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Title:
REGULATION OF AND REGULATOR FOR A PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1999/031793
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
In the regulation system of the invention, the longitudinal current id in a permanent magnet synchronous motor is adjusted to zero. In the regulation, the third harmonic of the control signal can be added to the result of a coordinate system transformation of the control voltages. In a regulator for a permanent magnet synchronous motor, a 3-phase reference for the motor supply voltage is formed from the uq and ud voltages by transforming them to produce components corresponding to each phase and by combining the components for each phase.

Inventors:
Kähkipuro, Matti (Lampilantie 70 Hyvinkää, FIN-05800, FI)
Vairio, Olavi (Vieremänkatu 15 Hyvinkää, FIN-05900, FI)
Laaksonheimo, Jyrki (Sieponkuja 2-4 Hyvinkää, FIN-05860, FI)
Application Number:
PCT/FI1998/000940
Publication Date:
June 24, 1999
Filing Date:
December 02, 1998
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
KONE CORPORATION (Kartanontie 1 Helsinki, FIN-00330, FI)
Kähkipuro, Matti (Lampilantie 70 Hyvinkää, FIN-05800, FI)
Vairio, Olavi (Vieremänkatu 15 Hyvinkää, FIN-05900, FI)
Laaksonheimo, Jyrki (Sieponkuja 2-4 Hyvinkää, FIN-05860, FI)
International Classes:
B66B1/30; H02P21/06; H02P; (IPC1-7): H02P6/04
Foreign References:
US5656911A1997-08-12
JPH07264713A1995-10-13
GB2212678A1989-07-26
EP0706258A11996-04-10
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KONE CORPORATION (Patent Dept. P.O. Box 677 Hyvinkää, FIN-05801, FI)
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. Regulation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, in which regulation the longitudinal current id is ad justed to zero.
2. Regulation according to claim 1, characterised in that the third harmonic of the control signal is added to the result of a coordinate system transformation of the control voltages.
3. Regulation according to 1 or 2, characterised in that the number of poles in the motor is taken into account in the coordinate system transformation.
4. Regulation according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the permanent magne syn chronos motor is an elevator drive motor and its regu lation is effected using at least one signal propor tional to the speed of the elevator or to the position of the traction sheave.
5. Regulator for a permanent magnet synchronous motor, characterised in that a 3phase reference for the motor supply voltage is formed from the uq and ud voltages by transforming them to produce components corresponding to each phase and by combining the components for each phase.
6. Regulator as defined in claim 5, characterised in that the regulator is the regulator of an elevator drive motor.
Description:
REGULATION OF AND REGULATOR FOR A PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUSMOTOR The present invention relates to the regulation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor and to a regulator for one.

The regulation of a permanent magnet motor is often problematic in the most exacting application solutions.

A particularly exacting application solution is the ele- vator environment. More generally, it can be said that the application solution is particularly exacting if it involves extraordinarily accurate position, speed or torque regulation or if one or more of these aspects of regulation requires extraordinary accuracy.

Usually an exacting application solution contains a plu- rality of cascade and/or parallel time constants in the control loop that influence the regulation, which is a source of instability in regulation.

Another problem associated wi, h Lhe regulation of an permanent magnet synchronous motor is the lack of di- rectly mesurable indicator signals. As such signals are needed in the feedback, the generation of adequate sig- nals requires relatively heavy computation. However, such computation creates a delay that impairs the sta- bility of regulation.

En example of prior art is presented in ANALOG DEVICES data sheet"AC Vector Processor AD2S100".

The object of the present invention is to eliminate the drawbacks of prior-art technology and especially to achieve a new method for the regulation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor that is more immune to inter- ference and more stable than earlier regulation systems.

The features characteristic of the invention are pre- sented in the claims.

The invention makes it possible to achieve a particu- larly stable regulation system for a permanent magnet synchronous motor. The regulation system is especially applicable to the elevator environment. The invention provides a clear principle for the construction of a regulator for a synchronous motor implemented using per- manent magnets.

When the longitudinal current in a permanent magne syn- chronos motor is adjusted to zero, the rest ouf thé regulation and control of the motor becomes simple.

Adding the third harmonic of the control voltage to the result of a coordinate system transformation of the con- trol voltages makes it possible to use a smaller in- verter. The number of poles in the motor can be readily taken into account in the coordinate system transforma- tions. This allows regulation that accuratelv and quickly follows the motion of the motor. Such a motor is especially applicable as an elevator drive mo--cr with feedback effected via a signal proportional to the ele- vator speed or to the traction sheave position. A pref- erable solution in the regulator is to form a 3-phase reference for the motor supply voltage from the uq and ud voltages by transforming them to produce components corresponding to each phase and by combining the compo- nents for each phase, thus reducing the computation work or allowing the use of constant transformations, which can be implemented using standard components. The re- quired computation work can also be reduced by using memory components instead of computation.

In the following, the invention will be described by the aid of a few examples of its embodiments without limit-

ing its sphere of application, by referring to the at- tached drawings, wherein Fig. 1 presents a block diagram representing a regu- lator for a synchronous motor, Fig. 2 presents a motor model, Fig. 3 an analogue implementation of speed regulation in a synchronous motor, Fig. 4 illustrates the principle and structure of synchro signal detection, Fig. 5 illustrates a coordinate system transformation from a triaxial to a biaxial system, Fig. 6 illustrates the rotation of a biaxial coordi- nate system, Fig. 7 presents a block diagram representing preven- tion of power stage saturation, Fig. 8 presents an example implementation of preven- tion of power stage saturation, Fig. 9 presents a regulator implementation, Fig. 10, 11,12 visualise the equations in Fla. 9, Fig. 13 presents a simulator circuit, Fig. 14 presenus the responses to a l00A currenc step in id and iq regulators, Fig. 15 represents the speed consequent upon a torque step, Fig. 16 presents the responses, Fig. 17 represents the speed with a larger gain, and Fig. 18 presents the signals in Fig. 1.

The block diagram in Fig. 1 represents a regulator for a permanent magnet synchronous motor. In principle, the problem of motor regulation has been solved if a work- table torque regulator exists. The regulator presented here is a torque regulator. The structure of the speed regulator controlling the torque regulator is not pre- sented in detail. It may be e. g. an SCD as is conven- tionally used in fast KONE elevators. Preferably the

speed regulator can be implemented via software, using a PC or other processor as hardware.

In principle, the regulator structure consists of only two proportional controllers and two coordinate system transformers, so the device is quite simple.

The essential point about the regulator implementation in Fig. 1 is that both control loops are stable. This can be seen from the motor model in Fig. 2. The control loop contains only one integrator, so the regulator is always stable if implemented using proportional control.

In a proportional controller, the controlled variable always comprises a small static state error, but in this case it does not matter because the speed regulation loop is topmost. The gain needed in the controllers is obtained experimentally by finding the maximum allowed value that still allows stable operation of the device.

When the gain is increased, the speed of the controller increases and the static error decreases. The speed is limited in the-irst place by the speed of the voltage regulator of tr. e inverter, and when it approches this speed, regulativn becomes unstable. In the power elec- tronics output stage, the voltage regulator acts as a corrector of non-linearity of pulse width modulation.

The voltage regulator contains a variable gain ampli- fier, to which a PWM-shaped voltage is fed back from the power stage. The regulator must contain a filtering de- lay to allow computation of the mean value of the modu- lated voltage. The reference value is typically an ana- logue signal obtained from the output of the torque regulator. The voltage regulator is generally the inner- most control-loop and therefore also the fastest regula- tor in the system.

Another important principle is zero adjustment of the longitudinal current (id). This makes the crosscurrent

(iq) directly proportional to the motor torque because in this case the longitudinal flux generated by the per- manent magnets remains constant and the torque is the product of longitudinal flux and transverse flux. Thus, the crosscurrent regulator (iq) is a torque regulator, as can be seen from Fig. 2.

The output quantity produced by the regulator electron- ics is a three-phase stator voltage reference. This is fed as a reference value into the voltage regulators of the inverter. Such signals are available e. g. in the KONE V3F invertir structure. However, it may be better to control the pulse width modulator directly, because this reduces the number of nested control loops by one.

This means a higher regulation speed in the speed regu- lator.

The current is measured using current sensors. The cur- rent sensor mav be incorporated in the inverter struc- ture. Fig. 18 Dresents the forms of the signals and quantities (v, ref, Torque, ud, uq, iq, ia, ua, q) prevailing in a given load sl. uation.

Fig. 2 presents a model and the set of equations on which it is based. The letter s is a Laplace variable.

The coordinate system d-q is thought of as rotating with the rotor of the motor. The d-axis, i. e. the longitudi- nal axis is parallel to the flux vector for the perma- nent magnes.

The regulation principle represented by Fig. 1 can be implemented using analogue techniques as illustrated by Fig. 3. The inverter feeding the motor is controlled by a torque regulator, in which alO is an iq regulator and a9 is an id regulator. The rest of the electronics mainly serves for coordinate system transformations.

In certain respects, the solution presented is still a solution in principle. The problem remains that the power stage is saturated before full speed is reached.

Traditionally, this has been correcte by adding the third harmonic to the sinusoidal form of the phase volt- ages. In this case, as there is no three-phase oscilla- tor, the correction has to be effected in some other way. This problem can be settled in a fairly simple man- ner e. g. using a suitable analogue solution.

For the rotation of the coordinate systems, a sensor is needed. A handy solution is a resolver mechanically con- nected to the rotor. The number of pole pairs is taken into consideration e. a. bu using a suitable transmission ratio or by selecting a resolver with a number of pole pairs equalling the number of pole pairs in the motor.

The coupling between the resolver and the motor must be so implemented that no slip occurs.

Fig. 4 illustrates the principle of phase-sensitive de- tection in the resolver.

Fig. 5 and 6 illustrate coordinate system transforma- tions. The figures represent the transformation associ- ated with the measurement of current in the light of two sub-tasks. The reader is advised to figure out the other corresponding transformations along the same principles.

According to the block diagram, there are two of these, and each transformation comprises two phases. Transfo- mation from a three-phase system into an equivalent two- phase system and then transformation of the two-phase coordinate system from a fixed system into a coordinate system rotating with the rotor and vice versa.

The three phases of a three-phase motor can be readily described using a vector diagram. A single vector de- scribes all three phases at once. First, the motor must

be thought of as being reduced to a single pole pair version. The coordinate system is then placed on the end of the motor. The three axes are the directions of the three-phase winding. In Fig. 5, the instantaneous cur- rent values are obtained by projecting the current vec- tor i onto each one of the three axes. As the current vector rotates as a function of time, the instantaneous values of each phase vary. The same current vector can then be depicted in a two-axis coordinate system a, b as well. This coordinate system, too, is a fixed system in respect of the stator as seen from the end of the motor.

The A-axis and the a-axis lie on top of each other and are coincident. A two-axis coordinate system again is needed as an intermediate form to obtain a two-axis co- ordinate system d, q rotating with the rotor. This rota- tion is illustrated by Fig. 6. Further information on the basics of coordinate system transformations is to be found e. g. in the book"Einführung in die Theorie gere- gelter Drehstromantriebe"by H. sühler, ISsN 3.7643-0837- 0.

Power stage saturation is preferably prevented by shift- ing the zero point of the three-phase current when a phase voltage exceeds the maximum allowed value (=Uref).

The shift is effected by amplifying the voltage by a co- efficient k. The coefficient may be a fixed one or its magnitude may be determined separately as required in each case. This will not affect the main voltages. The block diagram in Fig. 7 represents the prevention of power stage saturation and Fig. 8 presents an example implementation for the prevention of power stage satura- tion.

The regulator can be implemented e. g. as follows. The circuit can also be built using multiplying DAC and PROM components. In this case, the matching of the control to the pole pairs of the motor can be effected via the

electronics, thus obviating the need for a gear. The in- verter voltage is formed in the PROM circuits, in which the control has been matched to 19 pole pairs in the case of the example. The third harmonic can now also be easily added and the problem of inverter saturation is eliminated. The inverter also still comprises a voltage regulator, which has proved to be advantageous. Fig. 9 presents a solution of this type.

The equations presented in Fig. 9 are derived and/or il- lustrated in Figures 10, 11 and 12.

The principle presented can be simulated as follows.

Fig. 13 presents a circuit which was used in the Simulab simulation program to verify the torque regulation de- scribe. The simulation input signal was a 100-ampere square wave used as a crosscurrent reference value. Ac- cording to the theory presented, this should produce a torque reference value also in the form of a square wave, and actually this is one of the results obtained via simulation, as illustrated by Fig. 14.

Presented below are some of the simulation results. The curves were initially obtained with proportional gain values of 300 in the Iq regulator and 1000 in the id regulator.

Fig. 14 presents the responses to a 100A current step in the id and iq regulators. The upper curve represents the current id, which is to be adjusted to zero as far as possible. Below in the figure are the actual value and the reference value of the torque. Fig. 15 shows the speed response to a torque step. The curves obtained are quite convenient, and a good real device can be con- structed using these values.

The next step in the simulation was to increase the gain to the value 1000. Fig. 16 presents the responses with increasedgain.

The actual torque value and the reference torque value now coincide so that they cannot be distinguished from each other. It can be established that the torque faith- fully follows the reference value, never exceeding it, for example. The operation is quite ideal.

The corresponding speed curve is shown in Fig. 17. The speed is a pure integral of the torque, as is obvious from the preceding curves.

It can be stated that by using the motor model and regu- lators described, a good torque regulator that is free of any propensity to vibration is obtained.

It is obvious to a person skilled in the art that the embodiments of the invention are not restricted to the examples presented above, but that they may be varied within the scope of the following claims.