increases the recovery of target product by 50% by enabling the production of three target timbers instead of two. Also the invention allows for the easy taper cutting which will normally increase the strength and stability and reliability of the product over a non-taper sawn product.
i. shows a dotted line which is the position that a radial cut could be made and being a radial plane emanating from the log centre that can be used to provide cutting references and definitions
ii. shows offset parallel cuts that would be made initially and after log rotation and made to a required and calculated depth according to the width and depth of the final target section to be produced
iii. shows radial cuts which can be made (made after the "covering" sections are
removed) to separate the log into the required sections
iv. shows the sawing cuts made after the sections have been separated or that can be made in the log (after the "covering" sections are removed) with there being no need to make radial cut unless the radial cut can produce useable product.
Cuts (i) and (v) can be made longitudinally along the log and generally parallel to the outside of the log so as to taper saw in the way described. Cut (i) can be made by the saw of the breaking down apparatus or by a cutter or shaver as attached to the apparatus or on a conventional sawing bench apparatus as a following operation carried out on the timber section after it is separated from the log. Parallel cuts in the same plane could be made by dual saws on a sawing apparatus cutting concurrently. Figure 9 shows how triangular sections can be further shaped and used for example as a fence board or house cladding board or laminating stock.
Figure 10a and Figure 10b show a wide backsawn sawn board sawing pattern and a narrow board pattern. Figure 10a can be compared to Figure 3a. Both show a pattern for a 400mm diameter log and 162 by 28 boards with 5mm kerf and 100mm core wood exclusion log with the radial parallel pattern also producing 50 by 25 boards. In this instance the radial parallel pattern increases recovery of true backsawn timber by around 14%. In refractory timbers narrower boards may perform better in use. In comparing 10b to Figure 3b, both show a pattern for a 400mm diameter log and 107 by 28 boards with 5mm kerf and 100mm core wood exclusion log with the radial parallel pattern also producing 50 by 25 boards. In this instance the radial parallel pattern increases recovery of true backsawn timber by around 50%.
Figures 10b and 3b and associated figures highlight the problem of traditional sawing producing target quality narrow sections from growth stressed logs. In structural and framing timber markets where the bulk of the market have finished widths of 90mm and 70mm dry and 100mm and 75mm green traditional sawing of those logs leads to very high wastage which could be viewed as being a primary reason for the demise of the hardwood framing market. Commensurately, radial parallel sawing structural patterns can improve efficiency and provide a new economic base for hardwood framing production.
Figure 10b is used to detail certain definitional elements of the cutting patterns applied, with: i. being a broken line showing one of three chosen and primary radial planes evenly spaced at 120 degrees which form the basis of the cutting pattern applied during processing and relative to which deepest offset parallel cuts are made
ii. being a broken line showing one of three radial dividing planes that are evenly spaced at 120 degrees and which relate to shallower offset parallel cuts made and so that all offset parallel cuts made in the log to that depth and deeper are made relative to six evenly spaced radial planes at 60 degree separations or relative angles iii. being a broken line showing one of six further radial dividing planes evenly spaced at 60 degrees which relate to the shallowest offset parallel cuts made and so that all offset parallel cuts made in the log to that depth and deeper are made relative to 12 evenly spaced radial planes at 30 degree separations or relative angles
In the cutting of narrower sections or the cutting of larger logs further divisions could be made. Other primary angles of cutting can be applied such as four primary planes at 90 degrees with divisions creating eight evenly spaced planes and then 16 and so on. For making particular sizes and in uneven logs the angles between radial planes may differ. The present invention allows for the cutting of sections, slabs or cants for re-sawing on another apparatus by the separation of the section, slab or cants from the log by the making of offset parallel cuts, radial cuts or right angle cuts, or, after the removal of intermediate sections, the progressive sawing of target product by the making of right angle cuts. Slabs of timber are sections of timber with two parallel or essentially parallel cut parallel faces that are on either side of a radial centre plane so that the annular growth rings are tangential or essentially or generally tangential to a right angle to the radial plane.
The radial parallel patterns shown are an efficient way of producing high quality backsawn boards from around the outside of the log where wood quality it best in both naturally grown and plantation logs. In plantation logs a tree may be pruned producing a knotty core in the middle with good wood growing around the outside. In natural grown logs, logs may have rot of degraded cores. These patterns can efficiently take advantage of the good wood layer the exist around the outside of the log converting it into a high percentage of target product. Figure 1 1 shows a breakdown pattern for larger logs. The pattern depicted can be referred to as a sawing pattern for the production of radial slabs or radial slab sawing. The sections could be re-sawn to make either backsawn or quartersawn boards and subject to further steps such as drying and machining. The radial parallel method of log breakdown for quartersawing is particularly advantageous when compared to conventional quartersawing systems such as that describe relative to figures 3a to 3d. Use of the current described aspect of the invention provides for a higher recovery of true quartersawn target product more easily produced. Cants and slabs are delivered to a re-saw apparatus with no need for turning or the end for ending of the section as is required in the re-sawing of log quarters. The current invention significantly reduces the complexity of quartersawn timber production. During the production process slabs or section can be allocated to either processing to either quartersawn or backsawn timber as the result of ascertaining wood quality by the removal and revealing of sections of timber during the processing operation.
Figure 12 shows the breakdown pattern and cutting pattern with quartersawn sawing or re- sawing applied. The method as shown produces a high percentage of true quartersawn target products. This cutting pattern could be applied or mainly applied by the one sawing apparatus making the required cuts. In this cutting pattern cut parallel are produced that have further parallel cut parallel faces between them.
Figure 13a shows how the same machine by the application of parallel cuts can be used to make wedge based products such as the interlocking "drop segments" a product as earlier described by the current inventor in other invention specifications. Other segment based products such as wedges for re-sawing can be produced by the method. As depicted in Figure 13b, wedge sectors can be produced with a tangential face which is essentially a cut parallel face along the bark edge. This cut parallel face can be used to facilitate re-sawing and as a reference for the re-sawing of wedge sectors on a separate apparatus to backsawn or quartersawn sections as shown.
As earlier stated growth stress in certain logs must be contained and accounted for during the sawing process. In figure 14 a log and a section produced by the parallel cuts is shown. If the stress is sufficient when the section is removed the remaining portion of the log will move a significant amount in the direction of the arrow. The movement can be minimized by the holding in position of the cut section so that the cut section pushes against the remaining portion of log and resists the movement. If the three sectors as will be cut are held until all parallel cuts are made and sectors are released at once the log will remain basically straight and balanced relative to growth stresses.
Alternatively, as shown in Figure 15 the section could be removed after cutting, the log rotated for subsequent cuts and force applied in the direction of the arrow to hold the log straight for cutting. Force could be applied similarly after the next rotation. The three radial cuts would then be made with each remaining section of the log firmly held and straight. Force as represented by the arrow can also be applied to a long thin log to hold the log in position to stop it vibrating or sagging during processing. The method of applying force could also be applied to curved logs to accommodate the cutting of curved logs by holding the log straight during cutting.
Other curved sawing techniques normal to the industry could be applied such as the lateral movement of log holding devices during cutting.
Alternatively, the effect of growth stress movement in cutting can be minimized by the cutting of thin sections of log and/or by alternating the sides of the logs from which cuts are made or by making cuts from opposite sides of the log concurrently.
The method has the potential advantage in that often relatively small sections of timber can be progressively removed from the remaining portion of the log thereby potentially minimising the effect and impact of the stress relief and release.
During cutting the methods of dealing with stress may include the inserting of a spacer or wedge into the gap created by the act of cutting so as to facilitate the cutting and to hold cut sections, or keep cut sections in position.
Figure 16 provides a side view of one device that would enable the efficient carrying out of the invention as described. Relative to the diagram:
i. represents a side section of a log
ii. shows a circle representing a circular blade
iii. points to pins that would typically hold the log at the ends with the pins extending from a support plate or device so as to have the necessary clearance and positioning to allow the cuts as earlier described to be made along the full length of the log
iv. shows one of two circular plates as part of an indicative and economical embodiment that can be varied to meet the invention objectives
v. shows a shaft on which the plates (v) are mounted
vi. shows rollers that could be mounted under the plates to support the log weight vii. shows a pin fully screwed out or retracted and that still allows the rotation of the holding device and the cutting along the log on the path where the pin would be if screwed into the log
viii. shows a dotted line representing the log holder and log rotational centre.
In a low cost embodiment pins and plates are threaded. The pins can be screwed into the log ends to accommodate different angled log ends. The pin and plates allow the log to rotate and the cuts to be made in the required places. A support yoke with an arc shape that did not interfere with the cuts and that supported the pins could be placed near the end of the log if and as required. The pins can be positioned to allow the making of offset parallel cuts, radial and right angled cuts where practical and as is required. Pins can be withdrawn or retracted from the log end to allow the making of certain cuts or to allow the making or certain cuts safely (cuts that may be close to a pin) and then repositioned again to hold the log or a portion of the log after a cut is made. In a low cost embodiment, the pins could be threaded bar and have nuts on the ends and be driven individually by a screwdriver or drill or impact driver. In a more sophisticated system rods could be individually driven and controlled by suitable mechanical means and could be electrical or air or hydraulic activated and controlled rods. A low cost embodiment may involve a reciprocating carriage with one saw blade cutting back and forth or in one direction along a log. In other embodiments multiple saws and cutters could be fitted to a carriage or more than one carriage could be used to cut a log in an economical and timely manner.
Figure 17 shows a plate pattern with pin holes with the blacked out holes showing inserted pins and indicative pin holding positions for accompanying sawing patterns. The plate pattern shown allows for full length radial cuts that include 120, 90, 60 and 30 degrees. While the diagrams used show patterns based around 120 and 60 and 90 degrees they could be based around other angles such as 90 and 45 degrees with any number of pins or holding means used as required.
In an alternative embodiment pins could be almost randomly placed in holding devices so that a large proportion or a required proportion of the log end is held and so that pins are retracted to enable the making of cuts and can return as required with the objective of the embodiment being the capability to make cuts at any relative angle and to any position. Holding pins in any embodiment can be used to release a certain sawn and separated section or multiple sections of the log at any determined or required time.
Sections of a log with angled radial faces or angled offset parallel faces such as shown in figure 17a can be "edged" and re-sawn on the log breaking down apparatus itself or re-sawn on a separate apparatus with one or more saws while being referenced supported and or guided by the angled faces as shown. In accordance with the invention cuts would generally be parallel and offset from the plane that divides the two angled faces or at right angle to that plane.
The sawing patterns such as that shown in figure 18 can also be adapted for high speed sawing of radial slabs. Saws and cutters are arranged around the longitudinal cutting centre of the log. Saws can be mounted and offset as required along the lines pictured so as to enable the linear or progressive processing to the desired pattern. Figure 19 shows a variation of sawing to a small log pattern in a linear process with multiple saws while Figure 20 shows how twin saws cutting concurrently or alternatively could speed cutting times in a twin saw reciprocating system processing to cutting patterns as shown and applied to other cutting patterns shown as appropriate.
Taper sawing (as earlier described) could be applied during the re-sawing of a produced section either by manual guidance or by the application of scanning and cut positioning devices, or tapering right angled cuts or faces could be produced on the initial sawing apparatus and used as the reference for subsequent cuts or cutting to the required product thickness.
Figure 21 a is a diagram representing parallel and a taper sawing embodiments where:
i. is a truncated conical section that represents a tapered log
ii. is a pair of log holding devices aligned relative to their rotational centres
iii. is a pair of lines that represents two offset parallel cuts made into the top of the log iv. is a dotted line representing a cutting plane that is parallel to a cutting plane along which a cutting device travels and cuts
v. are arrows showing how holding devices can be moved laterally.
Figure 21 b shows a log with a holding device offset so that a face along which a cut is to be made is parallel to or essentially parallel to the cutting plane. A holding device is shown with a holding pin in a retracted position so as to enable the making of a taper cut along the full length of the log.
When the log is rotated in an offset position as shown the conical log faces will be consistently parallel or generally parallel to the edge cutting plane. All required face cuts (being right angle cuts relative to the parallel cuts that will contribute to forming the timber section) could be made in this offset position or adjusted offset positions. Offsetting could be computer device or manually controlled. Offset parallel cuts made into the log would generally be carried out with the two holding devices aligned and centred on the chosen centres. Any subsequent right angle cuts being made with the Kolding means or dogs in the original offset or returned-to offset position. In addition to lateral movement of the holding devices being used to offset the log for taper sawing, lateral movement of the log could be used to facilitate the positioning of the log relative to sawblades or machining devices for the making of any required cut or operation. The lateral movement of the holding devices could also occur during cutting to facilitate curve sawing or cutting relative to the edge of a curved log. In this situation the cutting device or saw blade may also have a changed or changing angle to facilitate the cutting along the desired curve.
In alternative embodiments taper sawing can be achieved by the angling of the saw and the tracking of the saw relative to the outside of the log or the lateral movement of the saw or of a cutter as the required face is cut or machined along the length of the log.
Figure 22a shows the representation of the small end of the log in figure 2a with a radial parallel three section structural pattern superimposed. Offset parallel cuts are shown are made to specific depths along the full length of the log. Figure 22b shows the representation of the large end of the log as in figure 2b with a radial parallel three section structural pattern in a taper cut position superimposed. The offset a parallel cuts made to specific depths which are in the same relative position to the centre at either end of the log and along the full length of the log. A comparison between figures 22a and 2b shows that in the conventional pattern most waste occurs where wood quality is best and in the radial parallel taper sawing pattern the best and strongest wood at the outside of the log is in the sawn target product.
Relative to diagram 23, an embodiment of the invention for the processing of a log does or may involve the:
1 . mounting of the log on a holding device relative to a chosen centre (i);
2. offsetting of the holding devices if taper sawing is required during this stage of the production process;
3. making of offset parallel cuts (indicated and exampled by (ii)) in the required or chosen stages or order with the offset parallel cuts made to a calculated, determined and designated offset and depth so as to enable production of the target section to which the made cut relates and so as not to cut into any adjoining target section of timber;
4. removal of sections such as at (iv) produced by the making of the offset parallel cuts with the removal allowing the making of subsequent right angle cuts (v) or radial cuts so as to enable the production of target timber.
5. making of right angled cuts (indicated and exampled by (iii) and (v)) in the required or chosen stages or order and either while the log is mounted in the holding device or subsequent to the removal of a section of timber from the device and on a separate apparatus.
Relative to diagram 24, a preferred embodiment of the invention for a larger log may involve the:
1 . mounting of the log on a holding device relative to a chosen centre
2. offsetting of the holding devices if taper sawing is required during this or any stage of the production process;
3. making of parallel cuts in any required number or order and in any required or chosen stages or order to facilitate the production of target products and to enable the production of the log profile such as that shown with sections removed;
4. the further processing or removed sections as required
5. the removed sections allowing making of subsequent right angle cuts to enable the production on the one device of target sections, or sections of timber from which target sections can be cut;
6. rotation of the log to make subsequent cut along the same line or plane
7. the progressive rotation and cutting (or cutting and rotation) of the log in this manner to complete cutting or to allow subsequent cutting of the log in any manner according to the invention with one purpose of the progressive cutting to allow the use of smaller saws and reduce the size of any saw needed to make any required cut. The end result for the cutting according to the just described embodiment may be similar to that shown in Figure 25 and without the making of radial cuts shown if so desired. If suited multiple right angle cuts could be made at the one time to produce target sections of timber concurrently.
More than one cutting head or device can be mounted on a carriage that travels relative to the log to make required cuts. More than one carriage or separate carriages may be used to carry out the required operations. For example, one carriage could have a thick saw or saws for deep cuts while another could have thin kerf saws for shallow cuts. In certain circumstances cuts could be made to half depth and the log rotated so as to enable the cut to be completed on another pass.
A saw cut or cuts or a machining cut or cuts can be made in one direction along a log and other of the said cuts can be made on a return pass in the other direction along the log. In another embodiment of the invention the log could travel relative to cutting devices along the line of cut.
Figure 25 shows a pattern that accords with the method for the sawing of a high percentage of target width true backsawn boards. The diagram represents a log 500mm diameter in which the target dimension is 105mm by 27mm. Figure 25 can be compared to the conventional trial sawing of wide and impractically wide boards sawn from a similar sized log as depicted in Figure 3c.
Logs are often oval or essentially of effectively oval or non-circular or irregular in shape. Figure 26 shows the backsawing of an oval log with the cuts made relative to eight planes with the log aligned so as to produce a layer of true or close to true backsawn boards from around the outside of the log. Normally in a round log and processing relative to eight planes faces cut or machined at the bark edge would be at right angles or normal to the radial plane and at 45 degrees to each other. The associated cut offset faces would be equidistant or essentially equidistant either side of the radial planes. In cutting an oval log, or so as to fit a particular size product between other product, the log can be rotated (or the cutting or machining head aligned) so that the section of the log from which a timber section is to be cut is substantially tangential to the bark edge and the annular growth rings. In the diagram shown the tangential face is at 34.5 degrees to the adjacent face and angled 10.5 degrees to a right angle to the radial reference plane. A fully backsawn or essentially fully backsawn section is then produced by making offset parallel cuts that produce cut parallel faces an unequal distance from a new chosen radial cutting plane relative to which the cuts are made with the offset parallel cuts being at right angles or normal to the tangential face cutting plane.
The apparatus and method can also apply what would be considered "conventional" sawing patterns and or a mixture of conventional or "radial" patterns with a high level of efficiency. Figure 27 represents a log around 300mm in diameter cut to target width and thickness by the application of 90 degree parallel and right angle cuts with radial cuts made into the centre of the log if required or desirable. The dotted lines in the centre represents the centre left whole as a square and the outer dotted lines represent smaller boards that could also be efficiently recovered.
The method can also be used for the efficient production and manufacture of "engineered" wood products such as I type beams or lattice girders, trusses and wall frames.
Figure 28 shows a T type chord cut and machined from a wedge sector. The T chord has an advantage in that webbing and strutting can sit and be fastened into the T chord rebate so that webbing and strutting force and pressure is carried by the wood at the top of the T thereby reducing the stress and force on fasteners and reducing the number and cost of fasteners required.
Figure 29 shows an end section of an arrangements of chords and struts and with figure 30 showing a side view with 45 degree struts cut with a right angles end so that when load or force is applied at the top as it the direction of the arrow the chord and the struts share the load independent of the fasteners
Figure 31 shows a cutting pattern to enable this embodiment of the invention with a particular pattern shown that enables the cutting of both the main cords or members of a truss or frame at (i) and strutting and bracing or webbing material as at (ii). Struts can either be conventional rectangular boards or the radial based bevelled boards as also shown. The particular drawing is scaled to show 75mm wide T chords and strut boards around 75mm wide and 25mm thick as produced from a log around 220mm diameter. Different logs can be used to cut all webbing or chord material but the pattern shown enables the removal of the sectors that are producing the webbing to enable cutters mounted on the sawing device to machine the rebate faces of the T chords as shown in Figure 32. Chords and struts can be cut to heavier and thicker dimensions so as to meet strength requirement for the various embodiments of the invention as described.
The cutting pattern as shown offers advantage as any knots in the log to be sawn can be aligned so that the knots coincide with the strut section of the log. This means long knot free T chords can be cut and shorter strut sections produced (which have a higher number requirement) by cutting out knots to meet the required strength characteristic.
Alternatively, the rebates could be cut or machined after removal from the sawing device and on a separate machine.
In a preferred embodiment cuts on the sawing apparatus of the present invention would be carried out to at least create faces (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) with the sector tip cut or machined off if and as required. Any of faces (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) could be cut and machined concurrently by a special cutter or cutters set and operated appropriately. Figure 33 shows the end section pattern or method for the making of a wall frame with (i) showing top and bottom chords and (ii) showing the struts that work as upright supports or "studs" and (iii) showing a spacer or separator section that can be a bracing member.
Figure 32 shows a side view of a framing section that with opposed vertical struts (ii) encasing an angled brace (iii) and horizontal struts structured around the T chords (i).
Joins and intersections as shown in the diagrams can be fastened by simple nails or screws or other suitable fastening devices. Nails could be over length and bent or clinched to increase strength or fastening ability. Joins could incorporate nail plates or nailed "hoop iron" fastened over and onto adjoining members.
Figure 35 shows a side view of a truss with indicative layout for webbing and struts for a truss with the struts being vertical on one side and angled at right angles to the top chord on the other.
The T chords can be used to make normal solid sided structural members like an I beam with the two opposed chords connected by boards as shown in Figure 36. In this drawn example the connecting boards are 100 mm by 12mm which combine with the 25mm top and bottom flange to make a 150mm deep structural member. Any practical width or thickness board could be used or an alternative material such as plywood could be used. The sections can be connected by suitable means such as structural grade glue or nails of the required number and spacing.
Figures 37a and 27b shows the end section and side view of an alternative strutting connection methodology with the diagram showing a rebated end section of a radial sector prepared as earlier described and drawn in figure 32 before being cut or machined to the T section. Figure 38 shows a circular cutter making the partial rebate to make flat connecting faces as shown by dotted lines in Figure 37a and shown from above in figure 37b. Rebates could be made by a hole saw with wood being removed by hand or a circular machining tool could remove all wood necessary. Rebates could have their circular edges straightened up at any required angle to allow for the insertion and fixing of a strut with a circular end. Alternatively, the circular wood adjacent to the rebate could be fully or partially left on one side of the rebate or on both sides of the rebate and a shaped strut with a circular end and a rebate or rebates such as that shown in figure 39a can be used to lock or partially lock the strut and chord together in providing a mechanism to prevent or assist in preventing separation, particularly in multiple numbers with struts at opposing angles. One strut inserted into a rebated top and bottom chord is shown in figure 39b. The struts can be fastened by any fixing means as required. The circular ended and rebated struts can be produced by such simple means as a fret saw or jig saw or more advanced means such as a tenoning machine. Conventional stud wall framing can also be made that takes advantage or the inherent efficiency of the sawing method of the current invention and the ability to efficiently produce target sizes and target quality sections for stud production and use from small and quickly grown logs. Earlier referred to Figure 8 shows a cutting pattern for the efficient production of stud and wall framing material such as noggins and top and bottom plates.
Hardwood is desirable as a framing material but growth stress in small logs causes problems in cutting and in use. The current invention produces high recovery of true backsawn sections and enables the efficient production of wall framing from small logs and larger growth stressed logs.
A backsawn section cut according to the current method will generally have no spring but will contain bow. Bow but no spring means that when the boards is looked at along the broad face the section with appear straight but when looked at along the narrow face the section will be curved. This is indicatively represented graphically in Figure 40a with the growth rings of the backsawn section shown at (i) with the section appearing straight when viewed along the plane (ii) at right angles to the wide face as shown and the section appearing curved due to the growth stresses when viewed along the narrow edge as shown with the curve direction being consistent relative to growth ring orientation as shown in Figure 40b.
The following embodiment description enables the manufacture of unseasoned traditional type wall framing that is basically or inherently straight and in which growth stress curvature is essentially balanced and negated.
Figure 41 shows wall frame components laid out in relative fixing position so that opposing components will balance the growth stress bow, essentially enabling the making of straight and true wall frames or wall frames that are straight and true for practical purposes.
Figure 32 shows the frames components in a fixed position with the studs holding the opposed curve of the top and bottom plates in a balanced and straight position and the noggings holding the opposed curve of the studs in a straight position.
All methods and embodiments of the current invention as related to frame and structural unit manufacture are suited to the direct use of unseasoned timber or unseasoned timber. The ability to reliably enable the use of unseasoned timber further consolidates the use and worth of the current invention as a production tool and method.
Figure 43a shows a 400mm log cut to 100mm by 50mm and 100mm by 38mm and 75mm by 50mm and 75mm by 38mm and Figure 43b shows the same size log cut to similar sizes on a conventional mill where only right angle cuts are made. The sizes used are common green sawn sizes used in house framing construction. The object of both cutting patterns is to produce true backsawn with the straightness characteristics as described relative to 41 a and 41 b. The cutting pattern represented in 43a is based on unevenly spaced radial reference planes so as to facilitate the production of the target width products. The purpose or intention or scope of the present invention is to cover product, production method, apparatus and associated computer data transfer (whether associated with production, distribution or marketing and sale) and as a system enabling the growing and harvest and efficient utilisation of short rotation logs. The scope includes business and development systems associated with the apparatus and process including a system that incorporates carbon storage and reduction entitlements and credits such that described in what is commonly referred to as the Paris accord on climate change and earlier associated agreements and accords.
For example, as the technology enables the easier and quicker manufacture of construction materials the potential economic system or actual economic system associated with the technology can support and enable the creation of new plantations to enable, support or expand the system. The new plantations can biosequester atmospheric carbon. As an additional benefit at harvest a high percentage of the carbon harvest is locked into long term stable products.
Another purpose or intention or scope of the present invention is to cover resource production systems as related to raw material processed by the method. As the result of the method enabling the practical introduction of taper sawing and the efficient processing of the small logs, a reduction in cycle and rotation times for plantations can be achieved and other silvicultural practices such as thinning and pruning made viable and introduced and implemented. For example, trees could be grown closer together for shorter periods to produce the required log characteristics. For example, trees could be unpruned and the close spacing could keep branch size and knot size thin making more of the unpruned logs suitable for structural applications. Taper sawing allows the cutting of product from similar age wood along the outside of the log. In conventional non taper sawing systems for example a 15-year-old log may cut 15-year-old wood at one end and progressively cut into younger wood at the other. The other end average age wood may be around 8 or 9 years. If 15-year-old wood is required for strength and stability, then in the conventional system a 20 to 25-year-old log may be required to cut a timber section with at least 15-year-old wood along its full length. In the current invention 15-year-old wood along the full length of the section can be produced from a 15-year-old tree or say a 16-year-old tree. In this way cycle times (for thinnings and full rotations) and plantation costs can be reduced and product output values maximised.
Industrial applicability is described relative to examples of application and use with these examples being preferred embodiments of an aid system and tool, a CNC sawmill and a log breakdown system.
Aid system In the use of the current invention as an essential part of an aid system, low cost manual labour intensive versions of the method apparatus operate to efficiently produce a broad range of house building and manufacturing components. The technology as an aid tool or system:
· Allows for the introduction of cost, energy and resource efficient house manufacturing and construction systems.
• Removes to need for forest dependant peoples and communities to rely on large logs and old growth forest logs to provide sustenance and income.
• Enables a reliance on old growth and traditional forest resources for timber production to be quickly and economically reduced and substituted for by new plantations thereby providing multiple level carbon benefits.
• Provides for the ability to convert difficult and low value logs such as thinnings and a significant percentage of timber plantations grown for pulp into efficient housing and income creating resources.
· Creates high value economies around short and quick rotation plantations with the potential to radically encourage and expand regional based tree growing activities.
• Provides a carbon locking production system that creates employment and enables rapid and efficient housing construction enhancing community and economic wellbeing.
A need for the system can be defined relative to new housing needs in Tanzania. Tanzania is a forestry reliant, poverty impacted country that provides example. A 2012 Study on the House Sectors in Tanzania for Shelter Afrique by UrbanSolutions states [\]he total housing deficit was estimated at 2.2 million units in 2000... [\]t has since escalated to in excess of 3 million units. From the study it can be determined that, despite having forest resources and sawn wood exports, wood in construction appears mainly limited to round poles, and that around 35% of construction materials are currently cement and baked bricks. Baked bricks and cement produce significant amounts of atmospheric carbon on manufacture. Importantly, the report notes that the high cost of using imported materials is one of the barriers to the establishment of new housing projects. Tanzania has been a party to the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) since 1999. Typically aid agencies and Governments involved in aid projects have a high level of governance requirement. A Tanzanian patent on the radial/parallel process could be used to facilitate the introduction of the technology in an equitable and beneficial manner and help to meet donor objectives and ensure objectives are met. A donor Government or donor related Government may be interested in carbon sequestration benefits under the Paris Accord. Articles 5 to 12 of the accord agreement dovetail with the potential of the technology to meet objectives detailed in those Articles. One of the benefits the technology could provide to a donor Government or body could be the benefit of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes. In the way described the use of the current invention can be an essential element of a created aid system.
Most current medium and small sawmills are not suited to computer control and are often heavily reliant on skilled sawyers for the production of target quality sawn timber. Current sawmill embodiments do not allow for CNC (computer numeric control) sawmilling operations such as applied in automatic and automated lathes, milling machines or overhead routers. The current invention allows for totally controlled and automated timber production on a small footprint. CNC sawmilling according to the current invention can involve such steps as:
1 . The automated scanning and alignment of the log for loading to the saw in aligned position.
2. The holding of the log by means that controls rotating, holding pin positioning and log offsetting, and the holding and releasing of sawn sections.
3. The cutting and machining of the log based on such factors as log species and characteristics and orders and inventory.
4. The control of the position of saws and cutters including any change of alignment of saws and the lateral movement of saws and cutters and the longitudinal travel of those saws and cutters.
5. The recording and transfer of data as related to processing and production.
Log Break-down and Slabbing System for Re-sawing
In large log sawing turning cants and logs sections after initial cuts are made on the log is time consuming and often requires high skill levels and experience relative to decision making relative to achieving maximum possible recovery of target quality timber which is heavily dependent on growth ring orientation in the sawn piece.
In radial parallel slab sawing all required turning is done during the initial log breakdown process. This simplifies the further sawing process. Multiple saws or single saws can easily process the slabs to either backsawn or quartersawn product. Reference cuts or squaring cuts can be made on the bark edge of the log as required.
From time to time this specification and claims uses such words as effectively or essentially as related to angles or positions. Where they are not used the words should be implied relative to the intent of the invention and minor changes or inaccuracies normal to timber production and processing. For the purpose of defining the invention the reference to angle and position relative to annular growth rings and the like should be taken at a theoretical level relative to variations that can occur in a natural product such as a log.