Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
SAPONIN PURIFICATION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/106192
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Saponin extracts containing at least 93% QS-21 main peak and 0.25-3% 2018 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm, methods for making said extracts, their use as vaccine adjuvants and related aspects.

Inventors:
BAIG, Ahmad, Taimour (GlaxoSmithKline, 553 Old Corvallis RoadHamilton, Montana, 59840-3607, US)
DENET, Felicie, Georgette, Colette (NOVASEP, 81 Boulevard de la NosellePompey, New York, 54340, US)
DIAZ GARCIA, Juan, Jose (GlaxoSmithKline, 325 North Bridge StreetMarietta, Pennsylvania, 17547, US)
FARRENBURG, Chad, Austin (GlaxoSmithKline, 553 Old Corvallis RoadHamilton, Montana, 59840-3607, US)
LAWRENCE, Lora, Lea (GlaxoSmithKline, 553 Old Corvallis RoadHamilton, Montana, 59840-3607, US)
MYERS, Kent, Raymond (553 Old Corvallis RoadHamilton, Montana, 59840-3607, US)
SANDVICK, Jeri, Kay (GlaxoSmithKline, 553 Old Corvallis RoadHamilton, Montana, 59840-3607, US)
VANDENBURG, Jeb, Yeatts (GlaxoSmithKline, 553 Old Corvallis RoadHamilton, Montana, 59840-3607, US)
Application Number:
EP2018/083234
Publication Date:
June 06, 2019
Filing Date:
November 30, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA (rue de l'Institut 89, Rixensart, B-1330, BE)
International Classes:
A61K39/00; A61K36/00; A61K39/12; C07H1/08; C07H15/256
Domestic Patent References:
WO2007068907A22007-06-21
WO1999053933A11999-10-28
WO2010142685A12010-12-16
WO2014016374A12014-01-30
WO2008153541A12008-12-18
WO2009143457A22009-11-26
WO2012080369A12012-06-21
WO1993010152A11993-05-27
WO2015150568A12015-10-08
WO1998005355A11998-02-12
WO2010010180A12010-01-28
WO2010010179A12010-01-28
WO2011092253A12011-08-04
WO1997044463A21997-11-27
WO2003044048A22003-05-30
WO2010149657A12010-12-29
WO2010010177A12010-01-28
WO2006094756A22006-09-14
WO2009079796A12009-07-02
WO2010149745A12010-12-29
WO2011008974A22011-01-20
WO2012158613A12012-11-22
WO2014160463A12014-10-02
WO2008107370A12008-09-12
WO2015036061A12015-03-19
WO1999064067A21999-12-16
WO1997001638A11997-01-16
WO1994012641A11994-06-09
WO1994026304A11994-11-24
WO2007084053A12007-07-26
WO2005063802A22005-07-14
WO1997041731A11997-11-13
WO1996034960A11996-11-07
WO1998055606A21998-12-10
WO1997013785A11997-04-17
WO1997032980A11997-09-12
WO1993003761A11993-03-04
WO1991018926A11991-12-12
WO2012139225A12012-10-18
WO2015125118A12015-08-27
Foreign References:
US5057540A1991-10-15
EP0362789A21990-04-11
US4436727A1984-03-13
US4877611A1989-10-31
US4866034A1989-09-12
US4912094A1990-03-27
GB2220211A1990-01-04
US5928902A1999-07-27
US6169171B12001-01-02
EP0405867A11991-01-02
EP0192902A21986-09-03
US8563002B22013-10-22
US20120093847A12012-04-19
US20110305727A12011-12-15
US20140141037A12014-05-22
US5766608A1998-06-16
US5843464A1998-12-01
EP0281673A11988-09-14
EP0594610A11994-05-04
EP9903824W1999-05-31
EP9903823W1999-05-31
EP0001468W2000-02-23
GB9917977A1999-07-30
GB9918208A1999-08-03
GB9918302A1999-08-03
GB9918038A1999-07-30
EP9903038W1999-05-03
EP9903822W1999-05-31
EP9906781W1999-09-14
EP9903257W1999-05-07
Other References:
HIGUCHI R ET AL: "An acylated triterpenoid saponin from Quillaja saponaria", PHYTOCHEMISTRY, PERGAMON PRESS, GB, vol. 27, no. 4, 1 January 1988 (1988-01-01), pages 1165 - 1168, XP026633829, ISSN: 0031-9422, [retrieved on 19880101], DOI: 10.1016/0031-9422(88)80295-4
GOVIND RAGUPATHI ET AL: "Natural and synthetic saponin adjuvant QS-21 for vaccines against cancer", EXPERT REVIEW OF VACCINES, vol. 10, no. 4, 1 April 2011 (2011-04-01), GB, pages 463 - 470, XP055449309, ISSN: 1476-0584, DOI: 10.1586/erv.11.18
BERNHARD THALHAMER ET AL: "Characterization of quillaja bark extracts and evaluation of their purity using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry", PHYTOCHEMISTRY LETTERS, vol. 8, 1 May 2014 (2014-05-01), AMSTERDAM, NL, pages 97 - 100, XP055551076, ISSN: 1874-3900, DOI: 10.1016/j.phytol.2014.02.009
DALSGAARD ET AL.: "Archiv. fur die gesamte Virusforschung", vol. 44, 1974, SPRINGER VERLAG, article "Saponin adjuvants", pages: 243 - 254
COLER RN ET AL.: "Development and Characterization of Synthetic Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant System as a Vaccine Adjuvant", PLOS ONE, vol. 6, no. 1, 2011, pages e16333, XP055030257, DOI: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016333
ARIAS MA ET AL.: "Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA), a Synthetic TLR4 Agonist, Promotes Potent Systemic and Mucosal Responses to Intranasal Immunization with HIVgp140", PLOS ONE, vol. 7, no. 7, 2012, pages e41144, XP055047355, DOI: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041144
DILLON ET AL., INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, vol. 67, no. 6, 1999, pages 2941 - 2950
SKEIKY ET AL., INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, vol. 67, no. 8, 1999, pages 3998 - 4007
SKEIKY ET AL., J. IMMUNOL., vol. 172, 2004, pages 7618 - 7628
SKEIKY INFECT. IMMUN., vol. 67, no. 8, 1999, pages 3998 - 4007
DILLON INFECT. IMMUN., vol. 67, no. 6, 1999, pages 2941 - 2950
VAFAI A.: "Antibody binding sites on truncated forms of varicalla-zoster virus gpl(gE) glycoprotein", VACCINE, vol. 12, 1994, pages 1265 - 9
HAUMONT ET AL., VIRUS RESEARCH, vol. 40, 1996, pages 199 - 204
LEROUX-ROELS I. ET AL., J. INFECT. DIS., vol. 206, 2012, pages 1280 - 1290
MCLELLAN ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 340, pages 1113 - 1117
MCLELLAN ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 342, pages 592 - 598
RIGTER ET AL., PLOS ONE, vol. 8, pages e71072
HELMINEN ME ET AL., INFECT. IMMUN., vol. 61, 1993, pages 2003 - 2010
DE BECKER, G.; V. MOULIN; B. PAJAK; C. BRUCK; M. FRANCOTTE; C. THIRIART; J. URBAIN; M. MOSER: "The adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A increases the function of antigen-presenting cells", INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 12, 2000, pages 807 - 815, XP009063386, DOI: doi:10.1093/intimm/12.6.807
DIDIERLAURENT A.M.; COLLIGNON C.; BOURGUIGNON P.; WOUTERS S.; FIERENS K.; FOCHESATO M.; DENDOUGA N.; LANGLET C.; MALISSEN B.; LAMB: "Enhancement of Adaptive Immunity by the Human Vaccine Adjuvant AS01 Depends on Activated Dendritic Cells", JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 193, no. 4, 2014, pages 1920 - 1930, XP055357110, DOI: doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1400948
DIDIERLAURENT ET AL.: "Adjuvant system AS01: helping to overcome the challenges of modern vaccines", EXPERT REIEWS OF VACCINES, vol. 16, no. 1, 2017, pages 55 - 63, XP055345499, DOI: doi:10.1080/14760584.2016.1213632
GARCON, N.; M. VAN MECHELEN: "Recent clinical experience with vaccines using MPL-and QS-21-containing adjuvant systems", EXPERT REVIEW OF VACCINES, vol. 10, 2011, pages 471 - 486, XP009176124, DOI: doi:10.1586/erv.11.29
ISMAILI, J.; J. RENNESSON; E. AKSOY; J. VEKEMANS; B. VINCART; Z. AMRAOUI; F. VAN LAETHEM; M. GOLDMAN; P.M. DUBOIS: "Monophosphoryl lipid A activates both human dendritic cells and T cells", JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 168, 2002, pages 926 - 932
KENSIL, C.R.; U. PATEL; M. LENNICK; D. MARCIANI: "Separation and characterization of saponins with adjuvant activity from Quillaja saponaria Molina cortex", JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 146, 1991, pages 431 - 437
KENSIL, C.R.; R. KAMMER: "QS-21: a water-soluble triterpene glycoside adjuvant", EXPERT OPINION ON INVESTIGATIONAL DRUGS, vol. 7, 1998, pages 1475 - 1482
LAMBRECHT, B.N.; M. KOOL; M.A. WILLART; H. HAMMAD: "Mechanism of action of clinically approved adjuvants", CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 21, 2009, pages 23 - 29, XP026104155, DOI: doi:10.1016/j.coi.2009.01.004
LI, H.; S.B. WILLINGHAM; J.P. TING; F. RE: "Cutting edge: inflammasome activation by alum and alum's adjuvant effect are mediated by NLRP3", JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 181, 2008, pages 17 - 21
LIVINGSTON, P.O.; S. ADLURI; F. HELLING; T.J. YAO; C.R. KENSIL; M.J. NEWMAN; D. MARCIANI: "Phase 1 trial of immunological adjuvant QS-21 with a GM2 ganglioside-keyhole limpet haemocyanin conjugate vaccine in patients with malignant melanoma", VACCINE, vol. 12, 1994, pages 1275 - 1280, XP001149181
RAGUPATHI, G.; J.R. GARDNER; P.O. LIVINGSTON; D.Y. GIN.: "Natural and synthetic saponin adjuvant QS-21 for vaccines against cancer", EXPERT REVIEW OF VACCINES, vol. 10, 2011, pages 463 - 470, XP055449309, DOI: doi:10.1586/erv.11.18
MARTIN, M.; S.M. MICHALEK; J. KATZ: "Role of innate immune factors in the adjuvant activity of monophosphoryl lipid A", INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, vol. 71, 2003, pages 2498 - 2507, XP002686225, DOI: doi:10.1128/IAI.71.5.2498-2507.2003
MARTY-ROIX, R. ET AL.: "Identification of QS-21 as an Inflammasome-activating Molecular Component of Saponin Adjuvants", J. BIOL. CHEM., vol. 291, 2016, pages 1123 - 36
MATA-HARO, V.; C. CEKIC; M. MARTIN; P.M. CHILTON; C.R. CASELLA; T.C. MITCHELL: "The vaccine adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A as a TRIF-biased agonist of TLR4", SCIENCE, vol. 316, 2007, pages 1628 - 1632
NEWMAN, M.J.; J.Y. WU; B.H. GARDNER; K.J. MUNROE; D. LEOMBRUNO; J. RECCHIA; C.R. KENSIL; R.T. COUGHLIN: "Saponin adjuvant induction of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses", JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 148, 1992, pages 2357 - 2362
SOLTYSIK, S.; J.Y. WU; J. RECCHIA; D.A. WHEELER; M.J. NEWMAN; R.T. COUGHLIN; C.R. KENSIL: "Structure/function studies of QS-21 adjuvant: assessment of triterpene aldehyde and glucuronic acid roles in adjuvant function", VACCINE, vol. 13, 1995, pages 1403 - 1410, XP004057449, DOI: doi:10.1016/0264-410X(95)00077-E
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FURSTOSS, Olivia, Aline (GlaxoSmithKline, Global Patents 980 Great West Road, Brentford Middlesex TW8 9GS, TW8 9GS, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A saponin extract containing at least 93% QS-21 main peak and 0.25-3% 2018

component by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

2. The saponin extract according to claim 1 , wherein the monoisotope of the most

abundant species is 1987.9 m/z.

3. The saponin extract according to claim 1 or 2, containing at least 98% QS-21 group by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

4. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the extract contains 1 % or less of lyo impurity by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

5. The saponin extract according to claim 4, wherein the extract contains 1% or less of largest peak outside the QS-21 group by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

6. The saponin extract according to claim 1 , containing at least 98% QS-21 group, at least 93% QS-21 main peak, 0.25-3% 2018 component, 1% or less of largest peak outside the QS-21 group by UV absorbance at 214 nm and wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z.

7. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 6, containing at least 65%, such as at least 70%, 1988 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

8. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 7, containing 30% or less, such as 25% or less, 1856 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

9. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 8, containing at least 5%, such as at least 10%, 1856 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

10. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 9, containing 10% or less, such as 5% or less, 2002 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

1 1. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 10, containing at least 0.5%, such as at least 1 %, 2002 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

12. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 1 1 , comprising at least 1 % 2018 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

13. A saponin extract containing at least 93% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1855.9, 1987.9 or 2001.9, and 0.25-3% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z 2017.9 by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

14. The saponin extract according to claim 13, wherein the monoisotope of the most

abundant species is 1987.9 m/z.

15. The saponin extract according to claim 13 or 14, containing at least 93% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1855.9, 1987.9 or 2001.9, excluding B-isomer and lyo impurity, by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

16. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 13 to 15, containing at least 98% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1517.7, 171 1.8, 1855.9, 1987.9, 2001.9, 2017.9 or 2118 by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

17. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 13 to 16, containing at least 98% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1517.7, 171 1.8, 1855.9, 1987.9, 2001.9, 2017.9 or 2118, excluding the lyo impurity, by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

18. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 13 to 17, wherein the extract

contains 1% or less of triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of lyo impurity by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

19. The saponin extract according to claim 18, wherein the extract contains 1 % or less of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

20. The saponin extract according to claim 13, containing at least 98% triterpenoid

glycosides having m/z of 1517.7, 171 1.8, 1855.9, 1987.9, 2001.9, 2017.9 or 2118, at least 93% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1855.9, 1987.9 or 2001.9, 0.25-3% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z 2017.9, 1 % or less of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm and wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z 21. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 13 to 20, containing at least 65%, such as at least 70%, 1988 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

22. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 13 to 21 , containing 30% or less, such as 25% or less, 1856 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

23. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 13 to 22, containing at least 5%, such as at least 10%, 1856 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

24. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 13 to 23, containing 10% or less, such as 5% or less, 2002 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

25. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 13 to 24, containing at least 0.5%, such as at least 1 %, 2002 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance. 26. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 13 to 25, comprising at least 1 % triterpenoid glycosides having m/z 2017.9 by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

27. A saponin extract containing at least 93%: 59

by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

28. The saponin extract according to claim 27, wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z.

29. The saponin extract according to claim 27 or 28, containing at least 98%

30. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 27 to 29, containing at least 98% 63

2118 component. 31 . The saponin extract according to any one of claims 27 to 30, wherein the extract contains 1 % or less of

32. The saponin extract according to claim 31 , wherein the extract contains 1 % or less of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

33. The saponin extract according to claim 27, containing at least 98%

5 0.25-3%:

, 1% or less of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm and wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z. 34. The saponin extract according to claim 27, containing at least 98%

5 or 2118 component, at least 93%:

or

or ess of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm and wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z.

35. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 27 to 34, containing at least 65%, such as at least 70%,

and

by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

36. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 27 to 35, containing 30% or less, such as 25% or less,

by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

37. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 27 to 36, containing at least 5%, such as at least 10%,

by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

38. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 27 to 37, containing 10% or less, such as 5% or less,

by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

39. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 27 to 38, containing at least 0.5%, such as at least 1 %,

by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

40. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 27 to 39, comprising at least 1%

absorbance at 214 nm.

41. The saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 40, which is dried.

42. A method for identifying a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina for use in the manufacture of a purified saponin extract, said method comprising the steps of:

(i) determining the ratio of 2018 component/QS-21 main peak by UPLC-UV absorbance at 214 nm; and

(ii) selecting a crude aqueous extract having a ratio of 2018 component/QS-21 main peak which is < 0.075.

43 The method according to claim 42, wherein the crude aqueous extract selected in step (ii) has a ratio of 2018 component/QS-21 main peak which is < 0.064.

44. The method according to claim 42 or 43, for use in the manufacture of the saponin

extract of any one of claims 1 to 41.

45. A method for the manufacture of a purified saponin extract comprising the steps of:

(i) selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.075 or lower;

(ii) purifying the extract by polyvinylpyrollidone adsorption;

(iii) purifying the extract by diafiltration, ultrafiltration or dialysis;

(iv) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin; and

(v) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin.

46. The method of claim 45, wherein step (iii) uses purification by diafiltration.

47. The method of either claim 45 or 46, wherein step (iv) uses acetonitrile and water, in particular, under gradient conditions.

48. The method of any one of claims 45 to 47, wherein step (v) uses acetonitrile and water, in particular under isocratic conditions.

49. The method of any one of claims 45 to 48, comprising the additional step of removing solvent to provide a dried saponin extract.

50. The method of claim 49, wherein removing solvent uses lyophilisation.

51. The method of any one of claims 45 to 50, comprising the additional step of

concentrating the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a C8 resin.

52. The method of claim 51 , wherein concentrating the extract by reverse phase

chromatography using a C8 resin uses acetonitrile and water, in particular, under stepped gradient conditions.

53. The method of either claim 51 or 52, comprising the additional step of exchanging the solvent.

54. The method of claim 53, wherein exchanging the solvent uses diafiltration, ultrafiltration or dialysis, especially diafiltration.

55. The method of any one of claims 45 to 54, wherein the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina has a 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.064 or lower.

56. The method of any one of claims 45 to 55, wherein the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina has a 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.01 or higher.

57. The method of claim 56, wherein the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina has a 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.005 or higher.

58. The method of any one of claims 45 to 57, wherein the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina has a Preceding peak to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.45 or lower.

59. The method of claim 58, wherein the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina has a Preceding peak to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.40 or lower.

60. The method of any one of claims 45 to 59, wherein the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina is an aqueous solution containing at least 1 g/L, such as at least 2g/L, especially at least 2.5 g/L and in particular at least 2.8 g/L QS-21 main peak.

61. The method of any one of claims 45 to 60, wherein the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina is a bark extract.

62. The method of any one of claims 45 to 61 , wherein the step (i) of selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina includes testing the crude aqueous extract composition to determine 2018 component content.

63. Use of a saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 41 in the manufacture of a medicament, such as an adjuvant or immunogenic composition.

64. A saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 41 for use as an adjuvant.

65. An adjuvant composition comprising a saponin extract according to any one of claims 1 to 41.

66. The use, saponin extract or adjuvant composition according to any one of claims 63 to

65, wherein adjuvant is a liposomal formulation.

67. The use, saponin extract or adjuvant composition according to any one of claims 63 to

66, wherein adjuvant comprises a TLR4 agonist.

68. The use, saponin extract or adjuvant composition according to claim 67, wherein the TLR4 agonist is 3D-MPL.

69. An immunogenic composition comprising an adjuvant composition according to any one of claims 65 to 68 and an immunogen or antigen, or a polynucleotide encoding the immunogen or antigen.

70. The immunogenic composition according to claim 69, wherein the antigen is derived from a human or non-human pathogen including, e.g., bacteria, fungi, parasitic microorganisms or multicellular parasites which infect human and non-human vertebrates, or from a cancer cell or tumor cell.

71. The immunogenic composition according to claim 70, wherein the antigen is derived from Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax, such as the antigen of SEQ ID No 1.

72. The immunogenic composition according to claim 70, wherein the antigen is derived from Mycobacterium spp., such as derived from any one of SEQ ID Nos 2 to 5.

73. The immunogenic composition according to claim 70, wherein the antigen is derived from Varicella zoster virus, such as the antigen of SEQ ID No 6.

74. The immunogenic composition according to claim 70, wherein the antigen is derived from human respiratory syncytial virus, such as the antigen of SEQ ID No 7.

75. The immunogenic composition according to claim 70, wherein the antigen is derived from HIV, such as the antigen of SEQ ID No 8 or 9.

76. The immunogenic composition according to claim 70, wherein the antigen is derived from non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) and/or M. catarrhalis.

77. The immunogenic composition according to any one of claims 69 to 76, wherein the antigen is provided as a polypeptide.

78. The immunogenic composition according to any one of claims 69 to 76, wherein a

polynucleotide is provided which encodes the polypeptide antigen.

79. A method for determining the ratio of 2018 component/QS-21 main peak in a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina, said method comprising the steps of:

(i) determining the 2018 component content in the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina by UPLC-UV absorbance at 214 nm; (ii) determining the QS-21 main peak content in the crude aqueous extract of

Quillaja saponaria Molina by UPLC-UV absorbance at 214 nm; and

(iii) comparing the 2018 component content to the QS-21 main peak content to determine the ratio of 2018 component/QS-21 main peak.

Description:
Saponin purification

Technical Field

The present application generally relates to saponin extracts, in particular extracts of Quillaja saponaria Molina, methods for their manufacture and to associated aspects.

Background

Adjuvants are included in vaccines to improve humoral and cellular immune responses, particularly in the case of poorly immunogenic subunit vaccines. Similar to natural infections by pathogens, adjuvants rely on the activation of the innate immune system to promote long-lasting adaptive immunity.

The Adjuvant System 01 (AS01 ) is a liposome-based adjuvant which contains two immunostimulants, 3-0-desacyl-4’-monophosphoryl lipid A (3D-MPL) and QS-21 (Garcon and Van Mechelen, 201 1 ; Didierlaurent et al., 2017). 3D-MPL is a non-toxic derivative of the lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella minnesota which is a TLR4 agonist) and QS-21 is a natural saponin extract from the bark of the South American tree Quillaja saponaria Molina (Kensil et al., 1991 ; Ragupathi et al., 201 1 ). AS01 is included in the recently developed vaccines for malaria (RTS,S - Mosquirix®) and Herpes zoster (HZ/su - Shingrix®), and in multiple candidate vaccines in development against pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

AS01 injection results in rapid and transient activation of innate immunity in animal models. Neutrophils and monocytes are rapidly recruited to the draining lymph node (dl_N) upon immunization. Moreover, AS01 induces recruitment and activation of MHCII high dendritic cells (DC), which are necessary for T cell activation (Didierlaurent A.M. et al., 2014). Some data are also available on the mechanism of action of the components of AS01. 3D-MPL signals via TLR4, stimulating NF-kB transcriptional activity and cytokine production and directly activates antigen-presenting cells (APCs) both in humans and in mice (De Becker et al., 2000; Ismaili et al., 2002; Martin et al., 2003; Mata-Haro et al., 2007). QS-21 promotes high antigen-specific antibody responses and CD8 + T-cell responses in mice (Kensil and Kammer, 1998; Newman et al., 1992; Soltysik et al., 1995) and antigen-specific antibody responses in humans (Livingston et al., 1994). Because of its physical properties, it is thought that QS-21 might act as a danger signal in vivo (Lambrecht et al., 2009; Li et al., 2008). Although QS-21 has been shown to activate ASC-NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent I L-1 b/I L-18 release (Marty-Roix, R. et al., 2016), the exact molecular pathways involved in the adjuvant effect of saponins have yet to be clearly defined.

As with any component of a product which is approved as a human medicament, production of QS-21 requires the use of approved manufacturing processes and careful control of final composition to ensure that it meets the required specification. Modification of existing processes requires costly and time consuming re-validation, yet deviations from specification also result in waste. There is a continuing need for robust methods for the manufacture of QS- 21 and for QS-21 material of defined composition. Summary of the Invention

The present invention provides a saponin extract containing at least 93% QS-21 main peak and 0.25-3% 2018 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

Also provided is a saponin extract containing at least 93% by UV absorbance at 214 nm triterpenoid glycosides having by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry m/z of 1855.9, 1987.9 or 2001.9, and 0.25-3% by UV absorbance at 214 nm triterpenoid glycosides having m/z

2017.9.

Additionally provided is a saponin extract containing at least 93%:

by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

Further, there is provided a method for the manufacture of a saponin extract comprising the steps of:

(i) selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a suitable 2018 component composition;

(ii) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin; and (iii) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin. There is provided the use of a saponin extract of the present invention in the manufacture of a medicament.

Also provided are adjuvant compositions and vaccine compositions comprising a saponin extract of the present invention.

Brief Description of the Figures

Figure 1 HPLC chromatogram of a crude aqueous Quillaja saponaria Molina bark extract

Figure 2 HPLC-UV chromatogram of a crude aqueous Quillaja saponaria Molina bark extract

Figure 3 UPLC-UV chromatogram of a crude aqueous Quillaja saponaria Molina bark extract

Figure 4 UPLC-UV chromatogram of a polystyrene purified saponin extract

Figure 5 UPLC-UV/MS chromatogram of a purified Quillaja saponaria Molina saponin extract

Figure 6 UPLC-UV/MS chromatogram detail of a purified Quillaja saponaria Molina

saponin extract

Figure 7 Extracted mass chromatograms for 1988 and 2002 molecular weight ions of a purified Quillaja saponaria Molina saponin extract

Figure 8 Combined centroid spectrum of purified Quillaja saponaria Molina saponin

extract

Figure 9 CD4 T-cell responses at day 21 in gE AS01 vaccinated mice

Figure 10 Antibody responses at day 21 in gE AS01 vaccinated mice

Figure 1 1 Antibody responses at day 28 in gE AS01 vaccinated mice

Brief description of the sequences identifiers

SEQ ID No. 1 RTS polypeptide sequence

SEQ ID No. 2 M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain Rv1 196 polypeptide sequence

SEQ ID No. 3 M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain Rv0125 polypeptide sequence

SEQ ID No. 4 M72 fusion polypeptide sequence

SEQ ID No. 5 M72-2his fusion polypeptide sequence

SEQ ID No. 6 Varicella zoster virus truncated gE polypeptide sequence

SEQ ID No. 7 Conformationally constrained RSV PreF antigen polypeptide sequence SEQ ID No. 8 HIV TV1 gp120 polypeptide sequence

SEQ ID No. 9 HIV 1086.C gp120 polypeptide sequence Detailed Description of the Invention

As mentioned previously, any component of a product which is authorised as a human medicament requires the use of approved manufacturing processes and careful control of final composition to ensure that it meets the required specification. Deviations from specification result in waste. However, safety and efficacy investigation relies upon the testing of defined compositions, therefore adaptation of component specifications introduces risk. Modification of existing processes requires costly and time consuming re-validation.

The present inventors have found that crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina varies in composition, in particular with respect to a component referred to herein as the 2018 component, and that it is difficult to separate excess 2018 component by applying existing approved manufacturing processes. Consequently, the present invention provides methods for achieving a consistent purified extract by the use of a crude aqueous extract of a defined composition.

The present invention provides a saponin extract containing at least 93% QS-21 main peak and 0.25-3% 2018 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm, in particular, wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z. Suitably the saponin extract contains at least 98% QS-21 group by UV absorbance at 214 nm. Typically the saponin extract contains 1 % or less of lyo impurity, especially 1 % or less of the largest peak outside the QS-21 group by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

Of particular interest are saponin extracts containing at least 98% QS-21 group, at least 93% QS-21 main peak, 0.25-3% 2018 component, 1 % or less of largest peak outside the QS-21 group by UV absorbance at 214 nm and wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z.

Also provided is a saponin extract containing at least 93% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1855.9, 1987.9 or 2001.9, and 0.25-3% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z 2017.9 by UV absorbance at 214 nm, in particular, wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is

1987.9 m/z. Desirably the saponin extract contains at least 93% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1855.9, 1987.9 or 2001.9, excluding B-isomer and lyo impurity, and 0.25-3% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z 2017.9 by UV absorbance at 214 nm, in particular, wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z. Suitably the saponin extract contains at least 98% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1517.7, 171 1.8, 1855.9, 1987.9, 2001.9,

2017.9 or 21 18 by UV absorbance at 214 nm. Desirably the saponin extract contains at least 98% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1517.7, 171 1.8, 1855.9, 1987.9, 2001.9, 2017.9 or 21 18, excluding the lyo impurity, by UV absorbance at 214 nm. Typically the saponin extract contains 1 % or less of lyo impurity by UV absorbance at 214 nm. Suitably the saponin extract contains 1 % or less of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm. Of particular interest are saponin extracts containing at least 98% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1517.7, 171 1.8, 1855.9, 1987.9, 2001.9, 2017.9 or 21 18, at least 93% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1855.9, 1987.9 or 2001.9, 0.25-3% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z

2017.9, 1 % or less of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm and wherein the

monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z, especially wherein the saponin extract contains at least 98% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1517.7, 1711.8, 1855.9,

1987.9, 2001.9, 2017.9 or 21 18, excluding the lyo impurity, and at least 93% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z of 1855.9, 1987.9 or 2001.9 excluding B-isomer and lyo impurity, 0.25- 3% triterpenoid glycosides having m/z 2017.9, 1 % or less of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm and wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z.

Additionally provided is a saponin extract containing at least 93%:

by UV absorbance at 214 nm, in particular, wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z. Suitably the saponin extract contains at least 98%:

. itably the saponin extract contains 98% of the aforementioned components and the 2118 component. Typically the saponin extract contains 1% or less:

especially 1% or less of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

Of particular interest are saponin extracts containing at least 98%:

5 0.25-3%:

absorbance at 214 nm and wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z. Especially of interest are saponin extracts containing at least 98%:

or 2118 component, at least 93%:

or , or ess of any other peak by UV absorbance at 214 nm and wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1987.9 m/z.

In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain at least 65%, such as at least 70%, 1988 component as determined by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain 85% or less, such as 80% or less, 1988 component as determined by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain 30% or less, such as 25% or less, 1856 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance. In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain at least 5%, such as at least 10%, especially at least 15% 1856 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain 6% or less, such as 4% or less, 2002 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance. In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain at least 0.5%, such as at least 1%, 2002 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain at least 0.5%, such as at least 1 %, or at least 2% 2018 component by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain at least 65%, such as at least 70%:

by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain 30% or less, such as 25% or less:

by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance. In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain at least 5%, such as at least 10%, especially at least 15%:

by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain 10% or less, such as 5% or less:

by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance. In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain at least 0.5%, such as at least 1 %,

by ion abundance by UV absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

In certain embodiments the saponin extracts contain at least 0.5%, such as at least 1 %, or at least 2%,

absorbance at 214 nm and by relative ion abundance.

Quil A is a saponin preparation isolated from the South American tree Quillaja saponaria Molina and was first described as having adjuvant activity by Dalsgaard et al. in 1974 (“Saponin adjuvants”, Archiv. fur die gesamte Virusforschung, Vol. 44, Springer Verlag, Berlin, p243-254). Purified fractions of Quil A have been isolated by HPLC which retain adjuvant activity without the toxicity associated with Quil A (see, for example, EP03622789). Various fractions have been found to have adjuvant activity, such as QS-7, QS-17, QS-18 and QS-21 , although their toxicity varies considerably.

By the term‘saponin extract’ as used herein is meant an extract of Quillaja saponaria

Molina.

By the term‘triterpenoid glycosides’ as used herein is meant an entity or entities having a triterpenoid core derivatised by sugars which are attached via glycosidic bonds.

Certain structures herein have been determined by MS/MS, limitations of the technique in differentiating certain branching, stereochemistry and isomeric sugar species (e.g. apiose and xylose) means that some structures are putative and based on an assumed conserved core. Putative structures should therefore be taken to mean the actual structure of the component which has otherwise been identified, in the event the putative structure is incorrect for any reason.

By the term‘2018 component’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as‘2018

Peak’ in Figure 6. Suitably the 2018 component in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.5 min, the primary component of the peak having a monoisotopic molecular weight of 2017.9. The 2018 component may also be identified in the UPLC-UV methods described herein with a retention time of approximately 5.8 min. The primary 2018 component has been identified as having the putative structure.

By the term Ί 988 component’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as part of the QS-21 main peak in Figure 6 and having a monoisotopic molecular weight of 1987.9. Suitably the 1988 component in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.4 min and a monoisotopic molecular weight of 1987.9. The 1988 component may consist of QS-21 A V1 :

b alnitd·! Q·S-21 A V2

By the term Ί 856 component’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as part of the QS-21 main peak in Figure 6 and having a monoisotopic molecular weight of 1855.9. Suitably the 1856 component in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.4 min and a monoisotopic molecular weight of 1855.9. The 1856 component may consist of:

By the term‘2002 component’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as part of the QS-21 main peak in Figure 6 and having a monoisotopic molecular weight of 2001.9. Suitably the 2002 component in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.4 min and a monoisotopic molecular weight of 2001.9. The 2002 component has been identified as having the putative structure:

By the term‘lyo impurity’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as‘Lyophilization Peak’ in Figure 6. Suitably the lyo impurity in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.7 min and the primary component of the peak having a monoisotopic molecular weight of 1855.9. The primary lyo impurity has been identified as having the putative structure:

By the term‘B-isomer’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as‘B-isomer’ in Figure 6. Suitably the B-isomer in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.0 min and the primary component of the peak having a monoisotopic molecular weight of 1987.9. The primary B-isomer component has been identified as having the putative structure:

By the term Ί 518 component’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as Ί 518 Peak’ in Figure 6. Suitably the 1518 component in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.2 min and the primary component of the peak having a monoisotopic molecular weight of 1517.7. The primary 1518 component has been identified as having the putative structure:

By the term‘1712 component’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as‘1712 Peak’ in Figure 6. Suitably the 1712 component in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.6 min and the primary component of the peak having a monoisotopic molecular weight of 171 1 .8. The primary 1712 component has been identified as having the putative structure:

By the term‘21 18 component’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as‘4.607’ in Figure 6. Suitably the 21 18 component in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.6 and the primary component of the peak having a monoisotopic molecular weight of 21 18.

By the term‘QS-21 main peak’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified as‘QS-21’ in Figure 6. Suitably QS-21 main peak in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein has a retention time of approximately 4.4 min and molecular weight components of 1855.9, 1987.9 and 2001 .9 m/z. The QS-21 main peak may consist of QS-21 A V1 :

QS-21 A V2:

1856 component:

2002 component:

By the term‘QS-21 group’ is meant the triterpenoid glycosides identified from the B-isomer to the peak preceding the lyo impurity in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein as having a retention time from approximately 4.0 min to approximately 4.7 min and having primary monoisotopic molecular weights of 1517.7, 171 1.8, 1855.9, 1987.9, 2001.9, 2017.9 or 2118. The QS-21 group may consist of QS-21 A V1 :

2002 component:

1518 component:

and

2118 component.

By the term‘largest peak outside QS-21 group’ is meant the largest peak by UV, detectable in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein which is not part of the QS-21 group.

By the term‘Preceding peak’ is meant the peak immediately preceding the QS-21 main peak in the HPLC-UV methods described herein (see Figure 2).

By the term‘m/z’ is meant the mass to charge ratio of the monoisotope peak. Unless otherwise specified,‘m/z’ is determined by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry.

By the term‘ion abundance’ is meant the amount of a specified m/z measured in the sample, or in a given peak as required by the context. The mass chromatogram for the specified m/z may be extracted from the MS total ion chromatogram in the UPLC-UV/MS methods described herein. The mass chromatogram plots the signal intensity versus time. Ion abundance is measured as the area of the integrated peak. The area for a specified m/z / area for a relative reference m/z = relative abundance.

By the term‘UV absorbance at 214 nm’ is meant the area of an integrated peak in the UV absorbance chromatogram. The (area for a specified peak)/(area of all integrated peaks in the chromatogram) x 100 = percentage area for the specified peak.

By the term‘UV absorbance at 214 nm and relative ion abundance’ is meant an estimate for the percentage of a given m/z for co-eluting species. (Percentage area for given UV peak)x (relative ion abundance for m/z of interest in given peak)/(sum of all relative ion abundance for given peak) = percentage of m/z of interest in the given UV peak, assumes relative ion abundance included for all coeluting species.

By the term‘wherein the monoisotope of the most abundant species is 1988 m/z’ is meant the monoisotope of the most abundant species, first peak in the isotopic group with highest response per m/z should be m/z 1987.9. The most abundant species may be determined by creating a combined spectrum across the entire total ion chromatogram using the UPLC-UV/MS method (negative ion electrospray) as described herein.

By the term‘dried’ is meant that substantially all solvent has been removed. A dried extract will typically contain less than 5% solvent w/w (such as less than 5% water w/w).

Suitably the dried extract will contain 100 ppm or less acetonitrile (w/w).

Further, there is provided a method for the manufacture of a saponin extract comprising the steps of:

(i) selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a suitable 2018 component composition;

(ii) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin; and

(iii) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin.

Desirably the process comprises the steps of:

(i) selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a suitable 2018 component composition;

(ii) purifying the extract by polyvinylpyrollidone adsorption;

(iii) purifying the extract by diafiltration, ultrafiltration or dialysis;

(iv) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin; and

(v) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin; wherein step (ii) and (iii) may optionally be in reverse order or undertaken concurrently, though are typically in the order shown.

The crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina is obtained by aqueous extraction (but need not be in aqueous form, e.g. it may subsequently have been dried, subjected to solvent exchange or reconstituted into a different solvent). By the term‘crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a suitable 2018 component composition’ is meant an extract having a 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.075 or lower, in particular 0.064 or lower (as determined by UPLC-UV absorbance at 214nm). Desirably the ratio of 2018 component/QS-21 main peak is at least 0.005, such as at least 0.01 as measured by UV absorbance at 214 nm.

Suitably the Preceding peak to QS-21 main peak ratio is 0.45 or lower, in particular 0.4 or lower (as determined by HPLC-UV absorbance at 214nm). The Preceding peak to QS-21 main peak ratio may be 0.05 or higher, in particular 0.1 or higher (as determined by HPLC-UV absorbance at 214nm).

Typically the crude aqueous extract is a bark extract. Suitably the QS-21 main peak content in an aqueous solution of crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina is at least 1 g/L, such as at least 2g/L, especially at least 2.5 g/L and in particular at least 2.8 g/L (e.g. as determined by UV absorbance relative to a control sample of known concentration).

Suitably the step of selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a suitable 2018 component composition, includes testing the composition to determine the 2018 component content.

The step of purifying the extract by polyvinylpyrollidone adsorption involves treatment of the extract with polyvinylpyrollidone resin. Typically the extract is agitated with the

polyvinylpyrollidone resin. The extract may subsequently be separated from the

polyvinylpyrollidone resin with adsorbed impurities by filtration. This step of the process generally removes polyphenolic impurities such as tannins.

The step of purifying the extract by diafiltration, ultrafiltration or dialysis, is suitably purification by diafiltration. typically using tangential flow. An appropriate example of a membrane is a 30kDa cut-off. This step of the process generally removes salts, sugars and other low molecular weight materials.

The step of purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin typically uses acetonitrile and water as solvent, usually acidified with a suitable acid such as acetic acid. An example of a suitable resin is Amberchrom XT20. Chromatography may be undertaken using isocratic conditions, though is typically operated under a solvent gradient (continuous, such as linear, or stepped), such as those provided in the Examples. This step of the process generally removes non-saponin material and enriches the desired saponins.

Selected fractions may be pooled to maximise yield of material matching the required criteria (typically %QS-21 > 18%, as determined by UV absorbance following HPLC-UV and 2018/QS- 21 Ratio < 0.054, as determined by UV absorbance following UPLC-UV). Each polystyrene chromatography run is typically at a scale of between 25-200g of QS-21 , such as between 50- 150g and in particular between 70-1 10g (amounts being based on QS-21 main peak content in the material by UV).

Purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin typically uses acetonitrile and water as solvent, usually acidified with a suitable acid such as acetic acid. Chromatography may be undertaken using a solvent gradient (continuous, such as linear, or stepped), though is typically operated under isocratic conditions. This step of the process provides the final purification of the desired saponins. Selected fractions may be pooled to maximise yield of material matching the required criteria (typically %QS-21 group > 98.5, %QS- 21 main peak > 94.5, 2002/1988 < 0.027, %2018 < 2.7%, main peak outside of the QS-21 group < 1 %, as determined by UPLC-UV/MS). Each phenyl chromatography run is typically at a scale of between 4-40 g of QS-21 , such as between 10-30 g and in particular between 13-21 g (amounts being based on QS-21 main peak content in the material by UV).

The method may comprise the further step of removing solvent to provide a dried saponin extract. Consequently, the invention provides a method for the manufacture of a saponin extract comprising the steps of:

(i) selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a suitable 2018 component composition;

(ii) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin;

(iii) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin; and

(iv) removing solvent to provide a dried saponin extract.

The invention also provides a method for the manufacture of a saponin extract comprising the steps of:

(i) selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a suitable 2018 component composition;

(ii) purifying the extract by polyvinylpyrollidone adsorption;

(iii) purifying the extract by diafiltration, ultrafiltration or dialysis;

(iv) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin;

(v) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin; and

(vi) removing solvent to provide a dried saponin extract.

wherein step (ii) and (iii) may optionally be in reverse order or undertaken concurrently, though are typically in the order shown.

In order to improve drying efficiency, it may be desirable to undertake further steps of concentrating the extract, such as by capture and release using an appropriate technique, for example reverse phase chromatography (e.g. using a C8 resin), and/or exchanging the solvent in advance of the drying step.

Also provided is a method for the manufacture of a saponin extract comprising the steps:

(i) selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a suitable 2018 component composition;

(ii) purifying the extract by polyvinylpyrollidone adsorption;

(iii) purifying the extract by diafiltration, ultrafiltration or dialysis;

(iv) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin;

(v) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin;

(vi) optionally concentrating the extract;

(vii) optionally exchanging the solvent; and

(viii) removing the remaining solvent to provide a dried saponin extract; wherein steps (vi) and (vii) may be optionally be in reverse order or undertaken concurrently, though are typically in the order shown .

Also provided is a method for the manufacture of a saponin extract comprising the steps:

(i) selecting a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a suitable 2018 component composition;

(ii) purifying the extract by polyvinylpyrollidone adsorption;

(iii) purifying the extract by diafiltration, ultrafiltration or dialysis;

(iv) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin;

(v) purifying the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin;

(vi) concentrating the extract by reverse phase chromatography using a C8 resin;

(vii) exchanging the solvent; and

(viii) removing the remaining solvent to provide a dried saponin extract.

Concentration of the extract may be performed using any suitable technique. For example, concentration may be performed using a capture and release methodology, such as reverse phase chromatography, in particular using a C8 resin. The reverse phase

chromatography typically uses acetonitrile and water as solvent, usually acidified with a suitable acid such as acetic acid. Chromatography is typically operated under a solvent gradient, with the saponin extract captured in low organic solvent and eluted in high organic solvent, in particular a stepped solvent gradient.

Exchanging the solvent may be performed using any suitable technique, in particular diafiltration, ultrafiltration or dialysis, especially diafiltration. Solvent exchange may be useful, for example, in reducing the acetonitrile content such as described in WO2014016374. A suitable membrane may be selected to allow solvent exchange while retaining the saponin extract, such as a 1 kDa membrane.

Drying, by removing the solvent, may be undertaken by any suitable means, in particular by lyophilisation. During drying, degradation of the saponin extract can occur, leading to the formation of lyo impurity. Consequently, it is desirable to dry under conditions which limit formation of lyo impurity, such as by limiting the drying temperature and/or drying time. Suitably removal of solvent is undertaken by a single lyophilisation process. The extent of drying required will depend on the nature of the solvent, for example non-pharmaceutically acceptable solvents will desirably be removed to a high degree, whereas some pharmaceutically

acceptable solvents (such as water) may be removed to a lesser degree.

Suitably the methods of the present invention are undertaken at a scale of between 25- 1000 g of QS-21 , such as between 50-500 g and in particular between 100-500 g (amounts being based on QS-21 main peak content in the material by UV). Also provided is a method for identifying a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina for use in the manufacture of a purified saponin extract, such as the saponin extracts of the invention, said method comprising the steps of:

(i) determining the 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio by UPLC-UV absorbance at 214 nm;

(ii) selecting a crude extract having a 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.075 or lower.

In one embodiment, the crude aqueous extract selected in step (ii) has a 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.064 or lower.

The invention also provides a method for the determining the 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio in a crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina, said method comprising the steps of:

(i) determining the 2018 component content in the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina by UPLC-UV absorbance at 214nm;

(ii) determining the QS-21 main peak content in the crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina by UPLC-UV absorbance at 214nm; and

(iii) comparing the 2018 component content to the QS-21 main peak content to determine the 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio.

There is provided the use of a saponin extract of the present invention in the

manufacture of a medicament. Additionally provided is a saponin extract of the present invention for use as a medicament, in particular as an adjuvant. Also provided is an adjuvant composition comprising a saponin extract of the present invention.

The saponin extracts of the present invention may be combined with further adjuvants, such as a TLR4 agonist, in particular lipopolysaccharide TLR4 agonists, such as lipid A derivatives, especially a monophosphoryl lipid A e.g. 3-de-O-acylated monophosphoryl lipid A (3D-MPL). monophosphoryl lipid A (3D-MPL). 3D-MPL is sold under the name‘MPL’ by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals N.A. and is referred throughout the document as 3D-MPL. See, for example, US Patent Nos. 4,436,727; 4,877,61 1 ; 4,866,034 and 4,912,094. 3D-MPL can be produced according to the methods described in GB 2 220 21 1 A. Chemically it is a mixture of 3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A with 4, 5 or 6 acylated chains.

Other TLR4 agonists which may be of use in the present invention include

Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA) such as described in W02008/153541 or

WO2009/143457 or the literature articles Coler RN et al. (2011 ) Development and

Characterization of Synthetic Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant System as a Vaccine Adjuvant. PLoS ONE 6(1 ): e16333. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016333 and Arias MA et al. (2012) Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA), a Synthetic TLR4 Agonist, Promotes Potent Systemic and Mucosal Responses to Intranasal Immunization with HIVgp140. PLoS ONE 7(7): e41 144. doi:10.1371 /journal. pone.0041144. WO2008/153541 or W02009/143457 are incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of defining TLR4 agonists which may be of use in the present invention.

A typical adult human dose of adjuvant will comprise a saponin extract at amounts between 1 and 100 ug per human dose. The saponin extract may be used at a level of about 50 ug. Examples of suitable ranges are 40-60 ug, suitably 45-55 ug or 49-51 ug, such as 50 ug. In a further embodiment, the human dose comprises saponin extract at a level of about 25 ug. Examples of lower ranges include 20-30 ug, suitably 22-28 ug or 24-26 ug, such as 25 ug. Human doses intended for children may be reduced compared to those intended for an adult (e.g. reduction by 50%).

The TLR4 agonists, such as a lipopolysaccharide, such as 3D-MPL, can be used at amounts between 1 and 100 ug per human dose. 3D-MPL may be used at a level of about 50 ug. Examples of suitable ranges are 40-60 ug, suitably 45-55 ug or 49-51 ug, such as 50 ug. In a further embodiment, the human dose comprises 3D-MPL at a level of about 25 ug. Examples of lower ranges include 20-30 ug, suitably 22-28 ug or 24-26 ug, such as 25 ug. Human doses intended for children may be reduced compared to those intended for an adult (e.g. reduction by 50%).

When both a TLR4 agonist and a saponin extract are present in the adjuvant, then the weight ratio of TLR4 agonist to saponin is suitably between 1 :5 to 5:1 , suitably 1 :1. For example, where 3D-MPL is present at an amount of 50 ug or 25 ug, then suitably QS-21 may also be present at an amount of 50 ug or 25 ug per human dose.

Adjuvants may also comprise a suitable carrier, such as an emulsion (e.g. and oil in water emulsion) or liposomes.

Liposomes

The term‘liposome’ is well known in the art and defines a general category of vesicles which comprise one or more lipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous space. Liposomes thus consist of one or more lipid and/or phospholipid bilayers and can contain other molecules, such as proteins or carbohydrates, in their structure. Because both lipid and aqueous phases are present, liposomes can encapsulate or entrap water-soluble material, lipid-soluble material, and/or amphiphilic compounds.

Liposome size may vary from 30 nm to several urn depending on the phospholipid composition and the method used for their preparation.

The liposomes of use in the present invention suitably contain DOPC, or, consist essentially of DOPC and sterol (with saponin and optionally TLR4 agonist).

In the present invention, the liposome size will be in the range of 50 nm to 200 nm, especially 60 nm to 180 nm, such as 70-165 nm. Optimally, the liposomes should be stable and have a diameter of ~100 nm to allow convenient sterilization by filtration. Structural integrity of the liposomes may be assessed by methods such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) measuring the size (Z-average diameter, Zav) and polydispersity of the liposomes, or, by electron microscopy for analysis of the structure of the liposomes. In one embodiment the average particle size is between 95 and 120 nm, and/or, the polydispersity (Pdl) index is not more than 0.3 (such as not more than 0.2).

Further excipients

In a further embodiment, a buffer is added to the composition. The pH of a liquid preparation is adjusted in view of the components of the composition and necessary suitability for administration to the subject. Suitably, the pH of a liquid mixture is at least 4, at least 5, at least 5.5, at least 5.8, at least 6. The pH of the liquid mixture may be less than 9, less than 8, less than 7.5 or less than 7. In other embodiments, pH of the liquid mixture is between 4 and 9, between 5 and 8, such as between 5.5 and 8. Consequently, the pH will suitably be between 6- 9, such as 6.5-8.5. In a particularly preferred embodiment the pH is between 5.8 and 6.4.

An appropriate buffer may be selected from acetate, citrate, histidine, maleate, phosphate, succinate, tartrate and TRIS. In one embodiment, the buffer is a phosphate buffer such as Na/Na 2 P0 4 , Na/K 2 P0 4 or K/K 2 P0 4 .

The buffer can be present in the liquid mixture in an amount of at least 6mM, at least 10 mM or at least 40mM. The buffer can be present in the liquid mixture in an amount of less than 100 mM, less than 60 mM or less than 40 mM.

It is well known that for parenteral administration solutions should have a

pharmaceutically acceptable osmolality to avoid cell distortion or lysis. A pharmaceutically acceptable osmolality will generally mean that solutions will have an osmolality which is approximately isotonic or mildly hypertonic. Suitably the compositions (when reconstituted, if presented in dried form) will have an osmolality in the range of 250 to 750 mOsm/kg, for example, the osmolality may be in the range of 250 to 550 mOsm/kg, such as in the range of 280 to 500 mOsm/kg. In a particularly preferred embodiment the osmolality may be in the range of 280 to 310 mOsm/kg. Osmolality may be measured according to techniques known in the art, such as by the use of a commercially available osmometer, for example the Advanced® Model 2020 available from Advanced Instruments Inc. (USA).

An "isotonicity agent" is a compound that is physiologically tolerated and imparts a suitable tonicity to a formulation to prevent the net flow of water across cell membranes that are in contact with the formulation. In some embodiments, the isotonicity agent used for the composition is a salt (or mixtures of salts), conveniently the salt is sodium chloride, suitably at a concentration of approximately 150 nM. In other embodiments, however, the composition comprises a non-ionic isotonicity agent and the concentration of sodium chloride in the composition is less than 100 mM, such as less than 80 mM, e.g. less than 50 mM, such as less 40 mM, less than 30 mM and especially less than 20 mM. The ionic strength in the composition may be less than 100 mM, such as less than 80 mM, e.g. less than 50 mM, such as less 40 mM or less than 30 mM.

In a particular embodiment, the non-ionic isotonicity agent is a polyol, such as sucrose and/or sorbitol. The concentration of sorbitol may e.g. between about 3% and about 15% (w/v), such as between about 4% and about 10% (w/v). Adjuvants comprising an immunologically active saponin fraction and a TLR4 agonist wherein the isotonicity agent is salt or a polyol have been described in WO2012/080369.

Suitably, a human dose volume of between 0.05 ml and 1 ml, such as between 0.1 and 0.5 ml, in particular a dose volume of about 0.5 ml, or 0.7 ml. The volumes of the compositions used may depend on the delivery route and location, with smaller doses being given by the intradermal route. A unit dose container may contain an overage to allow for proper manipulation of materials during administration of the unit dose.

The ratio of saponi DOPC will typically be in the order of 1 :50 to 1 :10 (w/w), suitably between 1 :25 to 1 :15 (w/w), and preferably 1 :22 to 1 :18 (w/w), such as 1 :20 (w/w).

Suitably the saponin is presented in a less reactogenic composition where it is quenched with an exogenous sterol, such as cholesterol. Cholesterol is disclosed in the Merck Index, 13th Edn., page 381 , as a naturally occurring sterol found in animal fat. Cholesterol has the formula (C 27 H 46 O) and is also known as (33)-cholest-5-en-3-ol.

The ratio of saponi sterol will typically be in the order of 1 :100 to 1 :1 (w/w), suitably between 1 :10 to 1 :1 (w/w), and preferably 1 :5 to 1 :1 (w/w). Suitably excess sterol is present, the ratio of saponimsterol being at least 1 :2 (w/w). In one embodiment, the ratio of

saponimsterol is 1 :5 (w/w). In one embodiment, the sterol is cholesterol.

The amount of liposome (weight of lipid and sterol) will typically be in the range of 0.1 mg to 10 mg per human dose of a composition, in particular 0.5 mg to 2 mg per human dose of a composition.

In a particularly suitable embodiment, liposomes used in the invention comprise DOPC and a sterol, in particular cholesterol. Thus, in a particular embodiment, a composition used in the invention comprises saponin extract in the form of a liposome, wherein said liposome comprises DOPC and a sterol, in particular cholesterol.

Antigens

The adjuvants prepared according to the present invention may be utilised in conjunction with an immunogen or antigen. In some embodiments a polynucleotide encoding the immunogen or antigen is provided.

The adjuvant may be administered separately from an immunogen or antigen may be combined, either during manufacturing or extemporaneously, with an immunogen or antigen as an immunogenic composition for combined administration. Consequently, there is provided a method for the preparation of an immunogenic composition comprising an immunogen or antigen, or a polynucleotide encoding the

immunogen or antigen, said method comprising the steps of:

(i) preparing an adjuvant composition comprising a saponin extract of the present invention;

(ii) mixing the adjuvant with an immunogen or antigen, or a polynucleotide encoding the immunogen or antigen.

There is also provided the use of an adjuvant comprising a saponin extract of the present invention in the manufacture of a medicament. Suitably the medicament comprises an immunogen or antigen, or a polynucleotide encoding the immunogen or antigen.

Further provided is an adjuvant comprising a saponin extract of the present invention for use as a medicament. Suitably the medicament comprises an immunogen or antigen, or a

polynucleotide encoding the immunogen or antigen.

By the term immunogen is meant a polypeptide which is capable of eliciting an immune response. Suitably the immunogen is an antigen which comprises at least one B or T cell epitope. The elicited immune response may be an antigen specific B cell response, which produces neutralizing antibodies. The elicited immune response may be an antigen specific T cell response, which may be a systemic and/or a local response. The antigen specific T cell response may comprise a CD4+ T cell response, such as a response involving CD4+ T cells expressing a plurality of cytokines, e.g. IFNgamma, TNFalpha and/or IL2. Alternatively, or additionally, the antigen specific T cell response comprises a CD8+ T cell response, such as a response involving CD8+ T cells expressing a plurality of cytokines, e.g., IFNgamma, TNFalpha and/or IL2.

The antigen may be derived (such as obtained from) from a human or non-human pathogen including, e.g., bacteria, fungi, parasitic microorganisms or multicellular parasites which infect human and non-human vertebrates, or from a cancer cell or tumor cell.

In one embodiment the antigen is a recombinant protein, such as a recombinant prokaryotic protein.

In one embodiment, the antigen is derived from Plasmodium spp. (such as Plasmodium falciparum), Mycobacterium spp. (such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)), Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), human respiratory syncytial virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Moraxella spp. (such as Moraxella catarrhalis) or nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (ntHi).

The antigen may comprise or consist of preparations derived from parasites that cause malaria such as Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax.

In one embodiment, the antigen may be the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein or a variant thereof. A suitable variant of the CS protein may be a variant wherein parts of the CS protein are in the form of a hybrid protein with the surface antigen S from hepatitis B (HBsAg). The CS variant antigen may e.g. be in the form of a hybrid protein comprising substantially all the C-terminal portion of the CS protein, four or more tandem repeats of the CS protein immunodominant region, and HBsAg. The hybrid protein may comprise a sequence which contains at least 160 amino acids and which is substantially homologous to the C-terminal portion of the CS protein, but devoid of the hydrophobic anchor sequence. The CS protein may be devoid of the last 12 amino-acids from the C terminal.

Further, it may contain 4 or more e.g. 10 or more Asn- Ala-Asn-Pro tetrapeptide (NANP) repeat motifs.

The hybrid protein for use in the invention may be a protein which comprises a portion of the CS protein of P. falciparum substantially as corresponding to amino acids 207-395 of P. falciparum clone 3D7, derived from the strain NF54 fused in frame via a linear linker to the N- terminus of HBsAg. The linker may comprise a portion of preS2 from HBsAg. CS constructs suitable for use in the present invention are outlined in WO93/10152, which granted in the US as US Pat. Nos. 5,928,902 and 6,169,171 , both of which are incorporated by reference for the purpose of describing suitable proteins for use in the present invention.

A particular hybrid protein for use in the invention is the hybrid protein known as RTS (SEQ ID No. 1 , also described in WO2015/150568, WO93/10152 (wherein it is denoted RTS * ) and in WO98/05355, which consists of:

- a methionine residue

- three amino acid residues, Met Ala Pro

- a stretch of 189 amino acids representing amino acids 207 to 395 of the CS protein of P. falciparum strain 3D7

- an glycine residue

- four amino acid residues, Pro Val Thr Asn, representing the four carboxy terminal residues of the hepatitis B virus (adw serotype) preS2 protein, and

- a stretch of 226 amino acids, encoded by nucleotides 1653 to 2330, and specifying the S protein of hepatitis B virus (adw serotype).

RTS may be in the form of RTS,S mixed particles. RTS,S particles comprise two polypeptides, RTS and S, that may be synthesized simultaneously and spontaneously form composite particulate structures (RTS,S).

The antigen may comprise or consist of preparations derived from Mycobacterium spp., such as Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in particular Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Antigens of interest in the field of tuberculosis include Rv1 196 and Rv0125. Rv1196 (described, for example, by the name Mtb39a in Dillon et al Infection and Immunity 1999 67(6): 2941-2950) is highly conserved, with 100% sequence identity across H37Rv, C, Haarlem, CDC1551 , 94-M4241A, 98-R604INH-RIF-EM, KZN605, KZN1435, KZN4207, KZNR506 strains, the F11 strain having a single point mutation Q30K (most other clinical isolates have in excess of 90% identity to H37Rv). Rv0125 (described, for example, by the name Mtb32a in Skeiky et al Infection and Immunity 1999 67(8): 3998-4007) is also highly conserved, with 100% sequence identity across many strains. Full length Rv0125 includes an N-terminal signal sequence which is cleaved to provide the mature protein.

In one embodiment the antigen is derived from Rv1 196, such as comprise, such as consist of, a sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID No: 2, such as at least 80%, in particular at least 90%, especially at least 95%, for example at least 98%, such as at least 99%. Typical Rv1196 related antigens will comprise (such as consist of) a derivative of SEQ ID No: 2 having a small number of deletions, insertions and/or substitutions. Examples are those having deletions of up to 5 residues at 0-5 locations, insertions of up to 5 residues at 0-5 five locations and substitution of up to 20 residues. Other derivatives of Rv1 196 are those comprising (such as consisting of) a fragment of SEQ ID No: 2 which is at least 200 amino acids in length, such as at least 250 amino acids in length, in particular at least 300 amino acids in length, especially at least 350 amino acids in length.

In one embodiment the antigen is derived from Rv0125, such as comprise, such as consist of, a sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID No: 3, such as at least 80%, in particular at least 90%, especially at least 95%, for example at least 98%, such as at least 99%. Typical Rv0125 related antigens will comprise (such as consist of) a derivative of SEQ ID No: 3 having a small number of deletions, insertions and/or substitutions. Examples are those having deletions of up to 5 residues at 0-5 locations, insertions of up to 5 residues at 0-5 five locations and substitution of up to 20 residues. Other derivatives of Rv0125 are those comprising (such as consisting of) a fragment of SEQ ID No: 3 which is at least 150 amino acids in length, such as at least 200 amino acids in length, in particular at least 250 amino acids in length, especially at least 300 amino acids in length. Particular derivatives of Rv0125 are those comprising (such as consisting of) the fragment of SEQ ID No: 3 corresponding to residues 1-195 of SEQ ID No: 3. Further immunogenic derivatives of Rv0125 are those comprising (such as consisting of) the fragment of SEQ ID No: 3 corresponding to residues 192-323 of SEQ ID No: 3. Particularly preferred Rv0125 related antigens are derivatives of SEQ ID No: 3 wherein at least one (for example one, two or even all three) of the catalytic triad have been substituted or deleted, such that the protease activity has been reduced and the protein more easily produced - the catalytic serine residue may be deleted or substituted (e.g. substituted with alanine) and/or the catalytic histidine residue may be deleted or substituted and/or substituted the catalytic aspartic acid residue may be deleted or substituted. Especially of interest are derivatives of SEQ ID No: 3 wherein the catalytic serine residue has been substituted (e.g. substituted with alanine). Also of interest are Rv0125 related antigens which comprise, such as consist of, a sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID No: 3, such as at least 80%, in particular at least 90%, especially at least 95%, for example at least 98%, such as at least 99% and wherein at least one of the catalytic triad have been substituted or deleted or those comprising, such as consisting of, a fragment of SEQ ID No: 3 which is at least 150 amino acids in length, such as at least 200 amino acids in length, in particular at least 250 amino acids in length, especially at least 300 amino acids in length and wherein at least one of the catalytic triad have been substituted or deleted. Further immunogenic derivatives of Rv0125 are those comprising (such as consisting of) the fragment of SEQ ID No: 3 corresponding to residues 192-323 of SEQ ID No: 3 wherein at least one (for example one, two or even all three) of the catalytic triad have been substituted or deleted. Particular immunogenic derivatives of Rv0125 are those comprising (such as consisting of) the fragment of SEQ ID No: 3 corresponding to residues 1-195 of SEQ ID No: 3 wherein the catalytic serine residue (position 176 of SEQ ID No: 3) has been substituted (e.g. substituted with alanine).

Suitably the antigen will comprise, such as consist of, a sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID No. 4, such as at least 80%, in particular at least 90%, especially at least 95%, such as at least 98%, for example at least 99%. Typical M72 related antigens will comprise, such as consist of, a derivative of SEQ ID No: 4 having a small number of deletions, insertions and/or substitutions. Examples are those having deletions of up to 5 residues at 0-5 locations, insertions of up to 5 residues at 0-5 five locations and substitution of up to 20 residues. Other derivatives of M72 are those comprising, such as consisting of, a fragment of SEQ ID No: 4 which is at least 450 amino acids in length, such as at least 500 amino acids in length, such as at least 550 amino acids in length, such as at least 600 amino acids in length, such as at least 650 amino acids in length or at least 700 amino acids in length. As M72 is a fusion protein derived from the two individual antigens Rv0125 and Rv1 196, any fragment of at least 450 residues will comprise a plurality of epitopes from the full length sequence (Skeiky et al J. Immunol. 2004 172:7618-7628; Skeiky Infect. Immun. 1999 67(8):3998-4007; Dillon Infect. Immun. 1999 67(6):2941-2950).

M72 related antigen will comprise, such as consist of, a sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID No. 4, such as at least 80%, in particular at least 90%, especially at least 95%, such as at least 98%, for example at least 99%.

Typical M72 related antigens will comprise, such as consist of, a derivative of SEQ ID No: 4 having a small number of deletions, insertions and/or substitutions. Examples are those having deletions of up to 5 residues at 0-5 locations, insertions of up to 5 residues at 0-5 five locations and substitution of up to 20 residues.

In particular embodiments the M72 related antigen will comprise residues 2-723 of SEQ ID No. 4, for example comprise (or consist of) SEQ ID No. 4 or comprise (or consist) of SEQ ID No. 5. A further antigen that may be employed in accordance with the present invention is the tuberculosis antigen Rv1753 and variants thereof, such as described in W02010010180, for example a Rv1753 sequence selected from Seq ID Nos: 1 and 2-7 of W02010010180, in particular Seq ID No: 1. Another antigen of interest in the field of tuberculosis is Rv2386 and variants thereof, such as described in W02010010179, for example a Rv2386 sequence selected from Seq ID Nos: 1 and 2-7 of W02010010179, in particular Seq ID No: 1. Other antigens of interest in the field of tuberculosis include Rv3616 and variants thereof, such as described in WO2011092253, for example a natural Rv3616 sequence selected from Seq ID Nos: 1 and 2-7 of WO201 1092253 or a modified Rv3616 sequence such as those selected from Seq ID Nos: 161 to 169, 179 and 180 of WO2011092253, in particular Seq ID No: 167. An additional antigen of interest is HBHA, such as described in WO97044463, W003044048 and WO2010149657. The aforementioned patent applications W02010010180, W02010010179, WO2011092253, WO97044463, W003044048 and WO2010149657 are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety for the purpose of defining antigens which may be of use in the present invention.

Other antigens of interest are those comprising (or consisting of): Rv1 174, also known as DPV, such as described in SEQ ID No 8 of W02010010177; Rv1793, also known as MTI or Mtb9.9, such as described in SEQ ID No 10 of W02010010177; Rv2087, also known as MSL or Mtb9.8, such as described in SEQ ID No 9 of W02010010177; Rv3616, also known as HTCC1 or Mtb40, such as described in SEQ ID Nos 1 and 2-7 W02010010177 or SEQ ID Nos 161- 169, 179 or 180 of WO2011092253; and/or Rv3874, also known as CFP10 or Tb38.1 , such as described in SEQ ID No 9 of W02010010177; or an immunogenic portion (such as at least 20, 50, 75 or 100 residues therefrom) or variant thereof (such as having at least 70%, 80%, 90% or 95% identity thereto). (W02010010177 and WO201 1092253 are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety for the purpose of defining antigens which may be of use in the present invention).

Tuberculosis antigens are most suitably utilised in the form of a polypeptide, but may alternatively be provided in the form of a polynucleotide encoding said polypeptide.

A further antigen that may be employed in accordance with the present invention is derived from Varicella zoster virus (VZV). The VZV antigen for use in the invention may be any suitable VZV antigen or immunogenic derivative thereof, suitably being a purified VZV antigen.

In one embodiment, the VZV antigen is the VZV glycoprotein gE (also known as gp1 ) or immunogenic derivative hereof. The wild type or full length gE protein consists of 623 amino acids comprising a signal peptide, the main part of the protein, a hydrophobic anchor region (residues 546-558) and a C-terminal tail. In one aspect, a gE C-terminal truncate (also referred to truncated gE or gE truncate) is used whereby the truncation removes 4 to 20 percent of the total amino acid residues at the carboxy terminal end. In a further aspect, the truncated gE lacks the carboxy terminal anchor region (suitably approximately amino acids 547-623 of the wild type sequence). In a further aspect gE is a truncated gE having the sequence of SEQ ID NO. 6.

The gE antigen, anchorless derivatives thereof (which are also immunogenic derivatives) and production thereof is described in EP0405867 and references therein [see also Vafai A., Antibody binding sites on truncated forms of varicalla-zoster virus gpl(gE) glycoprotein, Vaccine 1994 12:1265-9). EP192902 also describes gE and production thereof. Truncated gE is also described by Haumont et al. Virus Research (1996) vol 40, p199 -204, herein incorporated fully by reference. An adjuvanted VZV gE composition suitable for use in accordance of the present invention is described in W02006/094756, i.e. a carboxyterminal truncated VZV gE in combination with adjuvant comprising QS-21 , 3D-MPL and liposomes further containing cholesterol. Leroux-Roels I. et al. (J. Infect. Dis. 2012,206: 1280-1290) reported on a phase I/ll clinical trial evaluating the adjuvanted VZV truncated gE subunit vaccine.

The antigen may comprise or consist of preparations derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In certain favorable embodiments, a polypeptide antigen is an F protein polypeptide antigen from RSV. Particularly suitable as a polypeptide antigen component in the context of the are conformationally constrained F polypeptide antigens. Conformationally constrained F proteins have previously been described in both the prefusion (PreF) and postfusion (PostF) conformations. Such conformationally constrained F proteins typically comprise an engineered RSV F protein ectodomain. An F protein ectodomain polypeptide is a portion of the RSV F protein that includes all or a portion of the extracellular domain of the RSV F protein and lacks a functional (e.g., by deletion or substitution) transmembrane domain, which can be expressed, e.g., in soluble (not attached to a membrane) form in cell culture.

Exemplary F protein antigens conformationally constrained in the prefusion conformation have been described in the art and are disclosed in detail in e.g., US Patent No. 8,563002

(W02009079796); US Published patent application No. US2012/0093847 (WO2010/149745); US2011/0305727 (WO2011/008974); US2014/0141037, WO2012/158613 and

WO2014/160463 each of which is incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of illustrating prefusion F polypeptides (and nucleic acids), and methods of their production.

Typically, the antigen is in the form of a trimer of polypeptides. Additional publications providing examples of F proteins in the prefusion conformation include: McLellan et al., Science, Vol. 340: 1 113-1 117; McLellan et al., Science, Vol 342: 592-598, and Rigter et al., PLOS One, Vol. 8: e71072, each of which can also be used in the context of the immunogenic combinations disclosed herein.

For example, an F protein polypeptide stabilized in the prefusion conformation typically includes an ectodomain of an F protein (e.g., a soluble F protein polypeptide) comprising at least one modification that stabilized the prefusion conformation of the F protein. For example, the modification can be selected from an addition of a trimerization domain (typically to the C terminal end), deletion of one or more of the furin cleavage sites (at amino acids -105-109 and -133-136), a deletion of the pep27 domain, substitution or addition of a hydrophilic amino acid in a hydrophobic domain (e.g., HRA and/or HRB). In an embodiment, the conformationally constrained PreF antigen comprises an F2 domain (e.g., amino acids 1-105) and an F1 domain (e.g., amino acids 137-516) of an RSV F protein polypeptide with no intervening furin cleavage site wherein the polypeptide further comprises a heterologous trimerization domain positioned C-terminal to the F1 domain. Optionally, the PreF antigen also comprises a modification that alters glycosylation (e.g., increases glycosylation), such as a substitution of one or more amino acids at positions corresponding to amino acids -500-502 of an RSV F protein. When an oligomerization sequence is present, it is preferably a trimerization sequence. Suitable oligomerization sequences are well known in the art and include, for example, the coiled coil of the yeast GCN4 leucine zipper protein, trimerizing sequence from bacteriophage T4 fibritin (“foldon”), and the trimer domain of influenza HA. Additionally or alternatively, the F polypeptide conformationally constrained in the prefusion conformation can include at least two introduced cysteine residues, which are in close proximity to one another and form a disulfide bond that stabilizes the pre-fusion RSV F polypeptide. For example, the two cysteines can be within about 10 A of each other. For example, cysteines can be introduced at positions 165 and 296 or at positions 155 and 290. An exemplary PreF antigen is represented by SEQ ID NO:7.

The antigen may comprise or consist of preparations derived from HIV. The antigen may be a HIV protein such as a HIV envelope protein. For example, the antigen may be a HIV envelope gp120 polypeptide or an immunogenic fragment thereof.

One suitable antigen is the HIV clade B gp120 polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 8 of the published application WO 2008/107370 (or an immunogenic fragment of this polypeptide). SEQ ID NO: 8 of WO 2008/107370 is incorporated by reference into this application.

Suitable antigens also include a polypeptide comprising the V1 V2 region of SEQ ID NO: 1 of the published application WO 2015/036061 , or an immunogenic derivative or fragment of the V1V2 region of SEQ ID NO: 1. In addition, a polypeptide comprising the V1 V2 region of SEQ ID NO:

5 of WO 2015/036061 or an immunogenic derivative or fragment of the V1V2 region of SEQ ID NO: 5 may be used as a suitable antigen. SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 5 of

WO2015/036061 are incorporated by reference.

In another embodiment, the antigen may comprise two or more different HIV envelope gp120 polypeptide antigens (or immunogenic fragments of these polypeptides). Suitable antigens include the and HIV clade C gp120 polypeptide antigens including TV1 gp120 (SEQ ID No: 8) and 1086.C gp120 (SEQ ID No: 9).

Other suitable HIV antigens include Nef, Gag and Pol HIV proteins and immunogenic fragments thereof. The composition may comprise non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae antigen(s) for example selected from: Fimbrin protein [(US 5766608 - Ohio State Research Foundation)] and fusions comprising peptides therefrom [e.g. LB1 (f) peptide fusions; US 5843464 (OSU) or WO 99/64067]; OMP26 [WO 97/01638 (Cortecs)]; P6 [EP 281673 (State University of New York)]; TbpA and/or TbpB; Hia; Hsf; Hin47; Hif; Hmw1 ; Hmw2; Hmw3; Hmw4; Hap; D15 (WO

94/12641 ); protein D (EP 594610); P2; and P5 (WO 94/26304); protein E (W007/084053) and/or PilA (W005/063802). The composition may comprise Moraxella catarrhalis protein antigen(s), for example selected from: OMP106 [WO 97/41731 (Antex) & WO 96/34960 (PMC)]; OMP21 ; LbpA &/or LbpB [WO 98/55606 (PMC)]; TbpA &/or TbpB [WO 97/13785 & WO

97/32980 (PMC)]; CopB [Helminen ME, et al. (1993) Infect. Immun. 61 :2003-2010]; UspA1 and/or UspA2 [WO 93/03761 (University of Texas)]; OmpCD; HasR (PCT/EP99/03824); PilQ (PCT/EP99/03823); OMP85 (PCT/EP00/01468); Iipo06 (GB 9917977.2); Iipo10 (GB

9918208.1 ); lipo11 (GB 9918302.2); lipo18 (GB 9918038.2); P6 (PCT/EP99/03038); D15 (PCT/EP99/03822); OmplAI (PCT/EP99/06781 ); Hly3 (PCT/EP99/03257); and OmpE.

In an embodiment, the composition may comprise non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) protein antigen(s) and/or M. catarrhalis protein antigen(s). The composition may comprise Protein D (PD) from H. influenzae. Protein D may be as described in W091/18926. The composition may further comprise Protein E (PE) and/or Pilin A (PilA) from H. Influenzae. Protein E and Pilin A may be as described in WO2012/139225. Protein E and Pilin A may be presented as a fusion protein; for example LVL735 as described in WO2012/139225. For example, the composition may comprise three NTHi antigens (PD, PE and PilA, with the two last ones combined as a PEPilA fusion protein). The composition may further comprise UspA2 from M. catarrhalis.

UspA2 may be as described in WO20151251 18, for example MC-009 ((M)(UspA2 31-564)(HH)) described in WO2015125118. For example, the composition may comprise three NTHi antigens (PD, PE and PilA, with the two last ones combined as a PEPilA fusion protein) and one M. catarrhalis antigen (UspA2).

A plurality of antigens may be provided. For example, a plurality of antigens may be provided to strengthen the elicited immune response (e.g. to ensure strong protection), a plurality of antigens may be provided to broaden the immune response (e.g. to ensure protection against a range of pathogen strains or in a large proportion of a subject population) or a plurality of antigens may be provided to currently elicit immune responses in respect of a number of disorders (thereby simplifying administration protocols). Where a plurality of antigens are provided, these may be as distinct proteins or may be in the form of one or more fusion proteins.

Antigen may be provided in an amount of 0.1 to 100 ug per human dose. The present invention may be applied for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of a disease or disorder associated with one or more antigens described above. In one embodiment the disease or disorder is selected from malaria, tuberculosis, COPD, HIV and herpes.

The adjuvant may be administered separately from an immunogen or antigen, or may be combined, either during manufacturing or extemporaneously), with an immunogen or antigen as an immunogenic composition for combined administration.

Sterilisation

For parenteral administration in particular, compositions should be sterile. Sterilisation can be performed by various methods although is conveniently undertaken by filtration through a sterile grade filter. Sterilisation may be performed a number of times during preparation of an adjuvant or immunogenic composition, but is typically performed at least at the end of manufacture.

By“sterile grade filter” it is meant a filter that produces a sterile effluent after being challenged by microorganisms at a challenge level of greater than or equal to 1x10 7 /cm 2 of effective filtration area. Sterile grade filters are well known to the person skilled in the art of the invention for the purpose of the present invention, sterile grade filters have a pore size between 0.15 and 0.25 urn, suitably 0.18-0.22um, such as 0.2 or 0.22 urn.

The membranes of the sterile grade filter can be made from any suitable material known to the skilled person, for example, but not limited to cellulose acetate, polyethersulfone (PES), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In a particular embodiment of the invention one or more or all of the filter membranes of the present invention comprise polyethersulfone (PES), in particular hydrophilic polyethersulfone. In a particular embodiment of the invention, the filters used in the processes described herein are a double layer filter, in particular a sterile filter with build-in prefilter having larger pore size than the pore size of the end filter. In one embodiment the sterilizing filter is a double layer filter wherein the pre-filter membrane layer has a pore size between 0.3 and 0.5 nm, such as 0.35 or 0.45 nm. According to further embodiments, filters comprise asymmetric filter membrane(s), such as asymmetric hydrophilic PES filter membrane(s). Alternatively, the sterilizing filter layer may be made of PVDF, e.g. in combination with an asymmetric hydrophilic PES pre-filter membrane layer.

In light of the intended medical uses, materials should be of pharmaceutical grade (such as parenteral grade).

The teaching of all references in the present application, including patent applications and granted patents, are herein fully incorporated by reference. A composition or method or process defined as“comprising” certain elements is understood to encompass a composition, method or process (respectively) consisting of those elements. As used herein,‘consisting essentially of means additional components may be present provided they do not alter the overall properties or function.

The invention will be further described by reference to the following, non-limiting, examples:

EXAMPLES

Example 1 - HPLC of a crude aqueous extract of Quillaia saponaria Molina

Crude bark extract was separated by reverse phase HPLC using a C4 column and gradient elution: mobile phase A - water/acetonitrile, 7/3 v/v with 0.15% trifluoroacetic acid; mobile phase B - acetonitrile with 0.15% trifluoroacetic acid. UV detection was at 214 nm.

Crude bark extract samples are diluted as necessary with purified water. PVPP (60 mg/mL) was added, the mixture stirred for approximately 30 minutes, and then centrifuged to separate the PVPP resin from the supernatant.

The supernatant was then analysed to provide an HPLC UV chromatogram.

Figure 1 provides a representative example of an HPLC UV chromatogram. The peak corresponding to the QS-21 fraction is indicated.

Example 2 - Analytical Methods

HPLC-UV

Equipment

Waters Alliance 2690/2695 separations module

Waters 2487 UV Detector or 2996 PDA Detector

Vydac Protein C4 4.6 x 250mm 5um column

Mobile Phase A (MPA) - 0.15% trifluoroacetic acid in water/acetonitrile (70:30 v/v)

Mobile Phase B (MPB) - 0.15% trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile

Linear gradient conditions:

10ul of sample is injected. UV detection is set at 214nM.

Using a blank injection for reference, integration of peaks in the chromatogram provides a total absorbance. Peak of interest (e.g. QS-21 main peak) is compared to total absorbance to determine peak content as a percentage.

UPLC-UV Equipment

Waters Acquity UPLC

Waters Acquity Tunable UV Detector

Waters Acquity BEH C18 2.1x100mm 1 7um column

Mobile Phase A (MPA) - 0.025% acetic acid in water/acetonitrile (70:30 v/v)

Mobile Phase B (MPB) - 0.025% trifluoroacetic acid in water/acetonitrile (30:70 v/v)

Linear gradient conditions:

Column temperature 28 degrees C. 10ul of sample is injected. UV detection is set at 214nM.

Using a blank injection for reference, integration of peaks in the chromatogram provides a total absorbance. Peak of interest (e.g. QS-21 main peak) is compared to total absorbance to determine peak content as a percentage.

UPLC-UV/MS

Equipment Waters Acquity UPLC

Waters Acquity Tunable UV Detector

Waters Single-Quadrupole Mass Detector

Waters Acquity BEH C18 2.1x100mm 1.7um column

Mobile Phase A (MPA) - 0.025% trifluoroacetic acid in water/acetonitrile/isopropyl alcohol (75:20:5 v/v)

Mobile Phase B (MPB) - 0.025% trifluoroacetic acid in water/acetonitrile/isopropyl alcohol (10:72:18 v/v)

Linear gradient conditions:

Test sample is prepared in 0.2% acetic acid in water/acetonitrile (70:30 v/v). Column temperature 55 degrees C. 10ul of sample is injected. UV detection is set at 214nM.

Although retention times vary slightly between runs, the QS-21 group is located at

approximately 3.8 min (B-isomer) to approximately 4.5 minutes (prior to lyo impurity).

Using a blank injection for reference, integration of peaks in the chromatogram that elute after the solvent front between 0.5 and around 5.50 minutes and do not appear in the blank is undertaken.

The monoisotope of the most abundant species is identified by combining TIC over the entire chromatogram to create a combined spectrum.

Ratio of 2002 component to 1988 component is calculated by comparing the ion current associated with the 2002 component with the ion current associated with the 1988 component within the QS-21 main peak.

Figure 5 provides an exemplary chromatogram of a saponin extract according to the present invention. Figure 6 shows expanded detail of the region including the QS-21 group and lyo component. Figure 7 provides an exemplary extracted mass chromatograms for 1988 and 2002 molecular weight ions of a purified Quillaja saponaria Molina saponin extract.

Example 3 - Purification of a crude aqueous extract of Quillaia saoonaria Molina

Crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina having a 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.064 or lower and a Preceding peak to QS-21 main peak ratio of 0.4 or lower, was treated with PVPP (1 kg PVPP per litre of crude aqueous extract). After adsorption the mixture was filtered to separate the PVPP and bound impurities from the liquor.

Figure 2 provides an example HPLC-UV chromatogram for crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina (used for Preceding peak to QS-21 main peak ratio determination).

Figure 3 provides an example UPLC-UV chromatogram for crude aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina (used for 2018 component to QS-21 main peak ratio determination).

Filtered liquor was concentrated and further purified by ultrafiltration/diafiltration using a 30kD Hellicon membrane. Resulting permeate was purified by reverse phase chromatography using a polystyrene resin

(Amberchrom XT20) and the following conditions:

Eluent B: 90% Acetonitrile and 0.25% acetic acid

Column: 30 cm ID

Loading: 50-1 10g per injection

Fractions were pooled to provide polystyrene purified saponin extract with a composition: % QS-21 main peak > 18% (by HPLC)

and

2018 component/QS-21 main peak ratio < 0.054 (by UPLC-UV).

Figure 4 provides an example UPLC-UV chromatogram for a polystyrene purified saponin extract pool.

The combined polystyrene purified fraction pool was further purified by reverse phase chromatography using a phenyl resin (EPDM) and the following conditions:

Eluent B: 90% Acetonitrile and 0.25% acetic acid

Eluent C: 35.2% acetonitrile and 0.25% acetic acid

Column: 45 cm ID

Loading: 13-21 g per injection

Fractions were pooled to provide phenyl purified saponin extract with a composition:

%QS-21 group > 98.5

%QS-21 main peak > 94.5

%2018 component < 2.7%

Main peak outside of the QS-21 group < 1% (by UPLC-UV/MS).

The combined phenyl purified saponin extract was concentrated by capture and release with reverse phase chromatography using a C8 resin (Lichroprep RP8) and the following conditions: Loaded to column conditioned at 24% acetonitrile and 0.20% acetic acid.

Eluted with 60% acetonitrile and 0.20% acetic acid.

1 1 cm column

Load: 50-142 g per injection

The C8 concentrated saponin extract was subjected to solvent exchange using

ultrafiltration/diafiltration and a Pellicon 1 kDa membrane to reduce acetonitrile content below 21%. The resulting solvent exchanged saponin extract was then lyophilised in a single step to provide the final product.

A series of process runs providing out of specification saponin extract were found to arise from the use of crude bark extract with excessive 2018 component content.

A plurality of runs according to the present invention, starting with a crude extract having a suitable 2018 component composition, were performed and on each occasion the final product was within specification.

The use of the process as described in Example 3 can consistently provide a purified saponin extract of Quillaja Saponaria Molina having a defined content in terms of QS-21 main peak and 2018 component, such as consistently at least 93% of QS-21 main peak and 0.25-3% of 2018 and presenting a chromatographic profile comparable to the chromatograms shown in Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.

Example 4 - Immune responses

6-8 week old female C57BL6 mice (5/group) were injected twice intramuscularly with a 14-day interval with gE antigen formulated with the adjuvant system AS01 , a liposomal formulation comprising 3D-MPL and saponin extract prepared according to the present intention. A control group of 5 mice received gE with buffer alone.

Vaccine was prepared from three different lots of saponin extract and results are provided for two different dosage levels (0.4 and 0.1 ug 3D-MPL/QS-21 per animal corresponding to 1/125 and 1/500 of the human dose, respectively).

Spleens were collected at D21 and sera at D21 and D28, and analysed for T and B cell responses, respectively.

ICS (Intracellular Cytokine Staining)

Spleens were collected in RPMI medium and dissociated using a potter tissue grinder

(homogenizer) using two up and down strokes. Homogenized samples were transferred to 50 ml polypropylene tubes. Fibrous material was removed by filtration through a 100 uM nylon cell strainer. Cells were then washed, counted and re-suspended at 10 7 cells per ml. ICS is the technology which allows the quantification of antigen specific T lymphocytes on the basis of cytokine production.

Lymphoid cells are re-stimulated overnight (O.N) in vitro with peptides gE or medium in the presence of a protein transport inhibitor (brefeldin A). These cells are then processed by conventional immunofluorescent procedure using fluorescent antibodies (extracellular staining: CD4, CD8; intracellular staining: TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL2).

Results are expressed as a frequency of cytokine positive cells within CD4 cell populations after subtraction of the medium condition for each mouse. The data are presented for the population that showed expression of at least two cytokines (IL2, IFN-alpha or TNF-alpha). Results are shown in Figure 9.

- ELISA

Anti-gE total IgG were measured by ELISA. 96 well-plates were coated with antigen overnight at 4°C.The plates were then washed and saturated with saturation buffer for 1 hour at 37°C. After, 100 ul of diluted mouse serum or standard or control was added and incubated for 1 h30 at 37°C. After wash, the plates were incubated for 1 hour at 37°C with 100 pi anti mouse IgG- Biotinylated. After wash, the plates were incubated for 30 min at 37°C with 100 ul Streptavidin- POD conjugate. After wash, 100 ul of TMB per well was added and the plates were kept in the dark at room temperature for 15 minutes. To stop the reaction, 100 ul of H 2 SO 4 0.4N was added per well. The absorbance was read at a wavelength of 450/630 nm by an Elisa plate reader. Results were calculated using the Softmax-Pro software. Results are shown in Figure 10 (D21 ) and Figure 1 1 (D28).

Conclusions

A consistent composition of saponin extract over different production lots resulted in

immunological responses with a limited degree of variation.

Bibliography

Dalsgaard et al. in 1974 (“Saponin adjuvants”, Archiv. fur die gesamte Virusforschung, Vol. 44, Springer Verlag, Berlin, p243-254) De Becker, G., V. Moulin, B. Pajak, C. Bruck, M. Francotte, C. Thiriart, J. Urbain, and M. Moser. 2000. The adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A increases the function of antigen-presenting cells. International immunology. 12:807-815.

Didierlaurent A.M., Collignon C., Bourguignon P., Wouters S., Fierens K., Fochesato M., Dendouga N., Langlet C., Malissen B., Lambrecht B.N., Garcon N., Van Mechelen M., and S. Morel. 2014 Enhancement of Adaptive Immunity by the Human Vaccine Adjuvant AS01

Depends on Activated Dendritic Cells Journal of Immunology 193(4):1920-1930.

Didierlaurent et al, 2017 Adjuvant system AS01 : helping to overcome the challenges of modern vaccines Expert Reiews of Vaccines 16(1 ): 55-63

Garcon, N., and M. Van Mechelen. 2011. Recent clinical experience with vaccines using MPL- and QS-21 -containing adjuvant systems. Expert review of vaccines. 10:471-486

Ismaili, J., J. Rennesson, E. Aksoy, J. Vekemans, B. Vincart, Z. Amraoui, F. Van Laethem, M. Goldman, and P.M. Dubois. 2002. Monophosphoryl lipid A activates both human dendritic cells and T cells. Journal of immunology. 168:926-932.

Kensil, C.R., U. Patel, M. Lennick, and D. Marciani. 1991. Separation and characterization of saponins with adjuvant activity from Quillaja saponaria Molina cortex. Journal of immunology. 146:431-437.

Kensil, C.R., and R. Kammer. 1998. QS-21 : a water-soluble triterpene glycoside adjuvant. Expert opinion on investigational drugs. 7:1475-1482.

Lambrecht, B.N., M. Kool, M.A. Willart, and H. Hammad. 2009. Mechanism of action of clinically approved adjuvants. Current opinion in immunology. 21 :23-29.

Leroux-Roels I. et al. J. Infect. Dis. 2012, 206: 1280-1290

Li, H., S.B. Willingham, J.P. Ting, and F. Re. 2008. Cutting edge: inflammasome activation by alum and alum's adjuvant effect are mediated by NLRP3. Journal of immunology. 181 :17-21.

Livingston, P.O., S. Adluri, F. Helling, T.J. Yao, C.R. Kensil, M.J. Newman, and D. Marciani. 1994. Phase 1 trial of immunological adjuvant QS-21 with a GM2 ganglioside-keyhole limpet haemocyanin conjugate vaccine in patients with malignant melanoma. Vaccine. 12:1275-1280.

Ragupathi, G., J.R. Gardner, P.O. Livingston, and D.Y. Gin. 201 1. Natural and synthetic saponin adjuvant QS-21 for vaccines against cancer. Expert review of vaccines. 10:463-470

Martin, M., S.M. Michalek, and J. Katz. 2003. Role of innate immune factors in the adjuvant activity of monophosphoryl lipid A. Infection and immunity. 71 :2498-2507. Marty-Roix, R. et al. Identification of QS-21 as an Inflammasome-activating Molecular

Component of Saponin Adjuvants. J. Biol. Chem. 291 , 1 123-36 (2016)

Mata-Haro, V., C. Cekic, M. Martin, P.M. Chilton, C.R. Casella, and T.C. Mitchell. 2007. The vaccine adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A as a TRIF-biased agonist of TLR4. Science.

316:1628-1632.

Newman, M.J., J.Y. Wu, B.H. Gardner, K.J. Munroe, D. Leombruno, J. Recchia, C.R. Kensil, and R.T. Coughlin. 1992. Saponin adjuvant induction of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Journal of immunology. 148:2357-2362.

Soltysik, S., J.Y. Wu, J. Recchia, D.A. Wheeler, M.J. Newman, R.T. Coughlin, and C.R. Kensil. 1995. Structure/function studies of QS-21 adjuvant: assessment of triterpene aldehyde and glucuronic acid roles in adjuvant function. Vaccine. 13:1403-1410.