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Title:
SENSOR CHIP AND APPARATUS FOR TACTILE AND/OR FLOW
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/001422
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
A sensor chip 10, comprising a flexible, polymer-based substrate 12, 72, and at least one microfabricated sensor 16, 18, 20, 22, 74, 76, 78, 80 disposed on the substrate and including a conductive element 24, 26, 34. The at least one sensor comprises at least one of a tactile sensor and a flow sensor. Other embodiments of the present invention include sensors and/or multi-modal sensor nodes 14, 70.

Inventors:
LIU CHANG
CHEN JACK
ENGEL JONATHAN
Application Number:
US2004/017844
Publication Date:
January 06, 2005
Filing Date:
June 04, 2004
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS (506 South Wright Street, 352 Henry Administration Building Urbana, IL, 61801, US)
International Classes:
G01F1/28; G01F1/684; G01K7/01; G01K7/18; G01L5/22; G01L19/00; G01P5/12; G01N3/06; (IPC1-7): G01N/
Foreign References:
US5872320A1999-02-16
US5037515A1991-08-06
US6151771A2000-11-28
US6304840B12001-10-16
Other References:
See also references of EP 1634052A2
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FALLON, Steven, P. (Greer, Burns & Crain Ltd., 300 S. Wacker Drive - Suite 250, Chicago IL, 60606, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:

CLAIMS : 1. A sensor chip 10 comprising: a flexible, polymer-based substrate 12,72 ; at least one microfabricated sensor 16,18, 20,22, 74,76, 78,80 disposed on said substrate and including a conductive element 24,26, 34, said at least one sensor comprising at least one of a tactile sensor and a flow sensor.
2. The sensor chip of claim 1 wherein said at least one sensor comprises a tactile sensor, wherein the conductive element comprises a metal-based resistance temperature device (RTD) 34.
3. The sensor chip of claim 2 wherein the tactile sensor comprises at least one of a contact force sensor 20, a measured hardness sensor, a temperature sensor 16, a reference hardness sensor 22, and a thermal conductivity sensor 18.
4. The sensor chip of claim 1 wherein said at least one sensor comprises a flow sensor, wherein the flow sensor comprises at least one of a haircell sensor 74, an anemometer 75, a pressure sensor 78, and a shear stress sensor 80.

5. The sensor chip of claim 1 wherein said at least one sensor is part of a multi-modal sensor node 14,70, and wherein a plurality of said multi-modal sensor nodes is distributed along said substrate.
6. The sensor chip of claim 1 wherein said substrate further comprises a plurality of strain gauges 32 positioned at or near defined flex points along said substrate.
7. The sensor chip of claim 6 wherein the flex points are defined by channels 30 formed in said substrate.
8. The sensor chip of claim 1 further comprising: a processor 130,144 coupled to said at least one sensor for processing signals from said at least one sensor.
9. The sensor chip of claim 8 wherein said processor is silicon based, and is embedded on a back surface of said substrate.
10. The sensor chip of claim 8 wherein said processor comprises a silicon die 144 having a thickness equal to or lower than 50 pm, wherein said silicon die is flexible.

11. The sensor chip of claim 10 wherein said silicon die is embedded on a front side of said substrate.
12. A microfabricated temperature sensor 16 comprising: a polymer-based substrate 12; a resistance temperature device (RTD) 34 disposed on said substrate, said RTD comprising a thin-film metal.
13. A microfabricated hardness sensor 40 comprising: a first contact area 46 disposed on a flexible membrane; a strain gauge 42 for measuring a response of the first contact area to an applied force from a contact object 43; a second contact area 46 disposed on a substrate 12, wherein said second contact point is less flexible than said first contact area on the flexible membrane; another strain gauge 42 for measuring a response of the second contact area to the applied force from the contact object.
14. The microfabricated hardness sensor of claim 13 wherein the flexible membrane and the substrate on which the second contact area is disposed are polymer-based, and wherein the flexible membrane is formed by removing material from the polymer-based substrate.

15. A microfabricated contact force sensor 20 comprising: a polymer-based flexible membrane 45; a strain gauge 42 comprising a conductive material for measuring a response of the flexible membrane to an applied force from a contact object 43.
16. A microfabricated thermal conductivity sensor 18 comprising: a raised contact surface 48 disposed on a polymer-based substrate 12; a heater 24 of a conductive material disposed on said raised contact surface; a temperature sensor 26 disposed on said raised contact surface and separated from said heater.
17. A microfabricated artificial haircell 92 comprising: a cilium 94 raised from a substrate 92, the cilium being capable of deflection with respect to said substrate; a strain gauge 96 disposed on said cilium, which stretches or compresses in response to an external force acting on said cilium.

18. The haircell of claim 17 wherein said strain gauge is disposed on a base of said cilium, which is rigidly connected to said substrate via a support 95.
19. The haircell of claim 17 wherein said substrate is a polymer-based substrate.
20. The haircell of claim 17 wherein said cilium comprises polyimide.
21. The haircell of claim 17 wherein said cilium is coupled to said substrate via a conductive hinge.
22. The haircell of claim 21 wherein said conductive hinge is electroplated.
23. The haircell of claim 17 wherein said cilium is plated with permalloy.
24. A method of fabricating an artificial haircell comprising: microfabricating a cilium, a strain gauge connected to the cilium, and a ductile hinge on a substrate by surface micromachining;

raising the cilium and the strain gauge with respect to the substrate by application of a magnetic field, wherein the hinge is bent.

25. The method of claim 24 further comprising: electroplating the hinge.
26. The method of claim 24 further comprising: forming a layer of permalloy on the cilium before said raising.
27. The method of claim 24 wherein said microfabricating comprises: forming a sacrificial layer on the substrate; forming the cilium on the sacrificial layer ; forming the strain gauge on the cilium ; forming the hinge on the cilium and on at least one of the substrate and a support rigidly connected to the substrate; removing the sacrificial layer.
28. A microfabricated pressure sensor 78 comprising: a raised diaphragm 122 disposed on a substrate 72, said diaphragm being configured to bend in response to an applied pressure difference;

a strain gauge 120 of a conductive material coupled to a surface of the raised diaphragm and to at least one of the substrate and a piece rigidly connected to the substrate.

29. A microfabricated shear stress sensor 80 comprising: a raised membrane disposed on a substrate; a heated hot-wire element 126 disposed on a surface of the membrane for sensing fluid stress.
30. A microfabricated pressure and shear stress sensor comprising: a membrane diaphragm; at least one thin-film conductive lead disposed on said membrane diaphragm, said conductive lead comprising a piezoresistor.
Description:

SENSOR CHIP AND APPARATUS FOR TACTILE AND/OR FLOW SENSING TECHNICAL FIELD The invention concerns sensors. The invention relates generally to the field of microscale sensors.

BACKGROUND ART Humans and other animals are able to perceive and process environmental conditions using various sensory attributes. For example, animal skin and hair act to provide tactile and flow sensing for perception in land and/or water environments. Man-made devices rely on sensors constructed on many different physical principles, for example heat and resistance, to obtain similar information. Animal sensory systems have attributes that are more elegant and efficient than known sensors.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION Embodiments of the present invention provide a sensor chip comprising a flexible, polymer-based substrate and at least one microfabricated sensor disposed on the substrate and including a

conductive element. The at least one sensor comprises at least one of a tactile sensor and a flow sensor. Other embodiments of the present invention are directed to particular sensors and/or multi-modal sensor nodes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows an exemplary tactile sensor node incorporated into a sensor chip, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 2 shows a flexed sensor chip, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention; FIGs. 3A and 3B show a cross section of a hardness sensor, and the hardness sensor in contact with an object, respectively, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 4 shows a differential response between the membrane hardness sensor and a reference sensor versus object hardness, with a linear fit line ; FIG. 5 shows a preferred embodiment of a thermal conductivity sensor, according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 6 shows a relationship between thermal conductivity and a time constant, in which step power input to a gold heater of a thermal conductivity sensor generates a signal at a nickel temperature

sensor, with a time constant that varies with contact object thermal conductivity; FIG. 7 shows a response of a skin mapping sensor to skin curvature, according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIGs. 8A-8E show an exemplary process for manufacturing a sensor chip having sensors, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 9 shows a membrane hardness sensor with a nichrome string gauge, and a reference bulk sensor, respectively ; FIG. 10 shows an exemplary flow sensory node, according to another embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 11 shows a silicon based artificial haircell, according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 12 shows a preferred artificial haircell (AHC), according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention; FIGs. 13A and 13B show steps in a preferred process for manufacturing the AHC of FIG. 12, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 14 illustrates a post release Ni plating set up, in which an external magnetic field is used to raise the AHC of FIG. 12, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention; FIGs. 15A and 15B show a plastically deformed Au hinge without and with electroplating, respectively;

FIG. 16 shows an array of AHCs, having different heights and widths; FIG. 17 shows resistance change versus deflection for an 850 m long and 200 um wide cilium ; FIG. 18 shows airflow response of AHCs inside a wind tunnel, having various cilium widths and lengths ; FIG. 19 shows a multidimensional array of AHCs ; FIG. 20 shows a three-dimensional array of hot wire anemometers, according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 21 shows a polymer membrane diaphragm supporting metal leads for a pressure sensor and a shear stress sensor, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 22 shows an exemplary cluster of sensor nodes disposed about a data processor; FIGs. 23A-23C show methods for placing a data processor on a polymer substrate; FIG. 24 shows a flexible silicon chip; and FIG. 25 shows steps in an exemplary process for forming an elastomer skin with embedded silicon islands.

BEST MODE OF CARRYNG OUT THE INVENTION For machines such as robotics to replace or serve as extensions of humans in dangerous, delicate, or remote applications,

such machines should have sensory input at least comparable to human senses. One of the most important senses for performing varied complex and precise tasks autonomously or remotely is the sense of touch.

Human beings, for example, employ a flexible, robust sensory skin with a distributed architecture to achieve accurate object identification and dexterous manipulation. Tactile feedback from human skin provides a multitude of information, including force, temperature, hardness, texture, and thermal conductivity. However, conventionally, machines have not had the sensing capability to provide an equivalent sense of"touch".

Providing artificial tactile and/or flow sensors that provide rich sensor data incurs significant challenges. For example, an optimal artificial sensor would provide multiple sensing modalities, mechanical flexibility and robustness, efficient signal processing, and high density of integration with signal readout and electronics. Further, it would be preferred that such an artificial sensor would be capable of being manufactured with high efficiency and relatively low cost.

Artificial sensors have been created to provide force imaging and measurement. Such sensors have included silicon-based sensors, using piezoresistive or capacitive sensing, and polymer-based approaches that use piezoelectric polymer films for sensing. Others have combined some of the strengths of silicon with polymer-based

devices, such as by embedding silicon sensing elements in polymer skins, or by covering silicon-based devices in a protective polymer layer. Other devices have been used to measure contact force and object thermal properties.

A fundamental difficulty faced in creating artificial sensors such as"sensing skins"is that the sensors in operation would directly contact a variety of objects and contaminants under any number of loading conditions. As a result, devices that incorporate brittle sensing elements such as silicon-based diaphragms or piezoresistors, even embedded in protective polymers, typically cannot be used as an interface"skin"between a robotic manipulator and the manipulated object. Devices made with pressure-sensitive rubbers that can withstand contact have been provided, but they require serial manual assembly and provide limited independent sensing modes.

According to preferred embodiments of the present invention, an artificial sensor chip (or a large-area patch) is provided on a polymer-based substrate, forming a skin. Preferably, the sensor chip is flexible, providing a sensory skin that can be, for example, mounted on curved or other non-flat surfaces easily and can withstand mechanical flexure and movement.

The sensor chip incorporates one or more metal film sensors. This provides many functional advantages and uses. The sensors preferably are distributed in an array, such as a two-

dimensional array, having high spatial density and integrated signal processing capabilities. The sensor chip and sensor components thereon preferably are sufficiently robust to survive mechanical contact with an external harsh environment.

Unlike sensors in an integrated circuit chip that are packaged in enclosed environments, individual sensors according to a preferred sensor chip are exposed. Also, it is preferred that a frontal surface of the sensor chip be relatively smooth and free from mechanical protrusions, etch holes, exposed wiring, or other flaws and design compromises that would allow environmental contamination or accelerated wear and failure of the device.

In a preferred sensor chip, the distributed sensors are connected using signal processing circuitry that is distributed spatially and can accommodate multiple streams of analog sensor output with minimal footprint and power. Local, distributed signal amplification and analog-digital conversion are preferred to preserve signal-to-noise ratio (before a signal is broadcasted through wire leads). Local signal processing avoids the routing bottleneck associated with long wire leads.

The density of integration of the sensors on a preferred sensor chip may reach as high as, for example, 1-10/mm2. The maximum density on a preferred chip may be determined not only by sensor sizes but also by the footprint of signal processing circuits.

Also, in preferred methods of manufacturing the sensor chip, the cost of manufacture should be as low as possible to allow widespread use, especially if large continuous sensor chip surfaces are required. Manufacturing processes are preferably integrated and efficient. Particularly, monolithic integration is preferred because costs can be reduced through batch fabrication. It is also preferred that the efforts for calibrating three-dimensional sensor positions should be minimized to streamline their use.

Preferred sensor chips include multi-modal sensor nodes that are for tactile sensing and/or for flow sensing. For example, a multi-modal tactile sensing node may be provided.

A preferred multi-modal tactile sensor node can successfully incorporate multiple sensor modalities for evaluating one or more of contact forces, and the relative hardness, thermal conductivity, and/or temperature of a contacted object.

Traditional microfabricated tactile sensors suffer from a number of significant disadvantages. For example, they are typically based on silicon, which is usually a rigid and fragile material from a mechanical point of view. Exposing the sensors presents problems if silicon is used, because silicon is easy to fracture upon mechanical impact and over-loading. For example, many silicon micromachined tactile sensors do not stand force loading well.

The individual sensors of each multi-modal sensory node are fabricated on the polymer-based substrate using surface micromachining. Thin-film metal elements are used, for example, as piezoresistors, heaters, and temperature sensors. Preferred methods for manufacturing the individual sensors involve a relatively low temperature and do not involve bulk micromachining. In this way, all of the sensors can be formed on the polymer-based substrate.

Also, traditional silicon sensors only sense surface roughness features and contact forces. By contrast, a preferred tactile sensing node may contain one or more of surface roughness, contact force measurement, thermal conductivity, hardness, temperature, and/or proximity sensors. Such additional modalities preferably allow a preferred tactile sensor node to characterize an object in a more comprehensive fashion.

Another exemplary multi-modal sensor node that may be formed on a surface of the sensor chip is a flow sensor node. A preferred multi-modal flow sensor node can characterize a boundary- layer flow field in a comprehensive fashion, with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such exemplary multi-modal flow sensor nodes may be used, for example, in real-time monitoring of a flow field in underwater vehicles and structures, and in characterizing flow fields around models in experimental wind or water tunnels.

Traditional flow sensors are based on hot-wire anemometry for measuring flow speed, or diaphragms for measuring pressure distribution. Such different sensors typically have been based on specific structures that are significantly incompatible with fabrication processes and materials. Accordingly, it has been impossible to measure several flow parameters locally and with a distributed array.

By contrast, a preferred multi-modal flow sensor node includes one or more of various flow sensors, including, for example, surface micromachined artificial haircell sensors (for flow rate), surface micromachined hot-wire anemometers (for flow speed distribution, preferably along three axes), and surface micromachined diaphragms, preferably manufactured from Parylene, for pressure sensors and shear stress sensors (for vortex and drag detection).

A preferred sensor chip substrate is manufactured primarily from polymer-based materials, as opposed to silicon. Because silicon is a relatively fragile material for sensors, sensor chips made out of polymer material offer desirable mechanical flexibility and robustness compared with silicon counterparts. However, most existing polymer materials such as silicone elastomer, polyimide, and plastics cannot host signal processing electronics like silicon substrates do.

Hence, a preferred sensor chip integrates flexible polymer devices with discrete silicon chips for signal processing. The silicon chips (islands) are selected and designed so as not to significantly

impede the overall mechanical flexibility and surface integrity of the sensor chip, and so that they can be integrated in efficient manufacturing processes without significantly compromising cost.

Exemplary applications of a preferred sensor chip include, but are not limited to, smart tactile skins for sensor-rich surgical tools, robotics manipulators, computer periphery input devices, and smart toys having sensor input. Preferred sensor chips having flow sensors may be useful for, e. g. , smart flow sensing skins for underwater robots (e. g., for exploration or mine detection), underwater vehicles and infrastructures (e. g., oil drilling stations in deep sea), and scientific exploration and measurement (e. g. , wind tunnels). Preferred embodiments of the sensory chip have the potential to make a significant impact on a broad range of applications for industry, exploration, military, and security, as nonlimiting examples.

Referring now to FIG. 1, an exemplary sensor chip 10 is shown, embodied in a flexible polymer-based substrate 12 forming a skin, and including a plurality of multi-modal sensor nodes 14, shown as multi-modal tactile sensor nodes. As shown in FIG. 1, the multi-modal sensor nodes 14 are repeated over an n x n array (as shown, 3 x 3) to form the sensor chip 10. A preferred multimodal tactile sensor nodes, for example, includes multiple sensor modalities (hardness, thermal conductivity, temperature, contact force, surface roughness). These nodes 14 in an exemplary embodiment are repeated with a spatial

frequency of approximately 1 per 1 cm2, though this repetition or particular distribution is not necessary. For example, individual nodes may have the same number or a significantly different number and/or type of sensors. Also, the spatial frequency of the nodes can vary, and may be greater or fewer than 1 per 1 cm2.

The multi-modal sensor node 14, a tactile sensor node, includes a temperature sensor 16, a thermal conductivity (thermal flux) sensor 18, and a contact force and measured hardness sensor 20. The multi-modal sensor node 14 also includes a reference hardness sensor 22 for use with the contact force and measured hardness sensor 20.

Sensors may also be implemented for such tasks as object identification and impending slippage detection. In the preferred tactile sensor node 14, a reference nickel resistance temperature device (RTD) of the temperature sensor 16 provides temperature measurement and compensation, a gold heater 24 and nickel RTD 26 pair provides thermal conductivity measurement for the thermal conductivity sensor 18, and the membrane NiCr (nichrome) strain-gauge based contact force and hardness sensor 20 with the reference contact hardness sensor 22 measures hardness.

The substrate 12 is preferably made of a polymer-based mateial. In an exemplary sensor chip 10, the substrate is a 2 mm thick Kapton HN200 polyimide film, manufactured by E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Co. The polymer substrate allows flexibility, robustness,

and low material cost. Flex channels 30 are provided in the substrate along two dimensions by forming indentations in the substrate 12. The flex channels 30 provide enhanced and controlled flexibility to the substrate 12.

In addition, the contour of the substrate 12 is sensed in an integrated fashion using mapping sensors 32 embodied in microscale strain gauges, also preferably made of NiCr, and dispersed between the sensory nodes 14 (as shown in FIG. 1, the tactile sensor node). The mapping sensors 32 are dispersed between the sensory nodes 14 to sense bending of the substrate. In this way, the contour of a bent skin is sensed in an integrated fashion using the mapping sensors 32. For example, when the sensor chip 10 is mounted on a curved or compliant surface (e. g. , a robotic finger tip), as shown by example in FIG. 2, the spatial relation of the multi-modal sensor nodes 14 is mapped to coordinate manipulation in three-dimensional space.

Individual sensing elements will now be described in more detail. As shown in FIG. 1, a preferred temperature sensor 16, for example, includes a nickel resistance temperature device (RTD) 34 that is used to measure the temperature of the operating environment as well as contact objects. This information is important for temperature compensation of the measurements of the other sensors as well as providing contact object information. The temperature sensor 16 and

other sensor components are connected to other parts of the sensor chip, such as a processor, by leads 36.

Because all the sensors 16,18, 20,22 incorporated on the exemplary tactile sensing node are based on thin film metal resistors, all of them will function as RTDs to one extent or another based on the TCR (thermal coefficient of resistance) of the base material. This value is low for NiCr, making it a good choice for rejecting thermal disturbances, but is high for nickel and gold. Gold is not used for a preferred RTD due to its low resistivity. By using nickel, a high TCR is provided with the added benefit of increased resistivity to decrease the effect of parasitic resistances. The TCR of each sensor is characterized to allow temperature compensation by calibrating the reference nickel RTD, for example, by heating the sensor chip 10 and observing the changes in resistance with temperature, then calculating the base metal TCR.

Hardness of a contact object is an important parameter for object idenfication and manipulation. This measurement modality is lacking in most conventional tactile sensors. Existing micromachined hardness sensors require that the applied force be known, use a known calibrated integral actuator force, or use changing resonant frequency under ultrasonic vibration. The required assumptions, complexity, and size limitations of such approaches do not lend themselves to a distributed multi-modal sensor chip. By contrast, a preferred hardness

sensor 40 shown in FIGs. 3A-3B is a passive hardness sensor that does not rely on actuation or knowledge of contact force.

Referring now to FIGs. 3A-3B, the passive hardness sensor 40, which may be incorporated into the multi-modal sensory node 14, derives a hardness of a contact object using two contact sensors of different support stiffness: the contact force and measured hardness sensor 20 and the reference hardness sensor 22. The preferred hardness sensor does not rely on knowledge of contact force. In a preferred embodiment, the measurement sensor 20 is mounted on a polymer membrane, while the reference sensor 22 is built on the bulk substrate 12. Both the measurement sensor 20 and the reference sensor 22 include a strain gauge 42, which may be made from NiCr, for example, to measure response. A differential response between the measurement sensor 20 and the reference sensor 22 is used to measure the hardness of a contact object 43.

The structure of the preferred hardness sensor 40 within the sensor node 14 is shown in FIG. 3A and in cross section in FIG. 3B.

The hardness sensor 40 includes the measurement sensor 20 on a preferably square polymer diaphragm 45 and a reference sensor 22 on the bulk polymer substrate 12. Both sensors 20,22 include a contact mesa 46 with the strain gauges 44 situated on the periphery of these mesas. The square of a diaphragm 45 of the measurement sensor 20 has a relatively low stiffness and for a given maximum central

displacement requires a uniform pressure according to clamped- clamped plate theory as shown in Eq. 1. Zmax E t qplate (0, 0l38) b4 (1) In Eq. 1, Zmax is the peak vertical deflection in the center of the diaphragm 45, qplate is the pressure applied to the plate, b is the length of the square sides, E is the material modulus, and t is the plate thickness.

The preferred reference sensor 22 does not use a diaphragm; rather the contact mesa 44 and the strain gauges 42 are positioned over full thickness bulk polymer 12. The stiffness of the bulk reference sensor 22 is thus much higher than the measurement sensor diaphragm 45. The preferred reference sensor 20 requires a uniform pressure for a given deflection according to Eq. 2. bulk-me Zmax E (2) In Eq. 2, Vis the bulk material Poisson's ratio, a is the contact mesa 46 width, and qbulk is the pressure applied to the bulk sensor contact mesa. This model assumes that the reference sensor 22 behaves like a semi-infinite block under a uniform pressure over the area of the contact mesa.

When the sensor chip 10 is in contact with the object 43, changes in resistance are observed at both the measurement and reference sensor strain gauges 42. The measured resistance changes

are converted to a peak deflection (Zmax) with calibrated resistance versus displacement data and used to find the apparent pressures qplate and qbulk with Eqs. 1 and 2. The contact object hardness 43 is related to the ratio of apparent pressures.

Measurement of contact forces can also be performed using the measurement sensor 20 and the reference sensor 22. Based on the known geometry of the devices, the pressures can be equated to normal force. The differential stiffness of the two sensors 20,22 allows two different ranges of contact forces to be measured.

In an experimental operation of the hardness sensor 40, a number of polymer samples were placed in contact with the sensor skin 12. A range of reference samples of sorbothane and polyurethane rubber with known hardnesses ranging from 10 to 80 Shore A were cut into 5mm by 5mm squares and pressed onto the sensor skin 12 using a fixed mass (147g). The change in resistance of each sensor 20,22 was converted to an equivalent displacement using calibration data.

Calibration data was generated by measuring the change in resistance of the measurement membrane sensor 20 and the bulk reference sensor 22 in response to a known normal displacement provided by a micromanipulator probe coupled to a precision linearly variable differential transformer (LVDT).

The proportionality between pressure ratio and object hardness is shown in the graph of FIG. 4. A large amount of scatter

was observed in the hardness data as can be seen in the graph. This is attributable to the surface roughness of the rubber samples.

Nevertheless, a clear overall trend is observed when a large number of data points are averaged as in FIG. 5, showing an increase in pressure ratio with object hardness.

The thermal conductivity of the contact object 43 is another important piece of data for object identification. The thermal conductivity sensor 18 operates by observing the changing resistance of the nickel RTD 26 in response to an input to the gold heater 24. The thermal conductivity of the contacting object 43 is a useful measure for object discrimination, and in concert with other sensing modes can expand the capabilities of the overall sensor chip 12 by helping to distinguish between equally"hard"objects for example.

As shown, the value is derived by measuring heat flux between the heater 24 and the temperature sensor 26, which are disposed on the polyimide substrate 12. The heater 24, preferably manufactured from gold as described above, is disposed on a bump 48 formed on the substrate 12, and is situated near, yet separated from, the temperature sensor 26. The temperature sensor 26 preferably is embodied in an Ni RTD thermoresistor, also disposed on the bump 48.

The heat transfer between the heater 24 and the temperature sensor 26 is altered when the contact object 43 contacts the surface of the sensor chip 12 over the thermal conductivity sensor 18, which changes the

thermal transfer path. The heat flux travels through the contact object 43 as well as the substrate 12, which changes the signal measured at the temperature sensor 26. A stepped power input to the heater generates a signal at the temperature sensor with a time constant that varies with the thermal conductivity of the contact object.

When not in contact with the object 43, the only route for the heat input of the heater 24 to reach the RTD of the temperature sensor 26 is through the polyimide substrate 12 and the surrounding air.

When the object 43 comes in contact with the thermal conductivity sensor 18, the low efficiency heat path through the air is replaced by solid conduction, changing the character of the signal measured at the temperature sensor 26. Using an Ni RTD as the temperature sensor 26, for example, with a square wave voltage input to the heater, the temperature of the temperature sensor can be modeled as a simple first order system according to Eq. 3.

TRTD lt =1-e- T Where T is the time constant of the first order system, giving a measure of how quickly the system responds to an input. The time constant of the temperature of the temperature sensor 26 is found to be a function of contact object thermal conductivity. This method was found to correlate well to contact object thermal conductivity.

In an exemplary operation, characterization of the performance of the thermal conductivity sensor is performed at room

temperature (-22°C) by inputting a 0-2VDC square wave at 0.3 Hz to the gold heater 24 and measuring the resulting change in resistance of the nearby Ni RTD 26. The resistance of the RTD is sampled at 10 Hz using an Agilent 33410A multi-meter and GPIB interface.

The thermal conductivity sensor 18 preferably should behave as a first order system with a time constant related to the object thermal conductivity. FIG. 6 shows the result of testing, where contact objects of various thermal conductivities (nylon 6, soda-lime glass, single crystal silicon, 300-series stainless steel, aluminum, and ambient air) were placed in contact with the surface of the thermal conductivity sensor 18 and the time constant of the resulting signal at the temperature sensor 26 was obtained through curve fitting. It was observed that the time constant decreases and the step response of the temperature of the temperature sensor 26 is faster with increasing thermal conductivity. Scatter is observed and expected due to changes in contact configuration from test to test due to surface roughness. The relationship between object thermal conductivity and time constant is found to be approximately logarithmic based on a curve fit of FIG. 6. As shown, more conductive objects result in faster response and smaller time constant.

Another type of sensing measures curvature of the substrate using the mapping sensor 32 described above. The mapping sensor 32 preferably embodied in integrated NiCr strain gauges

dispersed between the sensor nodes 14 measures the x-and y- direction curvature of the flexible substrate 12. The mapping sensors 32 are positioned over the flex channels (trenches) 30 etched in the back of the polyimide substrate 12 to allow the substrate to preferentially bend in these regions. Processing of these measurements into bending angles using calibrated data allows a three- dimensional mapping of skin curvature state. The skin mapping sensors 32 are found to perform linearly (R2=0. 996) with respect to curvature with sensitivity of 44.25 ppm.

Skin curvature calibration is accomplished by flexing the substrate 12 under known displacement using a micromanipulator coupled to a precision linearly variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Measurements are taken while bending and relaxing to assess visco- elastic hysteresis and plastic deformation. A resulting response of the mapping sensors 32 versus skin flex for a number of tests is seen in FIG. 7.

The processing steps preferably do not have to involve high temperature steps or bulk micromachining, therefore they can be substrate neutral. Specifically, the microfabrication process can be carried out directly on flexible and low cost polymer substrates.

A description of an exemplary fabrication process follows for the sensory chip and the tactile sensory node, referring to FIGs. 8A- 8E. A polyimide film substrate 60, for example a 50 mm square sheet

cut from a sheet of DuPont Kapton HN200 polyimide film is provided.

This film 60 is preferably about 50 um thick, though other thicknesses may be used. During the fabrication of the polyimide film 60, one surface of the film is in contact with a roller and the other is untouched.

In practice, measurements with an optical vertical scanning interferometer (VEECO LM1000) showed very small roughness differences between the free and roller faces (197nm and 243nm Rq respectively). Prior to photolithography, the polyimide film substrate 60 is cleaned and then baked at 350°C under nitrogen at 1 Torr for 2 h.

Once the polyimide film substrate 60 has been cured, an aluminum etch mask 62 is deposited and patterned via lift off on the "rough"roller side of the film (FIG. 8A). The film substrate 60 is then etched in an oxygen plasma reactive ion etcher at 350W with 300mT oxygen pressure (FIG. 8B) to define the flex channels 30 and the membrane sensor diaphragms 45. The film 60 preferably is etched 401um down at a rate of-330nm per minute. This plasma-etching step preferably is performed first to avoid erosion of backside metal layers that may otherwise occur.

With the sensor node 14 regions and contact force membranes defined, a 2-, um-thick layer of photo-definable polyimide (for example, HD Microsystems HD4000) is spun on the smoother top skin surface and patterned to define contact mesas 46 for the thermal conductivity 18 and reference RTD sensors 22 (FIG. 8C). FIGs. 9A-9B

show exemplary RTD strain gauges on a membrane hardness sensor 20 and a reference bulk sensor 20, respectively. This layer is aligned to the backside features via alignment marks visible due to the optical clarity of the HN200 film. Once patterned, the polyimide layer is cured under 1 Torr of nitrogen at 350°C for 2 hours.

Next, nickel RTDs 26 are patterned and deposited on the contact mesas 46. For example, nickel (e. g., 500A Ni) 64 is thermally evaporated via e-beam on top of a 100A chrome adhesion layer (not shown). Then, 750A of NiCr 60 is deposited and lifted off to define the strain gauges for the force 20, curvature (mapping) 32, and hardness sensors 22. Preferably, no adhesion layer is used. In order to achieve the relatively high resolution required for the minimum NiCr (10um) and Ni (15um) feature widths on a flexible polymer substrate, in a preferred embodiment, the Kapton film 12 is temporarily attached to a Pyrex substrate via surface tension by wetting the substrate with a drop of de- ionized water. The RTDs 26 are patterned preferably via liftoff using standard image reversal photolithography. The last metal layer comprises 1500A of gold 70 on a 100 A chrome adhesion layer that is thermally evaporated and lifted off (FIG. 8D), forming wiring 36. Before each metal deposition step 60, the film substrate is placed in oxygen planar plasma for 3 minutes at 300W to remove photoresist residue from image reversal and to improve metal adhesion to the polymer film.

The final step is to spin on and pattern the tactile contact bumps 46 for the force and hardness sensors (FIG. 8E). The bumps 46 are defined from an 8-Nm-thick layer of HD4000 photo-definable polyimide in the center of each sensor. The polyimide is cured for 2 hours at 350°C and 1 Torr nitrogen.

Another embodiment of the present invention includes a sensor node for flow sensing. The substrate may be polymer-based as in the substrate supporting the tactile sensor node 14.

Comprehensive flow sensing in the fluid boundary layer involves measurement of, for example, pressure, shear stress (drag and vortex), temperature, and three-axis flow rates. The spatial and temporal evolution of surface flow features is extremely difficult to obtain due to limitations of scientific instruments.

Conventional flow sensing instruments such as hot-wire anemometers are singular point measurement devices only. They suffer from a number of bottlenecks : their sizes are large and may change the characteristics of the flow ; it is extremely difficult to measure multiple flow parameters including vector speed, pressure, and shear stress, which is proportional to the gradient of velocity in the boundary layer ; and it is difficult to characterize a flow field within a thin boundary layer (thickness on the order of 1 mm).

Microfabricated flow sensing surfaces with multiple sensing modalities to record pressure, shear stress, and flow rates would be

useful for experimental fluid mechanical studies and for underwater vehicles and platforms. Such sensors preferably would be fabricated using efficient, low cost techniques. They preferably would allow integration of microelectronics signal processing units, and should be relatively mechanically robust.

Potential application scenarios for multi-modal flow sensors may include, but are not limited to: comprehensive monitoring of liquid flow field for underwater vehicles and structures, such as autonomous underwater vehicles, deep-sea drilling stations, and military vehicles for possible drag reduction; and comprehensive monitoring of air flow conditions for aircrafts and unmanned vehicles.

A large sensitive skin could be used to cover an object with a large area and curved surfaces. For example, an aerodynamic model used in an experimental wind-or water-tunnel may be covered with the sensitive skin in strategic regions to provide direct experimental characterization of flow field. Such flow field data has been prohibitively difficult to obtain in the past. Such comprehensive results can be used to validate and improve theoretical models or provide aerodynamic design insights.

The diagram of an exemplary single sensor node is illustrated in FIG. 10. According to an embodiment of the present invention, the node 70, which may be disposed on a flexible, polymer- based substrate 72, is provided with one or more of the following

sensing units: an artificial haircell 74 for measuring three-dimensional flow velocity, one or more hot-wire anemometers 76 along one or more dimensions for measuring the velocity of flow at different distance to the boundary layer, a pressure sensor 78 for monitoring pressure variation, and a shear stress sensor 80 for measuring surface vortex. Various sensors may be integrated together on the polymer substrate using novel material and fabrication processes as described herein.

Fish and many underwater animals utilize multimodal sensitive skin that can detect flow, pressure distribution, electrical potential and field, and local vortex. The lateral line is a primary sensing organ for fish. It usually spans the length of the fish body. Its main functions include (1) detection of water flow around the fish body, allowing a fish to maintain stability within turbulent currents and (2) detection of distant objects such as obstacles, prey and predators using direct or reflected waves. Linearly distributed along the lateral line are clustered haircell bundles embedded in a gel-like dome called a neuromast. Water flowing past the neuromasts imparts forces to the haircells and causes them to bend, with the extent of the bending determined by the speed of the flow. In certain species, the haircells lie outside of the epidermis; in others, they are embedded in sub-dermal canals for added protection against wearing and damages.

Artificial haircell sensors may be used for mimicking the lateral line system of fish. A schematic diagram of an exemplary haircell

sensor 82, made of single crystal silicon substrate 83, is shown in FIG.

11. The haircell sensor 82 consists of an in-plane fixed-free cantilever 84 with a vertical artificial cilium 86 attached at the distal, free end.

External flow parallel to the sensor substrate 83 impacts upon the vertical cilium 86. Due to rigid connection between the in-plane cantilever 84 and the vertical cilium 86, a mechanical bending moment is transferred to the horizontal cantilever beam, inducing strain at the base of the cantilever beam, which is detected using a strain sensor 88, such as a piezoelectric sensor producing a signal that is transmitted by conductive contacts 90. The magnitude of the induced strain can be sensed by many means, for example by using integrated piezoresistive sensors.

The vertical cilium 86 preferably is realized using a three- dimensional assembly technique called plastic deformation magnetic assembly (PDMA). A description of an exemplary PDMA process is provided in J. Zou, J. Chen, C. Liu, and J. Schutt-Aine,"Plastic Deformation Magnetic Assembly (PDMA) of Out-of-Plane Microstructures: Technology and Application; IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 302-309, June 2001. A preferred assembly process allows reliable formation of three- dimensional structures in large array format. Multiple structures can be achieved at wafer-scale by a globally applied magnetic field. Position and height of the cilia can be controlled.

A preferred polymer based haircell device is also provided, as shown by example in FIG. 12. An artificial haircell (AHC) 92 includes a vertical beam 94 (ilium) rigidly attached to the substrate 92. The vertical cilium 94 is made of surface micromachined polymer, and more preferably includes a stiff permalloy plating.

As shown in FIG. 12, the vertical cilium 94 is rigidly attached to the substrate 72 by one or more rigid metal supports 95.

The substrate 72 can be any of various substrates, but preferably is a polymer-based substrate. Attached at the base of the vertical cilium 94, between the cilium and the substrate, is a strain gauge 96. The strain gauge 96 is comprised of a thin film nichrome (NiCr) resistor on a thicker polyimide backing that runs the length of the cilium 94. The piezoresistive strain sensors 46 are located on the piece that is assembled (i. e. , the vertical cilium 94) using three-dimensional assembly.

When an external force is applied to the vertical cilium 94, either through direct contact with another object (functioning as a tactile sensor) or by the drag force from fluid flow (flow sensing), the beam will deflect and cause the strain gauge 96 to stretch or compress. The strain gauge region is treated as being rigidly attached to the substrate 72, while the cilium 94 is free. The magnitude of the induced strain (e) is largest at the base, where the strain gauge is located,

where M is the moment experienced at the base, tp, is the polyimide thickness, and E and I are the modulus of elasticity of and the moment of inertia of the polyimide. The very thin nichrome resistor of the strain gauge 96 is not taken into account.

The vertical cilium preferably is surface micromachined and deflected out of plane using magnetic 3D assembly, such as PDMA and can be conducted on a wafer scale. The vertical cilium 94 remains in deflected position due to plastic deformation at the joint.

A preferred fabrication method includes a series of metallization and polymer deposition steps. Referring to FIG. 13A, first, on a substrate 100 a 0. 5-, um Al sacrificial layer 102 is evaporated and <BR> <BR> patterned. Then, a 5. 5-1lm photodefinable polyimide 104 (e. g. , HD- 4000 from HD Microsystems) is spun-on and patterned photolithographically. The polyimide 104 is cured at 350°C in a 1 Torr N2 vacuum for 2 hours. Preferably, this is the highest temperature used in the process, allowing the AHC to be fabricated on various substrates 100, including polymer-based substrates.

Afterwards, a 750-A-thick NiCr layer 106 used for the strain gauge 96 is deposited by electron beam evaporation. This is followed by a 0. 5-, um-thick Au/Cr evaporation 108 used for electrical leads 110 and the bending hinge. The Au/Cr layer 108 is then used as a seed layer to electroplate approximately 5, um of permalloy 112 before being removed by lift-off. The resulting structure is shown in FIG. 13A. The

final surface micromachining step is another 2. 7-, am polyimide film (not shown) to serve as a protective coating for the permalloy cilium and the NiCr strain gauge.

The Al sacrificial layer 102 is then etched in a TMAH solution for over a day to free the structure. The sample is then carefully rinsed and placed in an electroplating bath 113, where an external magnetic field is applied which interacts with the permalloy 112 to raise the vertical cilium 94 out of plane.

For example, in a post-release Ni plating setup, shown by example in FIG. 14, an external magnetic field 114 is applied with an electromagnet 116 during the electroplating process. Preferably, the entire process is done under a microscope. After a few minutes of plating, the magnetic field 114 is removed and the cilium remains permanently out of plane.

While the external field is being applied, Ni 116 is electroplated on the Au hinge using a nickel anode 118, which rigidly fixes the structure out-of-plane to the substrate and reinforces the ductile Au hinge, as shown in FIG. 13B. The Ni electroplating is done on the substrate globally, preferably lasting about 20 minutes to achieve a thickness of approximately 10 mm. The actual thickness is difficult to measure and control, but is not important as long as it is rigid relative to the polyimide film.

SEM images of the hinge are shown in FIG. 15A-15B, showing the difference between a deformed Au hinge with and without Ni plating. An array of AHCs 92 with different vertical cilium and strain gauge geometry is shown in FIG. 16, showing the parallel nature of the preferred fabrication process. Again, it is preferred that overall, the fabrication method does not exceed temperature over 350° Celsius, allowing it to be completed on a skin-like thin film polymer substrate on other substrates. Silicon, glass, and Kapton film, for example, can be used as a substrate for this process. The resistance of devices tested ranges from 1. 2kW to 3.2kW, and TCR measurement of the as- deposited NiCr film in an exemplary AHC has a value of-25ppm/°C, which is very small and should not contribute to anemometric effects during airflow testing.

In an exemplary operation of the AHC 92, the resistance change due to external displacement is shown in FIG. 17 for an 850 Am tall vertical cilium. A micromanipulator is used to deflect the distal end of the vertical cilium. The resistance change is measured by a multimeter, and is linear to the beam deflection. The gauge factor GF can be calculated from the slope of the curve, where dR/R is the percent resistance change, and e ? ; is the calculated strain from a fixed-free beam (See Eq. (4) ) undergoing a

deflection x. The plastically deformed hinge, after being plated with approximately 10, um of Ni, is very rigid. The modulus of elasticity for the nickel is approximately two orders of magnitude larger than polyimide (200 Gpa versus 3.5 Gpa). Therefore, an assumption of a fixed-free cantilever model should be valid. The measured gauge factor for an exemplary strain gauge configuration is about 1.4, which is lower than expected. This could be attributed to the strain gauge not being located at the point of maximum strain.

Several fabricated AHCs were then tested as airflow transducers in a wind tunnel. The airflow with velocity U impinging on the cilium results in a drag force acting normal to the paddle, leading to a moment on the strain gauge <BR> <BR> - y<BR> o Co z PU 2'''Ydy where CD is the drag coefficient, r is the density of air, w and 1 are the width and length of the cilium. Because strain is proportional to the applied moment, and resistance change is proportional to strain, Equation (6) suggests a quadratic relationship between airflow and resistance change. In addition, by systematically varying the height and width of the cilium, the response can be tailored to different ranges of air velocity. The polarity of resistance change is dependant on the direction of the airflow.

The wind tunnel measurement of three AHCs with different cilia geometry is plotted in FIG. 18. The AHCs tested were fabricated on

a silicon substrate to allow wire bonding to the sample. The AHC with the longest cilium length of 1500p. m is the most sensitive, with dR/R reaching 600ppm at around 10 m/s. The device with the shortest cilium, even with a wider width, does not have the 600ppm resistance change until 30m/s. The sign of resistance change can be indicative of the direction of air velocity. However, the response in various directions does not seem to be symmetrical. This is because it is difficult for the PDMA assembly process to orient the cilium at exactly 90° to the substrate. The characteristic lengths of individual MEMS devices range from 1 um to 1 mm, although distributed microsystems containing arrays of devices could have larger overall sizes.

The artificial haircell, for example, may be used to realize other sensing modalities, including but not limited to vibration sensing.

By varying the geometry and mass of the vertical cilium, the haircell can be made more responsive to inertia forces created by vibration. For example, a three-axis acceleration sensor may be provided, as shown by example in FIG. 19.

Among other flow sensor components, the hot-wire sensor 72 uses an electrical wire placed in the flow field. The wire is heated using ohmic heating and the resistance of the wire (which is a function of temperature) is monitored. Flow imparts forced convection on the wire to induce cooling. The temperature of the wire indicates the flow speed.

Existing hot-wire sensors are all supplied as individual devices. Their sizes are relatively large. Even micromachined hot-wire anemometers are supplied as singular units. They cannot measure the distribution of flow in a distributed field. By contrast, a hot-wire sensor can be made using surface micromachining process and three- dimensional assembly method. It can be made on polymer substrates with large two-dimensional array formats. Examples of hot wire anemometers formed on a substrate and fabrication methods for them <BR> <BR> are provided in J. Chen and C. Liu, "Development and Characterization of Surface Micromachined, Out-of-Plane Hot-Wire Anemometer,"in Journal of Microelectomechanical Systems, Vol. 12, No. 6, December 2003, pp. 979-988, and in J. Chen, J. Zou, and C. Liu, "A Surface<BR> Micromachined, Out-of-Plane Anemometer, "in Proceedings MEMS, Las Vegas, 2002, pp. 332-335. FIG. 20 shows a three-dimensional array of hot-wire anemometers, which can be formed by selecting fabricating individual anemometers and raising them out of plane.

Conventional pressure and shear stress sensors employ a membrane. In the case of a pressure sensor, the diaphragm bends in response to applied pressure difference. In the case of shear stress for measuring fluid stress, the membrane supports a heated hot-wire element. Referring to FIG. 10, the pressure sensor 78 may include, for example, an NiCr strain gauge 120 disposed on a Parylene film 122 forming a raised diaphragm for measuring deflection of the Parylene

film in response to pressure. The shear stress sensor 80 may includes a raised Parylene membrane with a heated hot-wire element such as a nickel thermoresistor 126 for measuring fluid stress.

According to another embodiment of the present invention, a microfabrication sequence for a Parylene membrane, shown by example in FIG. 21, with patterned metal on the membrane is provided, in which a preferably polymer membrane diaphragm supports metal leads used for a pressure sensor and for a shear stress sensor. The metal leads can be used for both pressure sensing and shear sensing (temperature sensing). The location preferably determines the principal use of a particular metal lead. For example, the metal leads closer to the center of the membrane may be better located for shear sensing, while the metal leads closer to the edge of the membrane may be better located for pressure sensing.

In an exemplary fabrication process, a photoresist layer is deposited and patterned as a sacrificial layer to define a membrane cavity. A layer of Parylene is deposited, preferably having a thickness in the 0.2 to 5 urn range. A metal thin film is deposited and patterned to form a resistor that can respond to stress (piezoresistor). The gauge factor of such resistors is typically approximately 1-5. Metals that can be used include NiCr (nichrome), Pt, Au, Cu, Al, and others.

Another layer of Parylene is deposited on top of the metal thin film, passivating the resistors and reducing or preventing damage

by environmental elements over the long run. The photoresist is removed through spatially placed holes on or around the membrane.

The cavity is dried and sealed using one or more of a variety of methods. One exemplary method to seal the cavity is to deposit another thin layer of Parylene. The deposition process is performed at low pressure (e. g. , 40 mtorr), and the cavity is therefore sealed under low pressure.

In another embodiment of the present invention, exemplary methods are provided for integrating silicon chips (containing signal processing functions such as amplification, multiplexing, and analog-to- digital conversion) with a polymer sensor chip (with tactile or flow sensing components) and within the fabrication flow. FIG. 22 shows an overview of a skin architecture showing a cluster of sensor nodes connected to a local cluster processor.

A first method includes bonding a silicon chip, such as a commercially obtained chip 130 (e. g. , ADC chip with internal clock from National Semiconductors) onto a polymer sensor skin 132. The chip may be, for example, an application-specific IC chip. A schematic diagram of this bonding approach is shown in FIG. 23A. In a preferred bonding process, a blank slot 134 on the back surface of the sensor skin 132 is opened for the microelectronic chip 130 to rest. A through- wafer electrical interconnect 138 is provided so that the silicon chip 130 rests on the backplane and not the front plane, where the chip may

interface with surface roughness. Chip-to-polymer metal bonding technology using low melting temperature metal thin films provides flip- chip bonding.

The assembly is repeated across the skin 132 with additional circuits that handle multiple clusters for a distributed system.

FIG. 23A shows an embedded sensor 139 and wiring 140 with an ASIC flip chip 130 bonded to backside vias 138 with solder bumps 142.

A second method, shown by example in FIG. 23B, includes thinning a semiconductor wafer 144 that contains analog/digital electronics at the top surface 146 to the point that the semiconductor wafer becomes flexible and yet still maintains electronics functionalities.

For example, a chip having a small die size (e. g., less than 1 cm2) with thickness on the order of 10-30 micrometers, may be used. An exemplary thinned silicon wafer is shown in FIG. 24. The silicon dies flex with the polymer substrate 132 and therefore preserve the mechanical flexibility. As shown in FIG. 23B, thin dies may be flip-chip bonded to bonding sites 148 on polymer sensor skin 132. The chip-to- polymer electrical connection may be achieved, for example, using low temperature metal reflow. The top surface 146 can be further protected and mechanically enhanced using conforma chemical vapor deposition of a plastic 150 such as Parylene, which is stress free, relatively soft, and does not damage the microelectronics or the sensor.

In a third method, shown by example in FIG. 23C and FIG.

25, both circuit elements 152 and sensor elements 154 are built on a silicon wafer 156 first. The sensors 154 are preferably formed on the wafer 156 after the circuit elements 152 are formed (step (a) in FIG. 25).

This is feasible since the sensor elements 154 preferably can be formed under low processing temperatures. An exemplary method uses a silicon wafer 156 having preformed circuit elements, on which the sensor elements 154 are formed. Such silicon wafers 156 may contain, for example, op-amps, multiplexors, and/or A/D conversion functions.

Post-process steps are performed to build interconnect wires 158 (step (b) ) and the tactile or flow sensor elements 154. Next,<BR> the backside of the wafer 156 is patterned and etched (step (c) ) to form trenches 160. An elastomer precursor 162 is poured and cured (step <BR> <BR> (d) ), to encase resulting silicon islands 164 in a elastomer back-filled skin. The front surface of the skin can be further protected, for example, by depositing a protective layer such as Parylene using chemical vapor deposition. These steps provide a flexible sensor chip 166, as shown flexed at step (e).

While specific embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it is to be understood that other modifications, substitutions, and alternatives will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. Such modifications, substitutions, and alternatives can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of

the present invention, which should be determined from the appended claims.

Various features of the invention are set forth in the appended claims.