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Title:
SCANNING SYSTEMS FOR EMR-BASED TISSUE TREATMENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/118756
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
A tissue treatment system includes a rotatable platform, a housing, and a first optical element. The rotatable platform is configured to rotate about a first axis. The housing is configured to contact a surface of a target tissue via a contacting surface. The first optical element is rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform and configured to receive an incident beam and reflect a first reflected beam including at least a portion of the incident beam. The system also includes a first objective rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform that is configured to receive at least a portion the first reflected beam, and focus the portion of the first reflected beam to a first focal region in the target tissue. The first focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on a first scan path traversed by the first objective due to the rotation of the rotatable platform.

Inventors:
BHAWALKAR JAYANT (US)
TING JOSEPH (US)
RILEY MASON (US)
HARRIS TODD (US)
CAMPBELL ROBERT (US)
CHINNOCK RANDAL (US)
ALKENS DAVID (US)
DEHOOG EDWARD (US)
PARISE PAUL (US)
Application Number:
US2018/065508
Publication Date:
June 20, 2019
Filing Date:
December 13, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
AVAVA INC (US)
International Classes:
G02B26/12; H01S3/11
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GEARY, William, C. et al. (Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.One Financial Cente, Boston MA, 02111, US)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A tissue treatment system, comprising:

a rotatable platform configured to rotate about a first axis;

a housing configured to contact a surface of a target tissue via a contacting surface; a first optical element rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform and configured to receive an incident beam and reflect a first reflected beam, the first reflected beam comprising at least a portion of the incident beam; and

a first objective rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform, the first objective configured to receive at least a portion the first reflected beam, and focus the portion of the first reflected beam to a first focal region in the target tissue;

wherein the first focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on a first scan path traversed by the first objective due to the rotation of the rotatable platform.

2. The tissue treatment system of claim 1, wherein the first axis intersects a plane of the contacting surface at an intersection position.

3. The tissue treatment system of claim 1, wherein a numerical aperture of the first objective is in the range of about 0.3 and about 0.9.

4. The tissue treatment system of claim 1, wherein a distance of the focal region from a surface of the target tissue is in the range of about 20 pm to about 2000 pm.

5. The tissue treatment system of claim 2, further comprising a first mirror located downstream from the first optical element, and configured to receive the first reflected beam, and substantially reflect the first reflected beam towards the first objective.

6. The tissue treatment system of claim 2, wherein the contacting surface is configured to cool the target tissue.

7. The tissue treatment system of claim 2, wherein the contacting surface includes gel pads configured to stabilize the target tissue.

8. The tissue treatment system of claim 2, wherein the contacting surface includes one or more of a pressure sensor, a contact sensor and a temperature sensor.

9. The tissue treatment system of claim 2, wherein the contacting surface comprises a first region located along the path traversed by the first objective, and configured to lie between the first objective and the first focal region during the rotation of the rotatable platform.

10. The tissue treatment system of claim 9, wherein the path of the first objective is substantially circular with the first axis at about the center of the circular path.

11. The tissue treatment system of claim 2, wherein the first axis is configured to translate laterally along a lateral scan path.

12. The tissue treatment system of claim 2, further comprising an optical barrier configured to prevent the at least a portion of the first reflected beam from impinging the first objective, wherein the scanning system is configured to rotate the optical barrier about the first axis such that a direction of the optical barrier from the intersection position is substantially orthogonal to a direction of the lateral scan path.

13. The tissue treatment system of claim 2, wherein an intensity of the first reflected beam is configured to be lowered when the first objective oriented substantially orthogonal to a direction of the lateral scan path.

14. The tissue treatment system of claim 2, further comprising:

a second optical element rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform, and configured to receive a first transmitted beam, the first transmitted beam comprising a portion of the incident beam that is transmitted by the first optical element;

wherein the second optical element is configured to reflect a second reflected beam, the second reflected beam comprising at least a portion of the first transmitted beam; and a second objective rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform, the second objective configured to receive at least a portion the second reflected beam and focus the portion of the second reflected beam to a second focal region in the target tissue;

wherein the second focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on a second scan path traversed by the second objective due to the rotation of the rotatable platform.

15. The tissue treatment system of claim 14, further comprising a second mirror located downstream from the second optical element and configured to receive the second reflected beam, and substantially reflect the second reflected beam towards the second objective.

16. The tissue treatment system of claim 14, further comprising a polarizing beam combiner upstream from the first optical element, the polarizing beam combiner configured to combine a first laser beam having a first polarization and a second laser beam having a second polarization into the incident beam.

17. The tissue treatment system of claim 16, wherein the first reflected beam has the first polarization and the first transmitted beam has the second polarization.

18. The tissue treatment system of claim 16, wherein the first optical element is a polarizing beam splitter.

19. The tissue treatment system of claim 17, wherein the first polarization is p- polarization and the second polarization are is s-polarization.

20. The tissue treatment system of claim 14, wherein the contacting surface comprises a second region located along the path traversed by the second objective, and configured to lie between the second objective and the second focal region during the rotation of the rotatable platform.

21. The tissue treatment system of claim 20, wherein the first region and the second region of the contacting surface are concentric with respect to the first axis.

22. The tissue treatment system of claim 14, further comprising:

a third mirror rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform and configured to receive a second transmitted beam, the second transmitted beam comprising a portion of the first transmitted beam that is transmitted by the second optical element;

wherein the third mirror is configured to reflect a third reflected beam, the third reflected beam comprising at least a portion of the second transmitted beam; and

a third objective rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform, third objective configured to receive at least a portion the third reflected beam and focus the portion of the third reflected beam to a third focal region in the target tissue,

wherein the third focal region is configured to trace a third treatment path based on a third scan path traversed by the third objective during the rotation of the rotatable platform.

23. The tissue treatment system of claim 1, wherein the first axis is parallel to a plane that includes the contacting surface.

24. The tissue treatment system of claim 23, wherein the contacting surface comprises a curved surface.

25. The tissue treatment system of claim 23, further comprising a fourth optical element upstream from the first optical element, the fourth optical element configured to receive a laser beam and transmit the incident beam and reflect a fourth reflected beam.

26. The tissue treatment system of claim 25, wherein at least a portion of the fourth reflected laser beam is directed to a fourth objective.

27. The tissue treatment system of claim 26, wherein the first objective and the fourth objective are substantially equidistant from the first axis.

28. The tissue treatment system of claim 1, further comprising a lens upstream from the first optical element and configured to receive the incident beam, the lens is configured to move along an incident beam optical axis, wherein the focal region is configured to trace a third treatment path based on the motion of the lens.

29. The tissue treatment system of claim 1, further comprising a laser source configured to generate the incident beam.

30. A tissue treatment system, comprising:

a mounting platform;

an emitter mechanically coupled to the mounting platform, the emitter configured to emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR), the emitter comprising:

a rotatable platform configured to rotate about a first axis; and an objective element rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform, the objective element being configured to receive at least a portion of EMR emitted by the emitter and to focus the received EMR to a focal region in a target tissue, wherein the focal region traces a substantially circular treatment path; wherein the mounting platform is configured to adjust at least one of a horizontal position and depth of the focal region with respect to a surface of the target tissue; and

a controller communicatively coupled to the emitter, wherein the controller is operative to transmit one or more signals to the emitter and wherein the one or more signals are operative to control at least one of,

rotation of the rotatable platform; and

one or more properties of the EMR,

thereby causing a predetermined amount of energy to be delivered to a predetermined location in the target tissue.

31. A tissue treatment system, comprising:

a movable scanning unit configured to receive an incident beam and direct an outgoing beam along an outgoing direction, the outgoing beam comprising at least a portion of the incident beam, wherein the scanning unit is configured to vary the outgoing direction along a first scan direction; and

an objective located downstream from the scanning unit and configured to receive the outgoing beam and focus the outgoing beam to a focal region in a target tissue, wherein a location of the focal region is based on the outgoing direction;

wherein the focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on the variation of the outgoing direction along the first scan direction.

32. The tissue treatment system of claim 31, wherein the scanning unit is configured to move based on at least one of rotation about a polygon axis and tilting of the polygon axis.

33. The tissue treatment system of claim 31, wherein a numerical aperture the first objective is in the range of about 0.3 and about 0.9.

34. The tissue treatment system of claim 31, wherein a distance of the focal region from a surface of the target tissue is in the range of about 20 pm to about 2000 pm.

35. The tissue treatment system of claim 32, wherein the scanning unit includes a polygon scanner comprising a plurality of reflecting surfaces, the plurality of reflecting surfaces configured to rotate about a polygon axis.

36. The tissue treatment system of claim 35, wherein each of the reflecting surface is configured to vary the outgoing direction along the first scan direction, the outgoing direction dependent on an angular position of a reflecting surface during the rotation of the reflecting surface about the polygon axis.

37. The tissue treatment system of claim 35, wherein the polygon scanner is configured to vary the outgoing direction along a second scan direction based on the tilting of the polygon axis, and wherein the focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on the variation of the outgoing direction along the second scan direction.

38. The tissue treatment system of claim 35, wherein the outgoing direction is varied along a second scan direction based on change in a location of the tissue treatment system along the second scan direction, and wherein the focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on the variation of the outgoing direction along the second scan direction.

39. The tissue treatment system of claim 31, wherein the objective is an f-theta scan lens.

40. The tissue treatment system of claim 31, wherein the objective is configured to move towards or away from the target tissue, and wherein the focal region is configured to trace a third treatment path based on the motion of the objective.

41. The tissue treatment system of claim 31, further comprising a lens upstream from the scanning unit and configured to receive the incident beam, the lens is configured to move along incident beam optical axis, wherein the focal region is configured to trace a third treatment path based on the movement of the lens.

42. The tissue treatment system of claim 31, wherein the scanning unit comprises:

a first scanning mirror configured to receive the incident beam and reflect an intermediate beam; and

a second scanning mirror configured to receive the intermediate beam and reflect the outgoing beam;

wherein the first scanning mirror is configured to vary the outgoing direction along the first scan direction, and the second scanning mirror is configured to vary the outgoing direction along a second scan direction.

43. The tissue treatment system of claim 42, further comprising:

a first actuator configured to rotate the first scanning mirror about a first mirror axis, the rotation of the first scanning mirror configured to vary the outgoing direction along the first scan direction; and

a second actuator configured to rotate the second scanning mirror about a second mirror axis, the rotation of the second scanning mirror configured to vary the outgoing direction along the second scan direction.

44. The tissue treatment system of claim 43, wherein

during a first scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to rotate along a clockwise direction with respect to the first mirror axis and the second scanning mirror is configured to be stationary;

during a second scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to be stationary, and the second scanning mirror is configured to rotate along a clockwise direction with respect to the second mirror axis; and

during a third scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to rotate along an anti-clockwise direction with respect to the first mirror axis and the second scanning mirror is configured to be stationary.

45. The tissue treatment system of claim 43, wherein

during a first scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to rotate along a clockwise direction with respect to the first mirror axis;

during a second scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to rotate along an anti-clockwise direction with respect to the first mirror axis; and

wherein the second scanning mirror is configured to rotate along a clockwise direction with respect to the second mirror axis during the first scan period and the second scan period.

46. The tissue treatment system of claim 31, wherein the scanning unit comprises:

a first prism configured to receive the incident beam and transmit an intermediate beam;

a second prism configured to receive the intermediate beam and transmit the outgoing beam, wherein the first prism configured to rotate about a first prism axis and the second prism configured to rotate about a second prism axis,

wherein the first scan direction based on relative orientation of the first prism with respect to the second prism during rotation of the first and second prism.

47. The tissue treatment system of claim 31, further comprising a laser source configured to generate the incident beam.

48. A tissue treatment system comprising:

an optical fiber configured to guide a laser beam;

an objective configured to receive the laser beam along an incidence direction and focus the laser beam to a focal region in a target tissue, a location of the focal region is based on the incidence direction;

a first actuator coupled to the optical fiber and configured to vary the orientation of the optical fiber along a first scan direction;

a second actuator coupled to the optical fiber and configured to vary the orientation of the optical fiber along a second scan direction;

wherein the focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on the variation of the optical fiber orientation along the first scan direction, and the focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on the variation of the optical fiber orientation along the second scan direction.

49. The tissue treatment system of claim 48, further comprising a laser source configured to generate the incident beam.

50. A tissue treatment system comprising:

a housing configured to contact a surface of a target tissue via a contacting surface; an objective configured to receive an incident beam, and transmit a focused beam; an optical element configured to receive the focused beam and direct the focused beam towards a focal region in the target tissue, the optical element configured to rotate about an axis;

wherein the focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on the rotation of the optical element.

51. The tissue treatment system of claim 50, wherein the optical element is configured to move along the axis, wherein the focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on the movement of the optical element.

52. The tissue treatment system of claim 50, wherein the contacting surface comprises a curved surface.

53. The tissue treatment system of claim 50, further comprising a laser source configured to generate the incident beam.

Description:
SCANNING SYSTEMS FOR EMR-BASED TISSUE TREATMENT

FIELD

[0001] The present disclosure relates generally to methods, systems, and devices for laser- based target tissue treatment.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Various conditions can be treated with the application of light or optical energy of certain wavelengths. Many challenges exist in delivering the energy to the appropriate target structure (e.g., tissue such as the skin) without damaging tissue structures adjacent to the target structure. These challenges include delivery of energy at an appropriate wavelength with sufficient fluence and focus as well as the ability to effectively and efficiently scan the target structure with the light or optical energy.

[0003] Melasma is an example of one skin disorder of unknown etiology that causes a blotchy hyperpigmentation, often in the facial area. This condition is more common in women than in men. Although the specific cause(s) of melasma may not be well-understood, the pigmented appearance of melasma can be aggravated by certain conditions such as pregnancy, sun exposure, certain medications, such as, e.g., oral contraceptives, hormonal levels, genetics, etc. Exemplary symptoms of melasma include dark, irregularly-shaped patches or macules, which are commonly found on the upper cheek, nose, upper lip, and forehead. These patches often develop gradually over time. Melasma does not appear to cause any other symptoms, nor have other detrimental effects, beyond the cosmetic discoloration.

[0004] Unlike many pigmented structures that are typically present in the epidermal region of skin (i.e., at or near the tissue surface), dermal (or deep) melasma is often characterized by widespread presence of melanin and melanophages (including, e.g., excessively-pigmented cells) in portions or regions of the underlying dermis. Accordingly, treatment of dermal melasma (e.g., lightening of the appearance of darkened pigmented regions) can be particularly challenging because of the presence of the greater difficulty in accessing and affecting such pigmented cells and structures located deeper within the skin. Accordingly, conventional skin rejuvenation treatments such as facial peels (laser or chemical), dermabrasion, topical agents, and the like, which primarily affect the overlying epidermis, may not be effective in treating dermal melasma.

SUMMARY

[0005] It has been observed that application of light or optical energy of certain wavelengths can be strongly absorbed by pigmented cells, thereby damaging them. However, an effective treatment of dermal melasma using optical energy introduces several obstacles. For example, pigmented cells in the dermis must be targeted with sufficient optical energy of appropriate wavelength(s) to disrupt or damage them, which may release or destroy some of the pigmentation and reduce the pigmented appearance. However, such energy can be absorbed by pigment (e.g., chromophores) in the overlying skin tissue, such as the epidermis and upper dermis. This near-surface absorption can lead to excessive damage of the outer portion of the skin, and insufficient delivery of energy to the deeper dermis to affect the pigmented cells therein. Moreover, thermal injury to melanocytes located in the basal layer of the epidermis can trigger an increase in the production of melanin.

[0006] Fractional approaches have been developed that involve application of optical energy to small, discrete treatment locations on the skin that are separated by healthy tissue to facilitate healing. Accurately targeting the treatment locations (e.g., located in dermal layer) with desirable specificity while avoiding damage to healthy tissue around the treatment location (e.g., in the epidermal layer) can be challenging. This requires, for example, an optical system with high numerical aperture (NA) for focusing a laser beam to a treatment location. Additionally, the optical system should be able to scan the focused beam over large affected regions (e.g., several square centimeters). Therefore, it is desirable to develop an optical system that can have high numerical aperture, and is capable of scanning over large affected regions. Further, it can be desirable that the optical system can treat the affected region in a reasonable time duration (e.g., less than an hour). Furthermore, it can be desirable that the optical system includes an interface that can, for example, establish a robust contact with the treatment region, stabilize the treatment region, cool the treatment region, and the like.

[0007] Accordingly, improved methods, systems, and devices for EMR-based (e.g., laser- based) tissue treatment are provided. [0008] A tissue treatment system is provided and it includes a rotatable platform configured to rotate about a first axis, and a housing configured to contact a surface of a target tissue via a contacting surface. The tissue treatment system also includes a first optical element rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform and configured to receive an incident beam and reflect a first reflected beam. The first reflected beam includes at least a portion of the incident beam. The tissue treatment system further includes a first objective rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform. The first objective is configured to receive at least a portion the first reflected beam, and focus the portion of the first reflected beam to a first focal region in the target tissue. The first focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on a first scan path traversed by the first objective due to the rotation of the rotatable platform.

[0009] A tissue treatment system is provided and it includes a movable scanning unit configured to receive an incident beam and direct an outgoing beam along an outgoing direction. The outgoing beam includes at least a portion of the incident beam. The scanning unit is configured to vary the outgoing direction along a first scan direction. The tissue treatment system also includes an objective located downstream from the scanning unit, and configured to receive the outgoing beam and focus the outgoing beam to a focal region in a target tissue. A location of the focal region is based on the outgoing direction. The focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on the variation of the outgoing direction along the first scan direction.

[0010] In one implementation, the first axis intersects a plane of the contacting surface at an intersection position. In another implementation, the tissue treatment system further includes a first mirror located downstream from the first optical element, and configured to receive the first reflected beam, and substantially reflect the first reflected beam towards the first objective. In yet another implementation, the first axis is configured to translate laterally along a lateral scan path.

[0011] In one implementation, the tissue treatment system further includes an optical barrier configured to prevent the at least a portion of the first reflected beam from impinging the first objective. The scanning system is configured to rotate the optical barrier about the first axis such that a direction of the optical barrier from the intersection position is substantially orthogonal to a direction of the lateral scan path. In another implementation, an intensity of the first reflected beam is configured to be lowered when the first objective oriented substantially orthogonal to a direction of the lateral scan path. [0012] In one implementation, the tissue treatment system further includes a second optical element rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform, and configured to receive a first transmitted beam. The first transmitted beam includes a portion of the incident beam that is transmitted by the first optical element. The second optical element is configured to reflect a second reflected beam that includes at least a portion of the first transmitted beam. The second objective is rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform. The second objective is configured to receive at least a portion the second reflected beam and focus the portion of the second reflected beam to a second focal region in the target tissue. The second focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on a second scan path traversed by the second objective due to the rotation of the rotatable platform.

[0013] In one implementation, the tissue treatment system includes a second mirror located downstream from the second optical element and configured to receive the second reflected beam, and substantially reflect the second reflected beam towards the second objective. In another implementation, the tissue treatment system further includes a polarizing beam combiner upstream from the first optical element. In one aspect, the first optical element is a polarizing beam splitter.

[0014] In one implementation, the polarizing beam combiner is configured to combine a first laser beam having a first polarization and a second laser beam having a second polarization into the incident beam. In one aspect, the first reflected beam has the first polarization and the first transmitted beam has the second polarization. In another aspect, the first polarization is p-polarization and the second polarization are is s-polarization.

[0015] In one implementation, the contacting surface includes a second region located along the path traversed by the second objective, and configured to lie between the second objective and the second focal region during the rotation of the rotatable platform. The first region and the second region of the contacting surface are concentric with respect to the first axis.

[0016] In one implementation, the tissue treatment system further includes a third mirror rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform and configured to receive a second transmitted beam. The second transmitted beam includes a portion of the first transmitted beam that is transmitted by the second optical element. The third mirror is configured to reflect a third reflected beam that includes at least a portion of the second transmitted beam. The tissue treatment system also includes a third objective rigidly coupled to the rotatable platform. The third objective is configured to receive at least a portion the third reflected beam and focus the portion of the third reflected beam to a third focal region in the target tissue. The third focal region is configured to trace a third treatment path based on a third scan path traversed by the third objective during the rotation of the rotatable platform.

[0017] In one implementation, the first axis is parallel to a plane that includes the contacting surface. In another implementation, the contacting surface includes a curved surface. In yet another implementation, the tissue treatment system further includes a fourth optical element upstream from the first optical element. The fourth optical element configured to receive a laser beam and transmit the incident beam and reflect a fourth reflected beam. In one aspect, at least a portion of the fourth reflected laser beam is directed to a fourth objective. In another aspect, the first objective and the fourth objective are substantially equidistant from the first axis.

[0018] In one implementation, the tissue treatment system further includes a lens upstream from the first optical element and configured to receive the incident beam. In another implementation, the lens is configured to move along an incident beam optical axis. The focal region is configured to trace a third treatment path based on the motion of the lens. In yet another implementation, the tissue treatment system further includes a laser source configured to generate the incident beam.

[0019] A tissue treatment system is provided and it includes a movable scanning unit configured to receive an incident beam and direct an outgoing beam along an outgoing direction. The outgoing beam includes at least a portion of the incident beam. The scanning unit is configured to vary the outgoing direction along a first scan direction. The tissue treatment system also includes an objective located downstream from the scanning unit, and configured to receive the outgoing beam and focus the outgoing beam to a focal region in a target tissue. A location of the focal region is based on the outgoing direction. The focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on the variation of the outgoing direction along the first scan direction.

[0020] In one implementation, the scanning unit is configured to move based on at least one of rotation about a polygon axis and tilting of the polygon axis. In another implementation, the scanning unit includes a polygon scanner includes a plurality of reflecting surfaces. The plurality of reflecting surfaces are configured to rotate about a polygon axis. In one aspect, the reflecting surface is configured to vary the outgoing direction along the first scan direction. The outgoing direction is dependent on an angular position of a reflecting surface during the rotation of the reflecting surface about the polygon axis.

[0021] In one implementation, the polygon scanner is configured to vary the outgoing direction along a second scan direction based on the tilting of the polygon axis. In another implementation, the focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on the variation of the outgoing direction along the second scan direction. In yet another implementation the outgoing direction is varied along a second scan direction based on change in a location of the tissue treatment system along the second scan direction. The focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on the variation of the outgoing direction along the second scan direction.

[0022] In one implementation, the objective is an f-theta scan lens. In another

implementation, the objective is configured to move towards or away from the target tissue. The focal region is configured to trace a third treatment path based on the motion of the objective. In yet another implementation, the tissue treatment system further includes a lens upstream from the scanning unit and configured to receive the incident beam. The lens is configured to move along incident beam optical axis. The focal region is configured to trace a third treatment path based on the movement of the lens.

[0023] In one implementation, the scanning unit includes a first scanning mirror configured to receive the incident beam and reflect an intermediate beam. The scanning also includes a second scanning mirror configured to receive the intermediate beam and reflect the outgoing beam. The first scanning mirror is configured to vary the outgoing direction along the first scan direction, and the second scanning mirror is configured to vary the outgoing direction along a second scan direction.

[0024] In one implementation, the tissue treatment system includes a first actuator configured to rotate the first scanning mirror about a first mirror axis. The rotation of the first scanning mirror is configured to vary the outgoing direction along the first scan direction. The tissue treatment system also includes a second actuator configured to rotate the second scanning mirror about a second mirror axis. The rotation of the second scanning mirror is configured to vary the outgoing direction along the second scan direction. [0025] In another implementation, during a first scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to rotate along a clockwise direction with respect to the first mirror axis and the second scanning mirror is configured to be stationary. During a second scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to be stationary, and the second scanning mirror is configured to rotate along a clockwise direction with respect to the second mirror axis.

During a third scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to rotate along an anti clockwise direction with respect to the first mirror axis and the second scanning mirror is configured to be stationary.

[0026] In yet another implementation, during a first scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to rotate along a clockwise direction with respect to the first mirror axis. During a second scan duration, the first scanning mirror is configured to rotate along an anti-clockwise direction with respect to the first mirror axis. The second scanning mirror is configured to rotate along a clockwise direction with respect to the second mirror axis during the first scan period and the second scan period.

[0027] In one implementation, the scanning unit includes a first prism configured to receive the incident beam and transmit an intermediate beam. The scanning unit further includes a second prism configured to receive the intermediate beam and transmit the outgoing beam. The first prism is configured to rotate about a first prism axis and the second prism configured to rotate about a second prism axis. The first scan direction is based on relative orientation of the first prism with respect to the second prism during rotation of the first and second prism. In another implementation, the tissue treatment further includes a laser source configured to generate the incident beam.

[0028] A tissue treatment system includes an optical fiber configured to guide a laser beam. The tissue treatment system further includes an objective configured to receive the laser beam along an incidence direction and focus the laser beam to a focal region in a target tissue. A location of the focal region is based on the incidence direction. The tissue treatment system also includes a first actuator coupled to the optical fiber and configured to vary the orientation of the optical fiber along a first scan direction, and a second actuator coupled to the optical fiber and configured to vary the orientation of the optical fiber along a second scan direction. The focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on the variation of the optical fiber orientation along the first scan direction, and the focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on the variation of the optical fiber orientation along the second scan direction. In one implementation, the tissue treatment further includes a laser source configured to generate the incident beam.

[0029] A tissue treatment system includes a housing configured to contact a surface of a target tissue via a contacting surface. The tissue treatment system also includes an objective configured to receive an incident beam, and transmit a focused beam. The tissue treatment system further includes an optical element configured to receive the focused beam and direct the focused beam towards a focal region in the target tissue. The optical element is configured to rotate about an axis. The focal region is configured to trace a first treatment path based on the rotation of the optical element.

[0030] In one implementation, the optical element is configured to move along the axis. The focal region is configured to trace a second treatment path based on the movement of the optical element. In another implementation the contacting surface includes a curved surface. In yet another implementation, the tissue treatment further includes a laser source configured to generate the incident beam.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0031] Embodiments of the disclosure will be more fully understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

[0032] FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a treatment system;

[0033] FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of a laser beam focused into a pigmented region of a dermal layer in skin;

[0034] FIG. 3A is an exemplary absorbance spectrum graph for melanin;

[0035] FIG. 3B is an exemplary absorbance spectrum graph for hemoglobin;

[0036] FIG. 4 illustrates a plot of the absorption coefficients of melanin and venous blood, and scattering coefficients of light in skin versus wavelength;

[0037] FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of a rotary objective scanning system;

[0038] FIG. 6A is a perspective view of an in-plane rotary objective scanning system located over a treatment region; [0039] FIG. 6B is a top-down view of an in-plane rotary objective scanning system located over the treatment region;

[0040] FIG. 7 is a perspective view of the arrangement of optical elements in an exemplary in-plane rotary objective scanning system;

[0041] FIG. 8 is the perspective view of the in-plane rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 7 located over a tissue surface;

[0042] FIG. 9A is a side view of the in-plane rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 7 located over a tissue surface;

[0043] FIG. 9B is a schematic illustration of a first optical sub-system of FIG. 9A;

[0044] FIG. 10 is a schematic illustration of the scan paths associated with the objective of the in-plane rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 7;

[0045] FIG. 11 illustrates variation in lateral pitch based on angular position of an objective in the rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 7;

[0046] FIG. 12 is an illustration of a contacting surface of the in-plane rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 7 ;

[0047] FIG. 13 is a schematic illustration of the arrangement of optical elements in an exemplary in-plane rotary objective scanning system with two objectives;

[0048] FIG. 14 is a schematic illustration of the arrangement of optical elements in an exemplary polarization based in-plane rotary objective scanning system;

[0049] FIG. 15 is a schematic illustration of the arrangement of optical elements in an exemplary in-plane rotary objective scanning system with three objectives;

[0050] FIG. 16A is a perspective view of a transverse rotary objective scanning system over a treatment region;

[0051] FIG. 16B is another perspective view of a transverse rotary objective scanning system over the treatment region; [0052] FIG. 17A is a perspective view of an exemplary transverse rotary objective scanning system;

[0053] FIG. 17B is an illustration of the optical elements of the transverse rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 17A;

[0054] FIG. 17C is a side view of the transverse rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 17A;

[0055] FIG. 18 is a side view of the transverse rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 17A located over a tissue surface;

[0056] FIG. 19A is a perspective view of the arrangement of objectives in the transverse rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 17A;

[0057] FIG. 19B is a schematic illustration of a scan path associated with an objective of the transverse rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 19A;

[0058] FIG. 20 is a side view of another exemplary transverse rotary objective scanning system.

[0059] FIG. 21 is a schematic illustration of a pre-objective scanning system;

[0060] FIG. 22 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system;

[0061] FIG. 23 illustrates a beam folding plane for the pre-objective scanning system in FIG.

6;

[0062] FIG. 24 illustrates an exemplary f-theta lens;

[0063] FIG. 25 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system;

[0064] FIG. 26 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system;

[0065] FIGS. 27A-27C illustrate exemplary scanning patterns associated with pre-objective scanning systems in FIGS. 22, 25 and 26;

[0066] FIG. 28 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system; [0067] FIG. 29 illustrates an exemplary prism system of the pre-objective scanning system of the FIG 31;

[0068] FIG. 30 illustrates an exemplary scanning pattern associated of FIG. 33;

[0069] FIG. 31 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system;

[0070] FIG. 32 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system;

[0071] FIG. 33 is a schematic illustration of a post-objective objective scanning system; and

[0072] FIG. 34 is a perspective view of optical elements in an exemplary scanning unit.

[0073] It is noted that the drawings are not necessarily to scale. The drawings are intended to depict only typical aspects of the subject matter disclosed herein, and therefore should not be considered as limiting the scope of the disclosure. Those skilled in the art will understand that the systems, devices, and methods specifically described herein and illustrated in the accompanying drawings are non-limiting exemplary embodiments and that the scope of the present invention is defined solely by the claims.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0074] Certain exemplary embodiments will now be described to provide an overall understanding of the principles of the structure, function, manufacture, and use of the devices and methods disclosed herein. One or more examples of these embodiments are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Those skilled in the art will understand that the devices and methods specifically described herein and illustrated in the accompanying drawings are non limiting exemplary embodiments and that the scope of the present invention is defined solely by the claims. The features illustrated or described in connection with one exemplary embodiment may be combined with the features of other embodiments. Such modifications and variations are intended to be included within the scope of the present invention.

[0075] Embodiments of the disclosure are discussed in detail below with respect to treatment of pigmentary conditions of the skin, such as melasma, to improve the appearance of such a pigmentary condition. However, the disclosed embodiments can be employed for treatment of other pigmentary and non-pigmentary conditions and other tissue and non-tissue targets without limit. Examples of pigmentary conditions can include, but are not limited to, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation, dark skin surrounding eyes, dark eyes, cafe au lait patches, Becker’s nevi, Nevus of Ota, congenital melanocytic nevi, freckles/lentigo, hemosiderin rich structures, pigmented gallstones, lutein, zeaxanthin, rhodopsin, carotenoid, biliverdin, bilirubin and hemoglobin rich structures, and tattoo-containing tissue. Examples of non pigmentary conditions can include, but are not limited to, hair follicles, hair shaft, vascular lesions, infectious conditions, sebaceous glands, acne, and the like.

[0076] Further, in the present disclosure, like-named components of the embodiments generally have similar features, and thus within a particular embodiment each feature of each like-named component is not necessarily fully elaborated upon. Additionally, to the extent that linear or circular dimensions are used in the description of the disclosed systems, devices, and methods, such dimensions are not intended to limit the types of shapes that can be used in conjunction with such systems, devices, and methods. A person skilled in the art will recognize that an equivalent to such linear and circular dimensions can easily be determined for any geometric shape. Sizes and shapes of the systems and devices, and the components thereof, can depend at least on the anatomy of the subject in which the systems and devices will be used, the size and shape of components with which the systems and devices will be used, and the methods and procedures in which the systems and devices will be used.

[0077] In general, high numerical aperture (NA) optical scanning systems are described that can focus electromagnetic radiation (EMR) (e.g., a laser beam) to a treatment region in a tissue. The focused laser beam can deliver optical energy to the treatment region without harming the surrounding tissue. The delivered optical energy can, for example, disrupt pigmented chromophores and/or targets in a treatment region of the dermal layer of the skin, without affecting the surrounding regions (e.g., overlying epidermal layer, other portions of the dermal layer, and the like) or within other pigmented target areas of the skin or tissue surrounded by unaffected and non-targeted areas. In other implementations, the delivered optical energy can cause tattoo removal or alteration, or hemoglobin-related treatment.

[0078] Exemplary methods and devices for treating skin conditions with light or optical energy are disclosed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2016/0199132, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Treating Dermal Melasma,” and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/438,818, entitled“Method and Apparatus for Selective Treatment of Dermal Melasma,” each of which is incorporated herein in its entirety. [0079] In general, systems and corresponding methods are provided for treatment of pigmentary conditions in tissues. As discussed in greater detail below, the disclosed systems and methods employ electromagnetic radiation (EMR), such as laser beams, to deliver predetermined amounts of energy to a target tissue. The EMR can be focused to a focal region and the focal region can be translated or rotated in any direction with respect to the target tissue. The predetermined amount of radiation can be configured to thermally disrupt or otherwise damage portions of the tissue exhibiting the pigmentary condition. In this manner, the predetermined amount of energy can be delivered to any position within the target tissue for treatment of the pigmentary condition such as to improve the appearance thereof.

Treatment of disorders of pigmentation

[0080] FIG. 1 illustrates one exemplary embodiment of a treatment system 10. As shown, the treatment system 10 includes a platform 12, and emitter 14, and a controller 16. The platform 12 can include one or more manipulator or arm 20. The arm 20 can be coupled to the emitter 14 for performing various treatments on a target tissue 22 of a subject 24.

Operation of the platform 12 and emitter 14 can be directed by a user, manually or using the controller 16 (e.g., via a user interface). In certain embodiments (not shown), the emitter can have a hand-held form factor and the platform 12 can be omitted. In other embodiments, the platform can be a robotic platform and the arms can be communicatively coupled to the controller for manipulation of the emitter.

[0081] The emitter 14 and controller 16 (and optionally the platform 12) can be in communication with one another via a communications link 26, which can be any suitable type of wired and/or wireless communications link carrying any suitable type of signal (e.g., electrical, optical, infrared, etc.) according to any suitable communications protocol.

[0082] Embodiments of the controller 16 can be configured to control operation of the emitter 14. In one aspect, the controller 16 can control movement of EMR 30. As discussed in detail below, the emitter 14 can include a source 32 for emission of the EMR 30 and a scanning system 34 for manipulation of the EMR 30. As an example, the scanning system 34 can be configured to focus EMR 30 to a focal region and translate and/or rotate this focal region in space. The controller 16 can send signals to the source 32, via the communications link 26 to command the source 32 to emit the EMR 30 having one or more selected properties, such as wavelength, power, repetition rate, pulse duration, pulse energy, focusing properties (e.g., focal volume, Raleigh length, etc.)· In another aspect, the controller 16 can send signals to the scanning system 34, via the communications link 26 to command the scanning system 34 to move the focal region of the EMR 30 with respect the target tissue 22 in one or more translation and/or rotation operations.

[0083] As will be apparent from the description that follows, one advantageous aspect of the system described herein is that control of the treatment, by the controller 16 and/or the scanning system 34, enables a treatment pattern substantially in the form of a circle or overlapping circles. Thus, a feature of the system is to utilize a scanning pattern in the form of concentric circles rather than simply depositing a pattern of linear dots.

[0084] Embodiments of the treatment system 10 and methods are discussed herein in the context of targets within skin tissue, such as a dermal layer. However, the disclosed embodiments can be employed for treatment of any tissue in any location of a subject, without limit. Examples of non-skin tissues can include, but are not limited to, surface and sub-surface regions of mucosal tissues, genital tissues, internal organ tissues, and

gastrointestinal tract tissues.

[0085] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of an illustration of a laser beam focused into a pigmented region of a dermal layer in a skin tissue. The skin tissue includes a skin surface 100 and an upper epidermal layer 110, or epidermis, which can be, e.g., about 60-120 pm thick in the facial region. The dermis can be slightly thicker in other parts of the body. For example, in general the thickness of the epidermis can range from about 30 pm (e.g., on the eyelids) to about 1500 pm (e.g., on the palm of the hand or soles of the feet). Such epidermis may be thinner or thicker than the examples above in certain conditions of the skin, for example psoriasis. The underlying dermal layer 120, or dermis, extends from below the epidermis 110 to the deeper subcutaneous fat layer (not shown). Skin exhibiting deep or dermal melasma can include a population of pigmented cells or regions 130 that contain excessive amounts of melanin. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) 150 (e.g., a laser beam) can be focused into one or more focal regions 160 that can be located within the dermis 120, or the epidermis, 110. The EMR 150 can be provided at one or more appropriate wavelengths that can be absorbed by melanin. EMR wavelength(s) can be selected based on one or more criteria described below. Properties of treatment radiation

[0086] Determination of desirable wavelength for treatment of certain skin conditions, such as pigmentary conditions and non-pigmentary conditions, can depend on, for example, the wavelength dependent absorption coefficient of the various competing chromophores (e.g., chromophore, hemoglobin, tattoo ink, etc.) present in the skin. FIG. 3A is an exemplary absorbance spectrum graph for melanin. The absorption of EMR by melanin is observed to reach a peak value at a wavelength of about 350 nm, and then decreases with increasing wavelength. Although absorption of the EMR by the melanin facilitates heating and/or disruption of the pigmented regions 130, a very high melanin absorbance can result in high absorption by pigment in the epidermis 110 and reduced penetration of the EMR into the dermis 120, or the epidermis 110. As illustrated in FIG. 3 A, melanin absorption at EMR wavelengths that are less than about 500 nm are relatively high, such that wavelengths less than about 500 nm may not be suitable for penetrating sufficiently into the dermis 120 to heat and damage or disrupt pigmented regions 130 therein. Such enhanced absorption at smaller wavelengths can result in unwanted damage to the epidermis 110 and upper (superficial) portion of the dermis 120, or the epidermis 110, with relatively little unabsorbed EMR passing through the tissue into the deeper portions of the dermis 120.

[0087] FIG. 3B is an exemplary absorbance spectrum graph for oxygenated or deoxygenated hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is present in blood vessels of skin tissue, and can be oxygenated (Hb0 2 ) or deoxygenated (Hb). Each form of Hemoglobin may exhibit slightly different EMR absorption properties. As illustrated in FIG. 3B, exemplary absorption spectra for both Hb and Hb0 2 indicate a high absorption coefficient for both Hb and Hb0 2 at EMR wavelengths less than about 600 nm, with the absorbance decreasing significantly at higher wavelengths. Strong absorption of EMR directed into skin tissue by hemoglobin (Hb and/or Hb0 2 ) can result in heating of the hemoglobin-containing blood vessels, resulting in unwanted damage to these vascular structures and less EMR available to be absorbed by the melanin.

[0088] The choice of an appropriate wavelength for EMR can also depend on wavelength dependent scattering profile of tissues interacting with the EMR. FIG. 4 illustrates a plot of the absorption coefficient of melanin and venous blood versus wavelength. FIG. 4 also illustrates a plot of the scattering coefficient of light in skin versus wavelength. Absorption in melanin decreases monotonically with wavelength. If melanin is the target of a pigmentary condition treatment, a wavelength having a high absorption in melanin is desirable. This would suggest that the shorter the wavelength of light, the more efficient the treatment. However, absorption by blood increases at wavelengths shorter than 800 nm, thereby increasing the risk of unintentional targeting of blood vessels. In addition, as the intended target can be located below the skin surface, the role of scattering by skin (e.g., dermal layer) can be significant. Scattering reduces the amount of light that reaches the intended target. The scattering coefficient decreases monotonically with increasing wavelength. Therefore, while a shorter wavelength can favor absorption by melanin, a longer wavelength can favor deeper penetration due to reduced scattering. Similarly, longer wavelengths are better for sparing blood vessels due to a lower absorption by blood at longer wavelengths.

[0089] With the above considerations in mind, wavelengths can range from about 300 nm to about 3000 nm, and more particularly about 800 nm to about 1064 nm, can be used for targeting certain structures (e.g., melanin) in the dermis. In particular, wavelengths of about 800 nm and about 1064 nm can be useful for such treatments. The 800 nm wavelength can be attractive because laser diodes at this wavelength are less costly and readily available. However, 1064 nm can be particularly useful for targeting deeper lesions due to lower scattering at this wavelength. A wavelength of 1064 nm can also be more suitable for darker skin types in whom there is a large amount of epidermal melanin. In such individuals the higher absorption of lower wavelength EMR (e.g., about 800 nm) by melanin in the epidermis increases the chances of thermal injury to the skin. Hence, 1064 nm may be a more suitable wavelength of the treatment radiation for certain treatments for some individuals.

[0090] Various laser sources can be used for the generation of EMR. For example,

Neodymium (Nd) containing laser sources are readily available that provide 1064 nm EMR. These laser sources can operate in a pulsed mode with repetition rates in a range of about 1 Hz to lOOKHz. Q-Switched Nd lasers sources may provide laser pulses having a pulse duration of less than one nanosecond. Other Nd laser sources may provide pulses having pulse durations more than one millisecond. An exemplary laser source providing 1060nm wavelength EMR is a 20W NuQ fiber laser from Nufern of East Granby, CT, USA. The 20W NuQ fiber laser provides pulses having a pulse duration of about 100 ns at a repetition rate in the range between about 20KHz and about lOOKHz. Another laser source, is an Nd:YAG Q-smart 850 from Quantel of Les Ulis, France. The Q-smart 850 provides pulses having a pulse energy up to about 850mJ and a pulse duration of about 6 ns at a repetition rate of up to about 10 Hz.

[0091] The systems described herein can be configured to focus the EMR in a highly convergent beam. For example, the system can include a focusing or converging lens arrangement having a numerical aperture (NA) selected from about 0.3 to 0.9 (e.g., between about 0.5 and 0.9). The correspondingly large convergence angle of the EMR can provide a high fluence and intensity in the focal region of the lens (which can be located within the dermis) with a lower fluence in the overlying tissue above the focal region. Such focal geometry can help reduce unwanted heating and thermal damage in the overlying tissue above the pigmented dermal regions. The exemplary optical arrangement can further include a collimating lens arrangement configured to direct EMR from the emitting arrangement onto the focusing lens arrangement.

[0092] The exemplary optical scanning systems can be configured to focus the EMR to a focal region having a width or spot size that is less than about 200 pm, for example, less than about 100 pm, or even less than about 50 pm, e.g., as small as about 1 pm. For example, the spot size can have ranges from about 1 pm to about 50 pm, from about 50 pm to about 100 pm, and from about 100 pm to about 200 pm. The spot size of the focal region can be determined, for example, in air. Such spot size can be selected as a balance between being small enough to provide a high fluence or intensity of EMR in the focal region (to effectively irradiate pigmented structures in the dermis), and being large enough to facilitate irradiation of large regions/volumes of the skin tissue in a reasonable treatment time.

[0093] The exemplary optical arrangement can also be configured to direct the focal region of the EMR onto a location within the dermal tissue that is at a depth below the skin surface, such as in the range from about 120 pm to about 1000 pm, e.g., between about 150 pm to about 300 pm. Such exemplary depth ranges can correspond to typical observed depths of pigmented regions in skin that exhibits dermal melisma or other targets of interest. This focal depth can correspond to a distance from a lower surface of the apparatus configured to contact the skin surface and the location of the focal region. Additionally, some

embodiments can be configured for treating targets within the epidermis. For example, an optical arrangement may be configured to direct a focal region of the EMR to a location within the epidermis tissue, for example in a range from about 5 pm to 2000 pm beneath the skin surface. Still other embodiments may be configured for treating a target deep in the dermis. For example, a tattoo artist typically calibrates his tattoo gun to penetrate the skin to a depth from about 1 mm to about 2 mm beneath the skin surface. Accordingly, in some embodiments, an optical arrangement may be configured to direct a focal region of the EMR to a location within the dermis tissue in a range from about 0.4 mm to 2 mm beneath the skin surface.

[0094] As described above, it can be desirable that the optical scanning system for treatment of tissues has a high numerical aperture. Additionally, it can also be desirable that the optical system be capable of treating large treatment areas (e.g., several square centimeters). This can be achieved, for example, by scanning a focused laser beam over the treatment area. However, it can be challenging to scan a treatment area with a laser beam using a high NA optical system. For example, high NA optical systems can be geometrically unfeasible for treatment of skin. Optical systems that are geometrically feasible have low numerical apertures, are bulky, and/or have long scan-times. Therefore, it is desirable to develop optical systems with high numerical apertures that can quickly and efficiently irradiate large treatment areas with a focused laser beam. Below, various embodiments of rotary objective scanning systems, pre-objective scanning systems and post-objective scanning systems are described.

Rotary Objective Scanning System

[0095] FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of a rotary objective scanning system 400. The rotary objective scanning system 400 can receive a laser beam 404 from a laser source 402. The scanning system 400 includes an objective (not shown) that focus the laser beam 404 and directs a focused laser beam 406 to a focal region 408 in the treatment region 410 of a tissue

411 (e.g., skin). As the objective moves (e.g., relative to the scanning system 400 and/or due to movement of the entire scanning system 400), the focal region can trace a treatment path

412 through the treatment region 410. The treatment path 412 can have path geometries (e.g., circular, elliptical, and the like). The scanning system 400 includes optical elements that can direct the laser beam 404 (or a portion of the laser beam 404) towards the moving objective.

[0096] The scanning system 400 can also include an interface (also referred to as“base,” “window,” or“contacting surface”) that can stabilize the treatment region 410 and/or facilitate control and uniformity of the irradiation profile. For example, the interface can immobilize the treatment region 410 through application of pressure and/or by including a gel pad between the interface and the treatment region. Pressure applied by the interface on the treatment region 410 can be detected by a pressure detector. The interface can also include a contact sensor that detect relative motion between the skin and the interface. Pressure provided by the interface on the treatment region can also blanche (or remove some blood from) the volume of treatment region being irradiated. This can result in selectivity of absorption of focused laser beam 406 by the treatment region (e.g., pigmented cells in the treatment region) while reducing a risk of unwanted damage to blood vessels.

[0097] The interface can cool / dissipate heat from the treatment region 410 that can be generated, for example, by heating of the treatment region 410 due to the focused laser beam 406. The interface can be made of materials suitable for heat dissipation (e.g., sapphire, diamond, glass, and the like). In some implementations, the interface can include a cooling system that can prevent the temperature of the treatment region from crossing a threshold temperature. The cooling system can include a temperature sensor that can detect the temperature of the treatment region. If the temperature exceeds the threshold temperature, a user can be notified and/or a cooling unit (e.g., Peltier device, cryospray, conductive cold conduit, and the like) can be activated to cool the treatment region.

[0098] The rotary objective scanning system can have various embodiments. Two exemplary embodiments of the rotary objective scanning system include an in-plane rotary objective scanning system and a transverse rotary objective scanning system, both of which are described below.

In-plane Rotary Objective Scanning System

[0099] FIG. 6A is a perspective view of an in-plane rotary objective scanning system 500 located over a treatment region 502. The scanning system 500 includes an objective that can move relative to a housing of the scanning system. For example, the objective can rotate (e.g., clockwise, counter-clockwise, and the like) about an axis 504 of the scanning system 500. As the objective rotates (along a rotational scan direction 506), it can traverse a rotational scan path relative to the treatment region 502. FIG. 6B is a top-down view of the in-plane rotary objective scanning system 500. The axis 504 (which projects out of the page) can move (along a second scan direction 508) relative to the treatment region 502. For example, the scanning system 500 can be moved by hand or by an actuator resulting in the displacement of the axis 504. If both the rotation of the objective (about the axis 504) and displacement of the axis 504 occurs approximately at the same time (e.g., simultaneously), the objective is displaced by a certain distance after it completes a rotation. This

displacement of the objective is referred to as a translational pitch 510 of the scanning system. The translational pitch can be varied, for example, by changing the angular velocity of the rotating platform and/or speed of translation of the axis 504.

[0100] FIG. 7 is a perspective view of the arrangement of optical elements in an exemplary in-plane rotary objective scanning system 600. The scanning system 600 comprises a housing 610 and a rotatable platform (not shown) that can rotate (along a rotational scan direction 606) about the axis 604. The rotating platform 632 (shown in FIG. 8) can be rigidly coupled to a first optical element 612 (e.g., beam splitter, mirror, etc.), a first mirror 614 and an objective 616 that rotate with the rotatable platform. A laser beam 620 can impinge on the first optical element 612 that can reflect a first reflected beam 622. The first reflected beam 622 can be redirected towards the objective 616 by the first mirror 614. The objective 616 can focus the first reflected beam 622 to a focal region in the treatment region.

[0101] As disclosed herein, a first optical element is said to be“upstream” from a second optical element if a light beam impinges on the first optical element prior to impinging on the second optical element. For example, in FIG. 7, first optical element 612 is considered to be upstream from the first mirror 614 as the laser beam 620 first impinges on the first optical element 612 before a portion of the laser beam 620 (e.g., first reflected beam 622) is directed to the first mirror 614. Alternately, the first mirror 614 is considered to be“downstream” from the first optical element 612.

[0102] FIG. 8 is the perspective view of the in-plane rotary objective scanning system 600 located over a tissue surface 702. The objective 616 can rotate about the axis 604 along the rotational scan direction 606. The axis 604 is configured to translate along the lateral scan direction 608. The housing 610 of the scanning system 600 can include a platform 630 that can support the rotating platform 632. The platform 630 abuts / interfaces with the tissue surface 702 and separates the objective 616 from the tissue surface 702. As described above, the platform 630 (also referred to as“interface”) can stabilize and/or cool the tissue surface 702 (or tissue portions below the tissue surface 702). [0103] The scanning system 600 can also include an optical barrier 634 that can prevent the first reflected beam 622 from impinging on the objective 616. The optical barrier 634 can be oriented substantially perpendicular to the second scan direction (e.g., by rotating about the axis 604). For example, the optical barrier axis 636 can be oriented substantially

perpendicular to the lateral scan direction 608. As the lateral scan direction 608 changes, the optical barrier 634 can be reoriented to remain orthogonal to the lateral scan direction 608. The lateral scan direction 608 (or a change thereof) can be determined, for example, by an accelerometer. Change in the lateral scan direction 608 can be signaled to an actuator coupled to the optical barrier 634 by the accelerometer. Based on the signal from the accelerometer, the actuator can reorient the optical barrier 634.

[0104] The optical barrier 634 can prevent the irradiation of portions of the tissue surface located along the optical barrier axis 636 (e.g., when the optical barrier axis region is substantially perpendicular to lateral scan direction 608 [“peripheral regions”]). This can be desirable as there is a possibility of providing excessive optical energy by the first reflected beam 622 in the peripheral regions (see discussion below). In another implementation, first reflected beam 622 can be turned off when the objective 616 is oriented substantially orthogonal to lateral scan direction 608 (e.g., when the objective 616 passes over the peripheral regions). The extent of the peripheral region (e.g., range of angular values with respect to the lateral scan direction 608) can be determined based on scan density (or optical energy delivered per unit area) that is considered safe for treatment.

[0105] It can be desirable that the scanning system 600 remains stable (e.g., does not wobble) as rotating platform 632 rotates about the axis 604. This can be done, for example, by designing the scanning system 600 such that its center of mass remains close to the axis 604 during rotation. This can be done, for example, by including a second mirror 615 and a second objective 617 that are rigidly coupled to the rotating platform 632. The radial locations of the second mirror 615 and the second objective 617 are determined based on the location of the center of mass of the scanning system 600 prior to coupling with the second mirror 615 and the second objective 617. In some implementations, a portion of the incident laser beam 620 can be directed to the second objective 617 via the second mirror 615. The second objective 617 can focus the received portion of the laser beam to a second focal region in the treatment region. The second focal region can also trace treatment paths which can be different from the treatment paths of the first focal region associated with objective 616.

[0106] FIG. 9A is a side view of the in-plane rotary objective scanning system of FIG. 7 located over a tissue surface 702. The incident laser beam 620 is described using two light rays that are indicative of a beam width the incident laser beam 620 extends laterally (e.g., perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the laser beam 620). A person skilled in the art would recognize that the beam width of a laser beam can refer to, for example, the full- width-half-maximum of the lateral intensity profile of the laser beam 620. The beam width may not change upon reflection from the first optical element 612 and the first mirror 614. Upon focusing of the first reflected beam 622 by the objective 616, the beam width can reduce to a focal volume 804 in the tissue (e.g., beneath the tissue surface 702). The platform 630 can include a contacting surface 802 that abuts the tissue surface 702. The contacting surface 802 is located in a plane (e.g., in the x-y plane parallel to the tissue surface 702) and separates the objective 616 and the tissue surface 702. The contacting surface can include an elevated region 808 that can project towards the surface of the tissue surface 702. The plane of the contacting surface and the axis 604 intersect (e.g., orthogonally). The contacting surface is discussed in greater detail in FIG. 12 that describes the cross-section A-A.

[0107] FIG. 9B is a schematic illustration of a first optical sub-system 800 of FIG. 9A. The first optical sub-system 800 includes the first optical element 612, the first mirror 614 and the rotating objective 616. The first optical sub-system 800 is rigidly coupled to a rotating platform (e.g., rotating platform 632). In one implementation, first optical element 612 can be a mirror. The reflectivity of the first optical element 612 determines the intensity of the first reflected beam 622 relative to the incident laser beam 620. For example, if the reflectivity of the mirror is approximately 1, almost all of the light in the laser beam 620 is reflected in the form of first reflected beam 622. Alternately, in some implementations, the first optical element 612 can be a beam splitter that can reflect a first portion of the laser beam 620 and transmit a second portion of the laser beam 620. This implementation will be further discussed in FIGS. 12-14.

[0108] The first optical element 612 can be located at a first radial distance (“Radius 1”) from the axis 604 of rotation. As the objective rotates about the axis 604 along a rotational scan direction, it can trace a rotational scan path. Because both the first optical element 612 and the first mirror 614 rotates with the first optical element 612, the incident laser beam 620 can be directed to the first optical element 612 during the traversal of the rotational scan path by the first optical element 612.

[0109] The motion of the objective 616 along the rotational scan path can result in the motion of the focal volume 804 in the x-y plane. The focal volume can also be varied along the z- direction (e.g., varying the depth of the focal volume 804 with respect to the tissue surface 702). This can be done, for example, by placing a lens 806 (or multiple lenses) in the beam path of laser beam 620 and/or beam path of the first reflected beam 622 and moving the lens along the beam path. In one implementation, a lens 806 can be placed upstream from the first optical element 612 and its position can be varied along the beam path 810. In other implementation, the lens 806 can be placed between in the optical path of the first reflected beam 622 (e.g., downstream from first optical element 612 and upstream from the first mirror 614, downstream from the first mirror 614 and upstream from objective 616, etc.).

Alternately, the depth of the focal volume 804 can also be varied by moving the objective 616 towards or away from the tissue surface 702.

[0110] FIG. 10 is a schematic illustration of the scan paths associated with the objective 616 of the in-plane rotary objective scanning system 600. As described before, the objective 616 can rotate along a rotational scan direction 606 about the axis 604, and the axis 604 can translate along the lateral scan direction 608. FIG. 10 illustrates two exemplary scan paths 902 and 912 corresponding to the stationary location of the axis 604 at O and O’, respectively. If both the rotation and the translation motion occur simultaneously, the motion of the objective 616 with respect to the tissue surface 702 is a superposition of the two motions. The lateral translation of the objective 616 after it has completed a full rotation (e.g., rotation by approximately 360 degrees around the axis 604) is called the lateral pitch 906 of the scanning system 600. The lateral pitch is indicative of the separation between focal regions associated with the objective 616 along the lateral scan direction. The length of the lateral pitch can depend on both the angular velocity of rotation of the objective along the rotational scan direction and the speed of translation of the axis 604 along the lateral scan direction. For example, the length of the lateral pitch 906 can increase if the speed of translation of the axis 604 increases or angular velocity of the objective 616 decreases. The length of the lateral pitch 906 can decrease if the speed of translation of the axis 604 decreases or angular velocity of the objective 616 increases. [0111] In some implementations, the laser beam 620 can be a pulsed laser beam that includes a series of laser pulses that are separated in space (e.g., due to different time of emission by the laser source). If the objective 616 is moving (e.g., along the rotational scan direction 606), adjacent laser pulses can impinge on the laser at different times and/or different locations of the objective. This can result in the adjacent laser pulses being directed to adjacent locations along the treatment path of the focal volume 804. The separation between the adjacent locations (e.g., along the rotational scan direction 606) is called the rotational pitch of the scanning system 600. The length of the rotational pitch can depend on both the angular velocity of rotation of the objective 616 along the rotational scan direction and temporal separation between adjacent laser pulses, which can be adjusted by changing the repetition rate of the laser. For example, the length of the rotational pitch can increase if the angular velocity of the objective 616 increases or adjacent pulse separation increases. The length of the rotational pitch can decrease if the angular velocity of the objective 616 decrease or adjacent pulse separation decreases.

[0112] FIG. 11 illustrates variation in lateral pitch based on angular position of the objective 616 with respect to the lateral scan direction. At location Al (located at a first angle with respect to the lateral scan direction 608), the lateral pitch is Sl. At location A2 (located approximately at a second angle with respect to the lateral scan direction 608), the lateral pitch is S2. At location A3 (located approximately at a third angle with respect to the lateral scan direction 608), the lateral pitch is S3. The lateral pitch can be inversely proportional to the angular position. For example, if the third angle is larger than the second angle, the lateral pitch S3 is smaller than the lateral pitch S2. If the first angle is smaller than the second angle, the lateral pitch S 1 is larger than the lateral pitch S2.

[0113] FIG. 12 is an illustration of the contacting surface 802 from the perspective of the cross section A-A in FIG. 9A. The contacting surface can include an elevated region 808 that can project towards the surface of the tissue surface 702. The elevated region 808 can form, for example, a ring on the contacting surface 802. The shape of the elevated region 808 can depend on the path of the objective 616 relative to the contacting surface 802 (e.g., path of the objective 616 along the rotational scan direction 606). It can be desirable that the objective 616 remains over the elevated region 808 as it rotates / travels over the contacting surface. This can be useful because the tissue surface 702 below the elevated region 808 is stretched due to the pressure applied by the elevated region 808. This can allow for efficient transfer of optical energy by the focused beam emanating from the objective 616 to a focal region in the treatment region of the tissue. The contacting surface 802 or portions thereof can allow for dissipation of heat from the tissue surface 702. In one implementation, the contacting surface can be made of sapphire.

[0114] FIG. 13 is a schematic illustration of the arrangement of optical elements in an exemplary in-plane rotary objective scanning system 1200 that includes two objectives. The two objectives can generate two focal regions from the incident laser beam 620. The objective scanning system 1200 can include a second optical sub-system 1250 that can optically interact with the first optical sub-system 800. The second optical sub-system 1250 can include a second optical element 1212, a second mirror 1214, and a second objective 1216. The sub-system 1250 is rigidly coupled to a rotating platform (e.g., rotating platform 632). The optical element 1212 can receive a first transmitted beam 1220 transmitted by the first optical element 612. The first optical element 612 can be a beam splitter (e.g., 50/50 beam splitter) that can reflect a portion of the incident laser beam 620 as a first reflected beam 622 and transmit a portion of the incident laser beam 620 as the first transmitted beam 1220. The second optical element 1212 can direct a second reflected beam 1222 (e.g., a portion of the first transmitted beam 1220) towards the second mirror 1214 which in turn can direct the second reflected beam 1222 towards the second objective 1216. In one implementation, second optical element 1212 can be a mirror. Alternately, in other implementations, the second optical element 1212 can be a beam splitter that can reflect a first portion of the first transmitted beam 1220 and transmit a second portion of the first transmitted beam 1220. The second objective 1216 can be located at a second radial distance (“Radius 2”) from the axis 604. The second objective 1216 can rotate along a rotational scan direction. If the objectives 616 and 1216 are rigidly coupled to the platform 630, they can rotate along the same rotational scan direction (e.g., 606). The focal region associated with the second objective 1216 can trace a treatment path. If the axis 604 remains stationary with respect to the tissue surface 702, the treatment path associated with the objective 616 and the treatment path associated with the second objective 1216 can be concentric (e.g., centered approximately about the axis 604). The contacting surface (e.g., contacting surface 802) can include a second elevated region that can project towards the surface of the tissue surface 702. The second objective 1216 can traverse over the second elevated region as it rotates / travels over the contacting surface [0115] In one implementation, the objective scanning system 1200 can independently control the depth of focal volumes associated with objectives 616 and 1216. This can be done, for example, by placing a first lens in the beam path of the first reflected beam 622 and by placing a second lens in the beam path of the second reflected beam 1222.

[0116] FIG. 14 is a schematic illustration of the arrangement of optical elements in an exemplary polarization based in-plane rotary objective scanning system 1300. The scanning system 1300 includes the first optical sub-system 800 optically coupled to the second optical sub-system 1250. The scanning system 1300 can include a polarizing beam combiner 1312 that can receive two polarization beams l320a (e.g., p-polarized) and l320b (e.g., s- polarized), and can combine them (e.g., superpose them) into the incident laser beam 620.

The first optical element 612 can be a polarization beam splitter that can direct the first polarization (e.g., p-polarized) to the first optical sub-system 800, and can direct the second polarization (e.g., s-polarized) to the second optical sub-system 1250. The objectives 616 and 1216 can focus the first and second polarization laser beam, respectively.

[0117] FIG. 15 is a schematic illustration of the arrangement of optical elements in an exemplary in-plane rotary objective scanning system 1400 that includes three objectives that can generate three focal volumes from the incident laser beam 620. The objective scanning system 1400 can include a third optical sub-system 1450 that can be optically coupled with the first optical sub-system 800 and the second optical sub-system 1250.

[0118] The third optical sub-system 1450 can include a third optical element 1412, the third mirror 1414 and a third objective 1416. The third optical sub-system 1450 can be rigidly coupled to a rotating platform (e.g., rotating platform 632). The third objective 1416 can receive a transmitted beam 1420 transmitted by the second optical element 1212.

[0119] In one implementation, the first and second optical elements 612 and 1212 can be beam splitters (e.g., a 50/50 beam splitter, a 66/33 beam splitter, etc.) For example, first optical element 612 can be a 66/33 beam splitter (e.g. transmit/reflect 66/33 percent of an incident laser beam). The first optical element 612 can transmit a first transmitted beam 1220 and reflect a first reflected beam 622. The first reflected beam 622 is directed to the first optical sub system. The second optical element 1212 can receive the first transmitted beam 1220. The second optical element can reflect a second reflected beam 1222 and transmit a second transmitted beam 1420. The second reflected beam 1222 is directed to the second optical sub- system 1250. The third optical element 1412 can receive the second transmitted beam 1420 and direct it to the third optical sub-system.

[0120] The third objective 1416 can be located at a third radial distance (“Radius 3”) from the axis 604 of rotation. The third objective 1416 can rotate along a rotational scan direction. If the objectives 616, 1216 and 1416 are rigidly coupled to the platform 630, they can rotate along the same rotational scan direction (e.g., 606). The focal region associated with the third objective 1416 can trace a third treatment path. If the axis 604 remains stationary with respect to the tissue surface 702, the first, second and third treatment paths can be concentric (e.g., centered approximately about the axis 604).

[0121] In one implementation, the objective scanning system 1400 can independently control the depth of focal volumes associated with objectives 616, 1216 and 1416. This can be done, for example, by placing a first lens in the beam path of first reflected beam 622, a second lens in the beam path of light beam 1222, and a third lens in the beam path of light beam 1422.

Transverse Rotary Objective Scanning System

[0122] FIG. 16A is a perspective view of a transverse rotary objective scanning system 1500 over a treatment region 1502. The objective scanning system 1500 can rotate about an axis 1504 along a rotational scan direction 1506. Additionally, the axis 1504 can lateral translate along a lateral scan direction 1508. FIG. 16B is another perspective view of a transverse rotary objective scanning system over the treatment region 1502.

[0123] FIG. 17A is a perspective view of an exemplary transverse rotary objective scanning system 1500. The scanning system 1500 can include a housing 1510 that can enclose various optical elements. The housing 1510 can have a cylindrical shape that can allow the scanning system to roll on the surface of the treatment region 1502. FIG. 17B is an illustration of the cross-section of the transverse rotary objective scanning system 1500. FIG. 17C is a side view of the transverse rotary objective scanning system 1500.

[0124] FIG. 18 is a side view of the transverse rotary objective scanning system 1500 located over a tissue surface 702. The scanning system includes a rotating platform 1530 that can rotate relative to the housing 1510. The rotating platform 1530 can be rigidly coupled to a first optical element 1512 (e.g., beam splitter, mirror, etc.), a first objective 1516 and a second objective 1517 that are rigidly coupled to the rotating platform 1530, and can rotate with the rotating platform 1530. A transmitted beam 1520 can impinge on the first optical element 1512 that can reflect a first reflected beam 1522. The first reflected beam 1522 can be directed towards the first objective 1516. The first objective 1516 can focus the first reflected beam 1522 to a focal volume 1554 in the treatment region of the tissue surface 702.

[0125] It can be desirable that the scanning system 1500 remain stable (e.g., does not wobble) as rotating platform 1530 rotates about the axis 1504. This stability can be achieved, for example, by designing the scanning system 1500 such that its center of mass remains close to the axis 1504 during rotation. This can be done, for example, by including a second objective 1517 that is rigidly coupled to the rotating platform 1530. The radial locations of the second objective 1517 can be determined based on the location of the center of mass of the scanning system 1500 prior to coupling with the second objective 1517.

[0126] The rotating platform 1530 can be translated along the axis 1504 (e.g., by an actuator). This can allow the focal volume 1554 to scan a lateral treatment path in the tissue surface 702. The first objective 1516 can move along a radial direction with respect to the axis 1504. This can allow for varying the depth of the focal volume 1554. A portion of the housing 1510 (also referred to as contacting surface) can separate the first objective 1516 and the tissue surface 702. The housing can press against the surface of the tissue surface 702 and allow for efficient transfer of optical energy through the first reflected beam 1522. The housing 1510 can also cool the surface of the tissue surface 702 by dissipating heat. The housing 1510 can include a curved surface. For example, the portion of the housing in contact with treatment region (e.g., contacting surface) can be curved.

[0127] FIG. 19A is a perspective view of the arrangement of optical elements in the transverse rotary objective scanning system 1500. The focal volume 1554 associated with the first objective 1516 traverses along a circular scan path 1550 (e.g., parallel to the x-y plane). FIG. 19B is a schematic illustration of a scan path associated with the first objective 1516. The circular scan path 1550 may overlap with the tissue surface 702 for a portion l550a of the circular scan path 1550.

[0128] FIG. 20 is a perspective view of an exemplary transverse rotary objective scanning system 1900. The objective scanning system 1900 includes a beam splitter 1560 upstream from the first optical element 1512. The beam splitter 1560 can receive an incident beam 1570, transmit a portion of the incident beam 1570 as a transmitted beam 1520, and reflect a portion of the incident beam 1570 as a reflected beam 1521. The reflected beam can be redirected to the first optical element 1512 via a separate optical path comprising mirrors 1562, 1564 and 1566. The first optical element 1512 can be a beam splitter that can direct the transmitted beam 1520 towards the first objective 1516, and direct the reflected beam 1521 towards the second objective 1517. As a result, the scanning system 1900 can generate two focal volumes (associated with objectives 1516 and 1517). The two focal volumes can rotate along the circular scan path 1550. This can expedite the treatment of the tissue surface 702. The radial locations of the first objective 1516 and the second objective 1517 can be determined based on their masses. This can be done to ensure that the transverse rotary objective scanning system 1900 remains stable when the rotating platform 1530 rotates. In one implementation, first objective 1516 and the second objective 1517 can have similar masses and can be equidistant from the axis 1504. Example parameters according to some embodiments are disclosed below in Table 1 :

Table 1 - Example Parameters

Pre-Objective Scanning System

[0129] FIG. 21 is a schematic illustration of a pre-objective scanning system 2100, which includes an objective 2110 and a scanning unit 2112. The scanning unit 2112 can receive a laser beam 2104 from a laser source 2102 and direct the laser beam 2104 to the objective 2110. The objective 2110 can receive the laser beam 2104 and direct a focused laser beam 2106 to a focal volume 2108 in the treatment region of a tissue 2116 (e.g., skin). The scanning system 2112 can alter the direction of the laser beam 2104 directed towards the objective 2110. For example, the scanning system 2112 can alter the direction of the outgoing laser beam along one or more scan directions. Change in the direction of the laser beam 2104 impinging the objective 2110 can cause the focal volume 2108 to trace a treatment path 2114 in the tissue 2116. The focal volume 2108 traverses the treatment path 2114 at a scan rate. The scanning unit 2112 includes one or more optical elements that can direct the laser beam 2104 (or a portion of the laser beam 2104) to the objective 2110. The pre-objective scanning system 2100 can include a contacting surface (e.g., as shown in FIG. 32) that can be positioned between the objective 2110 and the tissue 2116. The contacting surface can apply pressure the surface of the tissue 2116, and allow for dissipation of heat from the surface of the tissue 2116.

[0130] FIG. 22 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system 2200. The scanning system 2200 includes a polygon scanner 2202 which can receive the incident laser beam 2104 (e.g., from a laser source 2102) and direct the incident laser beam 2104 towards an objective 2110 (e.g., f-theta lens). The outgoing direction of the laser beam 2104 (e.g., incidence angle with which the laser beam 2104 impinges on the objective 2110) can determine the location of the focal volume 2108 in the tissue 2116 (e.g., in the x-y plane). According to some embodiments, the laser source 2102 provides a plurality of laser pulses resulting in a plurality of corresponding focal volumes. A distance between two focal volumes resulting from sequential laser pulses is focal volume pitch.

[0131] The polygon scanner 2202 can include multiple reflecting surfaces (e.g., 2202 a-c). The polygon scanner 2202 can rotate about an axis 2204 along a rotational direction 2206.

As the reflecting surfaces 2202a-c rotate around the axis 2204 (e.g., angular position of the reflecting surfaces 2202a-c with respect to the axis 2204 changes), the angle of incidence of the incident laser beam 2104 in the y-z plane changes. This varies the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104 along a first scan direction (e.g., along the y-axis). For example, if a reflecting surface (e.g., 2202b) is rotating about the axis 2204 along the rotational direction 2206, the direction of the outgoing laser beam sweeps from a higher y-value to a lower y- value.

[0132] The axis 2204 can tilt / rotate about the z-axis and/or the x-axis. This can cause the angle of incidence of the incident laser beam 2104 in the x-z plane to change, which varies the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104 along a second scan direction (e.g., along the x- axis). Rotation of the polygon scanner 2202 and the rotation/tilting of the axis 2204 can allow for varying of the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104 that can result in the scanning of the outgoing laser beam 2104 in the x-y plane.

[0133] Based on the variation of the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104, the objective 2110 can trace the focal volume 2108 along one or more treatment paths in the tissue 2116. For example, variation of the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104 due to rotation of the polygon scanner 2202 can cause the focal volume 2108 to move along the y-axis. Variation of the direction of the outgoing beam due to tilting of the axis 2204 can cause the focal volume 2108 to move along the x-axis. In one implementation, the pre-objective scanning system 2200 can be moved along the x-axis relative to the tissue 2116. This can result in the tracing of the focal volume 2108 location along the x-axis. [0134] Focal volume 2108 can also be moved along a third treatment path, namely, along the z-axis. This can be done by varying the objective 2110 along the z-axis (e.g., away from or towards the tissue 2116). Alternatively or additionally, lens 2240 can be placed in the beam path of the incident or outgoing laser beam 2104. By varying the position of the lens 2240 along the beam propagation direction 2242 (also referred to as optical axis), the location focal volume 2108 can be traced along the z-axis (e.g., depth of the tissue 2116).

[0135] FIG. 23 illustrates a beam folding plane 2300 for the pre-objective scanning system 2200. The scanning system 2200 can be made compact (e.g., by reducing the extent of the scanning system 2200 along the z-axis) by folding the scanning system 2200 about the beam folding plane 2300. This can be achieved, for example, by placing a mirror (e.g., a flat mirror) in the beam folding plane and orienting the mirror parallel to the x-y plane.

[0136] FIG. 24 illustrates an exemplary f-theta lens 2400 that can be used as an objective in the pre-objective scanning system 2200. The incident laser beam 2104 can impinge on a reflecting surface 2402 (e.g., reflective surface 2202b of the polygon scanner 2202) which can direct an outgoing laser beam 2104 to the f-theta lens 2400. The orientation of the reflecting surface 2402 can determine the incidence angle at which the outgoing laser beam 2104 impinges on the f-theta lens (e.g. angle of incidence in the y-z plane). The incidence angle can determine the location of the focal volume 2108 (e.g., along the y-axis).

[0137] FIG. 25 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system 2500. The scanning system 2500 includes a mirror system which can receive the laser beam 2104 (e.g., through an optical fiber 2520) and direct the laser beam 2104 towards an objective 2110 (e.g., f-theta lens). The direction of the outgoing laser beam 2l04c can determine the location of the focal volume 2108 in the tissue 2116 (e.g., in the x-y plane).

[0138] The mirror system can include two scanning mirrors. The first scanning mirror 2506 can rotate about a first axis 2522 (e.g., clockwise counter clockwise, etc.), and the second scanning mirror 2508 can rotate about a second axis 2524 (e.g., clockwise, counter clockwise, etc.). As the first scanning mirror 2506 rotates the angle of incidence of the incident laser beam 2104 on the mirror 2506 changes. This varies the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104b along a first scan direction (e.g., along the y-axis). As the second scanning mirror 2508 rotates the angle of incidence of the laser beam 2l04b on the scanning mirror 2508 changes. This varies the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2l04c along a second scan direction (e.g., along the x-axis). Rotation of the first scanning mirror 2506 and the second scanning mirror 2508 can allow for varying of the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2l04c that can result in the scanning of the outgoing laser beam 2l04c in the plane of the objective.

[0139] Based on the variation of the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2l04c, the objective 2110 can trace the focal volume 2108 (not shown) along one or more treatment paths in the tissue 2116. For example, variation of the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2l04c due to rotation of the first scanning mirror 2506 can cause the focal volume 2108 to move along a first treatment path. Variation of the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104c due to rotation of the second scanning mirror 2508 can cause the focal volume 2108 to move along a second treatment path.

[0140] The scanning system 2500 can include a lens 2540 that can be placed in the beam path of laser beams 2l04a, 2l04b or 2l04c. By varying the position of the lens 2540 along the beam propagation direction, the location focal volume 2108 can be traced along the depth of the tissue 2116.

[0141] In some implementations of the scanning mirror system, the variation in the direction of the laser beam 2l04b by the first scanning mirror 2506 can be large. This can prevent the laser beam 2l04b from impinging on the second scanning mirror 2508. Additionally, large angles of incidence of the laser beam 2l04b on the second scanning mirror 2508 can result in curved treatment path of the focal region. These effects can be prevented / reduced by including a third scanning mirror between the first scanning mirror 2506 and the second scanning mirror 2508. FIG. 26 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system 2600 that includes a third scanning mirror 2507 which is downstream from the first scanning mirror 2506 and upstream from the second scanning mirror 2508. The third scanning mirror 2507 can allow for smaller second scanning mirror 2508, and can prevent / reduce the curvature of the focal region treatment path.

[0142] FIGS. 27A-27C illustrates various scanning patterns of an outgoing beam (e.g., outgoing laser beam 2104) from the scanning unit 2112 (e.g., polygon scanner 2202, mirror system 2502, etc.). FIG. 27A illustrates a first scanning pattern in which the outgoing beam scans in the following sequence:(a) left to right movement (e.g., along the x-axis), (b) top to down movement (e.g., along the y-axis), and (c) right to left movement (e.g., along the negative x-axis). FIG. 27B illustrates a second scanning pattern in which the outgoing beam scans in the following sequence: (a) left to right movement (e.g., along the x-axis), (b) a superposition of top to down movement and right to left movement, and (c) left to right movement. FIG. 27C illustrates a third scanning pattern in which the outgoing beam scans in the following sequence: (a) superposition of left to right movement and top to down movement, and (b) superposition of right to left movement and top to down movement. Movements of the light beam (e.g., from left to right, from right to left, from top to down, etc.) can be obtained by clockwise or anticlockwise rotation of scanning mirrors 2506, 2507, 2508, or by rotation / axis tilting of the polygon scanner 2202.

[0143] FIG. 28 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system 2800. The scanning system 2800 includes a prism system 2802 which can receive an incident laser beam 2104 (e.g., through an optical fiber 2820) and transmit an outgoing beam 2105 (see FIG. 29) towards an objective 2110 (e.g., f-theta lens). The direction of the outgoing beam 2105 can determine the location of the focal volume 2108 in the tissue 2116.

[0144] FIG. 29 illustrates a prism system 2802 that can be used with the pre-objective scanning system 2800. The prism system 2802 includes a first prism 2806 and a second prism 2808 that can rotate about a common axis 2822. Each of the prisms can alter the direction of an incident light beam by a characteristic angle. If both the first prism 2806 and the second prism 2808 are perfectly aligned, the direction of an incident laser beam is altered by twice the characteristic angle. If the first prism 2806 and second prism 2808 are perfectly misaligned, the direction of the incident laser beam remains unchanged. For all other orientations of the prisms 2806 and 2808, the direction of the incident laser beam can be altered by an angle that lies in the range between zero degrees and twice the characteristic angle.

[0145] If both the prisms 2806 and 2808 are rotating at the same angular velocity (e.g., their relative orientation does not change during rotation), the outgoing beam 2105 scans along a circular treatment path. If the prisms 2806 and 2808 are rotating at different angular velocities, their relative orientation will change during rotation. For example, the prism pair will swing between the states of perfect alignment (where the direction of the outgoing beam is deviated by twice the characteristic angle) and perfect misalignment (where the direction of the outgoing beam remains unchanged). [0146] FIG. 30 illustrates a scanning pattern of the outgoing beam 2105 resulting from the prism system 2802 where the angular velocities of the first and second prisms are different. The outgoing beam forms a spiral pattern - the outgoing beam 2105 can spiral inwards (e.g., until it reaches the center) which can be followed by outward spiral.

[0147] FIG. 31 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system 3100. The scanning system 3100 includes a scanning unit 3102 coupled to an optical fiber 3110 that can guide the laser beam 2104. The scanning unit 3102 can include a first actuator 3106 and a second actuator 3108. The first actuator can rotate a portion of the optical fiber 3110 (e.g., tip of the fiber proximal to the objective 3112) about the x-axis. This varies the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104 along a first scan direction (e.g., along the y-axis). The second actuator 3108 can rotate a portion of the optical fiber 3110 (e.g., tip of the fiber proximal to the objective 3112) about the y-axis. This varies the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104 along a second scan direction (e.g., along the x-axis). Actuation by the first and second actuators can allow for varying of the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104 that can result in the scanning of the outgoing laser beam 2104 in the plane of the objective 3112 (e.g., x-y plane). Based on the variation of the direction of the outgoing laser beam 2104, the objective 3112 (e.g., f-theta lens) can trace the focal volume 2108 along one or more treatment paths in the tissue 2116.

[0148] FIG. 32 is an illustration of an exemplary pre-objective scanning system 3200. The scanning system 3200 includes a scanning unit 3202 coupled to an optical fiber 3210 (e.g., rigidly coupled) that can guide the laser beam 2104. The scanning unit 3202 can include a six-axis actuator 3206 and a support arm 3208. A portion of the optical fiber 3210 can be rigidly coupled to a mounting location 3230 on the six-axis actuator 3206. The support arm 3208 can support the portion of the optical fiber proximal to the tissue 2116.

[0149] The six-axis actuator 3206 can move the optical fiber 3210 along the x, y and z axes. Additionally or alternatively, the six-axis actuator 3206 can rotate the optical fiber 3210 about the x, y and z axes. Tip of the optical fiber 3210 can be coupled to the objective 3212 that can focus the outgoing laser beam 2104 to a focal volume 2108 in the tissue 2116. The pre-objective scanning system 3200 can also include a contacting surface 3216 that can lie in the optical path of the outgoing laser beam 2104 between the objective 3212 and the tissue 2116. [0150] The focal volume 2108 can be moved along a first treatment path (e.g., along the x axis) by rotating the optical fiber around the y-axis. The focal volume 2108 can also be moved along a second treatment path (e.g., along the y axis) by rotating the optical fiber around the x axis. In some implementations, it may be desirable to alter the distance between the tip of the optical fiber 3210 and the tissue 2116 (e.g., by moving the tip of the optical fiber along the z-axis) during rotation (e.g., along the x axis, y axis, etc.) to ensure that the focal volume 2108 remains at a fixed depth in the tissue 2116.

Post-Objective Scanning System

[0151] FIG. 33 is a schematic illustration of a post-objective scanning system 3300. The post-objective scanning system 3300 includes an objective 3310 and a scanning unit 3312. The objective 3310 can receive a laser beam 3304 from a laser source 3302 and direct focused laser beam 3306 to the scanning unit 3312. The scanning unit 3312 can receive the focused laser beam 3306 and direct it to a focal region 3308 in the treatment region of a tissue 3316 (e.g., skin). The scanning unit 3312 can allow the focal region 3308 to trace a treatment path 3314. The scanning unit 3312 includes one or more optical elements that can direct the focused laser beam 3306 (or a portion of the focused laser beam 3306) towards the skin.

[0152] FIG. 34 is a perspective view of the arrangement of optical elements in an exemplary scanning unit 3312. The scanning unit 3312 includes a housing having a support platform 3410 and a contacting surface 3422. The scanning unit 3312 also includes an optical element 3412 that is rotatably coupled to the support platform 3410. The optical element 3412 can rotate about the axis 3404 along a rotational direction 3406. The scanning unit 3312 can receive the focused laser beam 3306 from the objective 3310, and can direct the focused laser beam 3306 to the focal region 3308 in the tissue 3316. As the scanning unit 3312 rotate, the focal region 3308 can trace a first treatment path 3430 in the tissue 3316. The scanning unit 3312 can also translate along the axis 3404 that can result in the focal region 3308 tracing a second treatment path 3432 in the tissue 3316.

[0153] The contacting surface 3422 can be curved and can apply pressure the surface of the tissue 3316. This can allow for efficient transfer of optical energy by the focused laser beam 3306 reflected by the optical element 3412 to a focal region 3308 in the treatment region of the tissue 3316. The contacting surface 3422 or portions thereof can allow for dissipation of heat from the surface of the tissue 3316. In one implementation, the contacting surface can be made of sapphire.

[0154] The scanning systems described in this application (e.g., pre-objective scanning system 2100 and post-objective scanning system 3300) can include an interface (also referred to as“base,”“window,” or“contacting surface”) that can stabilize the treatment region (e.g., surface of the tissue 2116, 3316, etc.) and/or facilitate control and uniformity of the irradiation profile of the laser beam (e.g., focused laser beam 2106, 3306, etc.). For example, the interface can immobilize the treatment region through application of pressure and/or by including a gel pad between the interface and the treatment region. Pressure applied by the interface on the treatment region can be detected by a pressure detector. The interface can also include a contact sensor that detect relative motion between the skin and the interface. Pressure provided by the interface on the treatment region can also blanche (or remove some blood from) the volume of treatment region being irradiated. This can result in selectivity of absorption of focused laser beam (e.g., 2106, 3306, etc.) by the treatment region (e.g., pigmented cells in the treatment region) while reducing a risk of unwanted damage to blood vessels.

[0155] The interface can cool / dissipate heat from the treatment region that can be generated, for example, by heating of the treatment region due to the focused laser beam. The interface can be made of materials suitable for heat dissipation (e.g., sapphire, diamond, glass, and the like). In some implementations, the interface can include a cooling system that can prevent the temperature of the treatment region from crossing a threshold temperature. The cooling system can include a temperature sensor that can detect the temperature of the treatment region. If the temperature exceeds the threshold temperature, a user can be notified and/or a cooling unit (e.g., Peltier device, cryospray, conductive cold conduit, and the like) can be activated to cool the treatment region.

[0156] Example parameters according to some embodiments of pre-objective and post objective beam scanners are disclosed below in Table 2:

Table 2 - Example Pre- and Post-Objective Scanner Parameters

[0157] Systems and methods for scanning an EMR beam are explained above with reference to specific applications (e.g., dermatological treatments). While the beam scanning systems and methods described herein are expected to speed and benefit treatment of currently intractable dermatological conditions, the beam scanning systems and methods are generally well-suited for other applications, specifically those that require a high NA beam. [0158] Methods of treating various skin conditions, such as for cosmetic purposes, can be carried out using the systems described herein. It is understood that although such methods can be conducted by a physician, non-physicians, such as aestheticians and other suitably trained personnel may use the systems described herein to treat various skin conditions with and without the supervision of a physician.

[0159] One skilled in the art will appreciate further features and advantages of the invention based on the above-described embodiments. Accordingly, the invention is not to be limited by what has been particularly shown and described, except as indicated by the appended claims. All publications and references cited herein are expressly incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.