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Title:
REMOVAL OF CHOLESTEROL FROM EDIBLES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1995/004473
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A process for the removal of a predetermined percentage of cholesterol from edibles which contain such cholesterol by hydrocolloid extractants according to the inventions, preferably galactomannoses, is disclosed. Also disclosed is the in vivo use of such extractants to provide control of cholesterol levels.

Inventors:
Garti, Nissim
Application Number:
PCT/US1994/008814
Publication Date:
February 16, 1995
Filing Date:
August 04, 1994
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
YISSUM RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT COMPANY OF THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY OF JERUSALEM HEINE, Holliday, C
Garti, Nissim
International Classes:
A23C7/04; A23C15/14; A23L5/20; A23L15/00; A23L29/238; (IPC1-7): A23L1/015; A23L1/32; A23C7/04; A23L1/0526; A23C15/14
Domestic Patent References:
1994-03-17
1994-06-09
1991-05-02
1991-11-14
1991-08-08
Foreign References:
EP0481225A11992-04-22
EP0260135A21988-03-16
US3148114A1964-09-08
Other References:
H. HATTA ET AL: "SEPARATION OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS FROM EGG YOLK AND RECOVERY OF WATER-SOLUBLE PROTEINS", JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, vol. 53, no. 2, 1988, pages 425 - 427
DATABASE WPI Week 8550, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 85-314078
DATABASE WPI Week 7650, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 76-93576
A.R. KHAN ET AL: "EFFECT OF GUAR GUM ON BLOOD LIPIDS", THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, vol. 34, no. 11, 1981, pages 2446 - 2449
H.R. SUPERKO: "DECREASING BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVELS WITH A DIETARY ADDITIVE: AN ADDITIONAL APPROACH TO DIET AND DRUGS", CARDIOVASCULAR REVIEWS AND REPORTS, vol. 6, no. 11, 1985, pages 1253 - 1265
J.M. GEE ET AL: "THE INFLUENCE OF GUAR GUM ON INTESTINAL CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT IN THE RAT", BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, vol. 50, 1983, pages 215 - 224
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Claims:
CLAIMS:
1. A process for the removal of a predetermined percentage of cholesterol from liquid of liquefiable foodstuffs, which contain cholesterol, which comprises contacting the liquid edible material with an absorbent hydrocolloid or equivalent until the desired percentage of cholesterol is removed, and separating the liquid depleted in cholesterol from the absorbent material.
2. A process according to claim 1, where the absorbent is a galactomannose.
3. A process according to claim 1 or 2, where the absorbent is poly 1,40mannose on which there is grafted galactose.
4. A process according to claim 1 or 2, where the absorbent is a gum selected from Fenugreek, guar gum, tara gum, locust bean gum and from chemically modified gums of this type.
5. A process according to any of claims 1 to 4, where the liquid foodstuff is contacted with the absorbent, left in contact with agitation, and where the absorbent is separated by centrifugation.
6. A process according to any of claim 1 to 4, where the liquid foodstuff is passed through a column of an absorbent supported by a suitable carrier.
7. A process according to any of claims 1 to 6, where the substrate from which cholesterol is removed is selected from milk, cream, butter, eggs and other dairy products.
8. A process according to any of claims 1 to 7, where the absorbent is recovered and used for the treatment of one or more further batches.
Description:
REMOVAL OF CHOLESTEROL FROM EDIBLES

FIELD OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to a novel process for the removal of at least part of cholesterol from edibles and to means for errecting such process. The process is especially effective in the removal of cholesterol from eggs, milk, cream, butter and the like, which can be brought to a liquid state.

The process is effected by means of hydrocolloids.

Preferred extractants are certain galactomannoses, such as galactose grafted on poly 1,4-0-mannose. Suitable extractants are certain natural gums such as guar gum, tara gum, Fenugreek, locust bean gum and the like.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The deleterious effect of excess ingestion of cholesterol is well established, and is especially serious with patients who suffer from certain blocking of blood vessels. Many attempts have been made to remove cholesterol, or to provide edibles which resemble natural food, but which are at least of partial artificial nature. Consumers prefer natural foods, which have a certain appearance and taste. Thus any artificial products which do not mimic the natural products to near identity, are generally not accepted.

The present invention provides natural foodstuffs from which a predetermined percentage of cholesterol has been removed, yet which retain their original appearance and the taste of which is substantially not impaired.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a process for the removal of a predetermined percentage of cholesterol from edibles which contain such cholesterol, to mean for such removal and to the products obtained by such process. The invention also

relates to use of extracts according to the invention to provide in vivo control of cholesterol levels.

The preferred extractants according to the invention are certain hydrocolloids. Preferred are galactomannoses, and especially galactose grafted on poly-l,4-0-mannose. Suitable extractants are based on natural gums, such as Fenugreek, guar gum, tara gum, locust bean gum and the like. Further possible extractants are hydrocolloids based on polyglucosides derived from cereals, such as brans. The effectivity of these is generally less than that of the mentioned gums.

The gums used in the extraction process of the present invention can be prepared by conventional processes. There may be used an extraction from used seed germ by hot water, sometimes with the addition of a suitable alcohol, such as isopropanol, which can be evaporated at the end of the extraction to leave the desired product as precipitation. The extraction can be effected by contacting the substrate with the extractant in a variety of embodiments of the invention.

The extractants can be applied to an inert carrier and used in column form. Suitable carriers are inert materials such as silica, alumina, carbon black, Ca CO, or other minerals. The process of extraction is generally carried out by preparing an aqueous medium containing the appropriate concentration of the hydrocolloiud and by adding the substrate (liquid egg, milk, butter, cream etc.) in a gradual manner and at a temperature where the said substrate is in liquid form (about 45 degrees for butter, about 60 degrees for shortening, ambient temperature for milk, cream and eggs) , stirring for a predetermined period of time, generally of the order of about 5 to 10 minutes, and centrifuging to attain full separation of the gum. Good results were obtained by centrifugation at about 2000 RPM for about 10 minutes.

The liquid edible, from which part of the cholesterol has been removed, is worked up, and the solid can be used subsequently for treating further batches of substrate. At least two or three cycle can be carried out without appreciable decrease in the efficiency of the removal.

The absorbed cholesterol can be washed out of the absorbent by treating the "mixture" with surfactant solution such as sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium sulfo succinate and other detergents. The gum is dried and can be used. Good results were obtained with an aqueous extractant which contains about 5 to 10 percent of the hydrocolloid, by weight. According to yet another embodiment of the invention, there is used an absorbent of the invention in column form. A column is packed with the hydrocolloid (gum, etc.), and the substrate is passed through such column at a predetermined flow rate. Experiments were carried out with columns which contain 5 to 10 grams of the hydrocolloid with 5 to 10 ml of water, and the edible containing the cholesterol was passed through the column. The foodstuff can be passed through the column by gravity. There can also be applied a certain pressure. The degree of cholesterol removal can be controlled within rather wide limits, and it depends on the parameters of the column, on the retention time and whether it is passed only once or a number of times through such columns.

Rather short times (of the order of a few minutes) , resulted in about 20 to 30 percent removal of the cholesterol present, whereas longer contact times or repeat passage results in a much higher percentage of removal. Factors influencing the rate and degree of removal are those conventional with columns of absorbents: contact area, particle size, packing density, retention time, pressure etc. Practically all the parameters known to influence gel permeation chro atography apply to this system. It is clear that each type of substrate requires an optimization of the process parameters.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT EXAMPLE:

A glass column of 4 cm internal diameter was filled with a layer of 5 mm glass wool, with 2 cm height 3 mm diameter glass beads, with 4.5 cm of hydrocolloid (guar gum) (15.35 gr is the weight of gum) followed by further 2 cm glass beads. The total quantity of absorbent was 15.35 gr. A quantity of 200 gr of whipping cream, containing about 150 mg of cholesterol in 100 gr sample was stirred with an equal volume of water during 30 minutes, and a quantity of about

200 ml of the liquid was applied to the column at a rate of

60 to 65 drops per minute. The extracted product, Ca 150 g

(75%) was analyzed by a UV spectrophotometer and the cholesterol was determined. After one pass the cholesterol content was decreased by

50%.

EXAMPLE:

A quantity of butter was mixed with 7 percent by weight of guar gum, at a temperature of 80 degrees C. In another run eggs were used at ambient temperature. The mixture of the substrate was stirred by means of a magnetic stirrer during 30 minutes. The resultant mixture was inserted into centrifuge vessels and centrifuged during 10 minutes at 2000 RPM at 30 degrees C. The material obtained from butter was kept at 80 degrees C and the precipitate was separated from the suspension. Each of these was weighed and the cholesterol content was determined. In the precipitate obtained from the treatment of butter there was found 75% of the initial cholesterol content. The overall yield was 67%.

TABLE OF CHOLESTEROL ANALYSIS IN BUTTER

SUPERNATANTE PRECIPITATE

Mg Reagent & a Cholesterol Reagent Reagent Butter in H,0 Fat Cholesterol % % H,0 Fat Solid Total in lOOg % Butter & Butter centrifuge % % % in 100g Cholesterol recombined % % % % % dried Iruit <0) (a ) ( a ) la ) lβ> (gi (g) dried fruit absorbed cholesterol (g) (g) (g) (g) Λ 250.36 Guar Gum 25.25 26.51 26.25 70.21 0.0 100.0 69,80 72.1 1 27.89 29.79 67.02 17.38 15.60 D 5% (1 ,26) (18,48) ( 18,481 (7.82) (5.24) (1 .36) (1 ,22) 100 O

250.36 Fenugreek 25.17 26.43 26 10 70.46 0.0 100.0 104.3 58.32 1 .63 29.54 46.27 37,37 16.36

5% (18.39) (18,39) (7,71 ) (3.57) (2,89) (1.26) 100

(1 ,26) O 250.36 Konjak 25,87 27.16 27, 1 6 67.93 0.0 100.0 1 15.4 53.39 6.1 32.07 40.27 44.90 14.83 100 -rπ Gum (18,45) (18.45) (8,71) (3.51) (3.911 (1.29)

IPropol A) 5% (1.291 3 = 250.36 Vidogen 49.9 4 52.44 52. 4 74.55 0.0 100.0 1 15,52 53.8 46.2 25.42 60.39 20.80 18.71 100 S P 200 (39,14) (39,14) (13.3 (8.08) (2,78) (2.5) (Tara gum) 6) 5% (2,5)

250.36 Gum 25.79 27.07 26.59 70.52 0.0 100.0 112,70 54,97 45.03 29.48 52.34 31.36 16.30 100 Kazaya (18,75) (18,75) (7,84) (4.10) (2,46) (1.28) 5% (2,5)

Table I

Table I (Cont)

% Cholesterol Adsorbent

Supernatante Mg/100g

505 Blank

330,53 Guar N1

316,82 N2

402 Gum ** N1

283.04 • * •• N2 6,68 350.9 Centrifuge Supernatante

5% 2000/10 248,96 Blank

1 . 1 8,70 141 ,90 5% Centrifuge Supernatante 1 . 1 232,82 Blank 1 , 1

5,25 158.9 Guar Centrifuge Sup. 3% 2000/10 1 . 1 2,99 325,37 Silica FK-500 Centrifuge Sup. 5% 2000/10

Table II

% - Cholesterol

Fat Solid H 2 0 % H 2 0 % Cholesterol % % Lyophilyzed Fisher mg/100g Conditions Sample N

41.44 5.1 1 54.34 52.57 155 - Cream

28.52 16.79 56.04 55.66 100 N1 . 5 % GUAR

34.64 10.96 54.00 54.42 127 N2 3 % GUAR

30.89 20.80 56.13 57.00 52.5 N3 7 % GUAR

26.85 17.23 54.99 55.27 50.3 N4 7 % GUAR

35.33 14.56 50.10 - 81.0 Remained in Repeat Column Run

Table III