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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
RFID TRANSPONDER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/097106
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An RFID transponder, comprising an antenna (1), comprising a radiating element or elements (2), a parasitic ra-diating element or elements (3), said radiating element (2) being matched to create a first polarization vector to be excited. The parasitic radiating element (3) is arranged to sweep round the antenna (1) at proximity of the radiating element (2) so that the parasitic element is extending on two to all sides of the radiating element (2). The parasitic radiating element (3) is matched to create a second polar-ization vector to be excited, the second polarization vector being perpendicular to the first polarization vector.

Inventors:
AHOKAS HEIKKI (FI)
Application Number:
FI2017/050788
Publication Date:
May 23, 2019
Filing Date:
November 16, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CONFIDEX OY (FI)
International Classes:
G06K19/077; H01Q1/22; H01Q9/04; H01Q9/06; H01Q19/00
Foreign References:
CN204189947U2015-03-04
US20120268251A12012-10-25
US20080252462A12008-10-16
US20100123553A12010-05-20
US20060220869A12006-10-05
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KOLSTER OY AB (FI)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. An RFID transponder (100), comprising

- an antenna (1 ), comprising a radiating element or elements (2),

- a parasitic radiating element or elements (3),

- said radiating element (2) being matched to create a first polariza- tion vector to be excited,

- said parasitic radiating element (3) being arranged to sweep round the antenna (1 ) at proximity of the radiating element (2) so that the parasitic element is extending on two to all sides of the radiating element (2), and

the parasitic radiating element (3) being matched to create a second polarization vector to be excited, the second polarization vector being perpen- dicular to the first polarization vector.

2. The RFID transponder as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the radiat- ing element (2) has a general outer shape of a rectangle, with or without one or more recess(es), and

the parasitic radiating element (3) has an inner edge following the general outer shape of the rectangle. 3. The RFID transponder as claimed in claim 2, wherein the parasit- ic radiating element (3) extends on three sides of the radiating element (2).

4. The RFID transponder as claimed in claim 3, wherein the parasit- ic radiating element (3) comprises three subareas, first of which being ar- ranged to proximity of a first edge of the radiating element (2),

second subarea being arranged to proximity of a second edge of the radiating element (2), and

third subarea being arranged to proximity of a third edge of the radi ating element (2), wherein

said first and second subareas having at least essentially equal width, and width of said third subarea being half or less than half of the width of said first and second subareas.

5. The RFID transponder as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the radiat- ing element (2) has a general outer shape of an ellipsoid, with or without one or more recess(es), and the parasitic radiating element (3) has an inner edge following the general outer shape of the ellipsoid.

6. The RFID transponder as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the radiat- ing element (2) has a general outer shape of a circle, with or without one or more recess(es), and

the parasitic radiating element (3) has an inner edge following the general outer shape of the circle.

7. The RFID transponder as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the radiat- ing element (2) has at least one opening (7), and

the parasitic radiating element (3) being arranged in said opening (), wherein the parasitic radiating element (3) has an outer edge following at least two inner edges of said opening (7).

8. The RFID transponder as claimed in any of the preceding claims, wherein the parasitic radiating element (3) is arranged to couple to the radiat- ing element (2) by a magnetic (inductive) field.

9. The RFID transponder as claimed in any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the parasitic radiating element (3) is arranged to couple to the radiating ele- ment (2) by an electric (capacitance) field.

10. The RFID transponder as claimed in any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the parasitic radiating element (3) is arranged to couple to the radiat- ing element (2) by an electromagnetic (combination of inductive and capaci- tance) field.

11. The RFID transponder as claimed in any of the preceding claims, wherein the radiating element(s) (2) and the parasitic radiating ele- ment(s) (3) are arranged on the same plane surface in the RFID transponder.

12. The RFID transponder as claimed in any of the preceding claims, wherein at least one parasitic element (3) is arranged on a different plane surface as the radiating element(s) (2).

13. The RFID transponder as claimed in claim 12, wherein the at least one of said parasitic element(s) (3) is arranged on a plane on top of the radiating element(s) (2).

Description:
RFID transponder Background

The invention relates to an RFID transponder.

RFID transponders or RFID labels or RFID tags are used for identi- fying and/or tracking various objects. The RFID transponders are read at a dis- tance by RFID readers.

Flowever, every now and then arises a problem that the maximum reading distance should be extended.

Brief description

Viewed from a first aspect, there can be provided an RFID tran- sponder, comprising an antenna, comprising a radiating element or elements, a parasitic radiating element or elements, said radiating element being matched to create a first polarization vector to be excited, said parasitic radiat- ing element being arranged to sweep round the antenna at proximity of the radiating element so that the parasitic element is extending on two to all sides of the radiating element, and the parasitic radiating element being matched to create a second polarization vector to be excited, the second polarization vec- tor being perpendicular to the first polarization vector.

Thereby an RFID transponder that allows for greater read distances in typical UFIF RFID systems may be achieved.

The RFID transponder is characterised by what is stated in claim 1. Some other embodiments are characterised by what is stated in the other claims. Inventive embodiments are also disclosed in the specification and drawings of this patent application. The inventive content of the patent applica- tion may also be defined in other ways than defined in the following claims. The inventive content may also be formed of several separate inventions, es- pecially if the invention is examined in the light of expressed or implicit sub- tasks or in view of obtained benefits or benefit groups. Some of the definitions contained in the following claims may then be unnecessary in view of the sepa- rate inventive ideas. Features of the different embodiments of the invention may, within the scope of the basic inventive idea, be applied to other embodi- ments. Brief description of figures

Some embodiments illustrating the present disclosure are described in more detail in the attached drawings, in which

Figure 1 is a schematic top view of a known RFID transponder, Figure 2 is a schematic top view of an RFID transponder according to the invention,

Figures 3a - 3d are schematic top views of another RFID tran- sponders according to the invention,

Figures 4a - 4c are showing performance of various RFID tran- sponders when read by a linear polarized reader antenna,

Figures 5a - 5b are showing performance of various RFID tran- sponders when read by a circular polarized reader antenna, and

Figures 6a - 6c are showing performance of various RFID tran- sponders on metal and plastic surfaces.

In the figures, some embodiments are shown simplified for the sake of clarity. Similar parts are marked with the same reference numbers in the figures.

Detailed description

Figure 1 is a schematic top view of a known RFID transponder. The RFID transponder 100 is a layered structure that comprises an antenna 1 , a radiating element 2 of the antenna and an IC 4.

Layers of the RFID transponder 100 are typically attached together with suitable adhesive layers and sealed by e.g. a silicone liner.

The antenna 1 and the IC 4 (together with further electronic compo- nents, if any) may be arranged to a structural module such as an inlay corn- prising a dielectric substrate.

The polarisation of the dipole signal excited by the antenna 2 has been shown by arrows A in Figure 1.

A problem with the RFID transponder 100 shown in Figure 1 is that when circular polarized reader antennas are utilized, there is an inherent link threshold power of 3 dB due to the mismatch in antenna polarization vectors. Additionally, when linear reader antennas are used and the polarization vector of the RFID transponder does not match with the polarization of the reader an- tenna, the transponder cannot be read at all (crosspolarization). Figure 2 is a schematic top view of an RFID transponder according to the invention. Also this RFID transponder 100 has a layered structure and comprises an antenna 1 , a radiating element 2 of the antenna and an IC 4. The antenna shown in Figure 2 is a dipole antenna. Flowever, the antenna may also be e.g. a PIFA or a IFA.

Layers of the RFID transponder 100 are typically attached together with suitable adhesive layers and sealed by e.g. a silicone liner.

The RFID transponder 100 may further comprise a spacer layer de- scribed above.

The antenna 1 , the IC 4 and any further electronic components may be arranged to a structural module such as an inlay comprising a dielectric substrate.

The radiating element 2 has been matched to create a first polariza- tion vector to be excited, shown by arrows A in Figure 1.

In addition, the RFID transponder 100 comprises a parasitic radiat- ing element 3. The parasitic radiating element 3 has been matched for creating a second polarization vector, shown by arrows B, to be excited so that the second polarization vector is perpendicular to the first polarization vector A. In other words, the RFID transponder 100 has a dual polarization.

An advantage of the perpendicular polarization vectors A, B is that the link losses may be substantially minimized. As a result, the reading dis- tance of the RFID transponder 100 is increased.

Another advantage is that if linear reader antennas are used, the RFID transponder 100 is readable in both vertical and horizontal orientation toward the reader antenna. Thus the orientation or position of the RFID tran- sponder 100, or of the object labelled with the RFID transponder 100, does not have any significant role for maximum reading distance.

In the embodiment shown in Figure 2, the radiating element 2 has a general outer shape of a rectangle, and the parasitic radiating element 3 has an inner edge following the general outer shape of said rectangle. The shape is not a precise rectangle, but there may be recesses, chamfers, and other de- tails in the general shape of the radiating element. The purpose of the details may be e.g. tuning of the radiating element, facilitating the manufacturing of the transponder etc.

In the embodiment shown in Figure 2, the parasitic radiating ele- ment 3 extends on three sides of the radiating element 2. The parasitic radiat- ing element 3 comprises three subareas, first 6a of which being arranged to proximity of a first edge of the radiating element 2, second subarea 6b being arranged to proximity of a second edge of the radiating element 2, and third subarea 6c being arranged to proximity of a third edge of the radiating element 2. The first and second subareas 6a, 6b has equal width, whereas the width of said third subarea 6c is less than half of the width of said first and second sub- areas 6a, 6b. It is to be noted, however, that the dimensions of the subareas may be selected in another way, too.

In another embodiment, the parasitic radiating element 3 extends round the antenna 1 at proximity of the radiating element 2 on just two sides of the radiating element 2. In still another embodiment, the parasitic radiating el- ement 3 extends around the antenna 1 at proximity of the radiating element 2 on all sides of the radiating element 2.

According to an aspect, the radiating element 2 may have a general outer shape of an ellipsoid, with or without one or more recess(es), and the parasitic radiating element 3 has an inner edge following the general outer shape of the ellipsoid.

According to another aspect, the radiating element 2 has a general outer shape of a circle, with or without one or more recess(es), and the parasit- ic radiating element 3 has an inner edge following the general outer shape of the circle.

According to still another aspect, the radiating element 2 has a gen- eral outer shape of a square, with or without one or more recess(es), and the parasitic radiating element 3 has an inner edge following the general outer shape of the square.

It is to be noted that there may be not only one but two or even more radiating elements 2 in the RFID transponder 100. Also there may be plurality of parasitic radiating elements 3 in the RFID transponder 100. An ad- vantage is that the efficiency of the radiating elements 2, 3 may be enhanced and the reading distance of the RFID transponder thus extended.

The parasitic radiating element 3 may be coupled to the radiating element 2 by a magnetic (inductive) field, by an electric (capacitance) field, or by a electromagnetic (combination of inductive and capacitance) field. The dis- tance between the radiating elements 2, 3 shall be as small as possible in or- der to ensure a good coupling between the radiating elements 2, 3. According to an aspect, the maximum distance is about 2 mm. In an embodiment, the radiating element 2 and the parasitic radiat- ing element 3 are arranged on the same plane surface in the RFID transpond- er 100. In another embodiment, said elements 2, 3 are arranged on different plane surfaces. For instance, the parasitic element 3 may be arranged on a plane on top of the radiating element 2, or alternatively, on a plane below the radiating element.

Figures 3a - 3d are a schematic top view of another RFID tran- sponders according to the invention. According to an aspect, the radiating el- ement 2 may have at least one opening 7, and the parasitic radiating element 3 is arranged in said opening 7. The opening 7 may be closed one, as shown in Figures 3a, 3b and 3d, or partly open as shown in Figure 3c. An advantage is that the dimensions of the RFID tag need not to be extended because of adding the parasitic element.

In Figures 3a - 3c the shape of the opening 7 as well as the general outer shape of the radiating element 2 is a rectangle. Flowever, the opening 7 and/or the parasitic radiating element 3 may have some another shape, such as elliptical, circular, trapezoid etc. For instance, Figure 3d is showing an em- bodiment wherein the shape of the opening 7 is trapezoid.

The parasitic radiating element 3 has an outer edge that follows at least two inner edges of said opening 7, i.e. the inner edge of the radiating el- ement 2.

Figure 4a is showing a known RFID transponder and its perfor- mance when read by a linear polarized reader antenna, Figure 4b is showing an embodiment of a RFID transponder according to the invention and its per- formance when read by the linear polarized reader antenna shown in Figure 4a, and Figure 4c is showing a second embodiment of a RFID transponder according to the invention and its performance when read by a linear polarized reader antenna shown in Figure 4a. It is to be noted that only the radiating el- ements of the RFID transponders are shown. Furthermore, the radiating ele- ment 2 is a dipole element. It is to be noted that x-axis is showing frequency as MFIz and y-axis is showing transmitted power as dBm.

As shown by the diagram of Figure 4a, the threshold power of the known RFID transponder at a frequency of 860 MFIz is about 27 dBm when measured in a horizontal position shown in right view of Figure 4a. A similar measurement was done to a RFID transponder comprising a parasitic radiating element 3 that extends on three sides of the radiating element 2, as shown in Figure 4b. In this embodiment, the threshold power was about 12 dBm, only. In other words, the threshold power was dropped about 15 dB compared to the prior art solution.

Additionally it was measured an RFID transponder comprising a parasitic radiating element 3 that extends on two sides of the radiating element 2, as shown in Figure 4c. In this embodiment, the threshold power was about 15 dBm. In other words, the threshold power was dropped about 12 dB corn- pared to the prior art solution.

Thus one can conclude that RFID transponders according to the in- vention may be read by a linear polarized reader antenna even the polarization vector of the reader antenna is in angle of 90° compared to the polarization vector of the RFID antenna.

Figure 5a is showing a known RFID transponder and its perfor- mance when read by a circular polarized reader antenna, and Figure 5b is showing an embodiment of a RFID transponder according to the invention and its performance when read by the circular polarized reader antenna shown in Figure 5a. It is to be noted that only the radiating elements of the RFID trans- ponders are shown. Furthermore, the radiating element 2 is a dipole element.

When comparing the diagrams of Figure 5a and Figure 5b at a fre- quency of 830 MFIz, it can be noticed that the threshold power in a vertical po- sition was lessened by 3 dB and in a horizontal position by 5 dB.

Thus an advantage is that RFID transponders according to the in- vention may be read by a circular polarized reader antenna more far than prior art RFID transponders.

Figures 6a - 6c are showing performance of various RFID tran- sponders on metal and plastic surfaces.

In Figure 6a there is shown a known RFID transponder seen from top and also as a cross-sectional view.

Figure 6b is showing an embodiment of a RFID transponder accord- ing to the invention seen from top and as a cross-sectional view.

The upmost diagram of Figure 6c is showing the losses of the RFID transponders 100 shown in Figures 6a, 6b when the transponder is attached on a plastic surface made of FIDPE and read by a linear polarized reader an- tenna in vertical measurement (as shown in Figures 4a and 4b). It is to be not- ed that the transponder works if the surface is of another plastic, such as ABS, polyolefin or any other thermoplastic, or of thermoset or any other dielectric material. As can be seen, the threshold power of the known RFID transponder (marked as“6a”) is clearly higher as that of the RFID transponded according to the invention (marked as“6b”) in a broad frequency range from approximately 855 MFIz to 960 MFIz. It is to be noted that x-axis is showing frequency as MFIz and y-axis is showing transmitted power as dBm.

The middle diagram of Figure 6c is showing the losses of the RFID transponders 100 shown in Figures 6a, 6b when the transponder is attached on a metal surface and read by a linear polarized reader antenna in vertical measurement. As can be seen, the losses are substantially identical through- out the measured frequency range.

The lowest diagram of Figure 6c is showing the losses of the RFID transponders 100 shown in Figures 6a, 6b when the transponder 100 is at- tached on a plastic surface and read by a linear polarized reader antenna in horizontal measurement (as shown in Figures 4a and 4b). As can be seen, the threshold power of the known RFID transponder is clearly higher through all the measured frequency range.

One can conclude that the performance of RFID transponders ac- cording to the invention is immune or at least substantially more immune to the surface material as known RFID transponders. Thus the RFID transponder according to the invention works well on both metal and plastic surfaces. Addi- tionally, the readability of the transponder may be improved when read by a linear polarized reader antenna, because the transponder may receive energy through the parasitic radiating element 3 even if the (main) radiating element 2 is cross-polarizated with respect to the electromagnetic wave of the reader an- tenna.

The invention is not limited solely to the embodiments described above, but instead many variations are possible within the scope of the in- ventive concept defined by the claims below. Within the scope of the inventive concept the attributes of different embodiments and applications can be used in conjunction with or replace the attributes of another embodiment or applica- tion.

The drawings and the related description are only intended to illus- trate the idea of the invention. The invention may vary in detail within the scope of the inventive idea defined in the following claims. Reference symbols

1 antenna

2 radiating element

3 parasitic radiating element

4 IC

6a-c parasitic subarea

7 opening

8 reader antenna

100 RFID transponder

A 1 st polarization vector

B 2 nd polarization vector