Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
SELECTIVELY VENTED BIOLOGICAL ASSAY DEVICES AND ASSOCIATED METHODS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/160840
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Selectively vented biological assay devices and methods of performing biological assays with such devices are provided herein. Disclosed devices include a selective venting element having passively tunable porosity. The methods include controlling fluid flow within the subject devices with the selective venting element.

Inventors:
MITRA, Debkishore (Diassess Inc, 1412 62nd StreetEmeryville, CA, 94608, US)
MYERS, Frank B. III (Diassess Inc, 1412 62nd StreetEmeryville, CA, 94608, US)
WALDEISEN, John Robert (Diassess Inc, 1412 62nd StreetEmeryville, CA, 94608, US)
DIMOV, lvan Krastev (Diassess Inc, 1412 62nd StreetEmeryville, CA, 94608, US)
Application Number:
US2017/022306
Publication Date:
September 21, 2017
Filing Date:
March 14, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
DIASSESS INC. (1412 62nd Street, Emeryville, CA, 94608, US)
International Classes:
A61J1/14; B01D33/35; B01L3/00; C12M1/34; F16K24/04; G01N7/10
Foreign References:
US20150321193A12015-11-12
US20090320684A12009-12-31
US20140073043A12014-03-13
US20150328638A12015-11-19
US20070217963A12007-09-20
Other References:
See also references of EP 3429543A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
STODDARD, Daniel et al. (Fenwick & West LLP, 801 California StreetMountain View, CA, 94041, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A selectively vented biological assay device, the device comprising:

a. a sample receiving cartridge comprising a sample inlet and one or more

reaction chambers each comprising a sample receiving opening operatively connected to the sample inlet, one or more venting openings, and a modifying reagent; and

b. a selective venting element having passively tunable porosity and covering one or more of the venting openings.

2. The device according to Claim 1, further comprising a substrate operatively coupled to the sample receiving cartridge and comprising a heating element.

3. The device according to Claim 1 or Claim 2, wherein the sample receiving cartridge comprises five or more reaction chambers.

4. The device according to any one of Claims 1-3, wherein the modifying reagent comprises an optical property modifying reagent.

5. The device according to any one of Claims 1-4, wherein the modifying reagent comprises a nucleic acid amplification reagent.

6. The device according to any one of Claims 1-5, wherein the device is a hand-held device.

7. The device according to Claim 2, wherein the device comprises a housing containing the sample receiving cartridge, the selective venting element, and the substrate.

8. The device according to any one of Claims 1-7, wherein the selective venting element comprises a body and one or more protrusions extending from the body to cover each of the one or more second openings.

9. The device according to Claim 8, wherein each protrusion is shaped as a cylinder.

10. The device according to any one of Claims 1-9, wherein the sample receiving cartridge comprises one or more sample receiving conduits operatively connecting each of the one or more reaction chambers and the inlet.

11. The device according to any one of Claims 1-10, wherein each of the one or more reaction chambers are microfluidic reaction chambers having a volume of 50 microliters or less.

12. The device according to any one of Claims 1-11, wherein the selective venting element comprises a porous polymer matrix and a hydrogel having a passively tunable porosity.

13. The device according to Claim 2, further comprising an adhesive layer operatively coupling the substrate and the sample receiving cartridge.

14. The device according to Claim 13, wherein each reaction chamber further comprises a supplementary opening, wherein each of the venting openings are on a first side of the sample receiving cartridge and each of the one or more supplementary openings are on a second side of the sample receiving cartridge, wherein the first side is opposite the second side and wherein the adhesive layer forms a wall of each of the one or more reaction chambers and seals each supplementary opening.

15. The device according to Claim 2, wherein the heating element is proximate the one or more reaction chambers.

16. The device according to Claim 2, wherein the substrate comprises a printed circuit board.

17. The device according to Claim 2, wherein the substrate further comprises a power source operatively coupled to the heating element.

18. The device according to Claim 2, wherein the substrate comprises a control unit.

19. The device according to Claim 18, wherein the substrate comprises a sensor.

20. The device according to Claim 19, wherein the control unit activates the heating element to heat a sample in the one or more reaction chambers when the sensor detects the sample.

21. The device according to Claim 19, wherein the substrate comprises a light source that emits light when the sensor detects the sample in the sample receiving cartridge.

22. The device according to Claim 18, wherein the control unit is configured to perform a colorimetric analysis of a sample in the one or more reaction chambers.

23. The device according to Claim 2, further comprising a housing comprising a first portion and a second portion mateable with the first portion to encapsulate the sample receiving cartridge, selective venting element, and substrate.

24. The device according to Claim 23, wherein the housing has a volume of 300 cm3 or less.

25. The device according to any one of Claims 1-24, wherein the sample receiving cartridge is transparent.

26. The device according to any one of Claims 1-25, wherein the sample receiving cartridge comprises a polymeric material.

27. The device according to Claim 12, wherein the porous polymer matrix comprises polyethylene.

28. The device according to Claim 13, wherein the adhesive layer is transparent.

29. The device according to Claim 13, wherein the adhesive layer is reflective.

30. The device according to Claim 4, wherein the optical property modifying reagent is a halochromic reagent.

31. The device according to Claim 13, wherein the adhesive layer is opaque and white.

32. The device according to Claim 13, wherein the adhesive layer comprises a first layer laminated with a second layer.

33. The device according to Claim 32, wherein the first layer does not comprise an acid.

34. The device according to Claim 32, wherein the second layer is opaque and white.

35. A method of performing a biological assay with a selectively vented biological assay device, the method comprising:

a. introducing a biological sample comprising a liquid into a biological assay device by flowing the sample into a one or more reaction chambers of a sample receiving cartridge of the device via one or more sample receiving openings;

i. wherein flowing the sample into the one or more reaction chambers comprises flowing a gas through a selective venting element of the device, wherein the selective venting element forms a wall of each of the one or more reaction chambers, and wherein the one or more reaction chambers each comprise a modifying reagent;

b. contacting the sample liquid with the selective venting element and thereby reducing the permeability of the selective venting element impermeable to the fluid;

c. reacting the sample with the modifying reagent and generating a reaction product; and

d. detecting a characteristic of the reaction product.

36. The method according to Claim 35, wherein the modifying reagent comprises an optical property modifying reagent.

37. The method according to Claim 35 or Claim 36, wherein the modifying reagent comprises a nucleic acid amplification reagent.

38. The method according to Claim 37, wherein the method comprises reacting the sample with the modifying reagent comprises contacting the sample with the nucleic acid amplification composition in the one or more reaction chambers under conditions that result in amplification of the nucleic acid, if present in the sample.

39. The method according to Claim 38, wherein detecting a characteristic of the reaction product comprises detecting presence or absence of the amplification.

40. The method according to any one of Claims 35-39, wherein the device is a hand-held device.

41. The method according to any one of Claims 35-40, wherein the selective venting element comprises a body and one or more protrusions extending from the body to form a wall of each of the one or more reaction chambers.

42. The method according to any one of Claims 35-41, wherein the sample receiving cartridge comprises one or more sample receiving conduits operatively connecting each of the one or more reaction chambers and an inlet.

43. The method according to any one of Claims 35-42, wherein each of the one or more reaction chambers are microfluidic reaction chambers having a volume of 50 microliters or less.

44. The method according to any one of Claims 35-43, wherein the selective venting element comprises a porous polymer matrix and a hydrogel having a passively tunable porosity.

45. The method according to any one of Claims 35-44, wherein the device comprises a sensor and the method comprises detecting the presence or absence of the sample in the sample receiving cartridge with the sensor.

46. The method according to Claim 45, wherein the device further comprises a heating element, and wherein the method further comprises heating a sample in the one or more reaction chambers when the sensor detects sample.

47. The method according to Claim 45, wherein the device further comprises a light source, and wherein the method further comprises emitting light with the light source when the sensor detects the sample.

48. The method according to Claim any one of Claims 35-47, further comprising a housing comprising a first portion and a second portion mateable with the first portion to encapsulate the sample receiving cartridge and selective venting element.

49. The method according to Claim 48, wherein the housing has a volume of 300 cm3 or less.

50. The method according to any one of Claims 35-49, wherein the sample receiving cartridge is transparent.

51. The method according to any one of Claims 35-50, wherein the sample receiving cartridge comprises a polymeric material.

52. The method according to Claim 51, wherein the polymeric material is polyethylene.

53. The method according to any one of Claims 35-52, wherein the optical property modifying reagent comprises a halochromic reagent.

54. The method according to any one of Claims 35-53, wherein the gas is air.

55. The method according to any one of Claims 35-54, wherein detecting a characteristic of the reaction product comprises visually inspecting the one or more reaction chambers to detect a modified optical property.

56. The device according to Claim 12, wherein the hydrogel comprises carboxymethyl cellulose.

57. The method according to any one of Claims 35-55 wherein the optical property modifying reagent is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reagent.

58. The device according to Claim 57, wherein the ELISA reagent is selected from the group consisting of alkaline phosphatase, horseradish peroxidase, β-galactosidase,

BCnVNBT (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate/nitrobluetetrazolium), TMB (3,3',5,5' tetramethylbenzidine), DAB (3,3',4,4' diaminobenzidine), 4CN (4-chloro-l-naphthol). TMB (dual function substrate), ABTS (2,2'-azino-di [3-ethylbenzthiazoline] sulfonate), OPD (o- phenylenediamine), MUG (4-methylumbelliferyl galactoside), HPA (hydroxyphenylacetic acid), and HPPA (3-p-hydroxyphenylproprionic acid).

59. The method according to any one of Claims 35-55 or 57, wherein the reducing the permeability is sufficient to render the selective venting element impermeable to the liquid.

60. The method according to any one of Claims 35-55, 57, or 59 , wherein detecting a characteristic of the reaction product comprises inspecting the one or more reaction chambers with a mobile electronic device to detect a modified optical property with the device.

61. The device according to Claim 4 wherein the optical property modifying reagent is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reagent.

62. The device according to Claim 61, wherein the ELISA reagent is selected from the group consisting of alkaline phosphatase, horseradish peroxidase, β-galactosidase,

BCIP/NBT (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate/nitrobluetetrazolium), TMB (3,3',5,5' tetramethylbenzidine), DAB (3,3',4,4' diaminobenzidine), 4CN (4-chloro-l-naphthol). TMB (dual function substrate), ABTS (2,2'-azino-di [3-ethylbenzthiazoline] sulfonate), OPD (o- phenylenediamine), MUG (4-methylumbelliferyl galactoside), HPA (hydroxyphenylacetic acid), and HPPA (3-p-hydroxyphenylproprionic acid).

63. The method according to any one of Claims 35-55, 57, 59, or 60, wherein the detecting is performed by an un-assisted human eye.

64. The method according to any one of Claims 35-55, or 57, 59, 60,or 63, wherein the liquid comprises one or more gas bubbles and flowing a gas through a selective venting element of the device comprises removing the bubbles from the liquid.

65. The device according to either of Claims 2, 7 or 15, wherein the heating element comprises two or more heat-generating reactants that produce heat when mixed with one another.

66. The method according to any one of Claims 35-55, or 57, 59, 60, 63 or 64, wherein the selectively vented biological assay device further comprises a heating element comprising one or more heat-generating reactants that produce heat when mixed with one another or with the sample liquid, and wherein generating a reaction product comprises heating the sample and the modifying reagent with the heating element by mixing the one or more heat- generating reactants with one another or with the sample liquid.

67. The device according to Claims 13 or 14, wherein the adhesive layer is opaque and a color complementary to a reaction start color.

68. The device according to any one of Claims 1-34, 56, 58, 61, 62, 65 or 67, wherein the selective venting element covers one or more of the sample receiving openings.

Description:
TITLE

[0001] SELECTIVELY VENTED BIOLOGICAL ASSAY DEVICES

AND ASSOCIATED METHODS

INTRODUCTION

[0002] Assays on biological samples are used to determine one or more characteristics of such samples. Biological sample assays can qualitatively assess and/or quantitatively measure the presence, amount and/or functional activity of one or more analytes in a biological sample. Such an assessment can be made based on a change or lack of a change occurring in the assay. For example, a change in color and/or transmittance of a biological sample or aspect thereof occurring under specific conditions during an assay can serve as an indicator of one or more characteristics of the tested sample.

SUMMARY

[0003] Selectively vented biological assay devices and methods of performing biological assays with such devices are provided herein. Disclosed devices include a selective venting element having passively tunable porosity. The methods include controlling fluid flow within the subject devices with the selective venting element.

[0004] The subject disclosure includes selectively vented biological assay devices. Such devices include, in various embodiments a sample receiving cartridge having a sample inlet and one or more reaction chambers each including a sample receiving opening operatively connected to the sample inlet, one or more venting openings, and a modifying reagent. The devices also include one or more selective venting element having passively tunable porosity and covering each of the one or more venting openings. Furthermore, where desired, the subject devices include a substrate operatively coupled to the sample receiving cartridge and comprising a heating element.

[0005] The subject disclosure also includes methods of performing a biological assay with a selectively vented biological assay device. Such methods include introducing a biological sample into a biological assay device by flowing the sample into one or more reaction chambers of a sample receiving cartridge of the device via one or more sample receiving openings. Flowing the sample into the one or more reaction chambers can be performed by flowing a gas through a selective venting element of the device, wherein the selective venting element forms a wall of each of the one or more reaction chambers, and wherein the one or more reaction chambers each include a modifying reagent. [0006] In various aspects, the methods include contacting a sample liquid with the selective venting element and thereby making the selective venting element impermeable to fluid. Also, where desired, the methods include reacting the sample with the modifying reagent and generating a reaction product. Furthermore, in some instances, the methods include detecting a characteristic of the reaction product, wherein such detection can be performed by an unassisted human eye.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] FIG. 1 provides a perspective view of a device component according to embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0008] FIG. 2 provides a perspective view of a device according to versions of the subject disclosure.

[0009] FIG. 3 provides a representative cross sectional view of a device according to embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0010] FIG. 4 shows the DNA sequence of a template nucleic acid molecule target region from Schistosoma mansoni (SEQ ID NO: 23), according to an embodiment.

[0011] FIG. 5 is a graph indicating pH measurements for positive and negative isothermal amplification reactions, according to an embodiment.

[0012] FIG. 6 is a graph showing the detection of color (hue) of positive and negative isothermal amplification reactions at the reaction endpoints, according to an embodiment.

[0013] FIG. 7 shows the results of a gel electrophoresis assay of positive and negative isothermal amplification reaction products, according to an embodiment.

[0014] FIG. 8 shows the normalized hue values for amplification reactions using various Tris buffer concentrations, according to an embodiment.

[0015] FIG. 9 shows the normalized hue values for amplification reactions using varying amounts of additional hydronium ion equivalents, according to an embodiment.

[0016] FIGS. 10A, 10B, IOC, and 10D show the normalized hue values for amplification reactions using various halochromic agent concentrations, according to an embodiment.

[0017] FIG. 11 shows the compatibility of different polymerases with visual detection of LAMP amplification, according to an embodiment. [0018] FIGS. 12A and 12B show the normalized hue values for amplification reactions using varying channel depths, according to an embodiment.

[0019] FIG. 13 shows the normalized hue values over time for SDA, according to an embodiment.

[0020] FIG. 14 shows the normalized hue values over time for PCR, according to an embodiment.

[0021] FIGS. 15A and 15B show the normalized contrast changes for amplification reactions using combinations of halochromic agents, according to an embodiment.

[0022] FIG. 16 shows the normalized contrast changes over time for different DNA template concentrations, according to an embodiment.

[0023] FIG. 17 provides LAMP amplification data from amplification in a device having a selective venting element.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0024] Selectively vented biological assay devices and methods of performing biological assays with such devices are provided herein. Disclosed devices include a selective venting element having passively tunable porosity. The methods include controlling fluid flow within the subject devices with the selective venting element.

[0025] Before the present invention is described in greater detail, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to particular embodiments described, as such can, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting, since the scope of the present invention will be limited only by the appended claims.

[0026] Where a range of values is provided, it is understood that each intervening value, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, between the upper and lower limit of that range and any other stated or intervening value in that stated range, is encompassed within the invention. The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges can independently be included in the smaller ranges and are also encompassed within the invention, subject to any specifically excluded limit in the stated range. Where the stated range includes one or both of the limits, ranges excluding either or both of those included limits are also included in the invention. [0027] Certain ranges can be presented herein with numerical values being preceded by the term "about." The term "about" is used herein to provide literal support for the exact number that it precedes, as well as a number that is near to or approximately the number that the term precedes. In determining whether a number is near to or approximately a specifically recited number, the near or approximating unrecited number can be a number which, in the context in which it is presented, provides the substantial equivalent of the specifically recited number.

[0028] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can also be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, representative illustrative methods and materials are now described.

[0029] All publications and patents cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication or patent were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference and are incorporated herein by reference to disclose and describe the methods and/or materials in connection with which the publications are cited. The citation of any publication is for its disclosure prior to the filing date and should not be construed as an admission that the present invention is not entitled to antedate such publication by virtue of prior invention. Further, the dates of publication provided can be different from the actual publication dates which can need to be independently confirmed.

[0030] It is noted that, as used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. It is further noted that the claims can be drafted to exclude any optional element. As such, this statement is intended to serve as antecedent basis for use of such exclusive terminology as "solely," "only" and the like in connection with the recitation of claim elements, or use of a "negative" limitation.

[0031] Additionally, certain embodiments of the disclosed devices and/or associated methods can be represented by drawings which can be included in this application. Embodiments of the devices and their specific spatial characteristics and/or abilities include those shown or substantially shown in the drawings or which are reasonably inferable from the drawings. Such characteristics include, for example, one or more (e.g., one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten, etc.) of: symmetries about a plane (e.g., a cross-sectional plane) or axis (e.g., an axis of symmetry), edges, peripheries, surfaces, specific orientations (e.g., proximal; distal), and/or numbers (e.g., three surfaces; four surfaces), or any combinations thereof. Such spatial characteristics also include, for example, the lack (e.g., specific absence of) one or more (e.g., one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten, etc.) of:

symmetries about a plane (e.g., a cross-sectional plane) or axis (e.g., an axis of symmetry), edges, peripheries, surfaces, specific orientations (e.g., proximal), and/or numbers (e.g., three surfaces), or any combinations thereof.

[0032] As will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reading this disclosure, each of the individual embodiments described and illustrated herein has discrete components and features which can be readily separated from or combined with the features of any of the other several embodiments without departing from the scope or spirit of the present invention. Any recited method can be carried out in the order of events recited or in any other order which is logically possible.

[0033] In further describing the subject invention, subject devices for use in practicing the subject devices will be discussed in greater detail, followed by a review of associated methods.

Definitions

[0034] Terms used in the claims and specification are defined as set forth below unless otherwise specified.

[0035] The terms "colorimetry" and "colorimetric" refers to techniques of quantifying or otherwise observing colored compound concentrations in solution. "Colorimetric detection" refers to any method of detecting such colored compounds and/or the change in color of the compounds in solution. Methods can include visual observation, absorbance measurements, or fluorescence measurements, among others.

[0036] The term "halochromic agent" refers to a composition that changes color upon some chemical reaction. In particular, a halochromic agent can refer to a composition that changes color with a pH change. Different halochromic agents can change colors over different pH transition ranges.

[0037] The term "transition pH range" or "pH transition range" refers to a pH range over which the color of a particular sample or compound changes. A specific transition pH range for a sample can depend on a halochromic agent in the sample (see above).

[0038] The terms "nucleic acid amplification" and "amplification reaction" refers to methods of amplifying DNA, RNA, or modified versions thereof. Nucleic acid amplification includes several techniques, such as an isothermal reaction or a thermocycled reaction. More specifically, nucleic acid amplification includes methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), strand displacement amplification (SDA), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), helicase dependent amplification (HDA), multiple displacement amplification (MDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). The term "isothermal amplification" refers to an amplification method that is performed without changing the temperature of the amplification reaction. Protons are released during an amplification reaction: for every deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) that is added to a single-stranded DNA template during an amplification reaction, one proton (H + ) is released.

[0039] The term "sufficient amount" means an amount sufficient to produce a desired effect, e.g., an amount sufficient to modulate protein aggregation in a cell.

[0040] The term percent "identity," in the context of two or more nucleic acid or polypeptide sequences, refer to two or more sequences or subsequences that have a specified percentage of nucleotides or amino acid residues that are the same, when compared and aligned for maximum correspondence, as measured using one of the sequence comparison algorithms described below (e.g., BLASTP and BLASTN or other algorithms available to persons of skill) or by visual inspection. Depending on the application, the percent "identity" can exist over a region of the sequence being compared, e.g., over a functional domain, or, alternatively, exist over the full length of the two sequences to be compared.

[0041] For sequence comparison, typically one sequence acts as a reference sequence to which test sequences are compared. When using a sequence comparison algorithm, test and reference sequences are input into a computer, subsequence coordinates are designated, if necessary, and sequence algorithm program parameters are designated. The sequence comparison algorithm then calculates the percent sequence identity for the test sequence(s) relative to the reference sequence, based on the designated program parameters.

[0042] Optimal alignment of sequences for comparison can be conducted, e.g., by the local homology algorithm of Smith & Waterman, Adv. Appl. Math. 2:482 (1981), by the homology alignment algorithm of Needleman & Wunsch, J. Mol. Biol. 48:443 (1970), by the search for similarity method of Pearson & Lipman, Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. USA 85:2444 (1988), by computerized implementations of these algorithms (GAP, BESTFIT, FASTA, and TFASTA in the Wisconsin Genetics Software Package, Genetics Computer Group, 575 Science Dr., Madison, Wis.), or by visual inspection (see generally Ausubel et al., infra).

[0043] One example of an algorithm that is suitable for determining percent sequence identity and sequence similarity is the BLAST algorithm, which is described in Altschul et al., J. Mol. Biol. 215:403-410 (1990). Software for performing BLAST analyses is publicly available through the National Center for Biotechnology Information

(www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/).

DEVICES

[0044] The subject disclosure includes various embodiments of selectively vented biological assay devices. By "selectively vented" is meant having one or more selective venting elements as disclosed herein and operating according to the associated methods. Also, as used herein, the phrase "biological assay" refers to a test on a biological sample which is performed to evaluate one or more characteristics of the sample. A "biological sample" is a sample containing a quantity of organic material, e.g., one or more organic molecules, such as one or more nucleic acids e.g., DNA and/or RNA or portions thereof, which can be taken from a subject. In some aspects a biological sample is a nucleic acid amplification sample, which is a sample including one or more nucleic acids or portions thereof which can be amplified according to the subject embodiments.

[0045] In some aspects, the subject devices include one or more, e.g., 2 or more, 5 or more, or 15 or more, selective venting elements. Selective venting elements are porous and as such, have a plurality of pores extending therethrough. Such elements have a passively tunable porosity and/or can control flow of one or more fluids, e.g., gas, such as air and/or liquids, such as a biological sample, within a device.

[0046] The phrase "passively tunable porosity," as used herein, refers to the ability of having a first conformation in which one or more gasses, e.g., air, can pass therethrough, e.g., through pores, and a second conformation in which fluids including the one or more gasses and liquids, such as liquids including a biological sample, are prevented from passing therethrough, e.g., through the pores, and proceeding automatically from the first to the second conformation upon contact with a liquid. Also, in the second conformation, the selective venting elements prevent evaporation of the liquids therethrough, e.g., through the pores. Furthermore, in the second conformation, the selective venting elements can fluidically seal a fluidic passage, e.g., a reaction chamber at an end by covering an opening of the reaction chamber, e.g., a venting opening, and prevent passage of fluid, including evaporation, therethrough. In addition, selective venting elements are configured to proceed from the first conformation to the second conformation passively, e.g., automatically without user interaction, upon contacting one or more liquids, such as liquids including a biological sample, with the selective venting elements or a portion thereof, e.g., a surface, such as a surface forming a wall of a reaction chamber. As such, in some versions, selective venting elements can be self-sealing to liquids and gasses when contacted by a liquid. Also, in some versions, selective venting elements may cover and/or seal one or more inlet and/or sample receiving opening of a device and may thereby regulate, e.g., allow and/or prevent liquid and/or gas flow therethrough in the same manner as through the one or more venting openings.

[0047] In various embodiments, passing a liquid through one or more surface of a selective venting element causes the selective venting element to proceed from a first confirmation to a second confirmation. Accordingly in some versions, selective venting elements are configured to receive an amount, e.g., a small amount, of a liquid, e.g., biological sample, water and/or buffer, therein when contacted by the liquid. The presence of the liquid within the element seals pores of the element and/or expands the element so that further liquid and/or gas cannot pass into or through the element.

[0048] As described further below, selective venting elements can include a body and one or more protrusions extending therefrom. Each protrusion can extend from the body to a surface, e.g., a sealing surface, at an end of the protrusion. The sealing surface can extend into and/or over, e.g., completely over, an opening at an end of a reaction chamber. In some versions, a portion of a sealing surface, e.g., a concentric portion, can contact a surface, e.g., a top or bottom surface, of a sample receiving cartridge when the cartridge is operatively coupled to the selective venting element. In some versions, a selective venting element does not extend into a reaction chamber when the device operates. As such, according to the subject embodiments, an amount of liquid, e.g., biological sample, water, and/or buffer, can be passed into a selective venting element through a sealing surface of a protrusion to thereby seal the selective venting element and prevent further passage of liquid or gas, such as by evaporation, into or through the element.

[0049] One embodiment of a selective venting element 100 for use in practicing the subject methods is provided in FIG. 1. As is shown, in various embodiments, the element 100 is shaped as a comb and includes a body 101 and one or more protrusions 102, e.g., sealing protrusions, extending from the body 101.

[0050] A body of a selective venting element, or a "body," according to the subject embodiments, can be or include a sheet, e.g., a solid sheet, of one or more materials, e.g., two materials, having a thin and/or planar shape. A body or other components of the subject devices can include a top surface and a bottom surface each defining a plane parallel with the other and separated by a thickness. In some versions, protrusions extend from the top and/or bottom surface. In various embodiments, a selective venting element body is or includes a uniform layer of a single material. A body can also be composed of two or more, e.g., three, four, five, or more, etc. sheets laminated to one another.

[0051] A body of a selective venting element can, in some aspects, have a length, a width and a height, also referred to as a thickness. A selective venting element body can be shaped as a rectangular box with the width and length being substantially greater than the thickness. A thickness of a body, e.g., a thickness between a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface, can be 15 mm or less, 10 mm or less, 5 mm or less, 3 mm or less, 1 mm or less, .5 mm or less, 0.1 mm or less, or 50 microns or less. A thickness of a selective venting element body can also range for example, from 10 cm to 50 microns, such as 5 cm to 50 microns, such as 2 cm to 50 microns, from 1 cm to 50 microns, such as 5 mm to 50 microns, or from 5 mm to .1 mm, such as 2 mm to .1 mm, inclusive. As used herein, "inclusive" refers to a provided range including each of the listed numbers. Unless otherwise indicated, all provided ranges are inclusive. Also, a length and/or width of a body can also range from 1 mm to 40 cm, such as from 1 cm to 30 m, such as from 1 cm to 10 cm, such as from 1 cm to 5 cm, or from 1 mm to 5 cm, from 1 mm to 3 cm, from 1 mm to 1 cm or from 1 mm to 5 mm.

[0052J Selective venting element bodies can be and/or have an area defining any suitable size or shape including a: circle, semi-circle, oval, rectangle, square, triangle, polygon, quadrilateral, or combination thereof. For example, in embodiments where the body is shaped a rectangle, the length of the body is greater than the width. A body can include one or more sheets of solid, uniform, integrated material, and in some versions, does not include any openings therethrough.

[0053] A body of a selective venting element can have three edges, four edges, or more than four edges which define the area of the body. In various embodiments, the edges meet at corners, e.g., three, four, five, or ten or more corners. In some versions, a first edge of an adhesive layer is opposite a second edge of an adhesive layer and adjacent to a third and/or fourth edge of an adhesive layer. In such an embodiment, the third edge can be opposite a fourth edge and the fourth edge can be adjacent to the first and/or second edge. Also, in some versions, a selective venting element includes only a body and does not include protrusions extending therefrom.

(0054] Also, as noted above, in various embodiments, a selective venting element includes one or more protrusions, e.g., sealing protrusions, extending from the body or a portion thereof, e.g., a top and/or bottom surface. In various embodiments, a selective venting element includes one or more, such as a plurality, such as two or more, such as 5 or more, such as 10 or more, such as 15 or more, such as 20 or more, such as 50 or more, such as 100 or more, such as 1000 or more, such as 5000 or more, such as 10000 or more, such as 15000 or more, such as 20000 or more protrusions. A selective venting element can include 20000 or less, 15000 or less, 10000 or less, 5000 or less, 1000 or less, 100 or less, 50 or less, such as 20 or less, such as 15 or less, such as 10 or less, such as 5 or less protrusions. A selective venting element can include from 1 to 15000, 1 to 10000, 1 to 5000, 1 to 1000, 1 to 25, such as from 1 to 20, such as from 1 to 15, such as from 1 to 10 such as from 1 to 5, protrusions, or from 2 to 20, such as from 2 to 15, such as from 5 to 15 protrusions, wherein each range is inclusive. A selective venting element can include 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20 or more protrusions. A selective venting element of a device can have a number of protrusions equal to the number of reaction chambers in the device.

[0055] A protrusion of a selective venting element can be shaped as a cylinder, rectangular box, pyramid, cube, or any combination thereof. In some versions, selective venting element protrusions are cone-shaped or have a portion shaped as a cone tapering from a body to a flat end. In some versions, protrusions have one or more conical side edges which taper such that the protrusions each have a diminishing diameter along their length as they extend further from the body. In embodiments where protrusions are shaped as a cylinder, they can have a height, e.g., a distance from a surface of a venting element body to a sealing surface at an end of the protrusion, ranging from .1 mm to 5 cm, such as .1 mm to 1 cm, such as .1 mm to 5 mm, such as .1 mm to 1 mm, or 1 mm to 5 mm, inclusive. A protrusion can also have a height of 15 cm or less, 10 cm or less, 5 cm or less, such as 3 cm or less, such as 1 cm or less, such as 5 mm or less, such as 3 mm or less, such as 1 mm or less. A protrusion can also have a height of .1 mm o more, such as 1 mm or more, such as 3 mm or more, such as 5 mm or more, such as 1 cm or more, such as 3 cm or more, such as 5 cm or more, such as 10 cim or more. Such a protrusion can also have a diameter ranging from .1 mm to 10 cm, such as .1 mm to 5 cm, such as .1 mm to 3 cm, such as .1 mm to 1 cm, such as .1 mm to 5 mm, such as .1 mm to 1 mm, or 1 mm to 1 cm, or 1 cm to 3 cm, each inclusive. Protrusions can also have a diameter of 5 cm or less, such as 3 cm or less, such as 1 cm or less, such as 5 mm or less, such as 3 mm or less, such as 1 mm or less, such as .5 mm or less. A protrusion can also have a diameter of .1 mm or more, such as 1 mm or more, such as 3 mm or more, such as 5 mm or more, such as 1 cm or more.

[0056] In versions where a protrusion is shaped as a rectangular box or a cube, the protrusion can have a length, width, and/or height of 10 cm or less, 5 cm or less, 1 cm or less, such as .5 cm or less, such as .3 cm or less, such as 1 mm or less, such as .5 mm or less, such as .3 mm or less, such as .1 mm or less. A protrusion can also have a length, width, and/or height of 1 mm or more, such as 3 mm or more, such as 5 mm or more, such as 1 cm or more, such as 3 cm or more, such as 5 cm or more, such as 10 cm or more. A protrusion can also have a length, width, and/or height ranging from .1 mm to 10 cm, .1 mm to 5 cm, such as .1 mm to 3 cm, such as 1 mm to 1 cm, or 1 cm to 3 cm, each inclusive.

[0057] In various embodiments, each protrusion is separated from another protrusion on a body by a distance, e.g., a distance on a surface of a body, ranging from .1 mm to 5 cm, such as .1 mm to 1 cm, such as .1 mm to 5 mm, such as .1 mm to 1 mm, or 1 mm to 5 mm, inclusive. Such a distance can also be 5 cm or less, such as 3 cm or less, such as 1 cm or less, such as 5 mm or less, such as 3 mm or less, such as 1 mm or less. A distance between protrusions can also be .1 mm or more, such as 1 mm or more, such as 3 mm or more, such as 5 mm or more, such as 1 cm or more, such as 3 cm or more, such as 5 cm or more.

[0058] A protrusion or a portion thereof, e.g., a sealing surface, at an end of a protrusion can be a flat planar surface defining, for example, a circular shape and can extend into and/or over an opening at an end of a reaction chamber. By extending into and/or over, e.g., completely over, such an opening, the surface can seal the reaction chamber.

[0059] In various embodiments, selective venting elements or portions thereof, e.g., one or more bodies and/or protrusions, are be composed of a single body of solid, uniform, integrated material. In other versions, a body of a selective venting element can be composed of a different material than one or more protrusions thereof.

[0060] Also, one or more portions or materials of selective venting elements can have a passively tunable porosity. For example, in some versions, selective venting elements can be composed of a hydrogel having a passively tunable porosity. Such a hydrogel can be capable of swelling and reducing the porosity of the porous polymer matrix upon contact with a liquid, e.g., an aqueous liquid.

[0061] Furthermore selective venting elements can comprise a variety of materials including one or more polymer matrix, such as a porous polymer matrix, such as polyethylene.

Selective venting elements can also comprise a hydrogel such as carboxymethyl cellulose. Other materials of which selective venting elements or portions thereof, such as coatings, can be comprised include saccharides, proteins, deliquescent materials, nylon, ABS,

polycarbonate, and poly(methyl methacrylate), and other hygroscopic materials, or any combinations thereof. Selective venting elements can also be or include one or more coatings.

[0062] One embodiment of a selectively vented biological assay device for use in practicing the subject methods is provided in FIG. 2. In various embodiments, the device 200 includes a selective venting element 207. Also provided is a sample receiving cartridge 201 including one or more reaction chambers 202 for receiving a biological sample and each including an optical property modifying reagent. Such a device 200 also includes a substrate 203 including a heating element 204 and/or a power source 205 operatively coupled to the heating element 204. Also, as used herein, the phrase "optical property," refers to one or more optically-recognizable characteristics, such as a characteristic resulting from wavelength and/or frequency of radiation, e.g., light, emitted from an aspect, such as color, fluorescence, phosphorescence, etc. As such, modifying an optical property refers to changing such a characteristic.

[0063] By "operatively coupled," "operatively connected," and "operatively attached" as used herein, is meant connected in a specific way that allows the disclosed devices to operate and/or methods to be carried out effectively in the manner described herein. For example, operatively coupling can include removably coupling or fixedly coupling two or more aspects. Operatively coupling can also include fluidically and/or electrically and/or mateably and/or adhesively coupling two or more components. Also, by "removably coupled," as used herein, is meant coupled, e.g., physically and/or fluidically and/or electrically coupled, in a manner wherein the two or more coupled components can be un-coupled and then re-coupled repeatedly. [0064] The illustrated device 200 also includes an adhesive layer 206. Such a layer 206 operatively connects the sample receiving cartridge 201 and the substrate 203 and thereby form a wall of each of the one or more reaction chambers 202. The device 200 also includes a selective venting element 207 which also forms a wall of each of the one or more reaction chambers 202. Also, as provided in FIG. 2, the device includes a housing composed of a first portion 208 including a receptacle 211 and a second portion 209 mateable with the first portion to encapsulate the sample receiving cartridge 201, substrate 203 and adhesive layer 206. In such a configuration, the sample receiving cartridge 201, substrate 203 and adhesive layer 206 can all be disposed between at least two opposite portions, e.g., walls, of the first portion 208.

[0065] As the embodiment provided in FIG. 2, is shown in an unassembled conformation for illustrative purposes, a representative embodiment of the device in an assembled

conformation is provided in FIG. 3. FIG. 3 specifically provides a representative illustration of many of the same elements as FIG. 2. FIG. 3 also shows a modifying reagent 301 within each of the one or more reaction chambers 202. Also shown are conduits 302 operatively coupling each of the one or more reaction chambers 202 with one another and/or with a sample inlet 212.

[0066] A sample receiving cartridge according to the subject disclosure can include one or more, such as a plurality, such as two or more, such as 5 or more, such as 10 or more, such as 15 or more, such as 20 or more, such as 50 or more, 100 or more, 1000 or more, 5000 or more 10000 or more, 15000 or more or 20000 or more reaction chambers. A sample receiving cartridge can include 20000 or less, lOOOOor less, 1000 or less, 100 or less, 50 or less, such as 20 or less, such as 15 or less, such as 10 or less, such as 5 or less reaction chambers. A sample receiving cartridge can include from 1 to 20000, 1 to 10000, 1 to 100, 1 to 25, such as from 1 to 20, such as from 1 to 15, such as from 1 to 10 such as from 1 to 5, reaction chambers, or from 2 to 20, such as from 2 to 15, such as from 5 to 15 reaction chambers, wherein each range is inclusive. As used herein, "inclusive" refers to a provided range including each of the listed numbers. Unless noted otherwise herein, all provided ranges are inclusive. A sample receiving cartridge can include 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20 or more reaction chambers.

[0067] Where desired, each reaction chamber can be shaped as a cylinder, rectangular box, cube, or any combination thereof. Each reaction chamber can include a sample receiving opening for receiving a biological sample from the sample inlet and/or a conduit. A sample receiving opening can be operatively, e.g., fluidically, connected to a sample inlet. In some versions, each reaction chamber includes one or more, e.g., two, additional openings, such as a "vented" and "supplementary," or "first" and "second" opening. Accordingly, in some versions, a sample receiving opening is a third opening and is adjacent to the first and/or second openings. Reaction chambers can also include a fourth opening operatively coupling the chamber to one or more other chambers and/or the inlet via one or more conduits.

[0068] In some aspects, each reaction chamber can extend from a first opening in a first surface of a sample receiving cartridge, through the cartridge to a second opening in a second surface of a sample receiving cartridge opposite the first. Also, as noted herein, each opening can be a sealed by a portion, e.g., surface, of a component, such as an adhesive layer and/or a selective venting element, each forming a wall of a reaction chamber. For example an adhesive layer can form a wall of a reaction chamber at a first end and/or a selective venting element can form a wall of the reaction chamber at a second end opposite the first. In doing so, the adhesive layer can seal each supplementary or "second" opening and/or the selective venting element can seal each venting or "first" opening. Furthermore, an adhesive layer can also form a wall of an inlet and/or a conduit, such as along an entire length of either or along a partial length of either, as such elements are described herein.

[0069] Each reaction chamber can also be a microfluidic reaction chamber. The subject reaction chambers can each have a volume of 1 μΙ_, to 1000 μΐ., such as 1 μΙ_, to 100 μΐ., such as 1 μΙ_, to 50 μΐ., such as 10 μΙ_, to 30 μΐ ^ , such as 15 μΙ_, to 30 μΐ ^ , or 50 μΙ_, or less, or 30 μΐ, or less. As such, each reaction chamber is configured to receive contents, e.g., contents including solid and/or liquid media, such as a biological sample and/or optical property modifying reagents, therein having a volume equal to or less than any of the provided volumes.

[0070] In various embodiments, each reaction chamber can include, such as contain within a chamber, one or more modifying reagent, such as an optical property modifying reagent. A modifying reagent is a reagent that chemically modifies a biological sample or an aspect thereof when mixed therewith. In some versions, a modification reagent includes an amplification reagent as described herein. In various embodiments, optical property modifying reagents can include, for example, pH sensitive dyes, fluorescent dyes, FRET dyes, micro and nano particles, fluorescent proteins, colorimetric substrates, enzymes and reagents, plasmonic structures, precipitation reagents and substrates, or any combination thereof. [0071] In some versions, the optical property modifying reagent is or includes an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reagent. In some aspects, the ELISA reagent is selected from the group consisting of alkaline phosphatase, horseradish peroxidase, β- galactosidase, BCIP/NBT (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate/nitrobluetetrazolium), TMB (3,3',5,5' tetramethylbenzidine), DAB (3,3',4,4' diaminobenzidine), 4CN (4-chloro-l- naphthol). TMB (dual function substrate), ABTS (2,2'-azino-di [3-ethylbenzthiazoline] sulfonate), OPD (o-phenylenediamine), MUG (4-methylumbelliferyl galactoside), HPA (hydroxyphenylacetic acid), and HPPA (3-p-hydroxyphenylproprionic acid).

[0072] In some versions, performing an optical property modification includes changing the pH of reaction chamber contents by performing a reaction. An optical property modifying reagent can produce a modification based on the location and extent of such a pH change.

[0073] Also, in some aspects, an optical property modifying reagent, can be stored in a sample receiving cartridge in dry, e.g., lyophilized, form. As such, moving a biological sample, e.g., a fluid biological sample, into a reaction chamber can include mixing the biological sample and the optical property modifying reagent and/or hydrating the optical property modifying reagent. According to some embodiments, an optical property of an optical property modifying reagent is changed due to the presence or the absence of a particular marker in a biological sample when the biological sample or one or more aspect thereof, such as one or more amplified nucleic acids and/or protons, are exposed to the optical property modifying reagent.

[0074] Each reaction chamber can include, such as contain within a chamber, one or more nucleic acid amplification composition. Such nucleic acid amplification composition can include, for example, one or more primers, deoxynucleotides (dNTPs), and/or polymerases, Trizma pre-set crystals (Tris buffer, pH 8.8; Sigma, cat. no. T9443), Potassium chloride (KCl; Wako Pure Chemicals, cat. no. 163-03545), Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgS04; Wako Pure Chemicals, cat. no. 137-00402), Ammonium sulfate (( H4)2S04; Kanto

Chemical, cat. no. 01322-00), Tween 20 (Tokyo Chemical Industry, cat. no. T0543), Betaine solution (Betaine, 5 M; Sigma, cat. no. B0300), Calcein (DOJINDO, cat. no. 340-00433) plus all other optical modification reagents as discussed above, Manganese(II) chloride tetrahydrate (MnC12; Wako Pure Chemicals, cat. no. 133-00725), Agarose S, EtBr solution, template nucleic acids, or any combination thereof. In addition, in some versions, a nucleic acid amplification composition, can be stored in a sample receiving cartridge in dry, e.g., lyophilized, form. As such, moving a biological sample, e.g., a fluid biological sample, into a reaction chamber can include mixing the biological sample and the nucleic acid amplification composition and/or hydrating the nucleic acid amplification composition.

[0075] According to some embodiments of the subject disclosure, the nucleic acid amplification composition includes one or more buffer and/or water. A nucleic acid amplification composition is a solution which prepares a biological sample such that one or more nucleic acid thereof can be amplified, e.g., amplified isothermally.

[0076] Where desired, a nucleic acid amplification composition can be a reagent which prepares a biological sample for amplification with an isothermal amplification protocol including: transcription mediated amplification, strand displacement amplification, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, rolling circle amplification, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, isothermal multiple displacement amplification, helicase-dependent amplification, circular helicase-dependent amplification, single primer isothermal amplification, loop-mediated amplification, or any combination thereof.

[0077] In various embodiments, the amplification according to the subject embodiments is reverse transcriptase loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP). In various aspects, RT- LAMP is an isothermal gene amplification procedure in which the reaction can be processed at a constant temperature, e.g., 63°C, by one type of enzyme, e.g., Bst polymerase, in a single step. In some versions, two enzymes are used with a reverse transcriptase and/or a polymerase, e.g., Bst polymerase, e.g., BST 2.0. RT-LAMP, in various aspects, uses six primers that recognize eight regions on a target nucleic acid. In various embodiments, the sensitivities and specificities of the RT-LAMP technique is higher than those associated with performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The RT-LAMP method is also fast, producing a signal from a few copies of RNA or DNA in 60 minutes, or less, 45 minutes or less, 30 minutes or less, or 15 minutes or less. RT-LAMP can also not require any special reagents. Also, according to the subject embodiments a "detection" according to the subject embodiments is a detection of one or more aspects, such as specific pathogenic genetic markers in samples. Amplification according to the subject embodiments can also be performed by applying PCR.

[0078] Also, as noted above, in some versions, the sample receiving cartridges also include one or more conduits operatively, e.g., fluidically, connecting each or any combination of the one or more reaction chambers with one another and/or with a sample inlet. Each of the one or more conduits can be shaped as a cylinder or a quadrilateral prism and can have dimensions including a length of 10 m or less, such as 1 m or less, such as 10 cm or less, such as 1mm or less, and/or have a diameter, width and/or height of 100 mm or less, such as 10 mm or less, such as 1mm or less, such as .1 mm or less, such as 10 micrometers or less. Each of the one or more conduits can also have a volume of 1000 μΙ_, or less, such as 10 μΙ_, or less, such as 1 μΙ_, or less, such as .1 μΙ_, or less, such as 1 nL or less. Movement, e.g., diffusion, of a liquid or a component thereof from one reaction chamber to another is substantially prevented by the conduits due to the length of the conduits. Accordingly, each of the reaction chambers is isolated from one another and the amount of such movement over the duration of an assay is negligible in influencing an assay result.

[0079] In some instances the sample receiving cartridges also include one or more inlets, e.g., sample inlets, operatively, e.g., fluidically, connecting each or any combination of the one or more reaction chambers with one another and/or with an environment external to the device. Each of the one or more inlets can be shaped as a tube extending from a surface of the microfluidic cartridge through the cartridge. A first end of the inlet can extend from a surface of the cartridge to an opening in the housing and be configured for receiving a fluid, e.g., a biological sample, therein. A second end, or a plurality of second ends, opposite the first end of the inlet, can each terminate at a reaction chamber, e.g., a sample receiving opening of a reaction chamber, and be configured for conveying fluid, e.g., a biological sample, to the chamber. Also, a second end, or a plurality of second ends, opposite the first end of the inlet, can each terminate at a conduit, as described herein. An inlet can also be microfluidic and can be configured such that a fluid flows automatically therethrough upon introduction at a first end. An inlet can have a length ranging from 1mm to 20 cm, such as 2 mm to 10 cm such as 5 mm to 5 cm. An inlet can have a diameter ranging from 1 μπι to 10 cm and can also have a volume of 1 pL to 1 mL. Furthermore, in some versions, inlets can include one or more connectors, e.g., fluidic connectors, e.g., luer connectors, such as at an end, for operatively connecting to one or more reciprocating connectors, e.g., fluidic connectors, e.g., luer connectors, such as one or more connector of a sample preparation device.

[0080J Also, in various embodiments, the sample receiving cartridges or portions thereof, e.g., substrates, are composed of one or more materials including, for example, polymeric materials (e.g., materials having one or more polymers including, for example, plastic and/or rubber) and/or metallic materials. Materials of which any of the device components including sample receiving cartridges or portions thereof described herein can be composed include, but are not limited to: polymeric materials, e.g., plastics, such as polytetrafluoroethene or polytetrafluoroethylene (PFTE), including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PFTE), polyethylene, polyester (DacronTM), nylon,

polypropylene, polyethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyurethane,

poly dimethyl si ioxane (PDMS), etc., metals and metal alloys, e.g., titanium, chromium, aluminum, stainless steel, etc., and the like. In various embodiments, the materials are transparent materials and as such, allow light within the visible spectrum to efficiently pass therethrough.

[0081] Also, in various instances, a sample receiving cartridge, or a portion thereof is transparent to light, e.g., visible light. As such, a user can observe an optical property modification of a sample or an aspect thereof through the sample receiving cartridge. Also, in some versions, a sample receiving cartridge, or a portion thereof, is opaque and/or white.

[0082] In some versions, the subject devices include a substrate. A substrate can be operatively coupled to the sample receiving cartridge via, for example, an adhesive layer. The substrate, in some instances, can be a circuit board, e.g., a printed circuit board, composed, for example, of a layer of Silicon and/or Copper and/or Gold and/or Aluminum contacts therein or thereon. Substrates can be printed circuit boards composed, for example, of a layer, e.g., a silicon layer, having thereon metallic contacts affixed thereto with one or more adhesive, e.g., epoxy. Substrates according to the subject embodiments can also have one or more surface, e.g., a first surface and a second surface opposite a first surface, having a roughness (Ra) of 5 μπι or more, such as 10 μπι or more, such as 20 μπι or more, such as 50 μπι or more. The substrates can also have a roughness (Ra) of 50 μπι or less, such as 20 μπι or less, such as 10 μπι or less, such as 5 μπι or less.

[0083] Substrates, in various aspects, can include one or more optical property modifying substances and as such, be configured to have one of their optical properties, such as color, modified. As such, the methods include modifying one or more optical property of a substrate. In some aspects, substrates may include one or more enzyme, e.g., a colorimetric enzyme, which can provide a color change. As such, modifying an optical property can include changing the color and/or opacity of a substrate.

[0084] In some versions of the subject devices, the substrates can include one or more heating elements. Heating elements are elements and/or one or more reactants that are configured to generate thermal energy and can be proximate to one or more reaction chambers. By "proximate" is meant close to. In some versions, heating elements may be configured for heating one or more reaction chambers and contents thereof, e.g., a biological sample and/or an optical property modifying reagent and/or a nucleic acid amplification composition. Examples of such heating elements include thermoelectric heating elements, e.g., thermoelectric heating elements that include resistive conductors, e.g., thermistors, Peltier devices, or other elements that generate heat.

(0085] In some aspects, heating elements are or include one or more heat-generating reactants, e.g., liquid reactants, that cause an exothermic/exothermal reaction when exposed to one another or one or more of the compositions and/or reagents disclosed herein, e.g., water. Also, in some embodiments, the methods include adding to contents of a device as disclosed herein, e.g., contents including a biological sample, one or more heating reagents which, when mixed, cause an exothermal reaction. Such a reaction can, for example, heat a sample for lysis or produce a colorimetric change as described herein. Exothermal reactions can generate heat and/or gas. Exothermal reactions can include the hydration of a mixture composed of encapsulated and/or non-encapsulated oxides such as calcium oxide and/or magnesium oxide and dehydrated and/or hvdrated zeolite, or any combinations thereof. Such a process can be coupled wit control of pH of the mixture through compounds such as Citric acid, or combination exothermic mixes, such as Cao and Mg -Fe. Modulation can include timed/controlled release from encapsulated reactants and can include particles with tailored size distribution and different burn characteristics. Phase change materials (PCM) can be used to control the heat stability of the reaction. PCMs include, for example, organics (paraffins, non paraffins and fatty acids) and inorganics (salt hydrates). The reagents applied in exothermal reactions or other gas-producing reagents may also be applied to produce gas inside one or more of the chambers, e.g., sealed chambers, of the devices disclosed herein and thereby increase pressure in the one or more container.

[0086] The subject heating elements can be configured to elevate the temperature of a reaction chamber and/or contents thereof, e.g., a biological sample, by 1 °C or more, 5 °C or more, 10 °C or more, 15 °C or more, 25 °C or more, 50 °C or more, or 100 °C or more. Such elements can be configured to increase the temperature of a reaction chamber and/or contents thereof from room temperature, e.g., 21 °C, to 59 °C, 60 °C, 61 °C, 62 °C, 63 °C, 64 °C, 65 °C, 66 °C, or 67 °C and/or within a range from 50-75 °C, such as 60-70 °C, such as 60-66 °C, in 10 minutes or less, such as in 5 minutes or less, such as in 3 minutes or less, such as in 2 minutes or less. For example, a heating element can be configured to increase the temperature of a reaction chamber and/or contents thereof from room temperature to 63 °C ± 1 °C in 3 minutes or less and/or can be configured to maintain such a temperature for 30 minutes or more. Heating elements can also be configured to maintain the temperature of a reaction chamber and/or contents thereof for a period of time such as 2 hours or more or 2 hours or less, such as 1 hour or less, such as 30 minutes or less, such as 15 minutes or less. Such a temperature can be maintained at, for example, 59 °C, 60 °C, 61 °C, 62 °C, 63 °C, 64 °C, 65 °C, 66 °C, or 67 °C and/or within a range from 50-75 °C, such as 60-70 °C, such as 60-66 °C. Maintaining such a temperature can be performed by applying a thermistor as a heating sensing element and/or can be based on sensor feedback to a control unit. Heating elements can be configured to elevate the temperature of a reaction chamber and/or contents thereof, repeatedly, e.g., heat the contents a first time and then a second time. The subject heating elements also can heat the contents of a reaction chamber so that an optical property modification and/or nucleic acid amplification occurs. Furthermore, the subject heating elements also can heat contents to perform thermo-cycling for amplification reactions, such as PCR.

(0087] Where desired, the subject substrates include one or more power sources. A power source can be operatively connected to one or more heating elements. By "power source," as used herein, is meant a device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. As such, in some aspects, power sources can include, for example, one or more battery, direct current (DC) power supply, alternating current (AC) power supply, linear regulated power supply, switched-mode power supply, programmable power supply, uninterruptible power supply, high-voltage power supply and/or a voltage multiplier. The amount of power, current and/or voltage capable of being provided by a power supply can, for example, be equivalent to that required to power the heating elements to generate heat according to the subject embodiments and/or other elements described herein, e.g., one or more controller, to provide their described functions. A power source can, in some aspects, be one or more battery, e.g., a portable and/or self-contained and/or replaceable battery, such as one or two AA batteries, an outlet, or another source of electrical power. In some aspects, a power source can include one or more electrical cords, e.g., cords configured to operatively connect a device to an outlet. Cords of power sources can be configured to removably connect to a device and/or an outlet.

[0088] Versions of power sources include power sources configured to turn on to provide electrical power to another component and/or turn off to stop providing electrical power to another component. Such power sources can be configured to be turned on and/or off, for example, by operation of a switch, button, timer or other component operatively connected to or included in the power source, such as a control unit.

[0089] Power sources can also, in certain aspects, be operatively connected to one or more components of the disclosed systems, e.g., a control unit. As such, embodiments of power sources include electrical connections from a power source to components of the disclosed systems. Such electrical connections can include one or more lengths of electrically conductive material, e.g., contacts, traces, and/or wires.

[0090] Substrates can include one or more control unit, e.g., a central processing unit (CPU) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).Such a unit can include a memory and/or a processor, e.g., a microprocessor, configured to generate one or more outputs, e.g., electrical signals, based on one or more sets of inputs, e.g., inputs from a user and/or a sensor, and/or a timer, and/or instructions stored in the memory. A device can also include a user interface for receiving an input and operatively coupled to the control unit.

[00911 According to various embodiments, a control unit is configured to perform an optical property modification and/or colorimetric analysis of a biological sample in the one or more reaction chambers. As such, a control unit can be configured to determine, based on an input from one or more sensors, whether a change in an optical property, e.g., color, of one or more contents of a reaction chamber, has occurred. Based on the determination, the control unit can be configured to generate an output, such as an output to a user via a display, wherein the output reflects to the user whether a change has occurred.

[0092] In some versions, a substrate can include one or more sensor, e.g., a plurality of sensors, configured to detect the presence and/or absence of a liquid, e.g., a biological sample, in one or more of the reaction chambers. In some instances the sensors are operatively connected to the control unit and send an input thereto based on a detected presence and/or absence of a sample. For example, a control unit can generate an output which activates a heating element of a device to heat contents, e.g., a biological sample, of one or more reaction chambers by transmitting thermal energy via an adhesive layer to the reaction chambers when an input from a sensor indicating the presence of a biological sample in a reaction chamber is received. In some versions, the one or more sensors can be configured to detect an optical property, e.g., a wavelength of light, e.g., color, and/or a change in an optical property, such as a wavelength of light emitted from contents of a reaction chamber, e.g., a biological sample. [0093] In various aspects, substrates according to the subject embodiments include one or more light source configured to emit light. Such light sources can be operatively coupled to the one or more sensors and/or control units such that when a sensor detects a liquid, e.g., a biological sample, in the one or more reaction chambers, the light source emits light. Such light sources can also be operatively coupled to the one or more sensors and/or control units such that when an optical property modification occurs or does not occur in the one or more reaction chambers, the light source emits light. Light sources according to the subject embodiments can also include one or more light emitting diode (LED).

[0094] In some embodiments, the subject devices include one or more display for displaying one or more output, e.g., reaction result, and/or status, to a user. In some versions, the devices also include an interface for receiving an input, wherein the interface is operatively coupled to the control unit.

[0095] A wireless signal transmitter and/or a wireless signal receiver can also be included in the subject devices. A wireless signal transmitter can be operatively coupled to the control unit and can be configured to transmit a signal, such as an audio signal, from the control unit to, for example, a wireless receiver operatively coupled to one or more other device, such as a second central processing unit and/or a sample analyzer, which can be a mobile device, such as a cellular telephone. The wireless signal receiver can be configured to receive a signal and transmit it for processing by the control unit.

[0096] The subject devices can also include a housing. Such a housing can include a first portion and a second portion operatively coupleable, e.g., mateable, e.g., snapedly

coupleable, with the first portion to encapsulate the sample receiving cartridge, substrate and adhesive layer. In some versions, a second portion is substantially flat and a first portion is composed of five walls separated by edges and configured to contain, e.g., fully contain, one or more other components of a device, such as by retaining the components between at least two portions, e.g., opposite walls, thereof. In some versions a second portion makes up a bottom surface of the housing and the housing includes an inlet opening in a top surface of the housing opposite the bottom surface.

[0097] Housings of the subject devices can be composed of one or more layers of material, e.g., a polymeric material, as described herein, and can be shaped substantially as a rectangular box. The housings can include one or more inlet opening providing access, e.g., fluidic access, to an inlet of a sample receiving cartridge so that a biological sample can be loaded into the cartridge therethrough. In some versions, such an opening is on a top surface of a device and/or is in a first portion.

[0098] In various embodiments, the subject devices and components thereof, e.g., housings, are hand-held devices or components. As used herein, the term "hand-held" refers to the characteristic ability of an aspect to be held (e.g., retained, or easily or comfortably held) in a hand, such as the hand of a mammal, such as the hand of a human, such as the hand of an adult male or female human of an average size and/or strength. As such, a hand-held aspect is an aspect that is sized and/or shaped to be retained (e.g., easily or comfortably retained) in the hand of a human. A hand-held aspect can also be an aspect that can be moved (e.g., easily moved, such as easily moved in a vertical and/or horizontal direction) by a human (e.g., one or two hands of a human).

[0099] In some aspects, a housing has a volume and/or defines an exterior or interior volume, sufficient to contain any of the described components therein. A housing can have a volume, for example, of 1 cm3 to 500 cm3, such as from 10 cm3 to 200 cm3, such as from 50 cm3 to 150 cm3. In some instances, a housing can also have a volume of 1 cm3 or more, such as 50 cm3 or more, such as 100 cm3 or more, such as 200 cm3 or more, such as 300 cm3 or more, such as 500 cm3 or more. A housing can also have a volume of 500 cm3 or less, such as 300 cm3 or less, such as 200 cm3 or less, such as 100 cm3 or less, such as 50 cm3 or less, such as 10 cm3 or less.

[00100] The subject devices, in some aspects, include one or more adhesive layer operatively connecting a sample receiving cartridge and a substrate. As is shown, for example, in FIG. 3, such a layer can also form a wall of each of the one or more reaction chambers. In forming a wall, an adhesive layer can seal and/or extend over an opening, e.g., a supplementary opening, at an end of a reaction chamber. In some versions, a

supplementary opening is a first end of a reaction chamber and a venting opening is at a second end of the chamber opposite the first end. An adhesive layer and/or a portion thereof, e.g., a sheet and/or an adhesive material can define an end of a reaction chamber and/or sealably contain one or more solid and/or fluid media, e.g., a biological sample and/or a modifying reagent and/or an amplification composition within the reaction chamber. In various embodiments, an adhesive layer can be operatively coupled to a sample receiving cartridge such that the adhesive layer fluidically seals one or more openings, e.g., an opening at an end, of one or more reaction chambers of the cartridge. [00101] An adhesive layer can be or include a sheet, e.g., a solid sheet, of one or more materials, e.g., two materials, having a thin and/or planar shape. An adhesive layer or other components of the subject devices can include a top surface and a bottom surface each defining a plane parallel with the other and separated by a thickness. In various

embodiments, a sheet is or includes a uniform layer of a single material. An adhesive layer can also be composed of two or more, e.g., three, four, five, or more, etc. sheets laminated to one another. In some versions, the adhesive layers are acrylic adhesive laminates.

[00102] An adhesive layer can, in some aspects, be composed entirely of an adhesive material or can have an adhesive material, e.g., a coating and/or layer of adhesive material, on a first surface and/or one or other surfaces, e.g., a second surface opposite the first. Such an adhesive can be an acrylic adhesive. Accordingly, an adhesive layer can include one or more sheets, e.g., laminated sheets, and have an adhesive material on a top surface and/or a bottom surface thereof. One layer of adhesive material can operatively connect the adhesive layer with a substrate and/or another layer of adhesive material can operatively connect the adhesive layer and a sample receiving cartridge.

[0100] According to some embodiments, a sheet can have a length, a width and a height, also referred to as a thickness. A sheet can be shaped as a rectangular box with the width and length being substantially greater than the thickness. A thickness of an adhesive layer and/or a sheet, e.g., a thickness between a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface, can be 5 mm or less, 3 mm or less, 1 mm or less, .5 mm or less, 0.1 mm or less, or 50 microns or less. A thickness of an adhesive layer and/or a sheet thereof can also range for example, from 5 mm to 50 microns, such as 3 mm to .1 mm, such as 1 mm to .1 mm, inclusive. Also, a length and/or width of an adhesive layer and/or a sheet can also range from 1 mm to 2 m, such as from 1 cm to 1 m, such as from 1 cm to 10 cm, such as from 1 cm to 5 cm.

[0101] Adhesive layers can be and/or have an area defining any suitable size or shape including a: circle, semi-circle, oval, rectangle, square, triangle, polygon, quadrilateral, or combination thereof. For example, in embodiments where the adhesive layer is a rectangle, the length of the adhesive layer is greater than the width. An adhesive layer can include one or more sheets of solid, uniform, integrated material, and in some versions, does not include any openings therethrough. [0102] Also, an adhesive layer and/or a sheet thereof can have three edges, four edges, or more than four edges which define the area of the adhesive layer. In various embodiments, the edges meet at corners, e.g., three, four, five, or ten or more corners. In some versions, a first edge of an adhesive layer is opposite a second edge of an adhesive layer and adjacent to a third and/or fourth edge of an adhesive layer. In such an embodiment, the third edge can be opposite a fourth edge and the fourth edge can be adjacent to the first and/or second edge.

[0103] Adhesive layers can each be composed of a variety of materials and can be composed of the same or different materials. The sample receiving modules and/or caps or portions thereof can be composed of polymeric materials, e.g., materials having one or more polymers including, for example, plastic and/or rubber. Such materials can have

characteristics of flexibility and/or high strength (e.g., resistant to wear) and/or high fatigue resistance (e.g., able to retain its physical properties for long periods of time regardless of the amount of use or environment). Materials of interest of which adhesive layers or portions thereof described herein can be composed include, but are not limited to: polymeric materials, e.g., plastics, such as polytetrafluoroethene or polytetrafluoroethylene (PFTE), including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PFTE), polyester (DacronTM), nylon, polypropylene, polyethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyurethane, one or more acrylic adhesive, silicone adhesive, epoxy adhesive, or any combination thereof. As described, each of such materials can include coatings or layers of adhesive materials, e.g., acrylic adhesive materials, on one or more surface thereof. As described, each of such materials can include coatings or layers of adhesive materials, e.g., acrylic adhesive materials, on one or more surface thereof.

[0104] Also, in some aspects, an adhesive layer, or a portion thereof, such as a first and/or second laminated layer, does not include an acid. Furthermore, in some versions, an adhesive layer, or a portion thereof, e.g., such as a first and/or second laminated layer, is opaque and/or white. Where an adhesive layer or a portion thereof is white, the white layer provides a uniform background of visual inspection of one or more reaction chambers. In some versions, a layer, e.g., a first layer and/or second layer and/or an adhesive layer, is opaque and/or a color complementary to a reaction start color, e.g., red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet, black, gold, silver, brown, or any combination thereof. A reaction start color is the color of the reaction product and/or the optical property modifying reagent before a reaction occurs to sufficiently modifies an optical property of the optical property modifying reagent to allow detection of the modified optical property. The color complementary to a reaction start color may provide sufficient color contrast, e.g., increased color contrast as opposed to a single color, of the reaction chambers such that, for example, detection of the modified optical property may be made by an unassisted human eye.

[0105] In some versions, an adhesive layer, or a portion thereof, is transparent to light, e.g., visible light. In other versions, an adhesive layer, or a portion thereof, is reflective, e.g., entirely or substantially reflective to light, e.g., visible light. Also, as noted herein, an adhesive layer can include a first layer laminated with a second layer. In such embodiments, for example, a first layer does not include an acid and/or a second layer is opaque and/or white.

[0106] Additionally, in various instances, an adhesive layer, or a portion thereof such as a sheet, has a thermal conductivity ranging from 0.1 W/m-K to 10 W/m-K, such as 0.1 W/m-K to 5 W/m-K, such as 1 W/m-K to 5 W/m-K.

[0107] Also, an adhesive layer can be a patterned adhesive layer. In such embodiments, the adhesive layer can be or have a portion that is porous and/or includes one or more opening extending from a first surface of an adhesive layer to a second surface of the adhesive layer opposite the first surface such that one or more contents, e.g., liquids, of a reaction chamber can pass therethrough. As such, in some aspects, one or more contents, e.g., liquids, of a reaction chamber can contact a substrate and/or one or more components thereof, e.g., a sensor and/or a heating element, directly while an assay is performed.

[0108] Also, as noted above, the subject selectively vented biological assay devices can be used to perform a test on a biological sample to evaluate one or more characteristics of the sample. According to the subject embodiments, a biological sample can be collected from a subject and include one or more cells, such as tissue cells of the subject. As used herein, the term "tissue" refers to one or more aggregates of cells in a subject (e.g., a living organism, such as a mammal, such as a human) that have a similar function and structure or to a plurality of different types of such aggregates. Tissue can include, for example, organ tissue, muscle tissue (e.g., cardiac muscle; smooth muscle; and/or skeletal muscle), connective tissue, nervous tissue and/or epithelial tissue. Tissue can, in some versions, include cells from the inside of a subject's cheek and/or cells in a subject's saliva.

[0109] A biological sample can be collected from a subject. In certain embodiments, a subject is a "mammal" or a "mammalian" subject, where these terms are used broadly to describe organisms which are within the class mammalia, including the orders carnivore (e.g., dogs and cats), rodentia (e.g., mice, guinea pigs, and rats), and primates (e.g., humans, chimpanzees, and monkeys). In some embodiments, the subject is a human. The term "humans" can include human subjects of both genders and at any stage of development (e.g., fetal, neonates, infant, juvenile, adolescent, and adult), where in certain embodiments the human subject is a juvenile, adolescent or adult. While the devices and methods described herein can be applied in association with a human subject, it is to be understood that the subject devices and methods can also be applied in association with other subjects, that is, on "non-human subjects."

[0110] In some versions, a biological sample is an environmental and/or agricultural sample. As such, in some versions of the subject embodiments, biological samples are collected from one or more farming aspects, e.g., animals and/or plants, and/or from natural organic sources such as organisms, such as animals, e.g., wild animals, plants, e.g., wild plants, bacteria, viruses, or any combination thereof.

[0111] In various instances, a biological sample, as referred to herein, can in some versions be a prepared biological sample. A prepared biological assay sample is a biological assay sample which has been processed for example by exposing the sample to a preparation solution, such as a solution including a lysing agent, such as a detergent. Accordingly, in some embodiments, a biological sample is a lysate. Such preparation can enable the prepared biological sample to react, for example, with an amplification composition and/or an optical property modifying reagent upon exposure thereto. The exposure can include lysing cells of the sample with a lysing agent of the preparation solution and/or extracting nucleic acids therefrom. Such extracted nucleic acids can be released into a resulting prepared sample solution. In some embodiments, a step of extracting genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from a biological sample is included. Where desired, the preparation solution is a nucleic acid amplification preparation solution and exposure to the solution prepares nucleic acids of the sample for amplification, e.g., isothermal amplification.

[0112] As described herein, the subject devices and methods can be used to detect the presence and/or absence of one or more nucleic acids in one or more reaction chambers. The subject devices and methods can also be applied, for example to detect the presence and/or absence of one or more other biomarkers, such as proteins, in the one or more reaction chambers. [0113] In various embodiments, optical property modifying devices contain one or more, e.g., three, assay controls: a sample adequacy control, a positive control, e.g., an internal positive control, and/or a negative control. The sample adequacy control detects, for example, abundant human nucleic acid markers such as housekeeping genes, RNA, and/or human β- actin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to ensure a sufficient swab sample was collected. The positive control amplifies a synthetic oligonucleotide that will be co-packaged and/or co- lyophilized in the reaction well. Such a synthetic oligonucleotide can be included, for example, in a modifying reagent, an optical property modifying reagent and/or an

amplification composition. Such a control ensures that the device operates under conditions that allow amplification of genetic markers of interest. The negative control also amplifies the positive control but without the co-lyophilized synthetic oligonucleotide. Such a control ensures the absence of any contaminating self-amplifying amplicon.

[0114] In addition, the optical property modifying devices or portions thereof, e.g., housings, can include calibrators for an image data analysis algorithm as performed, for example, by a control unit of a sample analyzer. For example a quick response (QR) code, can be a resolution calibration target. Also, a white housing, and specifically a region proximate reaction chambers, can be applied by the sample analyzer for white balance calibration and illumination uniformity calibration. Additionally, housings can include printed color targets for calibrating color change measurements.

[0115] Furthermore, optical property modifying devices can also include one or more code, e.g., a quick response (QR) code, on an exterior of a housing thereof. Such a code can include an identification of assay type, expiration date for the device, serial number, or any combination thereof. A sample analyzer can be configured to read and/or recognize such a code so that a proper identification of the device can be made and the device used

accordingly.

METHODS

[0116] The present disclosure includes methods of performing a biological assay with a selectively vented biological assay device, such as any of the device embodiments described herein.

[0117] In some versions, the methods include introducing a biological sample into a biological assay device by flowing the sample into one or more reaction chambers of a sample receiving cartridge of the device via one or more sample receiving openings. Such a sample can first be introduced to an inlet operatively coupled to the one or more reaction chambers by contacting the sample with the inlet and then flowed from the inlet into the reaction chambers.

[0118] In some versions, flowing the sample into the one or more reaction includes flowing a gas through a selective venting element of the device and/or contacting the sample with one or more modifying reagent in a reaction chamber. Such a selective venting element can form a wall of each of the one or more reaction chambers, and the one or more reaction chambers can each include a modifying reagent.

[0119] The methods, in some variations, include contacting the sample liquid with the selective venting element and thereby making the selective venting element impermeable to fluid. As such, in some embodiments, the methods include contacting the sample liquid with the selective venting element and thereby advancing the selective venting element from a first conformation to a second conformation, as described herein. In some versions, the methods include flowing an amount, e.g., a small amount, of a liquid, e.g., biological sample, water and/or buffer, into a selective venting elements, or a portion thereof, e.g., a sealing surface, by contacting the element with the liquid. The presence of the liquid within the element seals pores of the element and/or expands the element so that further liquid and/or gas cannot pass into or through the element. Accordingly, the methods include sealing the selective venting element and preventing further passage of liquid or gas, such as by evaporation, into or through the element.

[0120] The methods can also include reacting the sample with the modifying reagent and generating a reaction product. A reaction product can include, for example, one or more compositions, e.g., an aspect of a biological sample, e.g., protons, which, when reacted with an optical property modifying reagent, result in a modification of one or more optical property.

[0121] According to various embodiments, the methods also include detecting a characteristic of the reaction product, wherein such detection can be performed by an unassisted human eye. The term "human," as used herein, can include human users or subjects of both genders and at any stage of development, e.g., fetal, neonates, infant, juvenile, adolescent, adult, where in certain embodiments the human subject or user is a juvenile, adolescent or adult. Also, an un-assisted human eye refers to a human eye that is not enhanced by one or more devices which enhance or modify visual ability. Such devices might include a camera, optical magnifier, microscope, or optimized, e.g., filtered, e.g., polarized, glasses or contacts, etc. As such, detecting a characteristic of the reaction product can include visually inspecting the one or more reaction chambers to detect a modified optical property. Also, in some aspects, detecting a characteristic of the reaction product includes detecting presence or absence of a nucleic acid amplification.

[0122] In some versions of the methods, a device includes a sensor and the methods include detecting the presence or absence of the sample in one or more reaction chambers with the sensor. Also, where a device includes a heating element, the methods can include heating a sample in the one or more reaction chambers when a sensor detects sample in the one or more reaction chambers. Heating a sample can be performed in any of the amounts which a heating element is configured to do so, as is described herein. Also, in some versions, the devices include a light and the methods include emitting light with the light source when the sensor detects the sample in the one or more reaction chambers.

[0123] In some versions, the methods include reacting a sample with the modifying reagent by contacting the sample with the nucleic acid amplification composition in the one or more reaction chambers under conditions that result in amplification of the nucleic acid, if present in the sample. As such, the methods can include performing an amplification of a nucleic acid.

[0124] According to various embodiments, the methods also can include modifying an optical property in a biological sample assay. Such a modification can be performed on a biological sample, or an aspect associated therewith, such as a reaction mixture or a reaction product. Where desired, a modification of an optical property can be performed with a selectively vented biological assay device, as such devices are described herein.

[0125] As described herein, modifying an optical property refers to changing one or more optically-recognizable characteristics of an aspect, e.g., a sample, such as a characteristic resulting from wavelength and/or frequency of radiation, e.g., light, emitted from an aspect, such as color, fluorescence, phosphorescence, etc. For example, in some versions, the optical property is color and modifying the optical property includes changing the color. In some aspects, such an optical property modification, e.g., color change, is detectable by an unassisted human eye under, for example ambient light, and the subject methods include making such detection with an un-assisted human eye. Modifying an optical property can also include changing the transmittance and/or opacity of a substance and can include causing the substance to change substantially from transparent to opaque or from opaque to transparent. As such, the methods can include detecting such a change with an un-assisted human eye.

[0126] In some aspects, the subject methods include exposing a reagent or substance as disclosed herein and/or a device or portion thereof, e.g., a sample receiving cartridge, to external, e.g., ambient, light to thereby measure the change in optical property. Such external light can include a camera flash or fluorescent excitation light. Exposure to external light can provide a change in conditions such that the optical property can be measured.

[0127] In versions of the subject methods, the methods include transmitting a biological sample into one or more reaction chambers of a sample receiving cartridge of a device.

Transmitting a sample can include moving, e.g., flowing, a sample, to a particular location, such as one or more reaction chambers. Transmitting can include flowing the sample through a sample inlet and/or one or more conduits operatively connecting each of the one or more reaction chambers. Such flowing can include biasing, e.g., pumping, the sample to move through the inlet and/or conduits. The flowing can also include flowing the sample into an opening in the sample inlet through a receptacle opening in the housing of a device.

[0128] In various embodiments, transmitting a biological sample into one or more reaction chambers includes operatively coupling a selectively vented biological assay device with a sample preparation device and flowing a prepared biological sample from the sample preparation device into the selectively vented biological assay device. Operatively coupling such devices can include coupling reciprocating connectors, e.g., fluidic connectors, e.g., luer connectors, of each device. In some versions of the methods, the methods include applying the subject devices for removing bubbles from microfluidic systems.

[0129] As noted above, one or more one or more reaction chambers of a device can include one or more modifying reagent, e.g., an optical property modifying reagent. As such, transmitting a biological sample into one or more reaction chambers can include mixing a biological sample with the one or more optical property modifying reagent and thereby generating a reaction mixture including the biological sample and optical property modifying reagent. A reaction mixture is a mixture which can be employed in one or more reactions as designated herein. A reaction mixture can also include, for example, an amount of buffer, water, and/or other compositions such as a biological sample, e.g., a prepared biological sample, an amplification composition, e.g., a nucleic acid amplification composition, and/or one or more optical property modifying reagent, or any combination thereof.

[0130] Embodiments of the methods also include heating a reaction mixture with a heating element of a device. In some versions such heating includes transferring thermal energy to one or more reaction chambers via an adhesive layer. Heating the reaction mixture in turn can generate a reaction product, e.g., a reaction product including a plurality of protons.

[0131] In some versions, a heating element is operatively coupled to a substrate, e.g., a circuit board, such as a printed circuit board, of a device. As noted herein, a substrate can also include and/or be operatively coupled to one or more sensors and/or a control unit and/or a power source, and/or one or more light source. As such, in some versions, transmitting a biological sample into one or more reaction chambers includes detecting a sample, e.g., a liquid, in one or more reaction chambers with one or more sensors. The sensors can be, for example, electrochemical sensors. The sensors can be configured to send and/or receive electrical energy to and/or from one or more reaction chambers via, in some versions, an adhesive layer and/or one or more electrical contacts. Such sensors can be configured to detect the presence and/or absence of liquid in one or more reaction chambers. Also, in some variations wherein a substrate is operatively coupled to a light source, transmitting a biological sample into one or more reaction chambers can include activating the light source to emit light and/or deactivating the light source to stop emitting light. In some versions of the subject devices, the sensors, control unit and/or heating element are operatively connected such that when liquid enters a reaction chamber, the sensor senses the liquid and the heating element begins heating the reaction chamber automatically, such as without a particular user action required.

[0132] According to some versions of the subject methods wherein a substrate includes a control unit, modifying an optical property of the biological sample can include performing an optical property, e.g., colorimetric, analysis of a sample in the one or more reaction chambers with the control unit. Such an analysis can be performed on a reaction product after reacting it with the optical property modifying reagent. Performing an optical property, e.g., colorimetric, analysis can include determining, based on an input, e.g., an input from one or more sensors, whether a change in an optical property, e.g., color, of one or more contents of a reaction chamber, has occurred. Based on the determination, performing the analysis can include generating an output, such as an output to a user via a display, wherein the output reflects to the user whether a modification has occurred. Performing an optical property, e.g., colorimetric, analysis can also be performed by a user without employing a control unit, such as by using an analyzing device or by making a determination based on a visual inspection. Furthermore, performing an optical property, e.g., colorimetric, analysis can also include obtaining image data, e.g., photo and/or video, of an optical property modification or lack thereof with, for example, a camera, such as a camera on a mobile phone, and evaluating the data visually or with an analyzing device, such as a mobile phone. Additionally, detecting a characteristic of the reaction product can include inspecting the one or more reaction chambers with a mobile electronic device to detect a modified optical property with the device. Such a step can be performed by taking one or more photo of a modified optical property and/or lack thereof with the device and analyzing the one or more photo with the device to produce an output to the user indicating a result.

[0133] According to various aspects, the subject methods include transferring electrical energy from one or more elements of a substrate, e.g., a control unit and/or a sensor, to one or more reaction chambers via an adhesive layer. The methods can also include transferring electrical energy from one or more reaction chambers to one or more elements of a substrate, e.g., a control unit and/or a sensor, via an adhesive layer. In some aspects, performing an optical property modification analysis requires such electrical energy to be transmitted.

[0134] According to aspects of the methods, the sample receiving cartridge is transparent, and performing an optical property, e.g., colorimetric, analysis includes detecting, visualizing, one or more characteristics of light, e.g., color or opacity, transmitted through the sample receiving cartridge. In some aspects of the methods, an optical property modifying device also includes an adhesive layer, an opaque and/or white adhesive layer, operatively connected to the sample receiving cartridge. In such aspects, the methods can include performing an optical property analysis, such as by visually inspecting the chambers to detect a modified optical property, of the reaction product after reacting it with an optical property modifying reagent.

[0135] The subject devices can also be manufactured according to the subject methods by operatively coupling a sample receiving cartridge and/or a substrate with the adhesive layer. Such coupling can be performed by placing an adhesive layer against a sample receiving cartridge and/or a substrate and attaching, such as by adhesively binding and/or melting the components to one another. Specifically, in some embodiments, the methods include contacting an adhesive layer directly with a substrate, e.g., a printed circuit board, and binding, e.g., adhesively binding, or laminating the two together. In some aspects, an adhesive layer has a first side and a second side opposite the first side. As such,

manufacturing a device by operatively coupling a sample receiving cartridge and substrate can include adhesively attaching the sample receiving cartridge to the first side and the substrate to the second side. Such manufacturing can be performed manually or

automatically, such as with an electronic manufacturing device, such as a manufacturing device which can be programmed to perform one or more manufacturing steps.

[0136] According to some embodiments, the reaction chambers each include an amplification composition, e.g., a nucleic acid amplification composition. As noted above, one or more one or more reaction chambers of a device can each include an amplification composition, e.g., a nucleic acid amplification composition. As such, transmitting a biological sample into one or more reaction chambers can include mixing a biological sample with the one or more amplification composition. Such mixing can include causing a chemical reaction between the two.

[0137] In various aspects, heating a reaction mixture with a heating element includes accelerating a nucleic acid amplification reaction between, for example, nucleic acids of a biological sample and one or more aspects of an amplification composition, e.g., a nucleic acid amplification composition. As such, in various aspects, the reaction generates one or more amplified nucleic acid. Such a reaction can also generate a reaction product. Such a reaction product can be or include a plurality of protons and/or one or more amplified nucleic acid.

[0138] In some aspects, the subject methods also can include reacting the reaction product, or an aspect thereof, such as one or more protons and/or one or more amplified nucleic acid, with an optical property modifying reagent. Such reacting can be performed, for example, by placing the reaction product, or an aspect thereof, such as one or more protons and/or one or more amplified nucleic acid, in contact with an optical property modifying reagent, such as by mixing them in one or more container, e.g., one or more reaction chambers. Reacting the reaction product, or an aspect thereof, with an optical property modifying reagent can include chemically modifying the reaction product and/or the optical property modifying reagent, such as by bonding the one or more protons to the optical property modifying reagent, so that one or the other displays one or more different optical property, such as a color and/or opacity. [0139] Also, reacting the reaction product, or an aspect thereof, such as one or more protons and/or one or more amplified nucleic acid, with an optical property modifying reagent, in various embodiments, sufficiently modifies an optical property, e.g., color and/or opacity, of the optical property modifying reagent to allow detection of the modified optical property by an un-assisted human eye.

[0140] One embodiment of the subject methods can be illustrated in association with the device 200 as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. Accordingly, in some aspects, the methods include introducing a biological sample into a biological assay device 200 by flowing the sample into one or more reaction chambers 202 of a sample receiving cartridge of the device via one or more sample receiving openings 210. In some aspects, flowing the sample into the one or more reaction chambers 202 includes flowing a gas, such as air, through a selective venting element 207 of the device, wherein the selective venting element forms a wall of each of the one or more reaction chambers 202, and wherein the one or more reaction chambers each include a modifying reagent 301. The methods can also include contacting the sample liquid with the selective venting element 207 and thereby making the selective venting element 207 impermeable to fluid.

[0141] Once a selective venting element is made impermeable to fluid, the methods include preventing further flow of fluid though a device. As such, after such flow is stopped, diffusion is the only method for transporting any contaminants in and/or out of the reaction chamber. Therefore if the inlet and/or conduits have a sufficient length, the contaminant diffusion time is substantially longer than the reaction and/or readout time and a result is not affected by contaminants.

[0142] Also, in some embodiments, the subject methods include collecting a biological sample, such as collecting a sample with a sample collector. Such a sample can include, for example, human saliva, urine, human mucus, blood, or a solid tissue such as buccal tissue. Such a sample can also include bacteria or spores. Collecting can include contacting, e.g., rubbing and/or scraping, the sample collector against one or more surfaces of a subject and/or surfaces of a biological sample of a subject, such as a liquid, e.g., saliva and/or blood, sample extracted from the subject. As such, in some versions, collecting includes extracting one or more biological samples from the subject. In some versions, collecting the biological sample can include instructing a subject to produce a biological sample, such as by spitting onto and/or into a sample collector. Collecting the biological sample can also include retaining a biological sample or a portion thereof, e.g., one or more cells, on the sample collector while, for example transferring the sample collector to an assay device. In some instances, a sample collector is a swab and collecting the biological sample includes swabbing the inside of a subject's mouth and/or nose to obtain the biological sample on the collector. In some versions, sample collectors are nasopharyngeal, mid turbinate and/or nasal swabs. After a biological sample is collected, the methods, in some versions, include processing the biological sample so that it is a prepared biological sample as described herein.

[0143] Furthermore, in some versions of the methods, a device is manufactured by encapsulating within a housing a selective venting element, sample receiving cartridge, adhesive layer, and/or substrate, or any combination thereof, by contacting them together in a single concerted step. In some variations, the methods do not include manufacturing a device for example, by performing a first step of patterning a substrate layer, such as a glass, silicon and/or polymer layer, and/or binding a patterned, e.g., binding it chemically and/or physically, to a non-patterned layer, e.g., a sealing layer, and a second subsequent step of integrating the bound and/or sealed layer into a housing or cassette that provides additional functionality to employ the fluidic device. Also, in various embodiments, the methods of manufacturing the subject devices include substantially preserving the functionality, e.g., chemical functionality, of reaction chamber contents, such as optical property modifying reagents and/or amplification compositions, while the contents are contained in the reaction chambers during manufacturing. This is achieved as the manufacturing process does not expose reagents to extreme temperature or chemical environments. Also, in some versions of the methods, the methods include manufacturing a device by operatively coupling an adhesive layer and a substrate while reaction chamber contents, such as optical property modifying reagents and/or amplification compositions, are retained within the reaction chambers. In some versions, operatively coupling an adhesive layer and a substrate does not include heating the adhesive layer, substrate, or environment surrounding either. In some versions, the methods include a step of inserting the optical property modifying reagent into each the one or more reaction chambers and storing the optical property modifying reagent therein while retaining functionality of the optical property modifying reagent.

[0144] The amplification reaction amplifies nucleotides from a nucleic acid template. In some embodiments, the amplification reaction is an isothermal amplification reaction, such as a strand displacement reaction. In a further embodiment, a strand displacement reaction is provided by a polymerase with strand displacement activity under reaction conditions such that strand displacement is possible. Examples of strand displacement reactions include strand displacement amplification (SDA), multiple displacement amplification (MDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA) or loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). In other embodiments, the amplification reaction includes other non-isothermal amplification reactions such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

[0145] In certain embodiments, the amplification reaction performed is LAMP. In a LAMP reaction, a double- or single-stranded DNA template in dynamic equilibrium at an elevated temperature is amplified using two or three pairs of primers. The primers are designed based on the DNA template, using primer design software such as PrimerExplorer (Eiken). In the first step of the LAMP reaction, the F2 region of the FIP (Forward Inner Primer) anneals to the single stranded DNA at the respective complementary (F2c) position. Next, a polymerase with strand displacement activity incorporates dNTPs along the template from the 3' end of F2. The incorporation of nucleotides releases protons, reducing the pH of the reaction mix. Then, the F3 forward primer anneals to the F3c region upstream of the F2 region and on the template. The F3 forward primer begins amplifying the template strand, which releases further protons and displaces the FlP-incorporated strand that was synthesized previously. This single strand contains an Fl sequence (within the target sequence) along with its complementary Flc sequence (within the FIP). This forms a stem-loop as Flc anneals to Fl at the 5' end. At the same time, the BIP (Backward Inner Primer) anneals to the other end of the strand and nucleotides extend from B2, releasing more protons. The backward primer B3 then binds to the B3c region, downstream of the B2 region, displaces the BIP-amplified strands and promotes extension to create the double strand. This displaced strand now contains a Bl sequence (within the target sequence) along with its complementary Blc sequence (within the BIP), forming another stem loop in the 3' end. The structure now has two stem-loop structures at each end from which continuous displacement and extension occur to amplify the template. The LAMP reaction can be amplified by adding further Forward and Backward Loop primers to produce more amplicons with stem loop structures.

[0146] The LAMP procedure can take place at a fixed temperature, minimizing the need for any expensive thermocycling equipment. Typically, isothermal methods require a set temperature, which is determined by the selected reagents. For example, enzymes function best between 60-65°C in LAMP methods.

[0147] Colorimetric detection of the nucleic acid amplification reaction product can be performed in real-time throughout the amplification reaction, or after the performance of the amplification reaction. Detection of the colorimetric change of the reaction mix can be associated with a digital indication of a presence or absence of the amplification reaction product. In other words, a visual observation of the color change of the reaction mix can provide information regarding whether the amplification reaction product is present or absent. In certain embodiments, detection of a colorimetric change of the reaction mix indicates that the exponential or plateau phase of the amplification reaction has been obtained.

[0148] In some embodiments, detection of the amplification reaction product is accelerated relative to an amplification reaction that uses a reaction mix without a

halochromic agent. In further embodiments, the colorimetric change of the reaction mix is detected in less than 60 minutes from a starting time of the amplification reaction.

Accelerated detection of the amplification reaction product is obtained because the halochromic agent (a weak acid or base) in the reaction mix absorbs protons generated during the amplification reaction, and recombination of the free protons acts to accelerate the detection of the amplification reaction. The reaction can be designed so that minimal amplification is required to generate a pH transition sufficient for the halochromic agent to change color. Conventional amplification techniques that use fluorescent intercalating dyes, molecular beacons, hybridization probes, dye-based detection, UV-Vis, or other detection methods require a certain threshold amount of amplification to occur before an amplification signal is detectable. However, the methods of the present invention require a relatively smaller threshold amount of amplification before a color change of the halochromic agent is detectable, and therefore the detection of an amplification reaction product is accelerated relative to conventional amplification methods.

[0149] In some embodiments, the amplification reaction product is detected visually by observation of a color change of the reaction mix. In a further embodiment, the human eye is used for the visual detection. In another embodiment, a camera, a computer, or some other optical device is used for the visual detection or for imaging the reaction mix. Imaging programs include Photoshop (Adobe, San Jose CA), ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD), and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick MA). In another embodiment, the amplification reaction product is detected by measuring fluorescence of the reaction mix, using fluorescence spectroscopy methods. In another embodiment, the amplification reaction product is detected by measuring absorbance of the reaction mix, using absorption

spectroscopy methods. In a further embodiment, the endpoint or overall change in absorbance or fluorescence of the reaction mix is measured at a given wavelength or set of wavelengths.

COMPOSITIONS [0150] Disclosed herein are compositions and methods for accelerated and efficient colorimetric detection of nucleic acid amplification reaction products. In an embodiment, a colorimetric assay is used to visually detect the presence of an amplified nucleic acid product, which eliminates the need for expensive and sophisticated instrumentation.

[0151] In some embodiments, the colorimetric detection of amplification products is achieved by amplifying a target nucleic acid template molecule to obtain the amplification reaction product. The amplification reaction includes a reaction mix. In an embodiment, the reaction mix includes a nucleic acid template molecule, one or more enzymes for catalyzing the amplification reaction, and one or more halochromic agents for colorimetric detection. In a further embodiment, the reaction mix also includes a buffer having a buffering capacity equivalent to Tris buffer at a concentration between 1 mM-19 mM in a solution having a starting pH of 8.0. In further embodiments, the reaction mix also includes a plurality of nucleic acid primers, deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), suitable salts for the enzyme, and other non-buffered chemicals that enable nucleic acid amplification.

[0152] During the amplification reaction, one proton is released for each dNTP that is incorporated into a nucleic acid template molecule. Thus, the pH of the reaction mix decreases throughout the amplification reaction. In an embodiment, if the target nucleic acid is present, the amplification reaction changes the starting pH of the reaction mix to cause a detectable colorimetric change of the halochromic agent, thereby indicating the presence of the target nucleic acid, and if the target nucleic acid is not present, the amplification reaction does not generate a sufficient number of protons to change the starting pH of the reaction mix sufficient to cause a detectable colorimetric change of the halochromic agent, thereby indicating that the amplification reaction product has not been produced. In an embodiment, the halochromic agent (or pH indicator) in the reaction mix has a transition pH range for a colorimetric change of the halochromic agent that is narrower than an expected pH change between (1) a starting pH of the reaction mix before the amplification reaction is performed, and (2) an ending pH of the reaction mix after the amplification reaction has been performed.

[0153] In an embodiment, the halochromic agent is a colorimetric agent or a fluorescent agent. Suitable halochromic agents include phenol red, bromocresol purple, bromothymol blue, neutral red, naphtholphthalein, cresol red, cresolphthalein, phenolphthalein, methyl red, and thymolphthalein, among others. A wide range of concentrations of these halochromic agents can be used in the reaction mix. Different halochromic agents have different transition pH ranges. In some embodiments, the halochromic agent has a transition pH range between pH 5-10, between pH 6-9, or between pH 6.5-8.8. In another embodiment, the halochromic agent is at a concentration between 25-100 μΜ in the reaction mix. In another embodiment, the halochromic agent is at a concentration between 50-260 μΜ. In some embodiments, a combination of two or more halochromic agents is used in the reaction mix, which increases the normalized color contrast change of the reaction mix by being of complementary colors at the beginning and similar colors at the end of the amplification reaction. In a further embodiment, the combination of halochromic agents comprises phenol red and bromothymol blue. In a further embodiment, the combination of halochromic agents comprises cresol red and bromothymol blue.

[0154] In one example, Phenol red is a halochromic agent that has a transition pH range from around 6.4-8.0. At the upper limit of the transition pH range, phenol red is red, and at the lower limit of the transition pH range, phenol red is yellow. A reaction mix containing phenol red will change color from red to yellow throughout the amplification reaction, as long as the starting pH of the reaction mix is around or above 8.0, and the ending pH of the reaction mix is within the transition pH range or around or below 6.4.

[0155] In some embodiments, the starting pH of the reaction mix is set by adding an acid or a base to the reaction mix until the desired starting pH is reached. The ending pH of the reaction mix is determined by performing a sample amplification reaction and measuring the ending pH (for example, with a micro-pH electrode). In an embodiment, the halochromic agent for an amplification reaction is selected so that the transition pH range lies in between the starting pH and ending pH. In a further embodiment, the halochromic agent is selected so that the transition pH range is nearer to the starting pH than the ending pH. The halochromic agent can also be selected based on the particular enzyme used for catalyzing the

amplification reaction. Near the ending pH, the enzyme in the reaction mix terminates polymerization of the amplification reaction as the pH decreases to unfavorable H+ concentrations. In an embodiment, additional hydronium ions or hydronium ion equivalents are added to the reaction mix via the sample. For example, between 4.8 x 10 "9 and 4.8 x 10 "18 additional hydronium ion equivalents per 10 μΐ reaction mix can be tolerated for the amplification reaction to proceed. In a further embodiment, between 4.8 x 10 "10 and 4.8 x 10 " 18 , 4.8 x 10 "12 and 4.8 x 10 "18 , or 4.8 x 10 "15 and 4.8 x 10 "18 can be tolerated.

[0156] Generally, the enzyme will catalyze amplification reactions within a pH range that encompasses or is close to the transition pH range of the selected halochromic agent. Various enzymes can be used for the reaction, and different enzymes catalyze amplification reactions at different pH ranges. For example, Bst polymerase is believed to catalyze amplification reactions within the pH range of 6.6-9.0. The preferred starting pH for Bst polymerase is greater than 7, more preferably greater than 8.2, and more preferably at 8.8. Other examples of a preferred starting pH for Bst polymerase are found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,830,714, filed April 17, 1996, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. In an embodiment, phenol red is coupled with Bst polymerase in a reaction mix, since the pH range at which Bst polymerase is active (6.6-9.0) encompasses the transition pH range of phenol red (6.4-8.0). In another embodiment, methyl red is coupled with U exo-Klenow fragment (polymerase for Helicase Dependent Amplification, HDA) in a reaction mix, since a starting pH at which U exo- Klenow fragment is active (around 7.5) is higher than the transition pH range of methyl red (4.8-6.2).

[0157] Other than Bst or Bst 2.0 polymerase, other enzymes capable of being used for catalyzing the amplification reaction include the polymerase from Thermus aquaticus (TAQ), DNA polymerases I-IV, Kapa Polymerase, RNA polymerases I-V, T7 RNA Polymerase, a reverse transcriptase, any DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase, a helicase, a recombinase, a ligase, a restriction endonuclease, and a single-strand binding protein. In some embodiments, an isothermal amplification reaction uses an enzyme that is a strand displacement

polymerase, such as phi29-DNA-Polymerase, Klenow DNA-Polymerase, Vent DNA

Polymerase, Deep Vent DNA Polymerase, Bst DNA Polymerase, 9oNm(TM) DNA

Polymerase, U exo-Klenow fragment, or mutants and variants thereof. In some embodiments, suitable salts for the enzyme are also added to the reaction mix. In certain embodiments, the starting pH of the reaction mix is set based on an optimal pH for the specific enzyme used for catalyzing the amplification reaction. In an embodiment, the pH of the entire DNA sample is between pH 3 and pH 11.

[0158] In other embodiments, a fluorescent halochromic agent is used to detect protons released during amplification. The halochromic agent can change optical properties (such as amplitude and emitted wavelength) as the pH of the reaction mix changes during the amplification reaction. Fluorescent halochromic agents include fluorescein, pyranine, and pHrodo dye (Life Technologies, Carlsbad CA).

[0159] The base and/or acid added to the reaction mix maintains the starting pH of the reaction mix around or above an upper limit of the transition pH range of the halochromic agent. For example, an acid such as hydrochloric acid (HQ) or sulfuric acid (H2S04), or a base such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH), can be added to the reaction mix. In some embodiments, the acid or base sets the starting pH of the reaction mix between pH 6-10, between pH 7-8, or between pH 8-8.6. In an embodiment, the reaction mix is capable of offsetting the starting pH of the reaction mix by less than 0.1 pH units. In another embodiment, the reaction mix has a starting pH lower than 2 pH units above the upper limit of the transition pH range of the halochromic agent. In further embodiments, the reaction mix has a starting pH lower than 1 pH unit, 0.5 pH units, or 0.1 pH units above the upper limit of the transition pH range of the halochromic agent. In a further embodiment, noise from non-specific amplification is minimized by setting the pH transition range sufficiently separated from the starting pH of the reaction mix, so that any color change is only achieved by a specific and sustained amplification.

[0160] In an embodiment, the reaction mix does not require any additional buffering agent for the amplification reaction, since a buffering agent could prevent large changes in pH from occurring during the amplification reaction. In another embodiment, the reaction mix contains a minimal amount of buffering agent, such that the buffering capacity of the reaction mixture is less than the expected change in pH during amplification. In some embodiments, the buffer is at a concentration between 1 mM and 3 mM. In a further embodiment, the buffer is at a concentration of 1 mM. In certain embodiments, the buffer used is Tris buffer (formulated to pH 8.8), HEPES (pH 7-9), or TAPS (pH 7-9). In another embodiment, the buffer used is a buffer having a buffering capacity equivalent to a Tris buffer at a concentration between 1 mM-19 mM in a solution having a starting pH of 8.0. This broad range of suitable buffer concentrations allows the reaction mix to resist unwanted starting pH changes during reaction setup, unlike reaction setups with minimal (<lmM) Tris buffer equivalents (see US 13/799,995, filed March 13, 2013). These unwanted changes in pH come about due to hydronium or hydroxide ion equivalents added to the reaction via the sample reagents. As colorimetric detection and enzyme kinetics depend on the starting pH, the presence of buffer capacity in the reaction mix high enough to avoid starting pH change, but low enough to allow color change upon amplification, become important. In a further embodiment, the pH of the reaction mix is between pH 7.5-8.8. Table 1 shows various buffers having buffering capacities equivalent to a Tris buffer at a concentration between 1 mM-19 mM in a solution having a starting pH of 8.0. The buffer capacity (β) is defined as the equivalents of acid or base needed to change the pH of 1 Liter of buffer by 1 pH unit. This can be calculated as: β = 2.3* C * (Ka*[H30+]/(Ka + [H30+])2); where C is the buffer concentration, Ka is the dissociation constant for the buffer and [H30+] is the hydronium ion concentration of the buffer (which is calculated from the reaction starting pH). The buffer capacity of 1 mM - 19 mM Tris (in a solution having a starting pH of 8.0) was found to range from 0.000575 to 0.010873. The starting pH of the buffer was considered to be in the range of 7.5 - 8.8 to be compatible with the reaction biochemistry (polymerase function, nucleic acid melting, etc.). In other embodiments, the buffer has a buffering capacity equivalent to a Tris buffer at a concentration between 1.5 mM - 19 mM, 2 mM - 19 mM, 3 mM - 19 mM, 4 mM - 19 mM, 5 mM - 19 mM, 6 mM - 19 mM, 7 mM - 19 mM, or otherwise, in a solution having a starting pH of 8.0. In other embodiments, the buffer has a buffering capacity equivalent to a Tris buffer at a concentration between 1.92 mM - 36.29 mM, 3 mM - 36.29 mM, 4 mM - 36.29 mM, 5 mM - 36.29 mM, or otherwise, in a solution having a starting pH of 8.8. In other embodiments, the buffer has a buffering capacity equivalent to a Tris buffer at a concentration between 1.48 mM - 27.92 mM, 2 mM - 27.92 mM, 3 mM - 27.92 mM, 4 mM - 27.92 mM, 5 mM - 27.92 mM, or otherwise, in a solution having a starting pH of 7.5. Table 1: Buffer Capacity Table

piperazineethanesulfonic 8.0 1.40 26.54 acid 7.5 1.00 18.92

N- 8.8 6.79 128.39 tris(hydroxymethyl)meth 8.0 1.56 29.46

TES 7.4

yl-2-aminoethanesulfonic

acid 7.5 1.01 19.16

3-(N- 8.8 10.46 197.77 moφholino) ro anesulfo 8.0 2.12 40.03

MOPS 7.2

nic

acid 7.5 1.12 21.26

1,4- 8.8 27.91 500.00 piperazinediethanesulfoni 8.0 4.86 91.88

PIPES 6.76

c acid

acid 7.5 1.92 36.29

8.8 16.28 300.00 ssc Saline Sodium Citrate 7.0 8.0 3.03 57.20

7.5 1.37 25.90

[0161] In an embodiment, a magnesium compound is added to the reaction mix, because magnesium promotes nucleotide incorporation into the template and influences the activity of the polymerase. In a further embodiment, the concentration of a magnesium compound (such as magnesium sulfate) in the reaction mix is at least 0.5 mM, at least 1 mM, at least 2 mM, or at least 4 mM. In an embodiment, the concentration of added magnesium ion is dependent on the concentration of dNTPs, nucleic acid template, and primers. In an embodiment, the ratio of dNTPs to magnesium sulphate in the reaction mix is less than 1 :2, less than 1 :3, less than 1 :4 or less than 1 :5.

[0162] In some embodiments, monovalent cations are added to the reaction mix.

Monovalent cations include potassium, ammonium, and quaternary ammonium, among others. Monovalent cations can affect the melting characteristics of the nucleic acid template and improve the efficiency of the enzyme. In an embodiment, potassium is in the reaction mix at a concentration of less than 50 mM, or less than 15 mM. In another embodiment, quaternary ammonium salts are in the reaction mix at a concentration of greater than 2mM, greater than 5mM, or greater than 8mM. In another embodiment, an ammonium compound (such as ammonium chloride) is in the reaction mix at a concentration of less than 15mM, or less than 10 mM. Ammonium (NH4+) has some buffering capability, thus the final concentration of ammonium compounds in the reaction mix should be minimized while maintaining optimal amplification yield.

[0163] In an embodiment, the concentrations of other reagents of the reaction mix are kept at amounts as generally used in amplification reactions. See Notomi T et. al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jun 15; 28(12): E63; Nature Protocols 2008, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of gene sequences and simple visual detection of products, 2008 3(5): pg 880, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. In an embodiment, the Bst or Bst 2.0 enzyme is used, and the amount of enzyme is at least 0.8 Unit per microliter of combined fluid. In this embodiment, Betaine is also present in the reaction mix at a concentration between 0-1.5 M or 0.8M-1 M, and the total concentration of primers is between 3.6μΜ and 6.2μΜ. In some embodiments, any of the following reagents is present in the reaction mix: Tris buffer (pH 8.8) at 20 mM, KC1 at 10 mM, MgS04 at 8 mM, (NH4)2S04 at 10 mM, Tween 20 at 0.1%, Betaine at 0.8 M, dNTPs at 1.4 mM each, MnC12 at 0.5 mM, FIP at 1.6 μΜ, F3 at 0.2 μΜ, B3 at 0.2 μΜ, primers at a total concentration of 5.2 μΜ

(2*(1.6+0.8+0.2), and Bst / Bst 2.0 at 8 U per Ι ΟμΙ,.

[0164] The above reagent concentrations have been found to provide good amplification yield and low buffering capacity so that a halochromic pH sensor can be used to detect protons released during the amplification reaction. In some embodiments, the concentrations of reaction mix reagents depend on the enzyme selection. In further embodiments, guidance regarding appropriate reagent concentrations is available from the enzyme manufacturers. In an embodiment, the ratio of the sample volume to the reaction mix volume is such that the sample is diluted between 5% and 40% when the reaction mix is added.

[0165] In some embodiments, amplification reaction reagents are stored separately before being added to a reaction mix, since some reagents have specific required conditions for stability. For example, the enzyme can be stored long term in a moderately buffered solution separate from the other reagents to ensure stability of the enzyme. Upon mixing with the remaining reagents in the reaction mix, the buffering agent becomes sufficiently diluted so as not to significantly mask a pH change. In addition, primers for specific genes of interest can be provided in a separate solution or in a lyophilized form.

[0166] In some embodiments, the amplification reaction is performed within a microtube. In other embodiments, the amplification reaction is performed within a fluidic or microfluidic structure. In some embodiments, the fluidic or microfluidic structure is a well, chamber, or channel that receives the reagents and the nucleic acid sample separately, and then mixes the components together. In another embodiment, the fluidic or microfluidic structure is a well, chamber, or channel that receives the pre-mixed reaction mix. In a further embodiment, the fluidic or microfluidic structure possesses a long optical path for colorimetric observation, or a fluorescent/ absorbance excitation source and detector. In another embodiment, the fluidic or microfluidic structure receives the reagents in a lyophilized form, and subsequently receives the nucleic acid sample and hydration solution. In an embodiment, a chamber fluidic or microfluidic structure has a channel depth ranging between 50 μιη-400 μιη or greater. In a further embodiment, colorimetric observation is accomplished for channel depths (path length) of 50 μπι, 50 μιη-400 μπι, or 50 μιη or greater.

[0167] Some embodiments include a kit for colorimetric detection of an amplification product. The kit can include one or more halochromic agents, one or more enzymes for catalyzing an amplification reaction, and instructions for contacting a sample with a reaction mix including the buffer and the enzyme and the halochromic agent under conditions that an amplification reaction occurs and produces an amplification reaction product if the sample contains a target nucleic acid template molecule, the reaction mix having a starting pH, and if the target nucleic acid template molecule is present, the amplification reaction changes the starting pH of the reaction mix to cause a detectable colorimetric change of the halochromic agent, thereby indicating the presence of the target nucleic acid, and if the target nucleic acid template molecule is not present, the amplification reaction does not generate a sufficient number of protons to change the starting pH of the reaction mix sufficient to cause a detectable colorimetric change of the halochromic agent, thereby indicating that the amplification reaction product has not been produced. In another embodiment, the instructions are for contacting a nucleic acid template molecule with the halochromic agent and enzyme in a reaction mix, under conditions that result in (1) an amplification reaction that amplifies the nucleic acid template molecule to produce an amplification reaction product, and (2) generation of a sufficient number of protons so that an ending pH of the reaction mix is sufficiently low to produce a detectable colorimetric change of the halochromic agent, thereby indicating that the amplification reaction product has been produced. In further embodiments, the kit also includes an acid or base, dNTPs, primers, and monovalent cations. In a further embodiment, the kit includes the following reagents at the following concentrations:

• Bst or Bst 2.0 polymerase, at least 0.8 Unit per microliter; • Betaine at 0.8 M;

• Primers at 3.6 μΜ total;

o FIP and BIP primers at 1.6 μΜ

o F3 and B3 at 0.2 μΜ

• Magnesium sulfate at 8 mM;

• Ammonium sulfate at 10 mM;

• Potassium chloride at lOmM;

• Sodium hydroxide to set the starting pH of the reaction mix;

• Tween20 at 0.1%;

• dNTP's at 1.4 mM each;

• Phenol red at 50 μΜ.

In a further embodiment, the kit includes LoopF and LoopB primers at 0.8 μΜ each.

KITS

[0168] The embodiments disclosed herein also include kits including the subject devices and which can be used according to the subject methods. The subject kits can include two or more, e.g., a plurality, three or less, four or less, five or less, ten or less, or fifteen or less, or fifteen or more, selectively vented biological assay devices or components thereof, according to any of the embodiments described herein, or any combinations thereof.

[0169] The kits can include one or more compositions and/or reagents, such as any of those described herein, e.g., optical property modifying reagents, amplification compositions, preparation solutions and/or buffers, which can be stored in the kits in containers separate from the devices. In addition, the kits can include any device or other element which can facilitate the operation of any aspect of the kits. For example, a kit can include one or more devices for preparing a sample and/or analyzing one or more characteristics of a sample, e.g., a prepared sample. Kits can also include packaging, e.g., packaging for shipping the devices without breaking.

[0170] In certain embodiments, the kits which are disclosed herein include instructions, such as instructions for using devices. The instructions for using devices are, in some aspects, recorded on a suitable recording medium. For example, the instructions can be printed on a substrate, such as paper or plastic, etc. As such, the instructions can be present in the kits as a package insert, in the labeling of the container of the kit or components thereof (i.e., associated with the packaging or subpackaging etc.). In other embodiments, the instructions are present as an electronic storage data file present on a suitable computer readable storage medium, e.g., Portable Flash drive, CD-ROM, diskette, on the cloud, etc. The instructions may be storable and/or reproducible within one or more programs, such as computer applications. The instructions can take any form, including complete instructions for how to use the devices or as a website address with which instructions posted on the world wide web can be accessed.

UTILITY

[0171] The subject devices and methods are directed to performing biological assays by effectively evaluating one or more characteristics of biological samples such as, by modifying optical properties of biological samples or aspects thereof. The devices and methods provide, for example, effective sample aliquoting protocols.

[0172] Aliquoting a sample is a procedure applied in biochemical analyses for multiple tests or downstream processing. When miniaturizing and automating biochemical protocols into microfluidic systems, once challenge is how a sample can be accurately aliqoted into multiple sites. One way to do this is to route the sample through bifurcating channels and into multiple reaction chambers. However, according to such a protocol, before reactions can take place in the chambers, the aliquots have to be isolated so that there is no cross talk between the reactions. Such isolation can be achieved using input and/or output valves positioned between each chamber. The valves, for example, allow for an aliquot to enter a chamber and simultaneously evacuate any fluid present in the chamber. Additionally, the valves seal the chamber off from any cross talk. Although using multiple valves works to some extent, such a protocol imposes requirements to actively control the opening and closing of the valves, which in return requires energy and infrastructure to implement, and thus complicating the system design. Also some valve structures work best when primed and as such, require the microfluidic system to be filled with an initial priming liquid. Such a priming step in turn complicates the system workflow. As such, according to versions of the subject methods, the methods do not include priming.

[0173] In contrast, the subject devices and methods sufficiently provide automatic fluid flow control by passive aliquoting through one or more portions of a device such that an assay can be performed. For example, one or more fluids, e.g., air and/or biological sample, can be moved and/or prevented from moving through one or more portions of a device with little or no specific user interaction. Passive sealing of the device or portions thereof eliminates the need for active control and minimizes the complexity of the full device and the user steps required to run the device. As such, the subject disclosure provides simple and easy to use assay devices.

[0174] Furthermore, the subject devices and methods do not require valves or

complicated valve control protocols. As such, the subject disclosure provides a simple and robust implementation of an on-chip aliquoting function with no moving parts. According to the subject embodiments, aliquot volumes and numbers are controlled by channel and chamber geometries.

[0175] Furthermore, the system can operate with imprecise loading mechanisms while maintaining very precise aliquot numbers and volumes. In other words, there is no need control the loading pressure, or sample volumes beyond a simple threshold. As such, the aliquoting precision is obtained by the chamber manufacturing precision.

[0176] Also, the self-sealing characteristic of the system that allows for gas and liquids to pass through until the pores of a selective venting element are sealed can be effectively applied for the prevention of evaporation. As such, for certain samples which need to be incubated at elevated temperatures for the reactions to occur, evaporation though the self- sealing pores is minimized. The subject devices and methods also minimize dead volume as compared to a mechanical valve that requires contact surface area. They also allow for the filling of multiple chambers without channel resistance matching. Furthermore, the devices and methods disclosed herein also protect from washing out any reagents or dry material in the reaction chamber during reaction loading.

[0177] In addition, the devices and methods, in some versions modify an optical property to allow detection of the modified optical property by an un-assisted human eye. As such, the content of the subject disclosure eliminates a need for complex evaluation techniques or equipment to read or interpret a signal generated by a biological assay. Because a user can recognize a modified optical property with a user's eye, performing an assay with the subject methods can reduce time and expense compared to performing such an assay using other equipment or methods. The subject devices can also be finely tuned to provide efficient energy conduction, e.g., heat or electrical energy, into a fluidic network and/or specific variations in optical properties such as adhesive color. Also, previous biological assays have also involved a high degree of complexity in analysis, e.g., have required the use of one or more computer, which in turn has provided limited reliability and usability. Accordingly, the subject methods and devices are cheaper, less complex and/or more accurate than other such devices or methods.

[0178] Furthermore, methods of assembling biological assay devices have included patterning a substrate layer, e.g., a layer of glass, silicon or polymer, and then bonding it to a non-patterned sealing layer using chemical or physical bonds. Once the fluidic device was assembled, e.g., assembled by being bonded and sealed, then is has been integrated into a housing or cassette that provides additional functionality required to utilize the fluidic system. However, many microfluidic device bonding techniques have had the potential to damage any fragile pre-loaded reagents. By employing the device conformation disclosed herein, such difficulties are avoided since the adhesive layer can be employed for

simultaneously sealing the microfluidic system and integrating into the final assembly while preserving reagent functionality, such as functionality of reagents pre-loaded into reaction chambers. As such, the subject methods and devices simplify the operation of such devices, as well as the manufacturing of such devices while improving effectiveness in generating an assay result.

EXAMPLES

[0179] Below are examples of specific embodiments for carrying out the present invention. The examples are offered for illustrative purposes only, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention in any way. Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to numbers used (e.g., amounts, temperatures, etc.), but some experimental error and deviation should, of course, be allowed for.

[0180] The practice of the present invention will employ, unless otherwise indicated, conventional methods of protein chemistry, biochemistry, recombinant DNA techniques and pharmacology, within the skill of the art. Such techniques are explained fully in the literature. See, e.g., T.E. Creighton, Proteins: Structures and Molecular Properties (W.H. Freeman and Company, 1993); A.L. Lehninger, Biochemistry (Worth Publishers, Inc., current addition); Sambrook, et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (2nd Edition, 1989); Methods In Enzymology (S. Colowick and N. Kaplan eds., Academic Press, Inc.);

Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Edition (Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Company, 1990); Carey and Sundberg Advanced Organic Chemistry 3 rd Ed. (Plenum Press) Vols A and B(l 992). Example 1: Colorimetric Detection of a Nucleic Acid Amplification Reaction

Product

[0181] In an assay for colorimetric detection of a nucleic acid amplification reaction product, the following reagents were mixed together to produce a 2X reagent mix:

• Magnesium Sulphate (Sigma Aldrich) at 16 mM

• Ammonium Sulphate (Sigma Aldrich) at 20 mM

• Potassium Chloride (Sigma Aldrich) at 20mM

• Sodium hydroxide (Sigma Aldrich) at a concentration that sets the starting pH of the reagent mix to 8.8 pH

[0182] The reagent mix was adjusted to an initial pH of 8.8 to enable efficient initial polymerization. The reagent mix was autoclaved for 1 hour for sterilization. The following ingredients were then added (in a sterile form) to the reagent mix to generate the reaction mix:

• Tween20 (Sigma Aldrich) at 0.1% (v/v)

• dNTPs (NEB) at 1.4 mM each

• Phenol Red (Sigma Aldrich) at 50 μΜ

• Bst polymerase (NEB) at 0.8 Unit per microliter (the enzyme storage buffer contributing 1 mM Tris buffer, 5 mM KC1, 0.01 mM EDTA, 0.1 mM DTT, 0.01 % Triton X-100 (v/v) and 5% Glycerol ((w/v) to the reaction mix)

• Betaine (Sigma Aldrich) at 0.8 M

[0183] Primers and a nucleic acid template were added to the reaction mix. The primers were designed for LAMP and included two pairs of primers (solubilized in IX Tris EDTA buffer) at a total concentration of 3.6 μΜ as described above. Primer F3 has the sequence: GATCTGAATCCGACCAACCG (SEQ ID NO: 1); primer B3 has the sequence:

AACGCCCACGCTCTCGCA (SEQ ID NO: 2); the primer FIP has the sequence:

AAATCCGTCCAGTGGTTTTTTTGAAAATCGTTGTATCTCCG (SEQ ID NO: 3); and the primer BIP has the sequence:

CCGAAACCACTGGACGGATTTTTATTTTTAATCTAAAACAAACATC (SEQ ID NO: 4). The nucleic acid template molecule was purified from Schistosoma mansoni. FIG. 4 shows the SMI -7 target region of the nucleic acid template molecule {see Hamburger et al, Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium DNA by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification: Identification of infected Snails from Early Prepatency, Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2010). The positive test reactions contained template DNA, and the negative control reactions contained water. The reaction mixes had a starting pH in the range of 7.5 - 8.5. The reaction mixes were heated in micro-tubes to 63 °C on a thermocycler to allow template amplification. After a predetermined reaction period of 45 minutes, during which sufficient template amplification occurred, the resultant color of the reaction mix was visually observed.

[0184] During the amplification process, the pH of the reaction mix was reduced from 7.5-8.5 to around 6.6 in a repeatable fashion. FIG. 5 is a graph showing the pH

measurements for repeated positive (test) and negative (negative control) amplification reactions. The halochromic agent used was Phenol red, which has a transition pH range of 6.8 - 8.2. Phenol red changes color over this transition pH range from red to yellow (when the pH is lowered from the upper pH limit to the lower pH limit). In the assay, the reaction mix changed color from red (at pH 8.0) to yellow (at pH 6.6) in response to the pH change during nucleic acid amplification. FIG. 6 is a graph showing the difference in contrast value using HSV (hue, saturation, value) of images of the reaction mixes of a positive and negative amplification reaction at the reaction endpoints. The color change is quantitatively demonstrated in the hue variable. To confirm that the color change was due to target DNA amplification, endpoint reactions were analyzed using gel electrophoresis to verify the presence of amplicons (FIG. 7).

[0185] Using this method, amplification of a DNA template can be easily observed, either at the reaction end-point or in real-time throughout the reaction, by visually observing the color change in the reaction mix, or by measuring the absorbance or fluorescence of the reaction mix. This mechanism generates much larger contrast in comparison to other colorimetric detection techniques and can be imaged without the need of expensive optical instrumentation.

Example 2: Detection of LAMP Amplification Using a Visual Halochromic

Agent

[0186] LAMP reactions were performed with a reaction mix comprising of: 10 mM (NH4) 2 S04, 15 mM KC1, 0.1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mM DTT, 0.01 % Triton X-100 (v/v), 5 % Glycerol, 8 mM MgSC , 1.4 mM each dNTPs, 0.1% v/v Tween-20, 0.8 M Betaine. Three primer pairs, specific to different targets, were added to a final concentration of 1.6 μΜ each for FIP/BIP, 0.2 μΜ each for F3 /B3, 0.4 μΜ each for LoopB/F. The final reaction volume is 10 [iL and was held at 63 °C for different incubation times.

[0187] In FIG. 8, the final Tris buffer concentration of the reaction mix was varied from 0.34 mM to 19 mM (by varying amount of Tris buffer formulated to pH 8.8). Reactions were performed with primers for lambda phage DNA, 5 ng of lambda DNA (New England Biolabs), 0.8 U/μΙ Bst 2.0 DNA polymerase (New England Biolabs) and 0.2 mM Neutral Red (Sigma Aldrich). The reaction tubes were then imaged and the Normalized Hue value was calculated for the color of the reaction mix. The Normalized Hue value was defined as the difference in Hue values between a positive and a no-template negative reaction. A color change, indicated by a change in the Normalized Hue value above the visualization threshold (dotted line), was observed for buffer concentrations as high as 19mM Tris. This indicates that reaction mix with buffer capacities equivalent to >lmM and <19mM Tris allow enough pH change for visual color change detection.

[0188] In FIG. 9, the tolerance of this visual detection method to excess hydronium ions added to the reaction mix was evaluated. This tolerance is important to allow the use of a wide variety of DNA samples which can add a range of hydronium or hydroxide ion equivalents to the reaction. Reactions were performed with 2mM final Tris buffer concentration, 5 ng lambda DNA target, 0.8 υ/μί Bst DNA polymerase and 0.2 mM Neutral Red halochromic agent. The change in Normalized Hue value indicates that this visual detection chemistry works with 4.8 x 10 "9 till 4.8xl0 "18 additional hydronium ion equivalent per 10 uL reaction.

[0189] In FIGS. 10A-10D, the compatibility of different pH indicators and amplification targets with visual detection of LAMP amplification was evaluated. The reactions were performed with final Tris buffer concentration in the range of 1.2 - 1.3 mM and 0.8 Bst DNA polymerase. Three different indicator were tested with 5 ng lambda DNA target: 50 μΜ Phenol Red, 260 μΜ Cresol Red and 160 μΜ Bromothymol Blue (FIG. 10A). High contrast change in the normalized hue value was observed for all indicators tested.

[0190] Concentration sweeps were also performed for these indicators Bromothymol Blue (FIG. 10B top left), Cresol Red (FIG. 10B top right), Neutral Red (FIG. 10B bottom left) and Phenol Red (FIG. 10B bottom right) with Lambda target, which demonstrated the wide range of concentrations that are compatible with the chemistry. LAMP assays using 130 ng Schistosoma mansoni gDNA with 50 μΜ Phenol Red (FIG. IOC) and Human GAPDH mRNA with 0.2 mM Neutral Red (FIG. 10D) were also tested visual detection of these targets was demonstrated at end-point.

[0191] In FIG. 11, the compatibility of different polymerases with visual detection of LAMP amplification was evaluated. The reactions were performed with 1.3 mM final Tris buffer concentration, 5 ng lambda DNA target and 0.2 mM Neutral Red. 0.8 U/μΙ of two different polymerases, Bst 2.0 and Gspm 2.0 (OptiGene), were used. High contrast color change was observed for both polymerases after 60 minutes of incubation (FIG. 11).

Table 2: Sequences Used

Example 3: Visual Detection of LAMP Amplification in Sub-Millimeter Path

Lengths [0192] LAMP reactions were performed as in Example 1 with 1.3 mM final Tris buffer concentration (buffer formulated to pH 8.8), 0.8 U/μΙ of Bst 2.0 DNA Polymerase, 5 ng lambda DNA template and 0.2 mM Neutral Red or 160 μΜ Bromothymol Blue. Both the positive and the no-template negative reactions were added after amplification to flow chambers with varying channel depths (FIG. 12A for Neutral Red and FIG. 12B for

Bromothymol Blue). These flow chambers were machined in acrylic with channel depths ranging from 50 μπι to 400 μπι. High contrast color difference (above the visual detection threshold; dotted line) between the positive and the negative reactions was observed for channel depths of 50 μπι and above. This demonstrates that this visual detection chemistry is amenable for use in reaction chambers with sub-millimeter path lengths (depths) and above. Such reaction chambers can be used to reduce the amount of reagents used and to allow multiple reactions to take place in a certain footprint (e.g. in a microfluidic cartridge).

Example 4: Detection of LAMP Amplification in Devices Having a Selective Venting Element

[0193] LAMP reactions were performed as in Example 1 with 1.6 mM final Tris buffer concentration (buffer formulated to pH 8.8), 0.8 U/μΙ of Bst 2.0 DNA Polymerase, 5 ng lambda DNA template, and Phenol Red and Bromothymol Blue at 50 μΜ and 160 μΜ concentrations respectively. The solution was loaded into a fluidic device with reaction chambers consisting of a sample receiving input and a vent outlet. The vent outlet of each reaction chambers was sealed with a selective venting element, e.g., a self-sealing element. Alternating chambers had lambda primers dried in them. The sample receiving inputs are all connected to a bus channel connected to the device inlet. The reaction chambers were heated to 63 °C for 1 hour. The color change in the chambers was measured with a camera and the data is shown in FIG. 17.

Example 5: Detection of Strand Displacement Amplification (SPA) Using a Visual Halochromic Agent

[0194] SDA reactions were performed using a reaction mix comprising of: 1.3 mM final Tris buffer concentration (buffer formulated to pH 8.8), 10 mM (NH4) 2 S04, 50 mM KC1 (adjusted to pH 8.5), 8 mM MgS0 4 , 4.4 mM each dATP, dGTP, dTTP, 0.8 mM dCTP-aS (TriLink Biotechnologies), 0.1% v/v Tween-20, 0.8 M Betaine, 0.32 U/μΙ Bst DNA polymerase (New England Biolabs), 0.2U/uL BSoBI (New England Biolabs) and 0.2 mM Neutral Red halochromic agent. Primers designed for human BRCA1 (SDAf: SEQ ID NO: 17; SDAr: SEQ ID NO: 18; BF: SEQ ID NO: 19; BR: SEQ ID NO: 20) were added to the reaction at 0.5 μΜ final concentration each. 5 ng of HeLa gDNA was added to a final reaction volume of 25 μΐ ^ and was held at 65 °C for different incubation times. A change in Normalized Hue value over time (FIG. 13) indicates that this visual detection chemistry works with SDA.

Example 6: Detection of PCR Amplification Using a Visual Halochromic

Agent

[0195] PCR reactions were performed using a reaction mix comprising of: 50 mM KC1 and 2 mM MgCk (pH adjusted 8.5), 0.5 mM each dNTP, 5U Taq DNA polymerase (New England Biolabs) and 0.2 mM Neutral Red halochromic agent. Total carry-over Tris-HCl concentration from enzyme storage buffer and primers (Forward: SEQ ID NO: 21; Reverse: SEQ ID NO: 22) was 1.15 mM in the final reaction mix. Primers were designed for

Escherichia coli 16s rRNA gene and added to the reaction at 0.5 μΜ final concentration each. 10 ng of E. coli gDNA was added to a final reaction volume of 25 μΐ ^ and was initially held at 95 °C hold for 2 min, followed by 50 cycles of 95 °C for 10 sec, 55 °C for 30 sec, 68 °C for 30 sec. A change in Normalized Hue value over time (FIG. 14) indicates that this visual detection chemistry works with PCR.

Example 7: Increase in Visual Detection Contrast with Combination of Halochromic Agents

[0196] LAMP reactions were performed as in Example 1 with 1.3 mM final Tris buffer concentration (buffer formulated to pH 8.8), 0.8 U/μΙ of Bst 2.0 DNA Polymerase and 5 ng lambda DNA template. The color change contrast was evaluated for Phenol Red at 50 μΜ concentration and combination of Phenol Red and Bromothymol Blue at 50 μΜ and 160 μΜ concentrations respectively (FIG. 15 A). The color change contrast was also evaluated for Cresol Red at 260 μΜ concentration and combination of Cresol Red and Bromothymol Blue at 260 μΜ and 160 μΜ concentrations respectively (FIG. 15B). The contrast values were calculated from the RGB values of images of the reaction mix using the formula: 0.299R + 0.587G + 0.114B. The normalized contrast change was defined as the difference between positive and negative reaction contrast values normalized to the background. The increase in the normalized contrast change with the use of the halochromic agent combination

demonstrates the utility of such combinations. Example 8: Real-time Color Monitoring of Amplification for Quantification Using Visual Halochromic Agents

[0197] LAMP reactions were performed as in Example 1 with 1.3 mM final Tris buffer concentration (buffer formulated to pH 8.8), 0.8 U/μΙ of Bst 2.0 DNA Polymerase, Phenol Red and Bromothymol Blue at 50 μΜ and 160 μΜ concentrations respectively and varying lambda DNA template concentrations. Color change contrast was evaluated for lambda DNA target at 0.5 fg/μΐ, 0.05 pg/μΐ and 0.5 pg/μΐ final concentrations. The contrast values were calculated from the RGB values of images of the reaction mix as described in Example 5. The results (FIG. 16) indicate that the higher DNA concentrations led to a detectable change in visual contrast earlier than the lower DNA concentrations. Hence, we demonstrate the ability to distinguish between different target concentrations with the real-time color monitoring of this chemistry.

[0198] While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to a preferred embodiment and various alternate embodiments, it will be understood by persons skilled in the relevant art that various changes in form and details can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

[0199] All references, issued patents and patent applications cited within the body of the instant specification are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety, for all purposes.

[0200] All publications and patent applications cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication or patent application were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. The citation of any publication is for its disclosure prior to the filing date and should not be construed as an admission that the present invention is not entitled to antedate such publication by virtue of prior invention.

[0201] Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it is readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings of this invention that certain changes and modifications can be made thereto without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims.