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Title:
REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS RELATED THERETO
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/099756
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Systems and processes for compressing a refrigerant in a refrigeration system are described. An exemplar system of compressing a refrigerant includes (i) an energy source for energizing refrigerant condensate in an intermediate state to produce refrigerant in a first state; (ii) a pre-mixing mechanism designed to evacuate refrigerant in a second state using a force applied by refrigerant in the first state to produce exhaust refrigerant in the first state and exhaust refrigerant in the second state; (iii) a mixing line for mixing exhaust refrigerant in the first state and exhaust refrigerant in the second state to produce exhaust refrigerant in an intermediate state, and wherein the mixing line is coupled, at a receiving end, to condenser for treating exhaust refrigerant in intermediate state to produce refrigerant condensate in the intermediate state; and (iv) a condensate line for conveying a portion of refrigerant condensate in an intermediate state from condenser to the energy source.

Inventors:
MEDLOCK, Chuck (64700 County Road 11, Goshen, IN, 46525, US)
Application Number:
US2018/061401
Publication Date:
May 23, 2019
Filing Date:
November 16, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
MEDLOCK, Chuck (64700 County Road 11, Goshen, IN, 46525, US)
International Classes:
F25B41/04; F25B41/00; F25B49/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2016118062A12016-07-28
Foreign References:
US20040237562A12004-12-02
US6418745B12002-07-16
JP2012132429A2012-07-12
US20060254307A12006-11-16
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ANDREW, Zephyr (Ecotech Law Group, P.C.,The Hearst Buildiing,5 Third Street, Suite 70, San Francisco CA, 94103, US)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A pre-mixing mechanism comprising:

a complementary chamber;

an actuating chamber that is separate from said complementary chamber;

a complementary chamber input line for receiving and conveying gas and/or vapor resulting from evaporation to said complementary chamber and that comprises a first complementary chamber inlet and a second complementary chamber inlet, and wherein each of said first and said second complementary chamber inlets is designed to convey gas and/or vapor to two different or opposite ends of said complementary chamber;

a complementary piston for evacuating said gas and/or said vapor inside said complementary chamber to produce exhaust gas and/or exhaust vapor;

a complementary chamber output line for directing exhaust gas and/or exhaust vapor from complementary chamber towards a mixing line and that comprises a first complementary chamber outlet and a second complementary chamber outlet, and wherein each of said first and said second complementary chamber outlets is designed to remove gas and/or vapor from two different or opposite ends of said complementary chamber;

an actuating chamber input line for receiving and conveying gas and/or vapor resulting from heating to said actuating chamber and that comprises a first actuating chamber inlet and a second actuating chamber inlet, and wherein each of said first and said second actuating chamber inlets is designed to convey gas and/or vapor to two different or opposite ends of said actuating chamber; an actuating piston for evacuating said gas and/or said vapor inside said actuating chamber to produce exhaust gas and/or exhaust vapor;

an actuating chamber output line for directing exhaust gas and/or exhaust vapor from actuating chamber towards said mixing line and that comprises a first actuating chamber outlet and a second actuating chamber outlet, and wherein each of said first and said second actuating chamber outlets is designed to remove gas and/or vapor from two different or opposite ends of said actuating chamber; and

wherein said complementary piston and said actuating piston are coupled to allow for movement of said complementary piston and said actuating piston in same direction.

2. The pre-mixing mechanism of claim 1, wherein said complementary chamber is part of a cooling load controller.

3. The pre-mixing mechanism of claim 1, wherein said complementary chamber input line receives and conveys gas and/or vapor resulting from an evaporator serving a cooling load.

4. The pre-mixing mechanism of claim 1, wherein vapor or gas entering through said first actuating chamber inlet, disposed at a first end of said actuating chamber, pushes said actuating piston away from said first end and evacuates vapor and/or gas inside said actuating chamber.

5. The pre-mixing mechanism of claim 4, wherein movement of said actuating piston in a direction away from said first end also allows movement of said complementary piston in said direction and evacuates vapor and/or gas inside said complementary chamber.

6. The pre-mixing mechanism of claim 1, wherein vapor or gas entering through said second actuating chamber inlet, disposed at a second end of said actuating chamber, pushes said actuating piston away from said second end and evacuates vapor and/or gas inside said actuating chamber.

7. The pre-mixing mechanism of claim 6, wherein movement of said actuating piston in a direction away from said second end also allows movement of said complementary piston in said direction and evacuates vapor and/or gas inside said complementary chamber.

8. A cooling load controller comprising:

an energy source for energizing refrigerant condensate in an intermediate state to produce refrigerant in a first state;

a pre-mixing mechanism designed to evacuate refrigerant in a second state using a force applied by refrigerant in said first state to produce exhaust refrigerant in said first state and exhaust refrigerant in said second state, and wherein said pre-mixing mechanism is coupled, on an inlet side of said pre-mixing mechanism, to said energy source and coupled, on an outlet side, to two or more outlets, at least one of which is designed to dispense exhaust energized refrigerant in said first state and at least another of which is designed to dispense exhaust refrigerant in said second state;

a mixing line for mixing exhaust refrigerant in said first state and exhaust refrigerant in said second state to produce exhaust refrigerant in an intermediate state, and wherein said mixing line is coupled, at a receiving end, to said outlets of said pre-mixing mechanism and is configured to be coupled, at a dispensing end, to condenser for treating exhaust refrigerant in intermediate state to produce refrigerant condensate in said intermediate state; and

a condensate line for conveying a portion of refrigerant condensate in an intermediate state from condenser to said energy source.

9. The cooling load controller of claim 8, wherein refrigerant in said first state is a high- pressure refrigerant and refrigerant in said second state is a low-pressure refrigerant and said high- pressure refrigerant has a pressure that is higher than said low-pressure refrigerant. 10 The cooling load controller of claim 8, where in refrigerant of said intermediate state is an intermediate pressure refrigerant that has a higher pressure than said low-pressure refrigerant and has a lower pressure than said high-pressure refrigerant.

11. The cooling load controller of claim 8, wherein said energy source is a solar panel capable of energizing refrigerant condensate in said intermediate state to produce refrigerant in said first state.

12. The cooling load controller of claim 8, further comprising a high-pressure intake valve disposed between said energy source and said pre-mixing mechanism and that is designed to regulate pressure of refrigerant of said first type before pre-mixing mechanism receives refrigerant of said first type.

13. The cooling load controller of claim 8, further comprising a regulator valve disposed between condenser and said energy source and designed to regulate volume of refrigerant condensate in said intermediate state conveyed to said energy source.

14. The cooling load controller of claim 8, further comprising a liquid injection pump that is disposed on said condensate line for pumping refrigerant condensate in said intermediate state from condenser to said energy source.

15. The cooling load controller of claim 14, further comprising a pneumatic pump coupled to and drives said liquid injection pump.

16. The cooling load controller of claim 8, further comprising a high-pressure bypass line disposed between said energy source and said mixing line such that high-pressure bypass line is capable of conveying energized refrigerant in said first state from said energy source to said mixing line.

17. The cooling load controller of claim 16, further comprising a pressure intake valve disposed on said high-pressure bypass line and designed to regulate pressure of said energized refrigerant in said first state.

18. The cooling load controller of claim 16, further comprising:

a recirculating line for conveying said refrigerant in said first state from one or more of said outlets of said pre-mixing mechanism to said condensate line, and wherein said pre-mixing mechanism includes an actuating chamber that has said outlet for dispensing said refrigerant in said first state; and

a valve for allowing or prevent flow of said refrigerant in said first state from said one or more of said outlets of said actuating chamber to said condensate line.

19. The cooling load controller of claim 16, further comprising: a condenser for condensing exhaust refrigerant in said intermediate state to produce refrigerant condensate in said intermediate state;

an expansion valve coupled, at one end, to said condenser and designed to reduce pressure of said refrigerant condensate from said intermediate state to said second state and produce refrigerant liquid in said second state;

an evaporator coupled to the other end of said expansion valve and designed to increase temperature of refrigerant liquid in said second state and produce refrigerant in said second state.

20. A process of continuous mixing, said process comprising:

receiving, at an actuating chamber, a gas and/or a vapor in a first state resulting from heating; receiving, at a complementary chamber, said gas and/or said vapor in a second state resulting from evaporation;

forcing an actuating piston, using said gas and/or said vapor in said first state, disposed inside said actuating chamber to be displaced inside said actuating chamber and thereby evacuating said gas and/or said vapor in said first state present inside said actuating chamber to produce an exhaust gas in said first state and/or an exhaust vapor in said first state;

forcing a complementary piston, that is coupled to said actuating piston and that is disposed inside said complementary chamber, to be displaced inside said complementary chamber and thereby evacuating said gas and/or said vapor in said second state present inside said complementary chamber to produce an exhaust gas in said second state and/or an exhaust vapor in said second state; and

mixing, in a mixing line, said exhaust gas in said first state and/or said exhaust vapor in said first state with said exhaust gas in said second state and/or said exhaust vapor in said second state to produce said gas in an intermediate state and/or said vapor in said intermediate state.

21. The process of continuous mixing of claim 20, wherein said receiving at said actuating chamber comprises:

performing a first cycle that includes receiving said gas and/or said vapor in said first state at a first actuating chamber inlet;

carrying out a second cycle that includes receiving said gas and/or said vapor in said first state at a second actuating chamber inlet; and

wherein said carrying out said second cycle is implemented after said performing said first cycle.

22. The process of continuous mixing of claim 21, wherein said receiving at said complementary chamber comprises: receiving said gas and/or said vapor in said second state, during said first cycle, at a first complementary chamber inlet;

receiving said gas and/or said vapor in said second state, during said second cycle, at a second complementary chamber inlet; and

wherein said receiving during said second cycle is implemented after carrying out said receiving during said first cycle.

23. The process of continuous mixing of claim 22, wherein said forcing said actuating piston comprises:

removing, during said first cycle and using a second actuating chamber outlet, said exhaust gas in said first state and/or said exhaust vapor in said first state from said actuating chamber;

removing, during said second cycle and using a first actuating chamber outlet, said exhaust gas in said first state and/or said exhaust vapor in said first state from said actuating chamber.

24. The process of continuous mixing of claim 23, wherein said forcing said complementary piston comprises:

removing, during said first cycle and using a second complementary chamber outlet, said exhaust gas in said second state and/or said exhaust vapor in said second state from said

complementary chamber;

removing, during said second cycle and using a first complementary chamber outlet, said exhaust gas in said second state and/or said exhaust vapor in said second state from said

complementary chamber.

25. The process of continuous mixing of claim 24, wherein said mixing in said mixing line comprises:

mixing, during said first cycle, said exhaust gas in said first state and/or said exhaust vapor in said first state exiting from said second actuating chamber outlet and said exhaust gas in said second state and/or said exhaust vapor in said second state from said second complementary chamber outlet to form a first exhaust gas and/or vapor in said intermediate state; and

mixing, during said second cycle, exhaust said exhaust gas in said first state and/or said exhaust vapor in said first state exiting from said first actuating chamber outlet and said exhaust gas in said second state and/or said exhaust vapor in said second state exiting from said first complementary chamber outlet to form a second exhaust gas and/or vapor in said intermediate state.

26. A process for controlling cooling loads, said process comprising:

energizing, using an energy source, a refrigerant in an intermediate state to produce a refrigerant in a first state; introducing said refrigerant in said first state into a pre-mixing mechanism, which contains a refrigerant in a second state that is circling in a refrigeration cycle;

evacuating in a first cycle, using said pre-mixing mechanism, said refrigerant in said second state using a force applied by said refrigerant in said first state to produce an exhaust refrigerant in said first state and said exhaust refrigerant in said second state, and wherein said pre-mixing mechanism is coupled, on an input side of said pre-mixing mechanism, to said energy source and coupled, on an output side, to two or more outlets, at least one of which is designed to dispense exhaust refrigerant in said first state and at least another of which is designed to dispense exhaust refrigerant in said second state;

mixing, using a mixing line, said exhaust refrigerant in said first state and said exhaust refrigerant in said second state to produce said exhaust refrigerant in an intermediate state, and wherein said mixing line is coupled, at a receiving end, to said outlets of said pre-mixing mechanism and is configured to be coupled, at a dispensing end, to condenser for treating said exhaust refrigerant in said intermediate state to produce a refrigerant condensate in said intermediate state; and

conveying, using a condensate line, a portion of said refrigerant condensate in said intermediate state from condenser to said energy source.

27. The process for controlling cooling loads of claim 26, wherein a pressure of each of said exhaust refrigerant in said first state and said exhaust refrigerant in said second state equalizes such that each of said exhaust refrigerant in said first state and said exhaust refrigerant in said second state are at an intermediate pressure, which is larger than a pressure of said refrigerant of said second state and less than a pressure of said refrigerant of said first state.

28. The process for controlling cooling loads of claim 26, wherein in said mixing, said exhaust refrigerant in said intermediate state is at an intermediate temperature value between a temperature of said exhaust refrigerant in said first state and a temperature of said exhaust refrigerant in said second state.

29. The process for controlling cooling loads of claim 26, wherein said pre-mixing mechanism includes a actuating chamber and a complementary chamber, and wherein said introducing includes introducing said refrigerant in said first state into said actuating chamber and said complementary chamber contains said refrigerant in a second state that is circling in a refrigeration cycle, and wherein said evacuating in said first cycle includes evacuating said refrigerant in said second state from said complementary chamber, using a force applied by said refrigerant in said first state in said actuating chamber, to produce an exhaust refrigerant in said first state and said exhaust refrigerant in said second state.

30. The process for controlling cooling loads of claim 29, wherein said input side of said pre mixing mechanism includes four or more inlets, at least two of which are coupled to said energy source, and a first of said inlets is disposed at or near a first end of said actuating chamber and a second of said inlets is disposed at or near a second end of said actuating chamber, which is opposite to said first end of said actuating chamber,

wherein at least two of said inlets on said input side of said pre-mixing mechanism are coupled to an evaporator of a refrigeration cycle, and a third of said inlets is disposed at or near a first end of said complementary chamber and a fourth of said inlets is disposed at or near a second end of said complementary chamber, which is opposite to said first end of said complementary chamber, and

further comprising evacuating in a second cycle includes evacuating said refrigerant in said second state from said complementary chamber, using a force applied by said refrigerant in said first state in said actuating chamber, to produce an exhaust refrigerant in said first state and said exhaust refrigerant in said second state, wherein said refrigerant in said second state enters said

complementary chamber through said fourth inlet and said refrigerant in said first state entered said actuating chamber through said second inlet.

Description:
REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS RELATED THERETO

RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] The application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Application having Serial No. 62/586,897 filed on November 16, 2017, which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.

FIELD

[0002] The present teachings and arrangements relate to refrigeration systems. More particularly, the present teachings and arrangements relate to novel systems and process for controlling refrigeration systems (hereinafter also referred to“cooling load controllers”) using a pre- mixing mechanism.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Conventional refrigeration systems require energy to effectively compress a refrigerant. Unfortunately, the energy required to compress the refrigerant comes from an external source, which reduces the efficiency of the refrigeration system and limits the controllability of refrigerant compression.

[0004] What is, therefore, need are improved systems and processes to efficiently adjust compression in a refrigeration system.

SUMMARY

[0005] To achieve the foregoing, the present teachings provide novel systems and processes for adjusting compression in a refrigeration system. In one aspect, the present arrangements provide a pre-mixing mechanism. An exemplar of such pre-mixing mechanism includes: (i) a complementary chamber; (ii) an actuating chamber that is separate from the complementary chamber; (iii) a complementary chamber input line; (iv) a complementary piston; (v) a complementary chamber output line; (vi) an actuating chamber input line; (vii) an actuating piston; and (viii) an actuating chamber output line.

[0006] The complementary chamber input line receives and conveys gas and/or vapor resulting from evaporation to the complementary chamber. In a preferred embodiment of the present arrangements, the complementary chamber input line receives and conveys gas and/or vapor resulting from an evaporator serving a cooling load. The complementary chamber input line includes a first complementary chamber inlet and a second complementary chamber inlet.

[0007] Each of the first and the second complementary chamber inlets is designed to convey gas and/or vapor to two different or opposite ends of the complementary chamber. The complementary chamber, in one embodiment of the present arrangements, is part of a cooling load controller. The complementary piston evacuates the gas and/or the vapor inside the complementary chamber to produce exhaust gas and/or exhaust vapor. The complementary chamber output line directs exhaust gas and/or exhaust vapor from complementary chamber towards a mixing line and includes a first complementary chamber outlet and a second complementary chamber outlet. Each of the first and the second complementary chamber outlets is designed to remove gas and/or vapor from two different or opposite ends of the complementary chamber.

[0008] The actuating chamber input line receives and conveys gas and/or vapor resulting from heating to the actuating chamber and includes a first actuating chamber inlet and a second actuating chamber inlet. Each of the first and the second actuating chamber inlets is designed to convey gas and/or vapor to two different or opposite ends of the actuating chamber. The actuating piston evacuates the gas and/or the vapor inside the actuating chamber to produce exhaust gas and/or exhaust vapor. The actuating chamber output line directs exhaust gas and/or exhaust vapor from actuating chamber towards the mixing line and includes a first actuating chamber outlet and a second actuating chamber outlet. Each of the first and the second actuating chamber outlets is designed to remove gas and/or vapor from two different or opposite ends of the actuating chamber.

In a preferred embodiment of the present arrangements, the complementary piston and the actuating piston are coupled to allow for movement of the complementary piston and the actuating piston in same direction.

[0009] In an operative state of the pre-mixing mechanism, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, vapor or gas entering through the first actuating chamber inlet, disposed at a first end of the actuating chamber, pushes the actuating piston away from the first end and evacuates vapor and/or gas inside the actuating chamber. Movement of the actuating piston in a direction away from the first end also allows movement of the complementary piston in the same direction and evacuates vapor and/or gas inside the complementary chamber. Vapor or gas entering through the second actuating chamber inlet, disposed at a second end of the actuating chamber, pushes the actuating piston away from the second end and evacuates vapor and/or gas inside the actuating chamber. Movement of the actuating piston in a direction away from the second end also allows movement of the complementary piston in the same direction, which evacuates vapor and/or gas inside the complementary chamber.

[0010] The present teachings provide novel systems and processes for adjusting compression in a refrigeration system using a cooling load controller. A cooling load controller, in one embodiment of the present arrangements includes: (i) an energy source; (ii) a pre-mixing mechanism; (iii) a mixing line; and (iv) a condensate line.

[0011] The cooling load controller may use a refrigerant in the first state (to facilitation discussion, hereinafter also referred to as a“high-pressure fluid” because one attribute of this state of the refrigerant includes its pressure state) and a refrigerant of a second state (to facilitate discussion, hereinafter also referred to as a“low-pressure fluid” because one attribute of this state of the refrigerant includes its pressure state). In a preferred embodiment of the present arrangements, the refrigerant in the first state is a high-pressure refrigerant and refrigerant in the second state is a low-pressure refrigerant. The high-pressure fluid has a pressure that is higher than the low-pressure fluid.

[0012] The pre-mixing mechanism is designed to evacuate refrigerant in a second state using a force applied by the fluid in the first state to produce exhaust fluid in the first state (hereinafter referred to as a“actuating chamber exhaust fluid”) and exhaust fluid in the second state (hereinafter referred to as a“complementary chamber exhaust fluid”). The pre-mixing mechanism is coupled, on an inlet side of the pre-mixing mechanism, to the energy source and coupled, on an outlet side, to two or more outlets, at least one of which is designed to dispense actuating chamber exhaust fluid and at least another of which is designed to dispense complementary chamber exhaust fluid.

[0013] The mixing line mixes complementary chamber exhaust fluid and actuating chamber exhaust fluid to produce exhaust fluid in an intermediate state (to facilitate discussion, hereinafter also referred to as an“intermediate pressure fluid” because one attribute of this state of the refrigerant includes its pressure state). Intermediate pressure fluid has a higher pressure than the low-pressure refrigerant and has a lower pressure than the high-pressure refrigerant.

[0014] The mixing line is coupled, at a receiving end, to the outlets of the pre-mixing mechanism and is configured to be coupled, at a dispensing end, to a condenser for treating the intermediate pressure fluid to produce refrigerant condensate in the intermediate state (to facilitate discussion, hereinafter also referred to as an“intermediate pressure condensate fluid” because one attribute of this state of the refrigerant includes its pressure state). The condensate line conveys a portion of intermediate pressure condensate fluid from condenser to the energy source. In one embodiment of the present arrangements, the energy source is a solar panel capable of energizing intermediate pressure condensate fluid to produce high-pressure fluid.

[0015] In one embodiment of the present arrangements, cooling load controller includes at least one component chosen from a group comprising a high-pressure intake valve, a regulator, a liquid injection pump, a pneumatic pump, a high-pressure bypass line, and a pressure intake valve. The high-pressure intake valve is disposed between the energy source and the pre-mixing mechanism and is designed to regulate high-pressure fluid before pre-mixing mechanism receives the high- pressure fluid. The regulator valve is disposed between condenser and the energy source and is designed to regulate volume of intermediate pressure condensate fluid conveyed to the energy source. The liquid injection pump that is disposed on the condensate line for pumping intermediate pressure condensate fluid from condenser to the energy source. The pneumatic pump coupled to and drives the liquid injection pump. The high-pressure bypass line is disposed between the energy source and the mixing line and is capable of conveying high-pressure fluid from the energy source to the mixing line. The pressure intake valve is disposed on the high-pressure bypass line and is designed to regulate pressure of high-pressure fluid.

[0016] In another embodiment of the present arrangements, the cooling load controller includes: (i) a recirculating line for conveying the high-pressure fluid from one or more of the outlets of the pre-mixing mechanism to the condensate line; and (ii) a valve to allow or prevent flow of high- pressure fluid from the one or more of the outlets of the actuating chamber of the pre-mixing mechanism to the condensate line.

[0017] In another embodiment of the present arrangements, the cooling load controller includes including: (i) a condenser for condensing intermediate pressure fluid to produce intermediate pressure condensate fluid; (ii) an expansion valve coupled, at one end, to the condenser and designed to reduce pressure of intermediate pressure fluid and produce the low-pressure fluid; and (iii) an evaporator coupled to the other end of the expansion valve and designed to increase temperature of low-pressure fluid and produce low-pressure fluid.

[0018] In another aspect, the present teachings also provide a process of continuous mixing. One such exemplar process includes: (i) receiving, at an actuating chamber, a high-pressure gas and/or a vapor resulting from heating. In a preferred embodiment of the present teachings, step (i) includes a sub-step (a) of performing a first cycle that includes receiving the high-pressure gas and/or vapor at a first actuating chamber inlet; and sub-step (b) carrying out a second cycle that includes receiving the high-pressure gas and/or the vapor at a second actuating chamber inlet. The second cycle is implemented after the performing the first cycle. [0019] Another step (ii) includes receiving, at a complementary chamber, the low-pressure gas and/or the vapor resulting from evaporation. In a preferred embodiment of the present teachings, step (ii) includes a sub-step (a) receiving the low-pressure gas and/or vapor, during the first cycle, at a first complementary chamber inlet; and a sub-step (b) of receiving the low-pressure gas and/or the vapor, during the second cycle, at a second complementary chamber inlet. The second cycle is implemented after carrying out the receiving during the first cycle.

[0020] Next, a step (iii) includes forcing an actuating piston, using high-pressure gas and/or vapor, disposed inside the actuating chamber to be displaced inside the actuating chamber and thereby evacuating the high-pressure gas and/or the vapor present inside the actuating chamber to produce an actuating chamber exhaust gas and/or vapor. In a preferred embodiment of the present teachings, step (iii) includes a sub-step of (a) removing, during the first cycle and using a second actuating chamber outlet, the actuating chamber exhaust gas and/or vapor from the actuating chamber; and a sub-step (b) of removing, during the second cycle and using a first actuating chamber outlet, actuating chamber exhaust gas and/or vapor from the actuating chamber.

[0021] Another step (iv) includes forcing a complementary piston, that is coupled to the actuating piston and that is disposed inside the complementary chamber, to be displaced inside the complementary chamber and thereby evacuating the low-pressure gas and/or the present inside the complementary chamber to produce a complementary chamber exhaust gas and/or vapor. In a preferred embodiment of the present teachings, step (iv) includes a sub-step (a) of removing, during the first cycle and using a second complementary chamber outlet, complementary chamber exhaust fluid and/or gas from the complementary chamber; and a sub-step (b) removing, during the second cycle and using a first complementary chamber outlet, complementary chamber exhaust fluid and/or gas from the complementary chamber.

[0022] After step (iv), a step (v) includes mixing, in a mixing line, the actuating chamber exhaust gas and/or vapor with the complementary chamber exhaust gas and/or vapor to produce the intermediate pressure gas and/or vapor. In one embodiment of the present teachings, mixing includes a sub-step (a) of mixing, during the first cycle, the actuating chamber exhaust gas and/or vapor exiting from the second actuating chamber outlet and complementary chamber exhaust fluid and/or gas from the second complementary chamber outlet to form a first intermediate pressure fluid gas and/or vapor; and sub-step (b) mixing, during the second cycle, the actuating chamber exhaust gas and/or vapor exiting from the first actuating chamber outlet and the complementary chamber exhaust fluid and/or gas exiting from the first complementary chamber outlet to form a second intermediate pressure gas and/or vapor. [0023] In another aspect, the present teachings also provide a process for controlling cooling load. One such exemplar process includes step (i) of energizing, using an energy source, a refrigerant condensate in an intermediate state to produce a refrigerant in first state (e.g., a high- pressure gas). A step (ii) includes introducing the refrigerant in the first state into a pre-mixing mechanism, which contains a refrigerant in a second state that is circling in a refrigeration cycle.

[0024] After step (ii), a step (iii) includes evacuating in a first cycle, using the pre-mixing mechanism, low-pressure pressure fluid using a force applied by the high-pressure fluid to produce an exhaust refrigerant in the first state and the exhaust refrigerant in the second state. The pre mixing mechanism is coupled, on an input side of the pre-mixing mechanism, to the energy source and coupled, on an output side, to two or more outlets, at least one of which is designed to dispense exhaust refrigerant in the first state and at least another of which is designed to dispense exhaust refrigerant in the second state. In a preferred embodiment of the present teachings, the pressure of each of the exhaust refrigerant in the first state and the exhaust refrigerant in the second state equalizes such that each of the exhaust refrigerant in the first state and the exhaust refrigerant in the second state are at an intermediate pressure, which is larger than a pressure of the refrigerant of the second state and less than a pressure of the refrigerant of the first state.

[0025] Next, a step (iv) includes mixing, using a mixing line, the exhaust refrigerant in the first state and the exhaust refrigerant in the second state to produce an intermediate pressure fluid, and wherein the mixing line is coupled, at a receiving end, to the outlets of the pre-mixing mechanism and is configured to be coupled, at a dispensing end, to condenser for treating the exhaust refrigerant in the intermediate state to produce the refrigerant condensate in the intermediate state. In one embodiment of the present teachings, the exhaust refrigerant in the intermediate state is at an intermediate temperature value between a temperature of the exhaust refrigerant in the first state and a temperature of the exhaust refrigerant in the second state.

[0026] A step (v) includes conveying, using a condensate line, a portion of the intermediate pressure condensate fluid from condenser to the energy source.

[0027] In one embodiment of the present teachings, the pre-mixing mechanism includes a actuating chamber and a complementary chamber. The introducing step (ii) includes introducing the refrigerant in the first state into the actuating chamber and the complementary chamber contains the refrigerant in a second state that is circling in a refrigeration cycle. The evacuating step (iii) includes evacuating, in the first cycle, the refrigerant in the second state from the complementary chamber, using a force applied by the refrigerant in the first state in the actuating chamber, to produce an exhaust refrigerant in the first state and the exhaust refrigerant in the second state. [0028] The input side of the pre-mixing mechanism may include four or more inlets, at least two of which may be coupled to the energy source. A first of the inlets may be disposed at or near a first end of the actuating chamber and a second of the inlets may be disposed at or near a second end of the actuating chamber, which is opposite to the first end of the actuating chamber.

[0029] At least two of the inlets on the input side of the pre-mixing mechanism may be coupled to an evaporator of a refrigeration cycle, and a third of the inlets may be disposed at or near a first end of the complementary chamber and a fourth of the inlets may be disposed at or near a second end of the complementary chamber, which is opposite to the first end of the complementary chamber. In this configuration, step (iii) further includes evacuating, in a second cycle, refrigerant in the second state from the complementary chamber, using a force applied by the refrigerant in the first state in the actuating chamber, to produce an exhaust refrigerant in the first state and the exhaust refrigerant in the second state. The refrigerant in the second state enters the complementary chamber through the fourth inlet and the refrigerant in the first state entered the actuating chamber through the second inlet.

[0030] The systems and processes of operation of the present teachings and arrangements, however, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be best understood from the following descriptions of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying figures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0031] Figure 1 is a side-sectional view of a pre-mixing mechanism, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements and that includes an actuating chamber having disposed therein an actuating piston and a complementary chamber having disposed therein a complementary piston, and a coupling shaft that couples the actuating piston and the complementary piston such that displacement of one of the pistons causes displacement of the other.

[0032] Figure 2A shows fluid flow accessing at a first end of actuating chamber to drive the actuating piston, shown in pre-mixing mechanism of Figure 1, from the first end to a second end of the actuating chamber.

[0033] Figure 2B shows fluid flow accessing at the second end of actuating chamber to drive the actuating piston, shown in pre-mixing mechanism of Figure 1, back from the second end to the first end of the actuating chamber. [0034] Figure 3 shows a novel cooling load controller, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements and that is coupled to the refrigeration system, and includes an energy source, a premixing mechanism as shown in Figures 1 and 2A-2B, a mixing line, a condensate line and an injection pump.

[0035] Figure 4 shows a Pressure-Enthalpy diagram, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, of the cooling load controller of Figure 3.

[0036] Figure 5 shows the novel cooling load controller of Figure 3 and that further includes a pneumatic pump disposed, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, between the energy source and a condenser which is part of the refrigeration system.

[0037] Figure 6 shows the novel cooling load controller of Figure 5, except a transfer pump, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements and used instead of the pneumatic pump and the injection pump, is disposed between the energy source and the condenser of the refrigeration system.

[0038] Figure 7 shows the novel cooling load controller of Figure 5, except the pneumatic pump is coupled, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, to an electrical generator.

[0039] Figure 8 shows the novel cooling load controller of Figure 3, and further includes a pressure bypass line between the energy source and the condenser of the refrigeration system.

[0040] Figure 9 shows a process flow chart for continuous mixing, according to one embodiment of the present teachings, of a refrigerant using the pre-mixing mechanism shown in Figure 1.

[0041] Figure 10 shows a process flow chart for effectively controlling cooling loads, according to one embodiment of the present teachings, of refrigeration system using the pre-mixing mechanism shown in Figure 1.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0042] In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present teaching and arrangements. It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art that the present teaching and arrangements may be practiced without limitation to some or all of these specific details. In other instances, well-known process steps have not been described in detail in order to not unnecessarily obscure the present teachings and arrangements.

[0043] The present arrangements relate to novel systems and methods of creating a more efficient refrigeration system (e.g., refrigeration cycle for an air conditioner). Conventional refrigeration systems use external energy to power a compressor, which uses a substantial amount of energy to compress a refrigerant (herein after also referred to as a“fluid,” which may be a liquid, vapor, and/or gas). A typical compressor, by way of example, may use between about 0.3 kilowatts (“kw”) and about .84 kw per refrigerant ton. The term“refrigerant ton” is unit of power and refers to the cooling capacity or heat absorption rate of an air conditioning system to convert one ton of water into ice at the same temperature in 24 hours The present arrangements, however, do not require external power to induce cooling of the same amount and thereby offer significant energy and monetary savings for operating a refrigeration system.

[0044] The present arrangements substitute the compressor with a novel pre-mixing mechanism that receives low pressure gas from a refrigeration cycle and high-pressure gas from a cooling load controller ( e.g ., cooling load controller 360 of Figure 3). The high-pressure gas from the cooling load controller has a higher pressure than the low-pressure fluid from the refrigeration cycle. An energy source, preferably a renewable one, energizes the cooling load controller to generate the high-pressure gas. Both gases are exhausted from the pre-mixing mechanism and are mixed to create an intermediate pressure gas, which has a higher pressure than the gas from the refrigeration cycle and has a lower pressure than the high-pressure gas resulting from being energized from the energy source. A portion of the intermediate pressure gas may be introduced back into the cooling load controller. Another portion of intermediate pressure gas may also be introduced back into the refrigeration cycle as a pressurized gas. In other words, the pre-mixing mechanism may allow for refrigerant pressurization in a refrigeration cycle without the typical high energy requirements of a compressor. In a preferred embodiment, the pre-mixing mechanism receives high-pressure gas and low-pressure gas and exhausts a intermediate pressure gas. The present teachings recognize, however, that pre-mixing mechanism may be used with fluids of a different state (e.g., a liquid) and/or a mixture of different states (e.g.., a mixture of fluid and gas). The pre-mixing mechanism functions in a substantially similar manger, regardless of the state of the fluid.

[0045] Figure 1 shows a pre-mixing mechanism 100, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements and that includes a complementary chamber 102 and an actuating chamber 104. A complementary piston 112 is disposed within complementary chamber 102 and an actuating piston 126 is disposed within actuating chamber 104. Complementary piston 112 and actuating piston 126 are coupled together by a coupling shaft 113 such that any movement by one piston realizes a corresponding movement by the other piston in the same direction. As will be explained in greater detail below, movement of each piston within its respective chamber allows for receiving fluid and dispensing or exhausting fluid. [0046] Each of a complementary chamber input line 106 and a complementary chamber output line 1 14 provide fluidic communication with complementary chamber 102. Complementary chamber 102 includes a first complementary chamber inlet 108 and a second complementary chamber inlet 110, each of which couple complementary chamber input line 106 to complementary chamber 102. A low-pressure fluid, resulting from an evaporator ( e.g ., evaporator 352 of Figure 3) that is part of a refrigeration cycle and that is received by complementary chamber input line 106, is conveyed, using first complementary chamber inlet 108 and/or second complementary chamber inlet 110, to complementary chamber 102.

[0047] First complementary chamber inlet 108 is coupled to a first complementary chamber inlet valve 152 and second complementary chamber inlet 110 is coupled to a second complementary chamber inlet valve 154. First complementary chamber inlet valve 152 and second complementary chamber inlet valve 154 control fluid flow from complementary chamber input line 106 into complementary chamber 102. In the case of low-pressure fluid resulting from an evaporator (e.g., evaporator 352 of Figure 3), first complementary chamber inlet valve 152 and second

complementary chamber inlet valve 154 control fluid flow from entering into complementary chamber 102.

[0048] Complementary chamber 102 includes a first complementary chamber outlet 116 and second complementary chamber outlet 118, each of which couple complementary chamber 102 to complementary chamber output line 114. First complementary chamber outlet 116 and second complementary chamber outlet 118 exhaust the intermediate pressure fluid (hereinafter the “complementary chamber exhaust fluid”), present inside complementary chamber 102, to complementary chamber output line 114. Complementary chamber output line 114 exhausts the complementary chamber exhaust fluid to mixing line 134.

[0049] First complementary chamber outlet 116 is coupled to a first complementary chamber outlet valve 156 and second complementary chamber outlet 118 is coupled to a second

complementary chamber outlet valve 158. First complementary chamber outlet valve 156 and second complementary chamber outlet valve 158 control complementary chamber exhaust fluid flow from complementary chamber 102 to complementary chamber output line 114.

[0050] As shown in Figure 1, each of actuating chamber input line 120 and an actuating chamber output line 128 provide fluidic communication with actuating chamber 104. Actuating chamber 104 includes a first actuating chamber inlet 122 and a second actuating chamber inlet 124, each of which couple actuating chamber input line 120 to actuating chamber 104. A high-pressure fluid, resulting from energizing the fluid at an energy source (e.g., energy source 362 of Figure 3) that is part of the cooling load controller and that is received by actuating chamber input line 120, is conveyed, using first actuating chamber inlet 122 and second actuating chamber inlet 124, to actuating chamber 104.

[0051] First actuating chamber inlet 122 is coupled to a first actuating chamber inlet valve 144 and second actuating chamber inlet 124 is coupled to a second actuating chamber inlet valve 146. First actuating chamber inlet valve 144 and second actuating chamber inlet valve 146 control fluid flow from actuating chamber input line 120 into actuating chamber 104. In the case of high-pressure fluid resulting from an evaporator energy source, first actuating chamber inlet valve 144 and second actuating chamber inlet valve 146 control fluid flow from entering into actuating chamber 104.

[0052] Actuating chamber 104 includes a first actuating chamber outlet 130 and a second actuating chamber outlet 132, each of which couple actuating chamber 104 to actuating chamber output line 128. First actuating chamber output 130 and a second actuating chamber output 132 exhaust intermediate pressure (hereinafter the“actuating chamber exhaust fluid”), present inside actuating chamber 104, to actuating chamber output line 128. Actuating chamber output line 128 exhausts the actuating chamber exhaust fluid to mixing line 134.

[0053] First actuating chamber outlet 130 is coupled to a first actuating chamber outlet valve 148 and second actuating chamber outlet 132 is coupled to a second actuating chamber outlet valve 150. First actuating chamber outlet valve 148 and second actuating chamber outlet valve 150 control actuating chamber exhaust fluid flow from actuating chamber 104 to actuating chamber outlet line 128.

[0054] In a one embodiment of the present arrangements, first complementary chamber inlet 108 and first complementary chamber outlet 116 are disposed on opposing or different ends of complementary chamber 102 than second complementary chamber inlet 110 and second actuating chamber outlet 118. In other words, first complementary chamber inlet 108 and first complementary chamber outlet 116 are disposed proximate to first complementary chamber end 140. Second complementary chamber inlet 110 and second actuating chamber outlet 118 are disposed proximate to second complementary chamber end 142.

[0055] Similarly, first actuating chamber inlet 122 and second actuating chamber inlet 124 are disposed on opposing or different ends of actuating chamber 104. Similarly, first actuating chamber outlet 130 and second actuating chamber outlet 132 disposed on opposing or different ends of actuating chamber 104. By way of example, first actuating chamber inlet 122 and first actuating chamber outlet 130 are disposed proximate to first complementary chamber end 136. Second actuating chamber inlet 146 and second actuating chamber outlet 140 are disposed proximate to second actuating chamber end 138.

[0056] Figures 2A and 2B show the two cycles of pre-mixing mechanism 200. In a first cycle, pre-mixing mechanism 200 is configured to allow actuating piston 126 and complementary piston 112 to move, within actuating chamber 104 and complementary chamber, respectively, away from a first end, and towards a second end. In a second cycle, pre-mixing mechanism 200 is configured to move actuating piston 126 and complementary piston 112 away from the second end, and towards the first end. Piston movement during each cycle, facilitates, at actuating chamber 104, receipt of high-pressure fluid and exhaustion of actuating chamber exhaust fluid and facilitates, and at complementary chamber 102, receipt low-pressure fluid and exhaustion of complementary chamber exhaust fluid.

[0057] Figure 2A shows a first cycle, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, of pre-mixing mechanism 200 that facilitates actuating piston 126 to moves away from first actuating chamber end 136, and towards second actuating chamber end 138.

[0058] In the first cycle, first actuating chamber inlet valve 144 is open to provide a fluidic flow path from actuating chamber input line 120 to first actuating chamber inlet 122. First actuating chamber outlet valve 148 is closed to prevent removal of high-pressure fluid through first actuating chamber outlet 130. In this configuration, high-pressure fluid, received from actuating chamber input line 120, accumulates in a portion of actuating chamber 104 defined between first actuating chamber end 136 and actuating piston 126.

[0059] Second actuating chamber inlet valve 146 is closed, which prevents high-pressure fluid from entering actuating chamber 104 through second actuating chamber inlet 124. Second actuating chamber outlet valve 150 is open, which provides an exhaust fluid flow path from actuating chamber 104 to actuating chamber output line 128.

[0060] During the first cycle of pre-mixing mechanism 200, the portion of actuating chamber 104, defined between first actuating chamber end 136 and actuating piston 126, receives high- pressure fluid. Additionally, high-pressure fluid within actuating chamber 104, between actuating piston 126 and second actuating chamber end 138, transitions an intermediate pressure fluid. The high-pressure fluid exerts a force against actuating piston 126 and intermediate pressure fluid exerts a force on opposing side actuating piston 126. The force from the high-pressure fluid, which is greater than the force from the intermediate pressure fluid, causes actuating piston 126 to move away from first actuating chamber end 136 and towards second actuating chamber end 138. As actuating piston 126 moves towards second actuating chamber end 138, intermediate pressure fluid within actuating chamber 104, between actuating piston 126 and second actuating chamber end 138, is exhausted through second actuating chamber outlet valve 150.

[0061] As discussed above, complementary piston 112, which is coupled to actuating piston 126, moves away from first complementary chamber end 140, and towards second complementary chamber end 142. To facilitates movement of complementary piston 112 towards a second complementary chamber end 142, first complementary chamber inlet valve 152 is open and first complementary outlet valve 156 is closed. First complementary chamber inlet 108 may receive low- pressure fluid from complementary chamber input line 106. This low-pressure fluid is held within complementary chamber 102, between first complementary chamber end 140 and complementary piston 112.

[0062] Moreover, second complementary chamber inlet valve 154 is closed and second complementary chamber outlet valve 158 is open. In this configuration, complementary chamber exhaust fluid in complementary chamber 102, between complementary piston 112 and second complementary chamber end 142, may egress to complementary chamber output line 114. The exhausted fluids from actuating chamber 104 and complementary chamber 102 are mixed together in mixing line 134.

[0063] Figure 2B shows a second cycle of pre-mixing mechanism 200, according one embodiment of the present arrangements, in which actuating piston 126 moves away from second actuating chamber end 138 and towards first actuating chamber end 136. Complementary piston 112, which is coupled to actuating piston 126, moves away from second complementary chamber end 142, and towards first complementary chamber end 140.

[0064] During the second cycle, second actuating chamber inlet valve 146 is open and second actuating chamber outlet valve 150 is closed. High-pressure fluid, conveyed to actuating chamber 104 from second actuating chamber inlet 124, pushes actuating piston 126 towards first actuating chamber end 136 and away from second actuating chamber end 138. First actuating chamber inlet valve 144 is closed and first actuating chamber outlet valve 148 is open. High-pressure fluid in actuating chamber 104 from the first cycle, held between actuating piston 126 and first actuating chamber end 136, is exhausted to actuating chamber outlet line 128, via first actuating chamber outlet 130.

[0065] In regard to complementary chamber 102, second complementary chamber inlet valve 154 is open and second complementary chamber outlet valve 158 is closed. First complementary chamber inlet valve 152 is closed and first complementary chamber outlet valve 156 is open. [0066] Movement of actuating piston 126 causes a corresponding movement of complementary piston 112 towards first complementary chamber end 140. A portion of complementary chamber 102, between second complementary chamber end 142 and complementary piston 112, receives low-pressure fluid from complementary chamber input line 106. Movement of complementary piston 112 also exhausts complementary chamber exhaust fluid present in complementary chamber 102, between complementary piston 112 and first complementary chamber end 140, from complementary chamber 102. The complementary chamber exhaust fluid is conveyed, through first complementary chamber outlet 116, to complementary chamber output line 114. The

complementary chamber exhaust fluid, from complementary chamber output line 114, and the actuating chamber exhaust fluid, from actuating chamber output line 128, are mixed together in mixing line 134 to create an intermediate pressure exhaust.

[0067] Opening and closing of inlet valves and outlet valves are controlled, in one embodiment of the present arrangements, using a programmable logic controller (“PLC”). Each valve is communicatively coupled to the PCL and receives instructions from when to open and close. By way of example, during the first cycle, first actuating chamber inlet valve 144, second actuating chamber outlet valve 150, first complementary camber inlet valve 152, and second complementary chamber outlet valve 158 are instructed to remain open. In addition, the PLC instructs second actuating chamber inlet valve 146, first actuating chamber outlet valve 148, second complementary camber inlet valve 154, and first complementary chamber outlet valve 156 to remain open. During a second cycle, the PLC instructs the valves that were open during the first cycle to close and instructs the valves that were closed to open. This process of opening and closing continues with each successive cycle.

[0068] Figure 1, 2A, and 2B show a pre-mixing mechanism 100, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements and including actuating chamber 104 having an internal volume that is substantially the same as that of complementary chamber 102. This ensures that an equal volume of, both, complementary chamber exhaust fluid and the actuating chamber exhaust fluid are discharged from pre-mixing mechanism 100. The present teachings, however, are not so limited. Rather, the internal volume of complementary chamber 102 may be different than the internal volume of actuating chamber 104. In one embodiment of the present arrangements, the internal volume of complementary chamber 102 is twice as large as the internal volume of actuating chamber 104. In another embodiment of the present arrangements, the internal volume of actuating chamber 102 is four times as large as the internal volume of actuating chamber 104. [0069] Tables 1-6 shows fluid characteristics of high-pressure fluid and low-pressure fluid within a computer simulated cooling load controller 360 in which the complementary chamber receives a low-pressure fluid that is about 60 degrees Fahrenheit (and about 57 pounds per square inch gauge (“psig”)) and the actuating chamber receives a high-pressure fluid that is about 110 degrees Fahrenheit (or about 145 psig) and has a volumetric flow rate of about 5 feet 3 per minutes. Table 1 shows values for heat absorption and volumetric flow rate for a situation when the internal volume of the complementary chamber is same as the internal volume of the actuating chamber ( i.e ., a 1 : 1 ratio) and for another situation when the internal volume of the complementary chamber is twice the volume as the internal volume of the actuating chamber (i.e., a 1 :2 ratio). In the 1 :2 ratio scenario, pre-mixing mechanism 300 exhausts twice the volume of complementary chamber exhaust fluid than the exhausted volume of actuating chamber exhaust fluid.

Table 1

[0070] As shown in Table 1, increasing the internal volume of complementary chamber 102, relative to actuating chamber 102, increases the volumetric fluid flow rate of the fluid flowing through a refrigeration system ( e.g ., refrigeration system 350 of Figure 3) from 5 feet 3 per minute to 10 feet 3 per minute. An increase in the volumetric fluid flow rate of the complementary chamber fluid results in an increase in heat absorption rate by the refrigeration system from about 176,603 British thermal units per hour (“btu/h”) to about 222,102 btu/h. In other words, an evaporator (e.g., evaporator 352 of Figure 3) of the refrigeration system is capable of absorbing more heat over a given time period when the refrigerant is cycling at a higher volumetric flow rate.

[0071] The pre-mixing mechanism shown in Table 1 may be used in a cooling load controller (e.g., cooling load controller 360 of Figure 3), to control a refrigeration system (e.g., refrigeration system 350 of Figure 3). As shown in Table 2, the incoming heat absorption rate of a combined system of the cooling load controller and a refrigeration system is substantially similar to the outgoing heat absorption rate. In other words, the heat absorbed by the fluid, from the renewable energy source and the evaporator, is substantially the same as the heat dispensed by the fluid in the condenser. Moreover, Table 2 shows that using a cooling load controller having a 1 : 1 ratio in pre mixing mechanism provides a heat recovery of about 40%. Heat recovery percentage, which is a ratio of a value of an evaporator’s heat absorption rate to a value of an energy source’s heat absorption rate, refers to a percentage of heat, or energy, that may be absorbed by the fluid in refrigeration system to cool an area surrounding the evaporator. A cooling load controller having a 1 :2 ratio in pre-mixing mechanism provides a heat recovery of about 81%. A 1 :2 ratio provides significant heat recovery within a refrigeration system. As will be discussed in greater detail below, a 1 :2 ratio pre-mixing mechanism, results in a higher fluid flow rate through the evaporator of the refrigeration system. The higher fluid flow rate allows the fluid to absorb more than about twice the heat than a l l ratio pre-mixing mechanism.

Table 2

[0072] Figure 3 shows a cooling load controller 360, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements and that includes a pre-mixing mechanism 300 and a mixing line 334 for controlling the cooling load of a refrigeration system 350. Pre-mixing mechanism 300 and mixing line 334 are substantially similar to pre-mixing mechanism 100 of Figure 1. In addition to pre mixing mechanism 300, cooling load controller 360 includes an energy source 362, a mixing line 334, a condensate line 364, and an injection pump 370. Refrigeration system 350, in one embodiment of the present arrangements includes a condenser 354, an expansion valve 356, and an evaporator 352.

[0073] Pre-mixing mechanism 300 receives a high-pressure fluid from energy source 362 and low-pressure fluid from evaporator 352. More particularly, energy source 362 energizes a fluid to create the high-pressure fluid. The high-pressure fluid is transferred to an actuating chamber ( e.g ., actuating chamber 104 of Figure 1) of pre-mixing mechanism 300. Evaporator 352 dispenses low- pressure fluid to a complementary chamber (e.g., complementary chamber 102 of Figure 1) of pre- mixing mechanism 300. The high-pressure fluid, and the low-pressure fluid, may have other fluid characteristics in addition to fluid pressure. By way of example, each of the high-pressure fluid, and the low-pressure fluid have associated therewith at least one fluid characteristic value chosen from a group comprising temperature value, volumetric flow rate value, mass flow rate value, and/or heat absorption rate value (e.g., btu/h).

[0074] Table 3 provides exemplar characteristic values, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, used in a cooling load controller simulation of a high-pressure fluid that is conveyed from energy source 362 to the actuating chamber of pre-mixing mechanism 300.

Table 3

[0075] Table 4 provides characteristic values, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, used in a cooling load controller simulation of a low-pressure fluid that is conveyed from evaporator 352 to the complementary chamber of pre-mixing mechanism 300.

[0076] Mixing line 334, at a receiving end of pre-mixing mechanism 300, receives and mixes the actuating chamber exhaust fluid and the complementary chamber exhaust fluid to form an intermediate pressure fluid. While the complementary chamber exhaust fluid and an actuating chamber exhaust fluid are at the same pressure, the present arrangements recognize that this pressure is not the only characteristic associated with each exhaust fluid. Table 5 provides characteristic values, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, used in a cooling load controller simulation of an intermediate pressure fluid that is conveyed from pre-mixing mechanism 300 to condenser 354. Intermediate Pressure Gas Characteristic Values Entering Condenser 354

Table 5

[0077] Mixing line 334, at a dispensing end, is coupled to condenser 354, which removes heat from the intermediate pressure fluid (hereinafter also referred to as a“intermediate pressure condensate fluid”). The intermediate pressure condensate fluid may be conveyed to energy source 362 and/or expansion valve 356. Intermediate pressure condensate fluid transferred to expansion valve 356 cycles through refrigeration system 350 and is converted to a low-pressure fluid as it exits from evaporator 352. Intermediate pressure condensate fluid is conveyed, through condensate line 364, via injection pump 370, to energy source 362. Table 6 provides characteristic values, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, used in a cooling load controller simulation of an intermediate pressure condensate fluid that is conveyed, from condenser, to evaporator 352 and/or injection pump 370. Intermediate Pressure Condensate Fluid Characteristic Values Exiting Condenser 354

Table 6

[0078] Using injection pump 370, intermediate pressure condensate fluid is pumped from the condensate line 362 to energy source 362, which energizes ( i.e ., heat is added to the intermediate pressure condensate fluid having a fixed volume) to again create a high-pressure fluid. In one embodiment of the present arrangements, injection pump 370 increases the pressure of intermediate pressure condensate fluid to match the pressure of high-pressure fluid within energy source 362. In another embodiment of the present arrangements, injection pump 370 regulates the amount of fluid entering energy source 362 to ensure there is always fully saturated gas and some remaining liquid entering energy source 362.

[0079] Energy source may be any energy source that adds energy to a fluid. By way of example, energy source may be one source chosen from a group comprising solar array, geothermal energy, exhaust heat from data centers, exhaust heat from condensers, waste heat from energy generation, electricity generation using fossil fuels, exhaust from a generator, engine exhaust, and waste heat from industrial processes. In one preferred embodiment of the present arrangements, energy source 362 is a solar array.

[0080] Cooling load controller 360, in a preferred embodiment of the present arrangements, also includes a high-pressure intake valve 366 disposed between energy source 362 and pre-mixing mechanism 300. High-pressure intake valve 366 regulates the pressure of the high-pressure fluid before pre-mixing mechanism 300 receives the high-pressure fluid. Cooling load controller 360, in another preferred embodiment of the present arrangements, includes a regulator valve 368 disposed between condenser 354 and energy source 362. Regulator valve 368 regulates the volume of intermediate pressure condensate fluid conveyed to energy source 362.

[0081] Figure 4 shows a Pressure-Enthalpy (“P-E”) diagram, according to one embodiment of the present arrangements, of a refrigeration system 400 that incorporates a cooling load controller 460, and not a compressor. Refrigeration system 400 and cooling load controller 460 is substantially similar to their counterpart refrigeration system 300 and cooling load controller 300 of Figure 3 ( i.e ., premixing mechanism 400, evaporator 452, condenser 454, expansion valve 456, energy source 462, and injection pump 470 are substantially similar to premixing mechanism 300, evaporator 352, condenser 354, expansion valve 356, energy source 362, and injection pump 370 of Figure 3), respectively.

[0082] In this embodiment, energy source 462 receives and transfers heat to a high-pressure fluid. The temperature and pressure of high-pressure fluid remain relatively unchanged. The evaporator 452 receives and transfers heat to a low-pressure fluid. Similar to energy source 462, temperature and pressure of the intermediate pressure fluid remain relatively unchanged. The high- pressure fluid from energy source 462 is transferred to actuating chamber 104 of pre-mixing mechanism 400. The portion of intermediate pressure fluid from evaporator 452 is transferred to complementary chamber 402 of premixing mechanism 400.

[0083] As previously explained above in relation to Figures 2A and 2B, the exhaust fluids from pre-mixing mechanism 400 mix to create an intermediate pressure fluid, which has a pressure that is greater than the low-pressure fluid and less than the high-pressure fluid. Specifically, pressure of the fluid, cycling within a refrigeration system, is increased, using the high-pressure fluid from energy source 462, without a compressor. A condenser extracts heat from intermediate pressure fluid to create an intermediate pressure condensate fluid. In addition, the temperature of intermediate pressure fluid is reduced as heat is lost from intermediate pressure fluid to the surrounding environment.

[0084] A portion of intermediate pressure condensate fluid is conveyed to injection pump 472, which increases fluid pressure to create a high-pressure fluid. Another portion of intermediate pressure condensate fluid is conveyed to expansion valve 456, which reduces fluid pressure to create a low-pressure fluid. The cycle continues again with the high-pressure fluid being conveyed to energy source 462 and low-pressure fluid being conveyed to evaporator 452.

[0085] Figure 5 shows a cooling load controller 560, according to another embodiment of the present arrangements and that includes a pneumatic pump 572 disposed between and communicatively coupled to energy source 562 and to condenser 554. Cooling load controller 560 of Figure 5 is substantially similar to cooling load controller 360 of Figure 3. In other words, energy source 562, pre-mixing mechanism 500, mixing line 534, condensate line 564, and injection pump 570 of Figure 5 are substantially similar to their counterparts of Figure 3, i.e., energy source 362, pre-mixing mechanism 300, mixing line 334, condensate line 364, and injection pump 370.

[0086] As shown, pneumatic pump 572 is coupled to and powers injection pump 570 during its normal operation. In one embodiment of the present arrangements, fluid flow through pneumatic pump 572 generates electricity, which is used to power injection pump 570. In another embodiment of the present arrangements, pneumatic pump 572 is mechanically coupled to injection pump 572 using a rotating driveshaft. In this embodiment, fluid flow through pneumatic pump 572 rotates the driveshaft. Injection pump 570, coupled to the driveshaft, operates to pump a portion of intermediate pressure fluid from condenser 554 to energy source 562.

[0087] Cooling load controller 560, as shown in Figure 5, allows a high-pressure fluid to be conveyed to pre-mixing mechanism 500, or injection pump 570, or a combination of both. To that end, cooling load controller 560 is capable of controlling the refrigeration cycle to a high degree of precision by adjusting the fluid flow through pre-mixing mechanism 500 and/or liquid injection pump 570.

[0088] Figure 6 shows a cooling load controller 660, according to another embodiment of the present arrangements and that includes a transfer pump 674 disposed between and communicatively coupled to energy source 662 and condenser 654. Cooling load controller 660 is substantially similar to cooling load controller 560 of Figure 5 (i.e., each of energy source 662, pre-mixing mechanism 600, mixing line 634, and condensate line 664 of Figure 6 are substantially similar to each of energy source 562, pre-mixing mechanism 500, mixing line 534, and condensate line 564 of Figure 5, respectively). In this embodiment, however, transfer pump 674 is used instead of injection pump 570 and pneumatic pump 572 of Figure 5. The structure of transfer pump 674 is substantially similar to that of pre-mixing mechanism 600. Transfer pump 674 has first piston disposed with a first chamber and a second disposed within second chamber. The first piston and second piston are coupled ( e.g ., through a shaft) and move in a same direction during a first cycle and a second cycle. Moreover, transfer pump 674 operates in a substantially similar manner as pre-mixing mechanism 600. Transfer pump 674, in the first chamber, receives high pressure fluid from energy source 662, which displaces the first piston from one end of the first chamber to a second end. During this displacement, intermediate pressure fluid exhausts to mixing line 634. The second chamber of transfer pump 674 receives intermediate pressure condensate fluid from condenser 654 and exhausts high pressure fluid to energy source 662.

[0089] Figure 7 shows a cooling load controller 760, according to an alternate embodiment of the present arrangements and that is substantially similar to cooling load controller 560 of Figure 5, except for at least one difference that is described below. Cooling load controller 760, for example, includes an electricity generator 776 coupled to pneumatic pump 772. Electricity generator 776 may generate either alternating current or direct current, depending on the application it is used in.

During an operative state of cooling load controller 760, high pressure fluid from energy source 762 is pumped through the pneumatic pump 772. Fluid flow through pneumatic pump 772 drives electricity generator 776 into an operable configuration. When electricity generator 776 is in an operable configuration, it generates an electric current, which may be used to power supplemental devices. By way of example, electricity generator 776 produces DC current that is used to power a condenser fan to facilitate faster removal of heat from fluid flowing through the condenser. Energy supplied by electricity generator 776 may reduce and/or eliminate external energy used to operate cooling load controller 760 components.

[0090] Using cooling load controller 760, high pressure fluid may be transmitted to pre-mixing mechanism 700, or electricity generator 776, or a combination of both. To that end, cooling load controller 760 is capable of controlling a refrigeration system to a high degree of precision by adjusting the fluid flow through pre-mixing mechanism 700 and/or electricity generator 776.

[0091] Figure 8 shows a cooling load controller 860, according to yet another embodiment of the present arrangements and that is substantially similar to cooling load controller 360 of Figure 3, except of at least one difference that is described hereinafter. Cooling load controller 860, for example, includes a pressure bypass line 878. The configuration shown in Figure 8 allows cooling load controller to bypass refrigeration system 850 when refrigeration system 850 is not needed. Pressure bypass line 878 transmits high pressure fluid from energy source 862 to condenser 854.

The fluid condensate is then transmitted back to energy source 862 to complete the cycle.

[0092] A liquid injection pump ( e.g ., injection pump 370 of Figure 3), electricity generator (e.g., electricity generator 776 of Figure 6) and pressure bypass valve 878 may be installed into cooling load controller, individually or in combination, depending on the requirements of the cooling load controller. To that end, the cooling load controller may be modified, using the above-mentioned components, to adjust the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle.

[0093] The present teachings also provide processes for continuously mixing a fluid. Figure 9 shows a process flow chart 900, according to one embodiment of the present teachings, for effectively controlling cooling loads of a refrigeration system using a novel pre-mixing mechanism design ( e.g ., pre-mixing mechanism 100 of Figure 1). Process 900 begins with a step 902 that involves receiving, at an actuating chamber (e.g., actuating chamber 104 off Figure 1), a high- pressure fluid resulting from heating a fluid at an energy source. Receiving step 902 may be performed in a first cycle and/or a second cycle. In the first cycle, high-pressure fluid may be received at a first actuating chamber inlet (e.g, first actuating chamber inlet 122 of Figure 1) and not a second actuating chamber inlet (e.g., second actuating chamber inlet 124 of Figure 1). More particularly, a first actuating chamber inlet valve (e.g, first actuating chamber inlet valve 144 of Figure 1) is, preferably, opened to allow receipt of the high-pressure fluid and, at this stage, second actuating chamber inlet valve (e.g., second actuating chamber inlet valve 146 of Figure 1) is closed. In the second cycle, which may be carried out after the first cycle, the first actuating chamber inlet valve is closed, but the second actuating chamber inlet valve is open. Thus, in the second cycle, the high-pressure fluid is received at the second actuating chamber inlet but not at the first actuating chamber inlet.

[0094] Next, a step 904 is carried out. This step includes receiving, at a complementary chamber (e.g., complementary chamber 102 off Figure 1), low-pressure fluid resulting from evaporation at an evaporator (e.g, evaporator 352 of Figure 3). Step 904 preferably includes a first cycle and a second cycle. In the first cycle, a first complementary chamber inlet valve (e.g, first complementary chamber inlet valve 152 of Figure 1) is open, but a second complementary chamber inlet valve (e.g, second complementary chamber inlet valve 154 of Figure 1) is closed. In this configuration, the low- pressure fluid is received at first complementary chamber inlet (e.g, first complementary chamber inlet 108 of Figure 1) but is prevented from entering the complementary chamber at the second complementary chamber inlet.

[0095] In the second cycle of step 904, which is after the first cycle, the second complementary chamber inlet valve is open, but the first complementary chamber inlet valve is closed. In this configuration, the low-pressure fluid is received at second complementary chamber inlet, but the first complementary chamber inlet valve prevents low-pressure fluid from entering the

complementary chamber at the second complementary chamber inlet.

[0096] Process 900 then proceeds to step 906, which involves using the high-pressure fluid to displace an actuating piston (e.g., actuating piston 126 of Figure 1) disposed inside the actuating chamber. In other words, the pressure of the high-pressure fluid displaces the actuating piston from one end of the actuating chamber to another end of the actuating chamber. Step 906 preferably includes a first cycle and a second cycle, which is carried out after the first cycle. [0097] In the first cycle of step 906, the actuating piston moves away from a first actuating chamber end ( e.g ., first actuating chamber end 136 of Figure 2A) and towards a second actuating chamber end (e.g., second actuating chamber end 138 of Figure 2A). A second actuating chamber outlet valve (e.g., second actuating chamber outlet valve 150 of Figure 2A) is open to enable evacuation of high-pressure fluid held in the actuating chamber from a previous cycle. In this configuration, a first actuating chamber outlet valve (e.g., first actuating chamber outlet valve 148 of Figure 2A) is closed. With the opening of the second actuating chamber outlet valve, the high- pressure fluid is now in fluidic communication, by way of a mixing line (e.g, mixing line 134 of Figure 2A), with the low-pressure fluid of the complementary chamber. As explained below, in step 908, low-pressure fluid in complementary chamber is also in fluidic communication with the mixing line and thus with the high-pressure fluid. The pressures of high-pressure fluid and that of the low- pressure fluid equalize to form an intermediate pressure fluid. Thus, the high-pressure fluid evacuates from a second actuating chamber outlet (e.g, second actuating chamber outlet 132) as actuating chamber exhaust fluid.

[0098] In the second cycle of step 906, which is carried out after the first cycle, the actuating piston moves away from the second actuating chamber end and towards the first actuating chamber end. The first actuating chamber outlet valve is closed. The second actuating chamber outlet valve is open to enable fluidic communication between the actuating chamber and the mixing line. The pressure of high-pressure fluid and that of the low-pressure fluid, in the complementary chamber, equalizes to create an intermediate pressure fluid. The intermediate pressure fluid evacuates from a second actuating chamber outlet (e.g, second actuating chamber outlet 132 of Figure 2B) as actuating chamber exhaust fluid.

[0099] Next, a step 908 includes forcing displacement of a complementary piston (e.g., complementary piston 112) disposed within the complementary chamber. In one preferred implementation of this step, the displacement of an actuating piston, which is coupled to a complementary piston, forces displacement of the complementary piston. Regardless of what enables displacement of the complementary piston, in this step, complementary piston displaces from one end of the complementary chamber to another end of the complementary chamber. In a first cycle of step 908, which occurs simultaneously with the first cycle of step 906, complementary piston moves away from a first complementary chamber end (e.g., first complementary chamber end 140 of Figure 2A) and towards a second complementary chamber end (e.g., second complementary chamber end 142 of Figure 2A). To enable evacuation of low-pressure fluid, held in the actuating chamber from a previous cycle, a second complementary chamber outlet valve (e.g., second complementary chamber outlet valve 158 of Figure 2A) is open. At this stage, a first complementary chamber outlet valve ( e.g ., first complementary chamber outlet valve 156 of Figure 2A) is closed.

An open second complementary chamber outlet valve creates a fluidic pathway, via the mixing line, between the low-pressure fluid and the high-pressure fluid of the actuating chamber. The pressure of high-pressure fluid and that of the low-pressure fluid equalize to become an intermediate pressure fluid Thus, the intermediate pressure fluid evacuates from a second actuating chamber outlet (e.g., second complementary chamber outlet 118) as complementary chamber exhaust fluid.

[00100] In the second cycle of step 908, which is carried out after the first cycle, the

complementary piston moves away from the second complementary chamber end and towards the first complementary chamber end. At this stage, the second actuating chamber outlet valve is closed. The first complementary chamber outlet valve is open to enable fluidic communication between the complementary chamber and the mixing line. The pressure of the low-pressure fluid equalizes with that of the high-pressure fluid in the actuating chamber to become an intermediate pressure fluid.

The intermediate pressure fluid evacuates from a second complementary chamber outlet (e.g., second complementary chamber outlet 118 of Figure 2B) as complementary chamber exhaust fluid.

[00101] Then, a step 910 includes mixing, in the mixing line, the actuating chamber exhaust fluid with the complementary chamber exhaust fluid to produce an intermediate pressure fluid. In a preferred embodiment of the present arrangements, intermediate pressure fluid has a higher pressure than the low-pressure fluid that is received from an evaporator of a refrigeration system.

[00102] Figure 10 shows a process flow chart 1000, according to one embodiment of the present teachings, for operation of the novel mixing mechanism shown in Figure 1.

[00103] Process 1000 begins with a step 1002 that involves energizing, using an energy source (e.g., energy source 362 of Figure 3), an intermediate pressure condensate fluid to produce a high- pressure fluid. In a preferred embodiment of the present teachings, high-pressure fluid is a gas.

[00104] Next, a step 1004 includes evacuating, using a pre-mixing mechanism (e.g., pre-mixing mechanism 100 of Figure 1), a low-pressure fluid using a force applied by the high-pressure fluid to produce an actuating chamber exhaust fluid and complementary chamber exhaust fluid, each of which may have an intermediate pressure. The pre-mixing mechanism may be coupled, on an inlet side of the pre-mixing mechanism, to the energy source. The pre-mixing mechanism may be coupled, on an outlet side, to two or more outlets (e.g., first and second actuating chamber outputs 130 and 132, respectively, and first and second complementary chamber outlets 116 and 118, respectively of Figure 1). At least one of these outlets is designed to dispense the intermediate pressure exhaust. [00105] Step 1006 includes mixing, using a mixing line ( e.g ., mixing line 134 of Figure 1), the exhaust refrigerant in the state and the exhaust refrigerant in the second state to produce the exhaust refrigerant in an intermediate state. The mixing line is coupled, at a receiving end, to the outlets of the pre-mixing mechanism and is configured to be coupled, at a dispensing end, to a condenser for treating exhaust refrigerant in the intermediate state to produce a refrigerant condensate in the intermediate state

[00106] Then, a step 1008 includes conveying, using a condensate line, a portion of the refrigerant condensate in the intermediate state from condenser to the energy source.

[00107] Although illustrative embodiments of the present teachings and arrangements are shown and described in terms of controlling fluid within a sewer system, other modifications, changes, and substitutions are intended. Accordingly, it is appropriate that the disclosure be construed broadly and, in a manner, consistent with the scope of the disclosure, as set forth in the following claims.