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Title:
RING-SHAPED BRIQUETTING MATRIX FOR WASTE MATERIALS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/123404
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The subject of the invention is a ring-shaped briquetting machine for waste materials containing oversize fraction, undersize fraction, and mixed fraction, consisting of a horizontal rectangular frame (14), on which an electric motor (9) is installed in a vertical position, and its axle is directed downwards, and a small pulley (8) is installed on the axle, and furthermore, a briquetting head is installed on the frame, and the head comprises a cylinder-shaped body (2) which, together with the shaft (5) rotating in it, is positioned vertically, and on one end of the shaft in its lower part a large pulley (8) is installed, and in the upper part a plate (4) is installed, in which at least two granulating rollers (3) are seated, characterized bythe fact that at the operating height of the granulating rollers (3) there are exchangeable briquetting fittings (1), fixed in a body (2) equipped with a heating system (17) and cooperating with a system of rotating compacting rollers (3), constituting a series of horizontal operating apertures (la) of rectangular cross-section, oriented radially, and the fitting (1) in the front part (16) and the external edges (18) of the rotating compacting rollers (3) are padded.

Inventors:
KOWALCZYK, Grzegorz (69c21-400 Turze Rogi, 21-400, PL)
Application Number:
IB2018/060495
Publication Date:
June 27, 2019
Filing Date:
December 21, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PROTECHNIKA SP. Z. O.O. (Żelechowska 67, 21-400 Łuków, 21-400, PL)
International Classes:
B30B11/20
Domestic Patent References:
WO1982002168A11982-07-08
Foreign References:
CN102632632A2012-08-15
KR20110104839A2011-09-23
CN105584087A2016-05-18
CN202174752U2012-03-28
KR101351876B12014-01-16
JP2001329277A2001-11-27
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KONDRAT, Mariusz (Al. Niepodległosci 223/1, 02-087 Warsaw, 02-087, PL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Patent Claims

1. A ring-shaped briquetting machine for waste materials containing oversize fraction, undersize fraction, and mixed fraction, consisting of a horizontal rectangular frame, on which an electric motor is installed in a vertical position, and its axle is directed downwards, and a small pulley is installed on the axle, and furthermore, a briquetting head is installed on the frame, and the head comprises a cylinder-shaped body which, together with the shaft rotating in it, is positioned vertically, and on one end of the shaft in its lower part a large pulley is installed, and in the upper part a plate is installed, in which at least two granulating rollers are seated, characterized in that at the operating height of the granulating rollers there are exchangeable briquetting fittings (1), fixed in a body (2) equipped with a heating system (4) and cooperating with a system of rotating compacting rollers (3), constituting a series of horizontal operating apertures (la) of rectangular cross-section, oriented radially, and the fitting in the front part (16) and the external edges of the rotating compacting rollers (3) are padded.

2. A ring-shaped briquetting matrix according to claim 1, characterized in that the cross- section of the briquetting aperture (la) gets smaller in the direction from the internal diameter of the created matrix towards its outlet.

3. A ring-shaped briquetting matrix according to claim 2, characterized in that each of the briquetting fittings (1) is fastened to the body (2) of the briquetting machine, using one screw inserted in the fastening holes (lb).

Description:
Ring-shaped briquetting matrix for waste materials

The subject of the invention is a ring-shaped briquetting matrix for waste materials.

In the existing solutions of operating briquetting systems, such a system was usually constituted by a flat, fixed or moving briquetting matrix cooperating with a system of compacting rollers. Briquetting apertures of such matrices (of diameter from 20-30 to 50-70 mm) are distributed on the circumference in one or several rows and are usually oriented vertically towards the briquette outlet.

Also known are solutions of briquetting matrices where, on the circumference of the matrix, depending on its size, there is a row or several rows of exchangeable bushes with "briquetting" apertures. Between "briquetting" apertures there are apertures of smaller diameter, so-called "granulating" apertures. Both "briquetting" apertures and "granulating" apertures are oriented vertically towards the briquette and granulate outlet.

Also known are solutions of flat folding briquetting matrices with apertures oriented vertically towards the briquette outlet. Such a solution makes it possible to increase or decrease the matrix thickness in the case of briquetting various raw materials (of various susceptibility to compacting) and to eliminate the use of many briquetting matrices accommodated to individual raw materials.

Known from the application CN104085127 is a briquetting machine, in particular a briquetting machine for fuel biomass processing. The briquetting machine for biomass production comprises a base, a main shaft, a material feeding device, a compacting container, and a driving device installed on the base, where the container for the compressing device is equipped with a pressing device, and the tank is located above the compressing box.

The essence of the invention is a ring-shaped briquetting machine for waste materials containing oversize fraction, undersize fraction, and mixed fraction, consisting of a l horizontal rectangular frame, on which an electric motor is installed in a vertical position, and its axle is directed downwards, and a small pulley is installed on the axle, and furthermore, a briquetting head is installed on the frame, and the head comprises a cylinder shaped body which, together with the shaft rotating in it, is positioned vertically, and on one end of the shaft in its lower part a large pulley is installed, and in the upper part a plate is installed, in which at least two granulating rollers are seated, characterized by the fact that at the operating height of the granulating rollers there are exchangeable briquetting fittings, fixed in a body equipped with a heating system and cooperating with a system of rotating compacting rollers, constituting a series of horizontal operating apertures of rectangular cross-section, oriented radially, and the fitting in the front part and the external edges of the rotating compacting rollers are padded.

Advantageously, the cross-section of the briquetting aperture (la) gets smaller in the direction from the internal diameter of the created matrix towards its outlet.

Advantageously, each of the briquetting fittings (1) is fastened to the body (2) of the briquetting machine, using one screw inserted in the fastening holes (lb).

The most advantageous materials that can be processed using a matrix according to the invention are oversize fraction, undersize fraction, and mixed fraction. In particular these are plastic, foamed polystyrene, foil, paper, small pieces of wood, packagings, and bio admixtures in various amount.

The ring-shaped briquetting matrix comprises a horizontal rectangular frame with legs in the corners. An electric motor is installed on the frame in vertical position, and its axle is directed downwards, and a small pulley is installed on the axle. A granulating head is also installed on the frame, comprising a cylinder-shaped body. The body and the shaft rotating in it are in vertical position. On one end of the shaft in its lower part a large pulley is installed, and in the upper part a plate is installed, in which two granulating rollers are seated. At the same operating height of the rollers there are fittings whose arrangement creates a matrix whose axis is in vertical position, ring-shaped with apertures of square cross-section. This cross-section gets smaller in the direction from the internal diameter of the created matrix. Each fitting is fastened to the body using one screw. Inside this ring there are rollers equipped with an eccentric mechanism which allows the distance from the fittings to be adjusted. Assembled fittings create a series of operating apertures of square cross- section. The fed raw material gets between the rollers and the fittings and is pressed into the apertures. Passing through an aperture, the raw material is compacted due to the decreasing cross-section of the aperture and the temperature generated by heaters and by friction of the raw material against the walls of the aperture. Transmission of power from the small pulley to the large one occurs using two composite five-groove V-belts. Transmission ratio 1:6.7. Outside the ring constituted by the fittings, just below it, there is a rotating ring-shaped tray with a toothed rim. This rim is driven using a gear motor. The rotating tray is enclosed with a fixed side with an opening. At this opening there is a vertically positioned flat bar on the entire width of the tray. On the fittings there is a vertically positioned cylinder-shaped charging hopper of internal diameter equal to the internal diameter of the ring created by the fittings. Heaters are fastened to the body at the place where the fittings are seated.

The process performed in a ring-shaped matrix according to the invention, which consists in compacting a side product created during processing of biomass or municipal waste, is aimed first of all at reducing its size up to 6 times, and at standardizing the size of the side product: approx. BOxBOcm, random length, but regular in 90% it is from 2.5 to 3.5 D and crumble content approx. 5%.

The subject of the invention is presented on the basis of figures, where fig. 1 presents a diagram of a ring-shaped briquetting matrix, fig. 2 - drawings of single "fittings" creating the ring-shaped briquetting matrix, fig. 3a - a side view of a briquetting device in which the ring-shaped briquetting matrix was fastened, fig. 3b - a front view of the briquetting device, fig. 4 - a cross-section of the operating system of the ring-shaped briquetting matrix, fig. 5 - a briquetting fitting with marked edges subject to regeneration by padding, and fig. 6 - a briquetting roller with marked edges subject to regeneration by padding.

A ring-shaped briquetting matrix consists of a series of exchangeable briquetting fittings 1, fixed in a body 2 and cooperating with a system of rotating compacting rollers 3. The composite fittings 1 create a series of horizontal operating apertures la of rectangular cross-section, oriented radially. The cross-section of the aperture la gets smaller in the direction from the internal diameter of the created matrix towards its outlet. Each of the briquetting fittings 1 is fastened to the body 2 of the briquetting machine, using one screw inserted in the fastening holes lb. Such a solution allows each of the briquetting fittings 1 to be replaced in a fast and simple manner, in the case if it is worn, as well as the geometry of the operating aperture to be changed in a fast and simple manner by using fittings of a different cross-section.

On the briquetting fittings (1) there is a vertically positioned cylinder-shaped charging hopper (6) of internal diameter equal to the internal diameter of the ring matrix being the subject of the invention, created by the fittings (1). The heaters (17) are fastened to the body (2) at the place where the fittings (1) are seated.

The compacting rollers (3) are located on the plate (4) attached to the main shaft (5) of the briquetting machine. Equipping the rollers (3) with an eccentric mechanism makes it possible to adjust the distance from the rollers (3) to the briquetting fittings (1) creating the briquetting matrix being the subject of the invention.

The fed raw material in crumbled form - granulation 0-60 mm - gets through the charging hopper (6) to the space between the rotating compacting rollers (3) and the briquetting fittings (1) and is pressed into the briquetting apertures (la). Passing through a briquetting aperture, the raw material (la) is compacted due to the decreasing cross-section of the aperture and the temperature generated by heaters and by friction of the raw material against the walls of the briquetting aperture (la). The main shaft (5) is installed in the body (2) using cone bearings (7). Rotation of the shaft (5) is performed by the belt transmission (8), driven by the electric motor (9) installed in vertical position, whose axle is directed downwards, and a small pulley is installed on the axle. The belt transmission consists of pulleys (transmission ratio approximately 1:6.7) connected with two sets of composite (5-groove) V-belts. Application of composite belts is dictated by the need to transfer large loads in a steady manner.

The briquetted raw material getting out of the briquetting aperture (la) falls on the rotating tray (disk) (10) driven by the toothed rim (11) from the separate gear motor (12). The high rotating velocity of the disk (10) and the centrifugal force causes the briquetted raw material to be thrown into the outlet gutter. The rotating disk (10) is enclosed with a fixed side (13) with an opening. At this opening there is a vertically positioned knife (flat bar) on the entire width of the disk (10). The body (2) with the briquetting assembly and the driving motor (9) are placed on the rigid supporting frame (14). The driving motor (9) is additionally fastened on the plate (15) which allows the tension of the V-belts to be adjusted. The charging hopper (6) has inspection holes for inspecting the condition and adjusting the briquetting assembly.

The briquetting fittings on the front edges (16) are padded using metals of high hardness, such as tungsten, manganese, chromium, carbide, or their mixtures. Padding leads to achieving hardness in the front parts of the fitting, i.e. the parts most exposed to abrasion, in the range from 60 to 80 HRC.

In the process performed in a briquetting matrix, bonds in polymer compounds are shortened, which accelerates the burning process, which also has less emission and is more ecological, additionally the mixed-in bio fraction, which contains cellulose and starch in its structure, subjected to temperature and high pressure also undergoes physiochemical transformation. Starch and cellulose become saccharified, which contributes to increasing the energetic value from 15 to 18% in a tested biodegradable fraction.