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Title:
SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER FILTER AND PASSIVE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WITH PRETREATMENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/205087
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A saturated layer stormwater filtering system with down-flow layered multimedia filters is disclosed. The filtering system may include an upflow pretreatment chamber and a subsequent filtration chamber. It also includes a snorkel pipe as an adjustable head control or internal baffles. The system incorporates gravity powered partially saturated stormwater media filters to harness the potential energy of stormwater from downspouts and pumped flows from stormwater catchments to drive the polluted stormwater in a hydraulically controlled fashion by gravity through a series of filter media layers.

Inventors:
NOLING, Calvin, P (122 SE 27th Avenue, Portland, OR, 97214, US)
JOSEPH, Daniel, Michael (122 SE 27th Avenue, Portland, OR, 97214, US)
Application Number:
US2017/032567
Publication Date:
November 30, 2017
Filing Date:
May 12, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
STORMWATERX, LLC (122 SE 27th Avenue, Portland, OR, 97214, US)
International Classes:
E03F1/00; C02F9/02; C02F9/08
Foreign References:
US20090101555A12009-04-23
US20140021137A12014-01-23
US20100326904A12010-12-30
US5679256A1997-10-21
US5993672A1999-11-30
US20080251448A12008-10-16
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HEYNSSENS, Paul, B. (Ater Wynne LLP, 1331 NW Lovejoy Street Suite 90, Portland OR, 97209, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1 . A stormwater filter system comprising :

a pretreatment chamber including :

an inlet pipe to receive stormwater influent;

a plurality of pretreatment and saturated med ia for stormwater influent pretreatment;

distri butor distribution header with an inlet openi ng and a d istri bution head to receive and distribute the pretreated stormwater over the surface of the pretreatment media, the inlet opening being positioned above the pretreatment media; and

a filtration chamber coupled to the inlet distributor to receive and contain the distri buted pretreated stormwater and constructed to maintain an adjustable water level within the filtration chamber;

an effluent pipe to collect the treated stormwater for discharge; and a ratably adjustable conduit for maintaining a desired water level in the filtration vessel.

2. The stormwater filter system of claim 1 , wherein the inlet distributor distributes the pretreated stormwater uniformly over a top surface of the filtration chamber.

3. The stormwater filter system of claim 1 , wherein the pretreated stormwater flows into the distribution header by gravity.

4. The stormwater filter system of claim 1 , wherein the inlet distribution header provides energy dissipation to prevent scouring of at least one of the plurality of treatment media in the fi ltration chamber.

5. The stormwater filter system of claim 1 , wherein the pretreatment media comprises buffering media to adjust a pH of the stormwater influent.

6. The stormwater filter system of claim 1 , wherein the filtration chamber further comprises an emergency overflow outlet to provide a means for stormwater to bypass the treatment media in case the filter becomes pl ugged.

7. The stormwater filter system of claim 6, wherein the emergency overflow outlet is positioned above the d istribution head of the inlet distributor.

8. The stormwater filter system of claim 1 , wherein the at least one layer of the plurality of treatment media comprise unsaturated filter media and saturated media positioned beneath the unsaturated filter media.

9. The stormwater filter system of claim 8, wherein the filtration chamber further comprises a laminar flux block disposed evenly beneath the saturated filter media, the laminar flux block coupled to the effluent pipe to promote an even laminar flow through the treatment media.

1 0. The stormwater filter system of claim 1 , wherein the at least one layer of treatment media comprises one layer of an adsorptive/ion exchange media.

1 1 . A stormwater filter comprising :

a vessel ;

an inlet pipe disposed at a top portion of the vessel, and entering the vessel th rough an inlet aperture ;

a distribution header coupled to the inlet pipe with a plurality of apertures;

a plurality of unsaturated filter media layers d isposed below and in substantially parallel orientation to the distri bution header in a vertical stack of layers; a plurality of saturated filter media layers disposed below and in substantially parallel orientation to the plurality of unsaturated filter med ia layers in a vertical stack of layers;

a barrier seal disposed about a perimeter of the inside of the vessel, and between adjoining media layers; and

a bottom collection device disposed at the bottom of the vessel and below the plurality of saturated filter media layers extending th rough an aperture disposed in the vessel.

1 1 . The stormwater filter of claim 1 1 further comprising a conduit assembly outside the vessel, and ratably coupled to the bottom col lection device where the bottom collection device extends through the aperture.

1 2. The stormwater filter of claim 1 2 in which the conduit assembly includes an effluent sample port

1 3. The stormwater filter of claim 1 1 in which the bottom collection device is a perforated pipe wrapped in geotextile.

1 4. The stormwater filter of claim 1 1 in which the bottom collection device is a laminar flux device including a main distribution pipe and a plurality of perforated pipes coupled to the main distribution pipe in su bstantially perpendicular orientation to the main distri bution pipe.

1 5. The stormwater filter of claim 1 1 further comprising a debris screen disposed between the distribution header and a firs layer of the plurality of unsaturated filter media layers.

1 6. The stormwater filter of claim 1 1 further comprising a perforated debris basket disposed between the distribution header and a firs layer of the plurality of unsaturated filter media layers.

1 7. The stormwater filter of claim 1 1 further comprising a pretreatment vessel coupled to the inlet aperture and configured to receive stormwater of a given volu me at which time when the g iven volu me is exceeded the stormwater flows into the vessel through the inlet aperture.

1 8, The stormwater filter of claim 1 7 further comprising a pH adjusting treatment media disposed in the pretreatment vessel.

1 9. The stormwater filter of claim 1 1 further comprising a detention storage tank disposed above the vessel, in a stacked configuration and having a foot print

substantially the same as the vessel.

20. A stormwater filter comprising :

a vessel means for containing stormwater at a desired level inside the vessel ; a distribution means for spreading incoming stormwater substantially uniformly; a plurality of unsaturated media layers for removing particulate matter from stormwater disposed below the distribution means;

a plurality of saturated media layers for removing dissolved metal from stormwater disposed below the plurality of unsaturated media layers;

a barrier seal means for preventing break through of the media layers

a collection pipe and conduit means for collecting filtered stormwater and maintaining a water level in the vessel means to maintain liquid saturation of the plurality of saturated media layers.

Description:
SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER FILTER AND PASSIVE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

SYSTEM WITH PRETREATMENT

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001 ] This invention relates generally to the field of stormwater management.

More particularly, it concerns treating stormwater inflow or influent to produce a purified stormwater outflow or effluent.

BACKGROUND ART

[0002] Conventional stormwater filter systems for influent pollutant control and removal are subject to numerous previously unsolved problems. These problems include ineffective use of filter surface area due to a single inlet pi pe, pitting of the filter media underneath such a single inlet pipe, uncontrolled water fall speeds through the filter media that promotes short-circuiting and increased particle shear forces causing loss of accumulated particulates into the effluent, uncontrolled water fall through reactive filter media (insufficient "contact time") that reduces removal of dissolved pollutants, automatic water level controls that stick or otherwise fail, uncontrolled acidic pH levels in the influent that render toxic heavy metals more soluble and thus more difficu lt and expensive to capture in a filter, etc.

[0003] Also, rainwater that lands on outdoor work areas and even rooftops can slowly d issolve and erode building materials and cause pollution of downstream waterways by particulates and heavy metals, includi ng dissolved or ionized heavy metals that are particularly difficult to remove. Examples of polluting heavy metals include zinc, copper, iron , aluminum and lead .

[0004] The United States National Pollutant Discharge Eli mination System

(NPDES) permitting program regulates the quantity and quality of stormwater discharges to receiving waters. Certain categories of industrial facilities are regulated under NPDES industrial stormwater permits as point sources and the amount of pollutants contained in the stormwater discharges is required to be controlled according to these permits. Stormwater that has flowed across outdoor work areas, rooftops and the rooftop equipment common to industrial facilities, in many cases, is of poor quality and the ratio of dissolved or ionized pollutants to total pollutants is high. Removal of ionized heavy metals from stormwater is technically challenging.

[0005] Some stormwater pollution controls may include downspout filters and also filtration systems for treating stormwater runoff from sheet flow off

pavement/graded surfaces which may then be filtered by gravity or collected and pumped up to the filtration system. Many such filters remove debris and particulates but their capacity and efficiency for removal of ionized or dissolved metals is low. Other downspout filters unsatisfactorily export nutrients or other pollutants in the process of removing the ionized heavy metals.

[0006] Accordingly it may be desirable to have a stormwater processing system with improved filtration performance, in particular in removing ionized heavy metals.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

[0007] The following presents a simplified summary of the disclosure in order to provide a basic understanding to the reader. This summary is not an extensive overview of the disclosure and it does not identify key/critical elements of the invention or delineate the scope of the invention. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts disclosed herein in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later.

[0008] A unique saturated layer stormwater filter as described herein provides a single chamber down-flow layered multimedia filters, that consists of several layers of screens, fabrics, and media types that are intended for sequential treatment of water removing the largest size materials first and dissolved constituents last. At its outlet the system includes a snorkel pipe or internal baffles to create a flooded distribution of stormwater that advantageously controls the untreated stormwater effluent flow across and subsequently throug h the filter media. The stormwater flows by the force of gravity th rough the filter media. Accordingly the media is more effective in filtration when kept satu rated. The system is constructed so that the filter media is saturated, in that some or all of the filter media remains submerged in the stormwater being treated. This particular filter is typically useful as a downspout filtration system, or to treat stormwater runoff from outdoor work areas. The filter may be advantageously coupled to a downspout or may receive pu mped stormwater from a below ground vault or other retention vessel holding stormwater to be treated . Thus, a portable, gravity powered "partially saturated stormwater media filter" has been constructed that tends to harness the potential energy of stormwater to drive the polluted stormwater in a hydraulically controlled fashion by gravity through a series screens, fabrics, and media layersr

[0009] Although some of the present examples are described and illustrated herein as being implemented in a downspout system, the system descri bed is provided as an example and not a limitation. For example, the passive stormwater management system with upflow pretreatment may provide even more of a robust filtration system. As those skilled in the art will appreciate, the present examples are suitable for application in a variety of different types of waste water or runoff treatment systems.

[001 0] The stormwater filter may also be used in combination with various stormwater conveyance controls. Additional examples below describe a saturated layer filter and passive stormwater management system with pretreatment used i n conjunction with other stormwater conveyance control systems. In the saturated layer filter and passive stormwater management system with pretreatment, one possible option is shown with the saturated layer storm water filter used in conjunction with a below ground separator vault.

[001 1 ] Many of the attendant features will be more readi ly appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description considered in connection with the accompanying drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[001 2] The present description will be better understood from the following detailed description read in light of the accompanying drawings, wherein :

SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER FILTER

[001 3] FIG. 1 shows a cut away side view of the saturated layer stormwater filter.

[001 4] FIG. 2 shows a cut away end view of the saturated layer stormwater filter.

[001 5] FIG. 3 shows a top view of the saturated layer stormwater filter with an underdrain.

[001 6] FIG 4 shows an exemplary saturated layer stormwater filter system (single internal chamber) installed and coupled to a downspout.

[001 7] FIGs. 5-7 show an attached piping mechanism to couple the downspout stormwater filter system of FIG. 4 to a building's downspout.

[001 8] FIG. 8 shows a further alternative example of a stormwater filter housing with a removable filter basket.

[001 9] FIG.9 shows the construction of an example of a removable filter basket utilized in FIG. 8.

SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER FILTER WITH PREATREATMENT

[0020] FIG. 1 0 shows a perspective cut away view of an exemplary stormwater filter system with an upflow pretreatment chamber.

[0021 ] FIG. 1 1 shows a top view of the exemplary stormwater filter system shown in Fig. 7 having an upflow pretreatment chamber.

STORMWATER CONVEYANCE CONTROL WITH SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER FI LTER WITH PREATREATMENT [0022] FIG 1 2 is a side sectional view of detention stormwater conveyance control with a saturated layer stormwater filter with pretreatment in an intermodal container configuration, mod ified standard post flat design.

[0023] FIG. l 3 shows a treatment system that includes a satu rated layer stormwater filter with pretreatment with a stormwater conveyance control bypass pump vault.

[0024] FIG. 1 4 shows a treatment system that includes a saturated layer stormwater filter with pretreatment with a CLARA stormwater conveyance control config uration.

[0025] FIG. l 5 shows the construction of a distribution header utilized in FIGs.

1 and 6.

SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER WITH DOWNFLOW PREATREATM ENT

[0026] FIG. 1 6 shows a side view of the exemplary stormwater filter system shown in FIGs 1 -2 having an downflow pretreatment chamber.

[0027] FIG. 1 7 shows a top view of the exemplary stormwater filter system of

FIG. 1 6.

[0028] Like reference numerals are used to designate like parts in the accompanying drawing.

BEST MODE FOR CARYING OUT THE INVENTION

[0029] The detailed description provided below in connection with the appended drawings is intended as a description of the present examples and is not i ntended to represent the only forms in which the present example may be constructed or uti lized. The description sets forth the functions of the example and the sequence of steps for constructing and operating the example. However, the same or equivalent functions and sequences may be accomplished by different examples. [0030] The examples below describe examples of a stormwater filtering system.

Although the present examples are described and illustrated herein as being

implemented for stormwater filtering, the system descri bed is provided as an example and not a limitation. As those skilled in the art wil l appreciate, the present examples are suitable for application i n a variety of different types of water processing and filtering systems that may incorporate a stormwater filter as a component of a filtration system.

[0031 ] The invention in accordance with the following examples involves stormwater management system and apparatus for removing high levels of heavy metal toxins, nutrients, particulates, or other pollutants from stormwater influent. The output produced is a relatively clean effluent having low levels of heavy metal toxi ns, particulates, nutrients, and other pollutants that may be found in typical stormwater runoff.

[0032] The terms "layer", "media", "block", and their synonyms and plural forms, as may be used herein, are intended to provide descriptive references or landmarks with respect to the object being described. These terms are not intended, nor should be inferred, to del imit or define per se elements of the referenced object, unless specifically stated as such or facially clear from the several drawings and the context in which the term(s) is/are used. In addition, the terminal ends of any numeric lead lines in the several drawings, when associated with any such term(s), are intended to

representatively identify such references or land marks with respect to the object being descri bed. They are not intended, nor should be inferred, to delimit or define per se boundaries of the referenced object, unless specifically stated as such or facially clear from the drawings and the context in which the term(s) is/are used.

SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER FILTER

[0033] FIGs. 1 -2 show various views of the saturated layer stormwater filter 1 00 descri bed herein. Such a filter may be utilized to filter runoff, or stormwater that may be contain pollutants such as particulate matter, metals, nutrients, chemical compounds and the like. It is typically desirable to filter stormwater to prevent, or minimize contamination or pollutants from entering the environment. The filter 1 00 is saturated in that portions of the filter media is typically kept flooded with stormwater during use. Additionally, the filter tends to spread the stormwater over a large filter surface, and allows it to slowly flow through the filter, increasing the filtration efficiency, due to prolonged contact and low intra-media water flow velocity with filter media contained therein. The stormwater filter descri bed below is advantageously utilized in installations to remove contaminates such as zinc and copper from roof water runoff. However those skilled in the art will appreciate that the stormwater filter may be utilized in many alternative filtration appl ications.

[0034] The stormwater filter may include a generally water tight container or vessel 1 01 that may be sealed by a lid or other suitable cover typically having four sidewalls and a base, the vessel configured to contain a defined volume of layered filter media 1 03, 1 04, 1 05 , 1 06 entrained with a defined volume of water introduced into the vessel. Barrier layers 1 50, 1 52 may be of geotextile or equivalent and are provided to separate filter media layers. The vessel 1 01 may be constructed of any suitable material, and may be portable or fixed in nature. The vessel 1 01 may also be of any suitable shape including cubic, cylindrical or the like. Its volume is selected using techniques known to those skilled in the art to satisfactorily process and otherwise contain a given stormwater input. Alternatively a fixed filter structure may be provided with a removable su bstructure, so that spent filter material may be easily replaced. Apparatus will be understood to be a flow-throug h apparatus, in that the i nfluent at the inlet is gravity fed to the outlet as effluent, whether in batch or continuous mode of filter operation.

[0035] In accordance with one example of invention, a stormwater inlet 1 1 2 near an upper edge of a layered filter media container is coupled to a distribution header assembly (or equivalently a baffle structure) 1 1 0 that ensures effective use of the considerable surface area of the filter media by providing a plurality of spaced streams 1 1 4 of stormwater across the top most filter med ia layer 1 03. Construction is such that each point of impact onto the filter media has its energy dissipated by a layer of material 1 02 that covers the upper layered filter media surface including, in some cases, a debris screen 1 02 may be suspended over the media su rface between the distribution header 1 1 0 and the topmost media layer 1 03. The stormwater inflow may be metered to substantially saturate the layered filter media, thereby slowing the mean free path of the stormwater through the filter 1 00 and increasi ng efficient particulate, heavy metal toxin and other pollutant capture by the various filter layers 1 03, 1 04, 1 05 , 1 06.

[0036] Stormwater influent 1 1 0 enters the filter vessel 1 01 through a distributor pipe 1 1 6. The distribution header 1 1 0 disperses the hydraulic energy of the flow th rough a debris screen 1 02 that may consist of a rack system with various granular media, a fabric basket or the like.

[0037] In alternative examples, particularly in FIG. 1 0, the debris screen may be constructed within a second separate chamber than that of the filtration media (see 71 0 of FIG. 1 0) typically for larger capacity systems (see 1 000 of FIG. 1 0). This debris screen 1 02 provides pre-filtration of debris prior to water reaching the filtration chamber (720 of FIG. 1 0) filter media surface. In such larger systems (see FIG. 1 0), an additional distri bution header or pipe (1 1 0 of FIG. 1 0) may also be incorporated at the filtration chamber to spread water over the filter surface and optimize the contact area of stormwater with filtration media. The debris screen or an additional fabric layer may also function to dissipate energy of falling stormwater to prevent or minimize surface filter media pitting.

[0038] Returning to FIGs. 1 -2 , the sequential treatment of stormwater continues inside the filtration media as the stormwater travels through the media layers 1 03, 1 04, 1 05 , 1 06. The filtration media layers consist of inert and reactive med ia to remove stormwater pollutants such as metals, particulates, oil, organics and nutrients. These medias may be layered to remove the coarse fraction (and the most massive) of solids in the top layer. Finer filtration of smaller particulates (i.e. silts and clays) and larger dissolved constituents (i.e. hydrocarbons) may be trapped in the middle layers of the filter bed , and the smallest d issolved constituents (i.e. dissolved metals) may be removed in the lowest layers consisting of one or more reactive medias. Particulate pollutants that can foul a sorptive med ia's efficiency for removal of ionized or dissolved metals and need to be removed first. Pollutant removal occurs through a combination of straining , filtration, complexing, adsorption, absorption, micro-sedi mentation, and biological degradation, producing excellent water quality.

[0039] The top layers of filter media are typically the "unsaturated filter media" layers 1 03 and 1 04. These layers are where the majority of the solid particulates are typically strained from the stormwater and range from 0.25 - 1 .5 mm in size range. Layers 1 03 and 1 04 may be made up of several layers or more depending on the water chemistry being addressed as wi ll be appreciated by those skilled in the art. Barrier layer 1 52 typically is made up of a geotextile material, or its equivalent, to separate layers 1 04 from 1 05.

[0040] The saturated media layers 1 05 and 1 06 may be located beneath the unsaturated filter media layers. Layers 1 05 and 1 06 may be made up of a plurality of layers depending on the water chemistry being addressed, but are typically of reactive natu re to pull dissolved constituents from of the stormwater. Examples of these reactive medias are activated carbon, zeolite, and organoclay, or the like. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the number of layers and the materials in the layers may be varied to achieve a desired level of filtration, and flow rate through the filter structure. Barrier layer 1 50 is made up of geotextile, fabric, perforated stainless steel , plastic grid or perforated plastic, or the like.

[0041 ] Saturated layers 1 06 and 1 07 receive the benefit of optimized contact time and water dispersion through a combination of uniform flow restriction within the media due to the saturated media layer and an evenly distributed laminar flux block (which may include porous pipe)l 1 8 collecting water from the upper layers. This laminar flow pattern tends to promote high ionized and /or dissolved metals removal efficiency. This is an i mprovement to fully unsaturated filters that can experience premature pollutant breakthrough and loss of filter effectiveness.

[0042] At the bottommost collection layer 1 09 the filtered water is collected in a laminar flux block 1 1 8 al lowing it to exit the vessel 1 20. Also inclusion of a "barrier seal" 1 08 (further described below) tends to keep the medias in place and prevent the layers from migrating through the filter. This seal may be of geotextile, granular media, or any suitable material.

[0043] Water drains from the vessel through a "standing water column" conduit

1 07 that may consist of a snorkel pipe or internal baffles. This is what creates the satu rated layer inside the filter bed. The weight of the water within the filter vessel 1 01 forces the stormwater down through the media into the saturated media laminar flux block 1 1 8 and out of the standing water column cond uit 1 07. The standing water column conduit 1 07 typically is oriented in a vertical position, and is pivotally coupled to the end of the bottom collection pi pe where the water exits 1 022 and 51 2. Accordingly, in one variant, the stand ing water column conduit 1 07 may be continuously varied from vertical to horizontal in position. The standing water colu mn conduit may be pivotal ly adjustable downwards (from the vertical position), to allow draining down of the filter for easier maintenance of the unsaturated media and assure opti mal water/filter media contact under a range of operating conditions.

[0044] Also, the water colu mn conduit provides si mple, manual operability to adjust the media saturation level of water within vessel. The standing water column conduit 1 07 can be pivoted to set the media saturation water level within the vessel anywhere between the highest and lowest levels by pivoting it between the vertical and the horizontal. Standing water colu mn conduit 1 07 may be pivotally connected to the vessel throug h a conventional coupling. Those of skill will appreciate that the water within the vessel will seek the same level, e.g. "track", the water column level within the standing water colu mn conduit 1 07. Thus the media saturation level is failsafe and can be quickly and manually adjusted without resort to leaky siphons, or difficult to control flow control valves used conventionally.

[0045] An integration pi pe connection or adapter (not shown) coupled to the outlet of the conduit 1 07 may reconnect the water flowing from th is controller to the original downspout piping or facility drainage infrastructure. The system outlet plumbing may include a sample port (not shown) which provides safe and easy access to system effluent for stormwater compliance sampling.

[0046] FIG. 3 shows a top view of the saturated layer stormwater filter with an underdrain, or laminar flow block 1 1 8. The lami nar flux block shown here is a collection structure of connected piping that collects and channels treated stormwater to conduit 1 07.

[0047] FIG 4 shows an exemplary stormwater filter system (single internal chamber) installed and coupled to a downspout 402 , via an inlet connection point adapter 1 55. The exemplary stormwater filter system includes a vessel 1 01 , filter media (as shown in FIG. 1 ) therein, an inlet d istri bution header on top of the filter media (not shown), and internal baffles and outlet plumbing 404. The system may also include a lid 406 and an inlet filter (or debris) screen (not shown) disposed above the media layer for preliminary filtering. In some examples, the system may be transported with the outlet plumbing disassembled to prevent damage during transportation. For ease of installation and maintenance, forklift pocket inlets 408 are included.

[0048] For roof runoff installations, the system should be placed at the location of a facility's roof downspout 402 so that the incoming stormwater flows downward into the side of the filtration system through connection point 1 55. Furthermore, the system may have the outlet plu mbing installed prior to use. The outlet plumbing comprises an adapter 404 coupling the treated water to the facility drainage system. To install the arm, the threaded plug 41 0 needs to be removed to drain water within the container 1 01 . [0049] FIGs. 5-7 show an attached piping mechanism 1 55 to couple the downspout stormwater filter system of FIGs. 1 -2 to a building's downspout as installed in a saturated layer filtration media 51 4 ( shown i n further detail in 1 00 of FIGs 1 -2 and 4). The stormwater filter system includes a contai ner 1 01 , an inlet debris screen 1 02 , an inlet distri butor 1 1 0, fork pocket feet 408, a drain down port 41 0, and a sample port 508. A connection point assembly 1 55 couples to an existing downspout 402 to rout stormwater influent into the container 1 01 . Treated stormwater exits the device at outlet 404. Di mensions shown are provided only by way of example and are not intended to be limiting.

[0050] Alternative examples may include a high flow bypass 1 01 2. The high flow bypass couples between the container and the existing downspout to rout excessive influent into the container back to the existing downspout, when the influent rate is beyond the capacity of the stormwater filter system. An adjustable head control couples the container effluent conduit (1 07 of Figs. 1 -2) to the existing downspout.

[0051 ] A downspout instal lation is only one example how the filtration systems can be used for stormwater treatment. These systems may also receive stormwater that was collected in a below-grade conveyance system and pumped to the filtration system. These filtration systems may be above grade, below grade, portable and user build config urations. Such alternative configurations may also include an open top for easy access, as well as built in ladders 1 01 4 to aid in maintenance. Further alternative examples of the stormwater filter may include freeze protection, soft or rigid covers, and seismic tie-downs and the like. Portable configu rations are a more portable variant of the above grade filter. In above g rade installations a steel or si milar material housing the filter can be moved i nto place quickly (FIGs, 8-9 below). Apertures to accommodate a forklift may be included in various vessel configurations to aid in movement.

[0052] In the below grade installation configuration a precast concrete, or vault may enclose the filter. A precast lid with an access port may be supplied to cover the top of the unit when it is buried, or covered. Finally, in the user build filter, the container is constructed by the end-user to the specifications the filtration equipment provider such that an equivalent filtration system can be assembled onsite with the procurement of the equipment provider internals.

[0053] FIG. 1 5 shows further details of distribution header 1 1 0 as it is constructed for use in FIGs, 5- 7. The header may be disposed above energy dissipating fabric 1 504 and may include a plurality of apertures 1 506 disposed in a main pipe so that stormwater flows from the top, then downward. In addition nu merous smaller appertures 1 508 may be disposed along the bottom of the pipe that makes up this particular example of a distribution header 1 1 0.

[0054] FIGs. 8-9 shows a further alternative example of a stormwater filter housing vessel 1 01 with a removable filter media basket 804. The structure includes a housing and media chamber and debris screen and internal baffles (not shown). The design shown tends to be easy to produce, install and service. Service may be facilitated by inclusion of a debris screen and internal baffles. Installation is facilitated by the inclusion of forklift pockets. The shape shown is exemplary, and may take a variety of forms as may be desired.

[0055] In some examples, a downspout stormwater filter system may also be config ured in a system that has a pretreatment chamber and a filtration chamber containing the stormwater type filter.

SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER FILTER WITH PREATREATMENT

[0056] Providing separate pretreatment and filtration chambers in a system having a stormwater filter is afforded in larger systems and tends to reduce system maintenance. Pretreatment may typically be classified as either upflow or downflow by its construction. Upflow pretreatment tends to be more advantageous than downflow pretreatment because of simplified construction, and the ability to include a mosquito barrier and an oil skimmer. [0057] Both chambers (containers) containing the pretreatment mechanism and the stormwater filter, may be scaled up or down to accommodate different flow rate config urations. The pretreatment chamber may be an upflow pretreatment. The stormwater filter system may also include an oil baffle and sorptive boom for oils removal, an instantaneous and /or totalizing flow meter (which may be battery operated, or equivalent), flow control valves, a float-actuated pu mp to drain large volumes of water within this pretreatment chamber, and /or a lockable lid.

[0058] FIGs. 1 0- 1 1 show various view of an exemplary stormwater filter system

700 having an upflow pretreatment chamber 71 0 and a filtration chamber 720 including the stormwater filter described above or alternative filtration configurations.

[0059] The filter media is easily cleaned, as by scraping and /or adding filter media material when existing material's surface structure becomes occluded and particulate capture capacity is exhausted. The relatively simple to install and maintain stormwater management apparatus 1 00 tends to be cost effective and effective in removing pollutants from the treated effluent, thereby protecting the envi ronment.

[0060] An overflow indicator 1 01 6 is a feature that makes a semi-permanent record of an event where stormwater inside the system has bypassed filtration. This happens when the filter media is plugged and water is not able to flow through the media, forcing the stormwater to bypass filtration by leaving the system through the overflow plumbing 1 01 2. The overflow indicator allows for the system operator to stay aware of what has happened within the system without having to be present at the ti me of bypass. The overflow is directed back onto the ground or to the system outlet.

[0061 ] In some examples, the influent and the effluent have the same flow direction or have flow directions perpendicular to each other.

[0062] FIG. 1 0 shows a perspective cut away view of an exemplary stormwater filter system with an upflow pretreatment chamber. Such a system may also be pump fed, rather than by the action of gravity. The figu re shows a stormwater management system with a unique upflow pretreatment, and downflow filtration. The downflow filtration section may be adapted from the saturated layer stormwater filter described above.

[0063] In the upflow pretreatment chamber the construction is simplified from the previously available downflow type (FIGs. 1 6- 1 7). In the u pflow system described herein, the pretreatment chamber typically includes a filter medium between the inlet plumbing and the inlet to the filter chamber. Influent enters the pretreatment chamber near its bottom. As the influent rises it flows through the pretreatment filter (from bottom to top of chamber) and then into the filter chamber.

[0064] The pretreatment chamber is customized to naturally balance the water chemistry and improve the quality of the stormwater. The pretreatment chamber can be config ured to contain a debris screen (as described in saturated layer stormwater filter section), settle solids, remove oil , and /or contain conditioning media for enhanced dissolved metals removal . The conditioning process works synchronously with the reactive filtration media, coagulating particulates, adsorbing dissolved metals and creating metal complexes that are more easily removed in the filtration chamber. A mosqu ito barrier layer is provided to prevent breeding in the pretreatment chamber.

[0065] As shown in the Figs. 1 0- 1 2 , polluted stormwater flows into the pretreatment chamber 71 0 via the inlet pipe 1 002 , which is positioned near the bottom of the pretreatment chamber 71 0 for upflow pretreatment. As the water in the pretreatment chamber rises it enters the filtration chamber 720, through d istribution header 1 1 0. Here the water is filtered as previously descri bed in Figs 1 -2. Filtered water flows into the outlet 51 2 , via a conduit, which may be provided with a sample port 508. Also coupled to the output 51 2 , is an overflow port 1 01 2. A ladder 1 01 4 may be added to provide access.

[0066] The stormwater filter system 1 000 may be configured with structure using steel, plastic, concrete, fiberglass, or earthen construction. The stormwater filter system 1 000 may also be installed for above-ground applications, designed in a precast concrete vault or panel-vault for buried applications, or both downspout and wash rack configurations. The below ground configuration can be supplied with a solid lid for traffic rated applications or with an open top for easy inspection and maintenance.

STORMWATER CONVEYANCE CONTROL WITH SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER FI LTER WITH PREATREATMENT

[0067] FIG 1 2 is a side sectional view of detention stormwater conveyance control with a saturated layer stormwater filter with pretreatment in an intermodal container configuration, mod ified standard post flat design. The intermodal post flat config uration provides for multi ple stackable satu rated layer stormwater filter with pretreatment modules alone or including detention stormwater conveyance control. The intermodal post flat units are portable, being easy to pick, move and place with standard container handling equipment including container gantry cranes, reach stackers, and similar equipment, and can be transported on marine, rail and trucks stanches designed for standard intermodal containers.

[0068] FIG. l 3 shows a treatment system that includes a satu rated layer stormwater filter with pretreatment with a stormwater conveyance control bypass pump vault.

[0069] FIG. 1 4 shows a treatment system that includes a saturated layer stormwater filter with pretreatment with a CLARA stormwater conveyance control config uration.

SATURATED LAYER STORMWATER WITH DOWNFLOW PREATREATMENT

[0070] FIGS. 1 6 and 1 7 collectively show stormwater management apparatus or system 1 01 in accordance with a downflow pretreatment example of the invention. Apparatus 1 01 includes a pretreatment mechanism 1 0a and a filter mechanism 1 0b, although those of skill in the art will appreciate that pretreatment mechanism 1 0a may not be required in certain applications. In the illustrated example, pretreatment mechanism 1 0a and filter mechanism 1 0b are housed in any suitable structure of any suitable shape and size. Apparatus 1 0 includes a sealed container or vessel 1 2 having four sidewalls and a base, the vessel configured to contain a defined volume of layered filter media 1 4 entrained with a defined volume of water W introduced into the vessel. Apparatus 1 0 wil l be understood to be a flow-through apparatus, in that the influent at the inlet is gravity fed to the outlet as effluent, whether in batch or continuous mode of filter operation. Those of skill in the art will appreciate that vessel 1 2 can be made of steel, concrete, aluminu m, fiberglass, high density polyethylene (HDPE), or any other suitably durable material.

[0071 ] In accordance with one example of the invention, vessel 1 2 is right rectangular relative to all three orthogonal axes, as can be seen from FIGS. 1 and 2. Those of skill will appreciate that the generally horizontal aspect ratio of the rectangles affects the hydraulics and thus the gravity-fed flow of stormwater through the layered filter media arranged within the vessel. In accordance with one early example of the invention, vessel 1 2 is approxi mately 9 feet in length, 2.5 feet in width, and 4 feet in height, for approximately a 7 gal lon per minute (gpm) flow rate or throug hput. In accordance with another large-scale roll-off box example, vessel 1 2 is approximately 1 6 feet in length, 8 in width, and 6 feet in height, for an approxi mately 1 00 gpm flow rate. In yet another stacked tote example, vessel 1 2 is approxi mately 4 feet in length and width , and 8.5 feet in height, for an approximately 1 0 g pm flow rate.

[0072] Those of skill in the art will appreciate that suitable alternative lengths, widths, heights, proportions or aspect ratios, and flow rates or throughputs are contemplated, and that all are within the spirit and scope of the invention.

[0073] Apparatus 1 0 further includes influent (e.g . stormwater) inlet 1 6a in an upper edge region of vessel 1 2. Apparatus 1 0 further includes an effluent (e.g. purified stormwater) outlet 1 8 in a lower edge region near the base of vessel 1 2. Thus, those of skill in the art may appreciate that apparatus 1 0 relies on gravity movement of water from inlet to outlet via the layered filter media. Such a gravity-reliant system or apparatus as apparatus or system 1 0 thus is referred to herein as involving "passive" water management.

[0074] Layered filter media 1 4 i n accordance with one example of the invention includes a lower layer 1 4a of coarse media such as g ravel, an overlying first intermediate layer 1 4b of granular activated carbon (GAC), an overlying second intermed iate layer 1 4c of activated alumina, and an overlying top layer 1 4d of med ium sand. The intermediate and upper layers can be in an approximately equal volumetric ratio, as can the lower layer, although those of skill in the art will appreciate that the intermed iate layers can be omitted altogether and the others placed in any suitable form or ratio. Th us, those of skill in the art will appreciate that these illustrative med ia layers descri bed above can be more, fewer, of different material, of different configuration, of different proportion, in different order bottom to top, etc. Any suitable layered filter media 1 4 makeup is contemplated as being within the spirit and scope of the invention.

[0075] Immediately above lower layer 1 4a in accordance with one example of the invention is a layer 20 of fabric of defined weight and extent for preventing migration of media therebetween. Geotextile fabric or any suitable alternative can be used that is substantially impervious to the filter media but easily penetrated by water. Another layer 22 of fabric overlies upper layer 1 4d , which topmost layer also can be geotextile or any suitable alternative. Topmost layer 22 of fabric also can be of any suitable weight or extent, and may, in accordance with one example of the invention, be coextensive with (of generally equal surface area to, congruent with) the upper filter media surface otherwise exposed, thereby substantially to cover the otherwise exposed filter media surface. Those of skill in the art will appreciate that topmost layer 22 protects the layered filter media from the elements, e.g. weather, falling debris, leaves or twigs, etc.

[0076] Topmost layer 22 acts in accordance with the invention to other beneficial effect: it disperses impact energy from the stormwater entering vessel 1 2 via inlet 24. Topmost layer 22 also cooperates in accordance with one example of the invention with a dispersi ng structure, or d istri bution header, 24 extending above the layered filter media and topmost layer 22. Distribution header 24 can be seen from FIG. 1 to be in fluid communication with inlet 1 6b. While only one distribution header 24 is visible in FIG. 1 , it can be seen from FIG. 2 that more than one header can be provided to further distribute stormwater over and across the surface of topmost layer 22. Those of skill in the art will appreciate that distribution header 24 can take any suitable form, but that, in accordance with one example of the invention, it is a capped length of perforated pipe, e.g . of PVC.

[0077] The so-called "media saturation" level of water within vessel 1 2 is easily and manually adjustable for opti mu m tradeoff between effluent throughput and purity. Pivotable lever 28 as a part of outlet 1 8 includes therein a standing-column of water in fluid communication with the water within vessel 1 2. Thus, by manually pivoting lever 28, the communicative "media saturation" water level within vessel 1 2 quickly and manually can be raised or lowered to opti mize performance of apparatus 1 0. This avoids more complex and failure-prone floats and valves or other metering and level control devices.

[0078] In accordance with another example of the invention, pretreatment mechanism 1 0a includes a granular conditioning medium 32 , e.g. a geotextile bag filled with granular passive adsorptive media such as brucite or calcite or a suitable alternative. The conditioning agent breaks down naturally into alkalinity and hardness ions, both of which are present in abundance in natu ral water ecosystems. The conditioning agent naturally increases the alkalinity and reduces the acidity of stormwater influent with in stormwater management mechanism 1 0a to reduce the solu bility of heavy metals therein. Typically, stormwater mig ht have a pH of

approximately 5 , which relatively low pH tends to maintain certain pollutants such as heavy metals dissolved in solution, e.g . ionized. The stormwater management mechanism 1 0a naturally raises the pH and thereby induces precipitation of metals via metal hydroxide or metal carbonate formation, effectively releasing such solubilzed heavy metals from solution so that they can be more effectively captured within layered filter media 1 4.

[0079] Those skilled in the art will realize that the stormwater filter system can be constructed with various configurations. For example a stormwater filter system may comprise different pi ping configurations other than disclosed in the aforementioned examples. Those skilled in the art will also realize that a stormwater filter system may further incorporate different components. The foregoing description of the invention has been descri bed for purposes of clarity and understanding. Various modifications may be implemented within the scope and equivalence of the appended claims.