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Title:
REMOVABLE, SINGLE SIDE FASTENER WITH ULTRA-LOW STACK HEIGHT GRIP RANGE, COMPONENTS, AND METHODS FOR MAKING AND USING THE SAME
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/161336
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A removable single side fastener with ultra-low stake height grip range is disclosed. The fastener includes a housing body, a threaded screw, a drive nut and a collet body. The housing body has a housing head portion and a shank portion extending from the housing head portion with the shank portion forming at least two longitudinal slots. The threaded screw, disposed within the housing body, has a head portion rotatably confined within the housing head portion. The drive nut is rotationally coupled to the threaded screw and rotationally constrained relative to the housing body. The collet body has a pair of collet body legs converging inwardly. Each collet body leg has a toe which may extends radially outward beyond the longitudinal slots to compress work pieces against the housing head portion for fastening.

Inventors:
MCCLURE TRAVIS (US)
Application Number:
US2017/023070
Publication Date:
September 21, 2017
Filing Date:
March 17, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CENTRIX INC (US)
International Classes:
F16B13/08; F16B13/00; F16B13/04; F16B13/06; F16B19/10
Foreign References:
US20110008124A12011-01-13
US20050200066A12005-09-15
US20130014376A12013-01-17
US4015505A1977-04-05
US4789284A1988-12-06
US20070183864A12007-08-09
Other References:
See also references of EP 3430275A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HEYNSSENS, Paul, B. (Karr Tuttle Campbell, 701 Fifth Avenue Suite 330, Seattle WA, 98104, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1 . A fastener comprising:

a housing body having a housing head portion and a shank portion extending from the housing head portion, the shank portion forming at least two longitudinal slots;

a threaded screw inserted into the housing body, the threaded screw having a head portion rotatably confined within the housing head portion;

a drive nut rotationally coupled to the threaded screw and rotationally constrained relative to the housing body; and

a collet body operatively linked to the driven nut, the collet body comprising a collet body base having a central axis and at least a pair of collet body legs converging towards the central axis, each collet body leg having a toe extending radially outward by the threaded screw when the threaded screw threadably engages the drive nut and rotates to causes the drive nut moving longitudinally toward the housing head portion, the radially extended toe compressing work pieces against the housing head portion for fastening.

2. The fastener of claim 1 wherein the fastener further comprises a spring in compressional contact with the collet body to facilitate thread engagement between the drive nut and the threaded screw.

3. The fastener of claim 2 wherein the spring compresses the collet body via a block.

4. The fastener of claim 2 wherein the spring is confined by an end cap located at a distal end of the shank portion.

5. The fastener of claim 1 wherein the drive nut comprises at least a pair of radially oriented through holes aligned with the housing body longitudinal slots.

6. The fastener of claim 5 wherein the toe is sized to fit through the through hole when the collet body leg extends radially outward.

7. The fastener of claim 1 wherein the threaded screw comprises a screw tip with a reduced diameter in reference to the thread screw.

8. The fastener of claim 7 wherein the screw tip further comprises a ramp section with a ramp diameter decreasing gradually to the reduced diameter.

9. The fastener of claim 7 wherein the screw tip is sized to fit into the collet body legs before the collet body legs being expanded radially outward.

1 0. A method of fastening a proximal work piece and a distal work piece together, the method comprising:

inserting a fastener housing body through a proximal work piece hole in the proximal work piece and a distal work piece hole in the distal work piece, the fastener housing body having a housing head portion larger than the proximal work piece hole; disposing a threaded screw within the fastener housing body, the head portion of the threaded screw having a drive interface to enable rotation of the threaded screw; threadably engaging a drive nut to the threaded screw for longitudinally movement of the drive nut and a coupled collet body the toward the housing head portion, the drive nut rotationally constrained relative to the housing body, the collet body comprising a collet body base and at least a pair of collet body legs biased in converging radially , each collet body leg having a toe which protrudes radially outward beyond the distal work piece hole by the threaded screw, the protruded toe and the housing head portion compress the distal work piece and the proximal work piece together when the collet body moves toward the housing head portion.

1 1 . The method of claim 1 0 wherein the drive interface is rotatably confined within the housing head portion.

1 2. The method of claim 1 0 wherein the threaded screw comprises a screw tip with a reduced diameter in reference to the thread screw.

1 3. The method of claim 1 2 wherein the screw tip further comprises a ramp section with a ramp diameter decreasing gradually to the reduced diameter.

1 4. The method of claim 1 2 wherein the screw tip is sized to fit into the collet body legs before the collet body legs being expanded radially outward.

1 5. The method of claim 1 5 wherein the collet body is coupled to the drive nut by disposing each toe of the collet body legs through a radially oriented through hole placed on the drive nut.

1 6. The method of claim 1 2 wherein the drive nut is in compressional contact with the threaded screw by a spring to facilitate thread engagement between the drive nut and the threaded screw.

1 7. The method of claim 1 6 wherein the spring is confined by an end cap located at a distal end of the fastener housing body.

1 8. A fastener comprising:

a housing body having a housing body head and at least two longitudinal slots; a threaded screw rotatably confined within the cylindrical housing body;

a collet body disposed within the housing body and coupled to the threaded screw, the collet body rotationally constrained relative to the housing body and slidably moveable along the longitudinal slots, the collet body comprising at least a pair of collet body legs biased in converging inwardly, each collet body leg having a toe which is pushed radially outward beyond the longitudinal slots by the threaded screw when the threaded screw moves into the collet body legs, the radially extended toe compressing work pieces against the housing head portion for fastening.

1 9. The fastener of claim 1 8 wherein the threaded screw comprises a screw tip with a reduced diameter in reference to the thread screw.

20. The fastener of claim 1 9 wherein the screw tip is sized to fit into the collet body legs before the collet body legs being expanded radially outward.

Description:
REMOVABLE, SI NGLE SIDE FASTENER WITH ULTRA-LOW STACK HEIGHT GRIP RANGE, COMPONENTS, AND METHODS FOR MAKI NG AND USING THE SAME

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001 ] This description relates generally to removable si ngle side fasteners and more specifically to removable single side fasteners having low stack heig ht grip range.

BACKGROUND ART

[0002] Fasteners are hardware devices that mechanically join or affix two or more objects together. In general, fasteners are used to create non-permanent joints, which can be removed or dismantled without damaging the joining workpieces.

Fasteners may be used i n hidden locations or visi ble locations. The fastener needs to be adaptive to fasten workpieces with various thicknesses. In certain situation, it is required no fastener head protrusion beyond the workpiece after fastener engagement.

[0003] Therefore, it is desirable to have fasteners and fastener assemblies having an adjustable gri p range and a low-profile head .

DISCLOSURE OF THE I NVENTION

[0004] The following presents a simplified su mmary of the disclosure in order to provide a basic understanding to the reader. This summary is not an extensive overview of the disclosure and it does not identify key/critical elements of the invention or delineate the scope of the invention. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts disclosed herein in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later.

[0005] The invention of this application is directed to removable single side fasteners having an ultra-low stack height grip range, and particularly to such fasteners having a low profile head on a proxi mal end of the fastener. Fasteners according to the invention compressionally associate at least a proximal work piece defining a proximal hole having a first diameter and a distal work piece defining a distal hole having a second diameter wherein at least a portion of a fastener will pass through both holes.

[0006] Fasteners or assemblies according to the invention include a generally cylindrical housing body having a head portion at a proximal end thereof and a shank portion extending distally there from, an outer shank diameter, an inner primary bore diameter and at least two substantially longitudinal slots formed in the shank portion that extend substantially the length of the shank portion, wherein the shank portion outer diameter is less than any work piece hole diameter. In many examples, the two longitudinal slots are in opposition, i.e., diametrically opposed. Moreover, various examples of the fasteners or assemblies include three or more slots, preferably circumferentially equidistant from each other.

[0007] Many of the attendant features will be more readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description considered in connection with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0008] The present description will be better understood from the following detailed description read in light of the accompanying drawings, wherein :

[0009] Fig. 1 is a first example of a removable single side fastener in a side view.

[001 0] Fig. 2 is an end view from the fastener head view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig. 1 .

[001 1 ] Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig. 1 with clamping feet not engaged.

[001 2] Fig. 4 is a side view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig.

1 with clamping feet not engaged.

[001 3] Fig. 5 is a fastener head view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig. 4. [001 4] Fig . 6 is a localized cross-sectional view of the removable single side fastener showing the spring being compressed to push collet and drive nut forward .

[001 5] Fig . 7 is a side view of the removable single side fastener showing the spring being compressed to push collet and drive nut forward.

[001 6] Fig . 8 is a cross-sectional view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig.7.

[001 7] Fig . 9 is an alternative side view of the removable single side fastener showing the spring expanding and keeping cap compressed against collet.

[001 8] Fig . 1 0 is a cross-sectional view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig.9.

[001 9] Fig . 1 1 is a side view of the removable single side fastener with clamping feet engaged.

[0020] Fig . 1 2 is a cross-sectional view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig. l 1 .

[0021 ] Fig . 1 3 is an alternative side view of the removable sing le side fastener with clamping feet engaged.

[0022] Fig . 1 4 is a cross-sectional view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig. 1 3.

[0023] Fig. 1 5 is a side view of the removable single side fastener with clamping feet moved to a maximu m position of a clapping range.

[0024] Fig. 1 6 is a cross-sectional view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig. l 5.

[0025] Fig. 1 7 is an alternative side view of the removable sing le side fastener with clamping feet moved to a maximum position of a clapping range.

[0026] Fig. 1 8 is a cross-sectional view of the removable single side fastener showing in Fig. l 7.

[0027] Fig. 1 9 is a side view and a cross-sectional of the removable single side fastener showing clampi ng feet before engagement. [0028] Fig . 20 is a side view and a cross-sectional of the removable single side fastener showing screw tip touching and ready to expand the clamping feet.

[0029] Fig . 2 1 is a side view and a cross-sectional of the removable single side fastener showing clampi ng feet being expanded.

[0030] Fig . 22 is a side view and a cross-sectional of the removable single side fastener with the clampi ng feet at a maxi mum position of a clapping range for ultra-low stack height grip.

[0031 ] Fig . 23 is an isometric view of the removable single side fastener with the clamping feet at a maximum position of a clappi ng range.

[0032] Fig . 24 is a side view of the removable single side fastener with expanded clamping feet and ready to clamp two working pieces.

[0033] Fig . 25 is a side view of the removable single side fastener with two working pieces clamped together.

[0034] Fig . 26 is a localized isometric view of the screw tip and collet body before the clamping feet expanded.

[0035] Fig . 27 is a localized isometric view of the screw tip and collet body with the clamping feet expanded.

[0036] Fig . 28 is a localized side view of the screw tip and collet body with the clamping feet expanded.

[0037] Fig . 29 is a localized isometric view of the fastener body and the drive nut.

[0038] Fig . 30 is an end view of the fastener body and the drive nut.

[0039] Fig . 31 is a localized isometric view of the fastener body, the screw and the drive nut.

[0040] Fig . 32 is an end view and a cross-sectional of the fastener body head.

[0041 ] Like reference numerals are used to designate like parts in the

accompanying drawing. BEST MODE FOR CARYING OUT THE INVENTION(S)

[0042] The detailed description provided below in connection with the appended drawings is intended as a description of the present examples and is not intended to represent the only forms in which the present example may be constructed or utilized. The description sets forth the functions of the example and the sequence of steps for constructing and operating the example. However, the same or equivalent functions and sequences may be accomplished by different examples.

[0043] The terminal end of any numeric lead line in the several drawings, when associated with any structure or process, reference or landmark described in this section, is intended to representatively identify and associate such structure or process, reference or landmark with respect to the written description of such object or process. It is not intended, nor should be inferred, to delimit or define per se boundaries of the referenced object or process, unless specifically stated as such or facially clear from the drawings and the context in which the term(s) is/are used. Unless specifically stated as such or facially clear from the several drawings and the context in which the term(s) is/are used, all words and visual aids should be given their common commercial and/or scientific meaning consistent with the context of the disclosure herein.

[0044] With the foregoing in mind, the following description is presented to enable a person skilled in the art to make and use the claimed invention. Various modifications to the described examples will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles disclosed herein may be applied to other examples and applications thereof without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, as defined by the appended claims. Thus, the claimed invention is not intended to nor should be limited to the disclosed and/or described examples, but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and features disclosed herein.

[0045] The invention of this application is directed to removable single side fasteners having an ultra-low stack height grip range, and particularly to such fasteners having a low profile head on a proxi mal end of the fastener. Fasteners according to the invention compressionally associate at least a proximal work piece defining a proximal hole having a first diameter and a d istal work piece defining a distal hole having a second diameter wherein at least a portion of a fastener will pass through both holes. For convention, the work piece adjacent to the head of the fastener is referred to as the proximal work piece and the work piece adjacent to the working end of the fastener is referred to as the distal work piece. Furthermore, the conventional mode of insertion is first through the proximal work piece hole and last through the distal work piece hole. Any number of intermediary work pieces may be present between the proximal and distal work pieces to create a stack.

[0046] Fasteners or assemblies according to the invention include a generally cylindrical housing body having a head portion at a proxi mal end thereof and a shank portion extending distally there from, an outer shank diameter, an inner primary bore diameter and at least two substantially longitudi nal slots formed in the shank portion that extend substantially the length of the shank portion, wherein the shank portion outer diameter is less than any work piece hole diameter. In many examples, the two long itudinal slots are in opposition, i.e., diametrically opposed . Moreover, various examples of the fasteners or assemblies include three or more slots, preferably circumferentially equidistant from each other.

[0047] A threaded screw is inserted into the housing body. The screw has a head portion at a proximal end thereof and a reduced diameter portion (which may be th readed or non-threaded) at a distal end thereof. The head portion is preferably, but not necessarily, sized to fit into a recess formed at the head portion of the housing body and the screw length is preferably less than the length of the housing body so that when assembled, neither the proximal portion nor the distal portion extend beyond the ends of the housing body.

[0048] A driven nut is rotationally coupled to the threaded screw, when the fastener is assembled. The driven nut has an outer surface and an inner surface. The inner surface is adapted to rotationally couple with the threaded screw. The driven nut has a generally cylindrical form but that is rotationally constrained relative to the housing body, when associated therewith, by a first part of an anti-rotation means ("ARM") present on an exterior surface thereof. As will be detailed later, this first part of the ARM acts upon a second part of the ARM that forms part of the housing body.

[0049] In addition to the foregoi ng, the driven nut defines at least one pair of radially oriented through holes that are adapted to align with the housing body long itudinal slots, thus allowing the through holes to be exposed to the environment exterior of the collet body housing outer surface.

[0050] A collet body is operatively linked to the driven n ut. The collet body includes a part of a collet body having a central axis and at least a first pair of collet body legs that converge towards the central axis when in a nominal state. Each leg, in tu rn , has an extending portion or toe, which extends generally radially from the axis of the collet body when the legs are in an axially congruent state. Each toe is sized to fit th rough a driven nut through hole, from the interior of the nut to the exterior. Thus, a portion of the collet body legs are also sized to fit interiorly of the driven nut.

[0051 ] In an assembled state, the distal, reduced diameter portion of the screw occupies the space between the converging legs such that the maxi mum outer diameter of the toes is equal to or less than the outer diameter of the driven nut when measured at a pair of through holes. When the nut is run up (towards the proximal end of) the screw, the greater diameter threaded portion of the screw is introduced into the space between the converging legs to cause further d isplacement there between, whereby the maximum outer diameter of the toes is greater than the outer diameter of the driven nut when measured at a pair of through holes. Preferably, this maxi mum outer diameter is also greater than the hole diameter of the distal work piece during compressional association of all work pieces.

[0052] Because in many examples the substantial ly longitudinal slots formed in the housing body extend to the distal end thereof, a cap or other termination element is preferably located at the housing body distal end to prevent unintentional loss of the collet body when the fastener is in an assembled state.

[0053] Fu rthermore, because the screw may incorporate a reduced diameter, non-threaded portion at a distal end thereof, it is possible for the driven nut to decouple from the screw when the nut is run down (toward the distal end of) the screw. To address this possible problem, a biasing element is presented between the housing body (which includes the cap if present) and the driven nut. In many examples, the biasing element, which may be a compression spring, is in compressional contact with the collet body, which in turn is in compressional contact with the driven nut, preferably via the interaction between the collet body toes and the driven nut through holes.

[0054] In another respect, the invention is directed to selected components found in assembled removable single side fasteners having an ultra-low stack height grip range. These components include housing bodies, collet bodies and driven nuts.

[0055] As previously descri bed, housing bodies according to the invention have a generally cylindrical form, and include an outer diameter, an inner diameter and at least two substantially longitudinal slots formed therein, preferably opposed to one another and extending substantially the length of the housing body from a proximal end thereof to a distal end thereof. The slots create exposed sectional faces in the housing body, which form one part of a two-part ARM with respect one of the driven nut or the collet body (and preferably the driven nut). This form of an ARM is referred to herein as a sectional ARM. If maxi mum working range of the fastener is intended, it is desirable to have the slots (and therefore the resulting sectional faces) extend substantially the entire length of the housing body.

[0056] It should be noted, however, that the housing body ARM need not exclusively be located on the exposed sectional faces of the housing body; alternative or additional means for modulating driven nut to housi ng body relative rotation include using a non-circular cross section profile for the i nner surface of the housi ng body (referred to herein as a surface ARM). [0057] To facilitate assembly of the fastener and introduction of the collet body into the housing body, the distal end thereof may be open. In this manner, the collet body and optional biasing element, such as the compression spring , may be introduced into the housing body where after the assembly may be permanently (e.g ., swaged, adhered, welded , etc.) or semi-permanently (e.g. , screwed) closed with an end cap.

[0058] Depending upon applications, the proxi mal end of the housing body may have a beveled head so as to fit within a beveled recess formed in the proximal work piece. Therefore, an ultra-low profile or flush head temporary fastener can be created. Additionally, the beveled head can have a conventional cylindrical bore formed therein to receive a conventional cap head screw head. To prevent rotation of the housing body during clamping operations, one or more tool interfaces can be formed in the beveled head to receive a tool that will prevent unintentional rotation of the housi ng body.

[0059] With respect to methods for using temporary fasteners according to the invention, such methods include ensuring that the screw contacting portions of the collet body legs are in the reduced diameter portion of the screw such that the toes are in a retracted position ; inserting the d istal end of the fastener through all work piece holes; rotating the screw so that the driven nut is caused to translate towards the proximal end of the fastener, whereby the collet body legs are radially displaced , causing the collet body toes to transition to an extended position ; and continuing to cause the driven nut to translate towards the proximal end of the fastener until compressive contact is made between the collet body toes and the distal work piece.

[0060] For purposes of this patent, the terms "area", "boundary", "part",

"portion", "surface", "zone", and their synonyms, equivalents and plural forms, as may be used herein and by way of example, are intended to provide descriptive references or landmarks with respect to the article and /or process being described. These and si milar or equivalent terms are not intended, nor should be inferred , to delimit or define per se elements of the referenced article and /or process, u nless specifically stated as such or facially clear from the several drawings and /or the context in which the term(s) is/are used.

[0061 ] Figs. 1 -3 show an example of a removable single side fastener 1 00 in various views. Specifically, Fig. 1 is a side view of a collet body; Fig. 2 is an end view from the fastener head ; and Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view.

[0062] The removable single side fastener 1 00 includes a fastener body 1 1 0, a screw 1 20, a drive nut 1 30, a collet 1 40, a block 1 50, a spring 1 60 and a cap 1 70. The fastener body 1 1 0 is a generally cylindrical housing body having a housing head portion 1 1 2 at a proximal end thereof and a shank portion 1 1 4 extending distally there from, an outer shank d iameter, an inner pri mary bore diameter and at least two substantially long itudinal slots 1 1 5 formed in the shank portion that extend substantially the length of the shank portion. The shank portion 1 1 4 has an outer diameter less than any work piece hole diameter. In many examples, the two long itudinal slots are in opposition, i.e., d iametrically opposed. Moreover, various examples of the fasteners or assembl ies include three or more slots, preferably circumferentially equidistant from each other.

[0063] The threaded screw 1 20 is inserted into the fastener housing body 1 1 0.

The screw 1 20 has a head portion 1 22 at a proximal end thereof and a tip 1 24 with a reduced diameter portion (which may be threaded or non-threaded) at a distal end thereof. The head portion 1 22 is preferably, but not necessarily, sized to fit into a recess formed at the housing head portion 1 1 2 of the housing body and the screw length is preferably less than the length of the housing body so that when assembled, neither the proximal portion nor the distal portion extend beyond the ends of the housing body. In some examples, the ti p 1 24 has a ramp section 1 26 with the diameter of the screw decreasing gradually to the tip diameter. In some examples, the head portion 1 22 of the threaded screw 1 20 is rotatably confined within the housing head portion 1 1 2 by a lock ring 1 1 3 (shown in Fig. 25)

[0064] The driven nut 1 30 is rotationally coupled to the th readed screw 1 20, when the fastener is assembled. The driven nut 1 30 has an outer surface and an inner surface. The inner surface is adapted to rotationally couple with the threaded screw. The driven nut has a generally cylindrical form but that is rotationally constrained relative to the housing body 1 1 0, when associated therewith, by a first part of an anti- rotation means ("ARM") present on an exterior surface thereof. As will be detailed later, th is first part of the ARM acts upon a second part of the ARM that forms part of the housing body.

[0065] In addition to the foregoi ng, the driven nut 1 30 defines at least one pair of radially oriented through holes 1 32 that are adapted to align with the housing body long itudinal slots 1 1 5 , th us allowing the through holes to be exposed to the

environment exterior of the collet body housing outer surface.

[0066] The collet body 1 40 is operatively linked to the driven nut 1 30. The collet body includes a col let body base 1 41 having a central axis and at least a first pair of collet body legs 1 42 that converge towards the central axis when in a nomi nal state. The collet body legs 1 42 define a plurality of collet body slots 1 44 between the legs. Each leg, in turn, has an extending portion or toe 1 46, which extends generally radially from the axis of the collet body when the legs are in an axially congruent state. Each toe 1 46 is sized to fit through a driven nut through hole 1 32 , from the interior of the nut to the exterior. Thus, a portion of the collet body legs 1 42 are also sized to fit interiorly of the driven nut.

[0067] In an assembled state, the screw ti p 1 24 occupies the space between the converging legs 1 42 such that the maximum outer diameter of the toes 1 46 is equal to or less than the outer diameter of the driven nut when measured at a pair of through holes. Fig. 3 shows that the drive nut 1 30 and the screw 1 20 are not threadably engaged yet. The reduced diameter of the screw tip 1 24 allows the collet body legs 1 42 and toes 1 46 to remain converged . When the nut is ru n up (towards the proximal end of) the screw, the greater diameter threaded portion of the screw 1 20 is introduced into the space between the converging legs to cause further displacement there between, whereby the maxi mum outer diameter of the toes 1 46 is greater than the outer diameter of the driven nut 1 30 when measured at a pair of through holes. Preferably, this maximum outer diameter is also greater than the hole diameter of the distal work piece during compressional association of all work pieces.

[0068] Because in many examples the substantial ly longitudinal slots 1 1 5 formed in the housing body 1 1 0 extend to the distal end thereof, a cap 1 70 or other termination element is preferably located at the housing body distal end to prevent unintentional loss of the collet body when the fastener is in an assembled state.

[0069] Fu rthermore, because the screw 1 20 may incorporate a reduced diameter, non-threaded portion (the tip 1 24) at a distal end thereof, it is possi ble for the driven nut 1 30 to decouple from the screw when the nut is run down (toward the distal end of) the screw. To address this possible problem, a biasing element is presented between the housing body (which includes the cap if present) and the driven nut. In many examples, the biasing element, which may be a compression spring 1 60, is in compressional contact with the collet body, wh ich in turn is in compressional contact with the driven nut 1 30, preferably via the interaction between the collet body toes and the driven nut through holes.

[0070] In another respect, the invention is directed to selected components found in assembled removable single side fasteners having an ultra-low stack height grip range. These components include at least housing bodies 1 1 0, collet bodies 1 40 and driven nuts 1 30.

[0071 ] As previously descri bed, housing bodies according to the invention have a generally cylindrical form, and include an outer diameter, an inner diameter and at least two substantially longitudinal slots formed therein, preferably opposed to one another and extending substantially the length of the housing body from a proximal end thereof to a distal end thereof. The slots create exposed sectional faces in the housing body, which form one part of a two-part ARM with respect one of the driven nut or the collet body (and preferably the driven nut). This form of an ARM is referred to herein as a sectional ARM. If maxi mum working range of the fastener is intended, it is desirable to have the slots (and therefore the resulting sectional faces) extend substantially the entire length of the housing body.

[0072] It should be noted, however, that the housing body ARM need not exclusively be located on the exposed sectional faces of the housing body; alternative or additional means for modulating driven nut to housi ng body relative rotation include using a non-circular cross section profile for the i nner surface of the housi ng body (referred to herein as a surface ARM).

[0073] Figs. 4-23 show an example of a removable single side fastener 1 00 in various views during fastening process.

[0074] To facilitate assembly of the fastener and introduction of the collet body

1 40 into the housing body 1 1 0, the distal end of the housing body 1 1 0 may be open initially. In this manner, the collet body 1 40 and optional biasing element 1 60, such as the compression spring, may be introduced into the housing body where after the assembly may be permanently (e.g. , swaged, adhered, welded , structurally glued, etc.) or semi-permanently (e.g., screwed) closed with the end cap 1 70.

[0075] Depending upon applications, the proxi mal end of the housing body may have a beveled head so as to fit within a beveled recess formed in the proximal work piece 31 0 (showing in Figs. 24-25). The fastener housing body is inserted through a proximal work piece hole 31 2 in the proximal work piece 31 0 and a distal work piece hole 322 in the distal work piece 320. The proximal work piece hole 31 2 has a beveled recess such that the housing head 1 1 2 is flush with the proximal work piece 31 0 when fastening process finished. Therefore, an ultra-low profile or flush head temporary fastener can be created. Additionally, the beveled head can have a conventional cylindrical bore 1 1 3 formed therein to receive a conventional cap head screw head 1 22. By rotating the screw head 1 22 instead of the housi ng, rotational abrasion between the housing head portion 1 1 2 and proximity workpiece may be avoided. To prevent rotation of the housing body duri ng clamping operations, one or more tool interfaces can be formed in the beveled head to receive a tool that will prevent unintentional rotation of the housing body.

[0076] Before the screw 1 20 and the driven nut 1 30 threadably engaged, the compression spring 1 60 pushes (directly or via a block 1 50) the collet body 1 40 and th us the driven nuts 1 30 against the screw ti p 1 24. Such a compression enables or facilitates an initial thread engagement between the driven nuts 1 30 and the screw 1 20. After the thread engagement is established, the screw 1 20 may be rotated by rotating a drive interface 1 23 on the screw head 1 22. Since the driven nut 1 30 is rotatably constrained relative to the housing body 1 1 0, the driven nut 1 30 moves longitudinally along the housing body longitudinal slots 1 1 5 toward the housing head portion 1 1 2 when the screw 1 20 is rotated further. Such a longitudinal movement of the driven nut 1 30 will also drag the col let body 1 40 to move toward the housing head portion 1 1 2 and force the collet body legs 1 42 diverge outwards (by the screw 1 20) to protrude the toes 1 46 out of the driven nut through holes 1 32.

[0077] With the collet body 1 40 moving longitudinally toward the housing head portion 1 1 2 , the spring 1 60 starts expand ing and pushes the block 1 50 to touch the screw tip 1 24, which corresponds to the moment that the block 1 50 decoupling to the collet body 1 40. In some examples, even when the spring 1 60 expands to the position with the block 1 50 touching the screw tip 1 24, the spring 1 60 is still in a compressed stage, although being compressed less, in order to hold the block 1 50 in position (as shown in Fig. 1 5).

[0078] When the driven nut 1 30 moves longitudinally and starts touching the housing head portion 1 1 2 (or the root of the shank portion 1 1 4), the collet body 1 40 reaches a maximum position of a clapping range. The maximu m position is defined as the maximum movable position of the collet body 1 40 beginning from the position where the driven nut 1 30 and the screw 1 20 just threadably engages. Therefore, when the collet body 1 40 reaches the maximum position, the fastener 1 00 actually has a minimum stack clapping distance. With such a configuration that the collet body 1 40 may be moved to touch the housing head portion 1 1 2 , the fastener 1 00 may be used to clap workpieces with ultra-low stack height.

[0079] Figs. 24-25 show side views of the removable single side fastener with two working pieces clamped together between the housing body head 1 1 2 and the protruded toes 1 46. The housing body head portion 1 1 2 may be a beveled head so as to fit with in a beveled recess formed in the proximal work piece 31 0. Therefore, an ultra- low profile or flush head temporary fastener can be created. Additionally, the beveled head can have a conventional cylindrical bore 1 1 3 (shown in Fig . 29) formed therein to receive a conventional cap head screw head 1 22. By rotating the screw head 1 22 instead of the housing, rotational abrasion between the housing head portion 1 1 2 and proximity workpiece may be avoided. To prevent rotation of the housing body during clamping operations, one or more tool interfaces can be formed in the beveled head to receive a tool that will prevent unintentional rotation of the housing body.

[0080] Fig . 26-32 show various localized isometric view of selected components for better clarification and functional view of the fastener. Specifically, Fig. 26 is a localized isometric view of the screw tip and collet body before the clamping feet expanded. Fig. 27 is a localized isometric view of the screw ti p and collet body with the clamping feet expanded. Fig. 28 is a localized side view of the screw tip and collet body with the clamping feet expanded. Fig. 29 is a localized isometric view of the fastener body and the drive nut. Fig. 30 is an end view of the fastener body and the drive nut. Fig . 31 is a localized isometric view of the fastener body, the screw and the drive nut. Fig . 32 is an end view and a cross-sectional of the fastener body head.

[0081 ] In some examples, the threaded screw 1 20 may engage the collet body

1 40 directly. For example, the collet body base 1 41 may be threaded to engage the th readed screw 1 20. The collet body 1 40 may be disposed in an opposite direction as disclosed in the aforementioned examples, with the collet body base 1 41 facing the th readed screw 1 20. The collet body legs 1 42 and extending portion toes 1 46 are coupled to the drive nut 1 30 in a similar way to the aforementioned examples. By such config urations, the drive nut 1 30 may not be threaded as it will be dragged by the collet body (more specifically the toe) to move longitudinally toward the housing head 1 1 2.

[0082] With respect to methods for using temporary fasteners according to the invention, such methods include ensuring that the screw contacting portions of the collet body legs are in the reduced diameter portion of the screw such that the toes are in a retracted position ; inserting the d istal end of the fastener through all work piece holes; rotating the screw so that the driven nut is caused to translate towards the proximal end of the fastener, whereby the collet body legs are radially displaced , causing the collet body toes to transition to an extended position ; and continuing to cause the driven nut to translate towards the proximal end of the fastener until compressive contact is made between the collet body toes and the distal work piece.

[0083] Those skilled in the art will realize that the single side fastener can be constructed with various configurations. For example a single side fastener may be config ured other than disclosed in the aforementioned examples. Those skilled in the art will also realize that a single side fastener may further incorporate different components. The foregoi ng descri ption of the invention has been described for purposes of clarity and understanding. Various modifications may be i mplemented within the scope and equ ivalence of the appended claims.