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Title:
SELF-RISING DOUGH-CONTAINING FOOD PRODUCT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/070217
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A self-rising dough-containing food product in which a non-yeast containing leavening system is combined with an uncooked dough in the presence of a moisture retention agent to provide a frozen food product that may be readily cooked in a microwave oven.

Inventors:
Brodie, John (440 West Woodland Avenue, Penndel, PA, 19047, US)
Shaheed, Amr (25 Paceview Drive, Howell, NJ, 07731, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2005/000497
Publication Date:
August 04, 2005
Filing Date:
January 06, 2005
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INNOPHOS, INC. (259 Prospect Plains Road, Bldg. G P.O. Box 800, Cranbury NJ, 08512-8000, US)
Brodie, John (440 West Woodland Avenue, Penndel, PA, 19047, US)
Shaheed, Amr (25 Paceview Drive, Howell, NJ, 07731, US)
International Classes:
A21D2/02; A21D2/16; A21D2/18; A21D2/24; A21D6/00; A21D8/02; A21D10/02; A21D13/00; (IPC1-7): A21D10/00
Foreign References:
US6436458B22002-08-20
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Grondahl, Eric E. (McCarter & English, LLP 185 Asylum Street, Cityplace, Hartford CT, 06103, US)
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Claims:
What Is Claimed:
1. A selfrising doughcontaining food product comprising: a) an uncooked dough containing flour; b) at least one nonyeast containing leavening agent; c) a material capable of reacting with the nonyeast containing leavening agent to generate a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide to make the dough rise to a desirable level; d) a dough conditioner present in an amount sufficient to enable the dough to reach full extensibility after mixing, wherein said mixing is performed for a short total mixing period at only low or medium speeds, and wherein said full extensibility is reached while the dough is at rest; and e) an effective amount of a moisture retention agent to retain sufficient moisture in dough during heating to provide the resulting heated product with desirable taste and chew properties.
2. The food product of claim 1 wherein said short total mixing period is up to six minutes.
3. The food product of claim 2 wherein said short total mixing period is at least about three minutes.
4. The food product of claim 1 wherein said short total mixing period includes mixing at a low speed and mixing at a medium speed.
5. The food product of claim 4 wherein said mixing is performed for up to two minutes at said medium speed and for up to two minutes at said low speed.
6. The food product of claim 5 wherein said mixing is performed at said low speed for up to two minutes and at said medium speed for up to 1 % 2 minutes.
7. The food product of claim 1 wherein the dough conditioner comprises calcium sulfate.
8. The food product of claim 1 wherein the dough conditioner comprises sodium stearoyl lactylate.
9. The food product of claim 1 wherein the dough conditioner comprises L Cystein.
10. The food product of claim 1 wherein the amount of the dough conditioner is at least about 0.60% by weight based on the weight of the flour.
11. The food product of claim 10 wherein the amount of the dough conditioner is between about 0.65% to about 1 % by weight based on the weight of the flour.
12. The food product of claim 10 wherein the amount of the dough conditioner is about 0.75% by weight based on the weight of the flour.
13. The food product of claim 1 in which the entire amount of the leavening agent is a nonyeast containing leavening agent.
14. The food product of claim 1 in which the leavening agent comprises sodium aluminum phosphate.
15. The food product of claim 1 wherein the moisture retention agent is a gum.
16. The food product of claim 15 wherein the moisture retention agent is a xanthun gum.
17. The food product of claim 1 wherein the material capable of reacting with the leavening agent is a bicarbonate.
18. The food product of claim 17 wherein the bicarbonate is a sodium bicarbonate.
19. The food product of claim 1 in the form of a frozen pizza.
20. The food product of claim 1 wherein said food product is microwavable.
21. A method of producing a selfrising doughcontaining food product comprising: a) forming an uncooked dough product from a mixture of ingredients comprising flour, a nonyeast containing leavening agent, a material capable of reacting with the leavening agent to generate a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide to make the dough product rise to a desirable level, a moisture retention agent and a dough conditioner in an amount sufficient to enable the dough to reach full extensibility after mixing, wherein said mixing is performed for a short total mixing period only at low or medium speeds, and wherein the full extensibility is reached while the dough product is at rest ; and b) freezing the uncooked dough product resulting from step (a).
22. The method of claim 21 wherein said total mixing period is up to six minutes.
23. The method of claim 22 wherein said total mixing period is at least about three minutes.
24. The method of claim 21 wherein said total mixing period includes mixing at said low speed and mixing at said medium speed.
25. The method of claim 24 wherein said mixing is performed for up to two minutes at said medium speed and for up to two minutes at said low speed.
26. The method of claim 25 wherein said mixing is performed at said low speed for up to about two minutes and at said medium speed for up to about 1 % 2 minutes.
27. The method of claim 21 wherein said dough conditioner comprises calcium sulfate.
28. The method of claim 21 wherein said dough conditioner comprises sodium stearoyl lactylate.
29. The method of claim 21 wherein said dough conditioner comprises L cysteine.
30. The method of claim 21 wherein said amount of said dough conditioner is at least about 0.60% by weight based on the weight of the flour.
31. The method of claim 30 wherein the amount of the dough conditioner is between about 0.65% to about 1 % by weight based on the weight of the flour.
32. The method of claim 30 wherein the amount of said dough conditioner is about 0.75% by weight based on the weight of the flour.
33. The method of claim 21 further comprising heating said uncooked dough product in an oven.
34. The method of claim 21 further comprising heating said uncooked dough product in a microwave oven.
35. The method of claim 21 wherein said selfrising dough containing food product is in the form of a pizza.
36. The food product of claim 1 wherein said uncooked dough is a bread dough.
37. The food product of claim 1 wherein said uncooked dough is a sweet dough.
38. The method of claim 21 wherein said selfrising dough containing food product is bread.
39. The method of claim 21 wherein said uncooked dough product is a sweet dough.
Description:
SELF-RISING DOUGH-CONTAINING FOOD PRODUCT Field of the Invention The present invention is directed to a self-rising dough-containing food product which contains at least one non-yeast containing leavening agent and is made in the absence of yeast.

The dough-containing food product is selfrising in the absence of yeast and is particularly suited for heating in a microwave oven while exhibiting excellent organoleptic properties including taste, chew, and mouth-feel. The dough-containing food product incorporates a moisture retention agent and a dough conditioner in an amount which enables the dough to reach full extensibility in short mixing times at low mixing speeds.

Background of the Invention Frozen food products which can be removed from a freezer and then immediately heated have become extremely popular food products. Such products are generally easy to prepare because they are removed from the freezer, heated, and served in a relatively short period of time without special preparations. Popular frozen food products of this type are those which can be heated in a microwave oven, particularly because microwave ovens have become readily available and are easy to use.

In order to provide a food product suitable for microwave cooking, it is known to pre-cook or pre-bake the food product and then to freeze the food product prior to packaging. For example, U. S. Patent No. 4,283, 424 discloses a frozen pizza product particularly adapted for cooking and/or reheating in a microwave oven. The frozen pizza product has a two element crust with the first crust element comprising a baked cracker- type dough material and the second crust element comprising a baked bread dough-type crust. Each of the crust elements is pre-baked prior to packaging the food product.

One of the more popular food products which are available for microwave cooking includes yeast raised doughs. Food products containing yeast raised doughs are

generally pre-baked, packaged in a frozen condition and then prepared for serving by heating in a microwave oven. Particular examples of such yeast raised dough containing food products include bakery products such as pizza. Pizza products contain yeast to provide a desirable texture. The yeast acts as a leavening agent and upon heating emits a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide to raise the dough to an acceptable level during pre- baking. The pre-baked product is then frozen and may then be microwaved or heated in an oven prior to serving.

U. S. Patent No. 4,957, 750 discloses leavened baked goods which when warmed or heated in a microwave oven retain their palatability. A protein-modifier is incorporated into the baked goods which is said to improve the texture of the product.

Pre-baking food products that are intended to be frozen and then heated in an oven or a microwave oven, is a costly step in the preparation of the food product. Pre- baking expends significant sums of processing operation time and energy which adds to the cost of the food product. It would therefore be a significant advantage in the art of making frozen food products to eliminate the pre-baking step.

While yeast is an effective leavening agent, it is known that yeast tends to limit the shelf-life of a food product, typically about two months. Frozen food products and other products may therefore have to be discarded prior to sale if the shelf-life is limited by the presence of yeast as a leavening agent. In recent years, chemical leavening agents have been incorporated into conventional frozen bakery products including frozen pizza. See Thomas A. Lehmann et al. Cereal Foods World, Vol. 25, No. 9 (September 1980) pp. 589-592; Lallemand Inc. Baking Update * 1996) ; K. Skruland Baking Management (October 1998) pp. 40-41 ; and Thomas A. Lehmann, Am. Inst. Of Baking Vol. XIX (November 1997) pp. 1-6. Such chemical leavening systems require the generation of carbon dioxide and employ, for example, sodium bicarbonate as one of the components of the

chemical leavening system along with a leavening acid such as sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate, and the like.

The dough containing the chemical leavening agent is typically prebaked and frozen soon after forming. Under these circumstances, it is not uncommon for frozen pizza products to have a shelf-life up to and perhaps exceeding six months.

Although frozen bakery products have gained increasing acceptance in the marketplace, typical formulations, are not suitable for heating in a microwave oven because the crust tends to become soggy and there is often uneven cooking. Therefore, frozen pizzas are typically baked in a conventional oven. Typical food preparation instructions for baking pizza in a conventional oven often require preheating the oven to a baking temperature of from about 350°F to 450°F, which can take anywhere from about 5 to about 15 minutes depending on the oven. Furthermore, once the frozen pizza is placed in the oven, it often takes about 15 to about 30 minutes to cook the pizza, while microwave cooking, from freezer to fully cooked can typically be accomplished in significantly less time, for example from about 3 to about 4 minutes.

U. S. Patent No. 4,487, 104 discloses an attempt to prepare a frozen dough with improved storage shelf-life which can be cooked in a microwave oven without pre-baking.

The dough may employ a chemical leavening agent having a moisture content of from about 50% to about 95%, which is sufficient to prevent handling problems without adversely affecting extensibility of the dough. A moisture retention agent such as hydrocolloid gum is also used. The reference further discloses that the dough may contain a dough conditioner, for example L-cysteine, in an amount of 0.60% by weight based on the total weight of the flour. Of particular importance to this dough is the use of wheat protein in an amount greater than 16% protein based on the total weight of the flour in which the dough is proofed before being frozen. The dough ingredients are mixed at a low speed for three

minutes and a high speed for five minutes in order to provide sufficient extensibility to the dough for freezing and eventual cooking.

A significant problem in preparing doughs of the type disclosed in U. S. Patent No.

4,847, 104 is the excessive time needed to obtain full development of the dough. Full development means that the flour protein is at full extensibility or that the maximum elasticity of the dough has been obtained and is generally regarded as a measure of the quality of gluten. The extensive development time is costly and adds significantly to the time needed to prepare a dough-containing food product suitable for microwave cooking.

It is therefore desirable to provide a frozen food product which has a commercially acceptable shelf-life and which does not have to be pre-baked. It is also desirable to provide a frozen food product which employs a chemical leavening agent and which can be heated in a microwave by the consumer. It is further desirable to provide a self-rising pizza dough which if heated in a microwave has similar organoleptic and texture properties to conventional oven baked pizza products. It is additionally desirable to provide a frozen food product which may be heated in a microwave by the consumer and which does not require pre-baking prior to packaging. It is also desirable to provide a frozen food product in which the manner the dough achieves full development is superior to conventional dough-containing food products.

Summary of the Invention The present invention is generally directed to a self-rising dough containing food product in which the dough reaches full development in shorter mixing times at lower mixing speeds than conventional doughcontaining products. The dough-containing food product of the present invention does not require pre-baking and eliminates yeast as a principal leavening agent. Such food products can be frozen and stored for extended

periods of time and can be cooked using conventional and/or microwave ovens. The resulting food products have desirable texture and organoleptic properties typically associated with pre-baked frozen food products or foodproducts that require cooking by the consumer in a conventional oven.

In a particular aspect of the present invention, there is provided a selfrising dough- containing food product comprising: a) an uncooked dough containing flour; b) at least one non-yeast containing leavening agent; c) a material capable of reacting with the non-yeast containing leavening agent to generate a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide to make the dough rise to a desirable level; d) a dough conditioner present in an amount sufficient to enable the dough to reach full extensibility after mixing, wherein said mixing is performed for a short total mixing period at only low or medium speeds, and wherein said full extensibility is reached while the dough is at rest; and e) an effective amount of a moisture retention agent to retain sufficient moisture in dough during heating to provide the resulting heated product with desirable taste and chew properties.

In a further aspect of the invention, full extensibility is achieved in relatively short mixing times.

Detailed Description of the Invention The self-rising dough containing food product of the present invention includes a conventional dough material which is not pre-cooked or pre-baked. All standard dough systems and dough materials may be employed in the present invention. Typically, by way of example, the dough will be made from wheat flour, preferably high protein flour,

non-fat milk solids (with the optional addition of soy protein concentrate), and other conventional additives. The composition ofthe dough may vary depending on the final product.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the constituents of the dough-containing food product include a target amount of dough conditioner. The presence of the dough conditioner as described herein facilitates the development of the dough during mixing so that full extensibility can be achieved in shorter mixing times at lower mixing speeds. The reduction of mixing times and speeds over conventional dough compositions and methods of forming dough-containing food products provides significant time and cost savings in the commercial preparation of such dough- containing food products without sacrificing the quality of the product.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, the dough material is provided with at least one non-yeast containing leavening agent as the principal leavening agent. The minimal use or preferably elimination of yeast enables the dough-containing. product to assume an extended shelf-life because of the tendency of yeast to degrade in a relatively short period of time. A shelf-life of up to and exceeding one year is possible by the frozen food product of the present invention. In general, the principal leavening agents employed in the present invention and preferably the only leavening agents are non-yeast containing leavening acids such as sodium aluminum phosphate produced by Rhodia Inc. under the brand name Levair. The amount of the leavening agent for use in the present invention will typically be in the range of at least 0.40% based on the weight of flour and preferably from about 0.40% to 1.20% by weight based on the weight of the flour. Other nonyeast containing leavening agents which may be used in the present invention include calcium phosphate and sodium acid pyrophosphate.

The non-yeast containing leavening agents employed in the present invention react with a compound capable of generating carbon dioxide to enable the dough to

rise to a desirable level. Desirable carbon dioxide generating compounds which react with the non-yeast containing leavening agents include sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate.

The dough-containing food product of the present invention also contains a moisture retention agent which enables the food product to maintain a moisture content sufficient to provide a soft, desirable texture to the product after heating so as to provide excellent texture and organoleptic properties. Various food grade gums may be used for this purpose including xanthan gum. A particularly preferred xanthan gum is Rhodigel Ultra commercially available from Rhodia, Inc. The moisture retention agent is preferably employed in an amount of from about 0.05% by weight to about 0.135% by weight based on the total weight of flour present in the food product.

The present invention contains a particular type of conditioner in a target amount which surprisingly has been found to provide significant advantages in the manner in which the dough is processed.

Dough conditioners typically serve to break down the bonds of the dough and thereby make it softer. Dough conditioners are also known in the art as protein modifiers which are able to break the bonds of the gluten structure contained in a wheat product.

The dough conditioner employed in the present dough-containing product should be present in an amount sufficient to enable the dough constituents to be mixed for a shorter period of time at slower mixing speeds than those employed for conventional dough- containing products. The dough of the present invention after the short mixing time at slow mixing will also reach full extensibility over a wide range of resting times. As is well known in the art, mixing initiates the development of the dough. However, dough conditioning (the extensibility of the dough) continues after mixing has stopped and the dough remains at rest. The present dough-containing product provides greater extensibility as

compared to conventional products over relatively short to long rest times.

Typically, the mixing speed employed in the present invention will be at least predominantly at a slow speed with additional mixing at moderate or medium speeds, but in the absence of the high speed mixing required in U. S. Patent No. 4,847, 104.

In the dough forming art, a slow mixing speed is designated as Speed 1, a medium mixing speed as Speed 2 and rapid or high mixing speed as Speed 3. In prior art processes, high mixing speeds are used for a predominantamountoftimeafteraninitial low mixing speed is used to initially blend the dough forming constituents. By way of example, U. S. Patent No. 4,847, 104 (Example 14) discloses an initial three minute mixing period at low mixing speed (Speed 1) and a longer mixing period (five minutes) at high mixing speeds (Speed 3).

In accordance with the present invention, the dough-containing composition is formulated to be mixed at only low/medium mixing speeds for shorter mixing periods than the prior art. Preferably, the total mixing period, including both low and optionally medium mixing, will be no more than six minutes and at least about three (3) minutes.

For example, when only low speed mixing is used, mixing will typically be performed for up to about three (3) minutes. In cases where both low and medium speed mixing are used, preferred mixing rates are up to two minutes for medium speed and up to two minutes for low speed mixing. For example, a mixing period may be mixing for two (2) minutes at a low mixing speed and mixing for 1.5 minutes at a medium mixing speed. It should be noted that the preferred mixing times above are based on a Hobart mixer, but may vary depending on the mixing equipment used.

The amount of dough conditioner is an important aspect of the invention. A preferred amount of dough conditioner in the dough-containing composition is at least about 0.6% by weight based on the weight of the flour, preferably between about 0.65% by

weight to about 1 % by weight based on the weight of the flour, and more preferably about 0.75% by weight based on the weight of the flour. Lower amounts of dough conditioner, which may include L-cysteine or salts thereof, are disclosed in U. S. Patent No.

4,847, 104. However, these lower amounts of dough conditioner can not effectively achieve the objects of the present invention.

A particular preferred dough conditioner for use in the present invention is sold under the trade name Panicrust LC-K by ADM Arkady. Panicrust LC-K contains L-cysteine hydrochloride, sodium stearoyl lactylate, and calcium sulfate.

When making a frozen pizza product it is also desirable to make the frozen product no greater than about 1/4 inch, and preferably about 1/8 inch thick in order to facilitate uniform heating of the frozen product especially in a microwave oven.

In addition, the heating of the frozen food product of the present invention in a microwave oven is best carried out by elevating the food product above the floor of the microwave oven. Susceptor disks commonly used in microwave ovens may be used for this purpose.

It should also be mentioned that although the dough-containing frozen food product of the present invention is suitable for microwave oven cooking, the frozen food product of the present invention may also be cooked using a conventional oven. It should also be understood that the dough-containing frozen food product of the present invention may also be cooked using both a conventional oven and a microwave oven. No matter which form of cooking is used the frozen food product of the present invention exhibits improved characteristics over conventional dough-containing frozen food products.

EXAMPLE 1 Preparation of Self-rising Pizza Product The ingredients listed in Table 1 were employed to form a pizza product in accordance with the present invention.

Table 1 WheatFour 100.00 Non Fat Milk Solids 2.50 Defatted Soy Protein Concentrate2.07 Dextrose 2.00 Salt 1.79 Olive Oil 2.50 Shortening, All Purpose 2.25 Baking Soda, Fine Granular 0.81 Levair (SALP) 0.81 Panicrust LC-K (Brand Name) 0.75 Rhodigel Ultra 0.09 Water 62. 50 Total 178. 07 A Hobart M-50 mixer equipped with a five quart bowl and dough hook was used to blend the dry ingredients set forth in Table I until all ofthe ingredients were well dispersed. To commence dough development, shortening (partly containing olive oil), oil and water were added to the vessel while mixing at low speed for two minutes. The ingredients were then mixed in the same vessel at a medium speed for one and a half minutes to produce a dough product.

EXAMPLE 2 Formation of Microwavable Pizza Product The dough produced in accordance with Example 1 was formed into 150 g round samples which is typically sufficient to form a 1/4 inch thick pizza product having a diameter of 6 to 7 inches. The samples were allowed to remain at rest for 10 to 15 minutes. A roller was used to roll out the samples to a 7 inch diameter. The product was frozen and each frozen product was provided with 25 g of tomato sauce and 25 to 50 g of cheese. The entire product was frozen until all of the ingredients including the toppings were frozen and the frozen product was packaged and kept in the freezer.

EXAMPLE 3 Cooking Of Frozen Pizza Product The frozen pizza product produced in Example 2 was placed on a susceptor disk and placed on a box in a microwave oven. The pizza product was cooked for 3 % 2 to 4 minutes on full power and thereafter removed from the oven. The pizza product had desirable organoleptic properties including taste, chew and mouth-feel.

Alternatively, the frozen pizza product can be placed in a conventional oven with or without preheating to a temperature of about 450°F until the baking operation is complete.

EXAMPLE 4 Measurement of Extensibility of Doughs of the Present Invention Compared to a Control over a Range of Rest Times The dry ingredients identified in Example 1 were blended as a dry mix. Thereafter, water, shortening and olive oil were added and the resulting mixture was mixed for two minutes at low speed and for 11/2 minutes at medium speed.

The resulting dough was divided into 100 gram round samples and thereafter placed at rest for fifteen minutes and identified as Sample 1. Additional samples (Samples 2 and 3 and a control sample) were prepared in the same manner except that Sample 2 was formed from 0.50% of the Panicrust LC-K dough conditioner and Sample 3 from 0.25% of the same dough conditioner. The control sample contained no dough conditioner. Each of the samples was measured by a Kieffer Dough and Extensibility apparatus using a 5 kg load cell with the following settings: Measure force in Tension Return to start, 2.0 mm/s pre-test speed, 3.3 mm/s test speed, lO. Omm/s post-test speed, 75 mm distance, auto 5-kg trigger force 200 pps data acquisition rate.

The results are shown in table 2: Table 2 0 MIN Rest 5 MIN Rest 10 MIN Rest 15 MIN Rest 0.75% Dough Conditioner 24 mm* 32 mm 34 mm 37 mm 0.50% Dough Conditioner 24 mm 26 mm 28 mm 29 mm 0.25% Dough Conditioner 22 mm 23 mm 28 mm 29 mm Control 24 mm 22 mm 24 mm 26 mm

* Extensibility measured in mm.

As shown in Table 2, the samples of the present dough containing composition exhibited greater extensibility over the entire range of rest periods than the control.