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Title:
SILICON FORMULATIONS & METHODS OF THEIR MANUFACTURE, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND TIMING THEREOF TO ACT AS SOIL CONDITIONER AND FERTILIZER ENHANCER TO INCREASE THE YIELD OF RICE.
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2003/016242
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This present invention consists of water (1) Soluble Silicon formulations or blends (hereafter referred to as Soluble Silicon) that are (2) homogeneously mixed with dry formulated chemical fertilizers and (3) broadcast applied just once on rice crops at about maximum tiller number stage but not beyond the panicle initiation state - 70-65 days before harvest - to increase the number of productive panicles by as much as 71% and yield by as much as 68%.

Inventors:
Puyat, Alfonso (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Georgitta (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Ramoncito (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Carlos Paul (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Noel George (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Juancho Albert (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Ma Beatrice (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Application Number:
PCT/PH2002/000017
Publication Date:
February 27, 2003
Filing Date:
August 13, 2002
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Puyat, Alfonso (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Georgitta (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Ramoncito (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Carlos Paul (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Noel George (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Juancho Albert (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
Puyat, Ma Beatrice (7 Caimito Place Forbes Park Makati City 1220, PH)
International Classes:
C05D9/00; C05D9/02; (IPC1-7): C05G1/00
Foreign References:
JPH0769764A1995-03-14
JPH02263784A1990-10-26
JPS6256389A1987-03-12
JPS57165027A1982-10-09
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. 1) The present invention claims Water Soluble Silicon formulations or mixtures and their process of manufacture that are homogenously mixed with commercially formulated chemical fertilizers, especially, the nitrogen based fertilizers.
2. The present invention claims that the broadcast applied homogenously mixed water Soluble Silicon and fertilizer are very efficiently absorbed and utilized and stored (for future use) by rice plants. This improved fertilizer usage enables the rice plants to produce from 17%66% increase in production of biomass without increase in fertilizer input.
3. The present invention claims that the water Soluble Silicon and fertilizer mixture when applied to rice crops roughly 7065 days before harvest will increase the number of effective panicles by as much as 71% while practically maintaining the average weight of the panicles. Rice yield have increased by as much as 68% by use of this present invention.
Description:
SILICON FORMULATIONS & METHODS OF THEIR MANUFACTURE, METHOD OF APPLICATION AND TIMING THEREOF TO ACT AS SOIL CONDITIONER AND FERTILIZER ENHANCER TO INCREASE THE YIELD OF RICE.

TECHNICAL FIELD Rice is the number one human food crop. From 1994 data, the worldwide harvest of rice was 520 million tons. This amount has to grow by 60% by year 2025 to feed the increasing world population. The current"dwarf"varieties that brought about the"green revolution"that started in the 1960's typically have 20-25 stalks (tillers) per hill, which in turn produce 15 panicles that have an average of 100 millable seeds.

This unremedied phenomenon of roughly 50% of vegetative tillers turning unto useless ineffective or unproductive tillers is the cause of the starvation of many people.

The genetic yield potential of rice is hardly ever achieved.

To remedy the problem, the International Scientific Community and the commercial seed companies are busy trying to produce genetically more productive selections.

This patent application will present data to show that with a little but strategic addition of silicon to existing rice fertilizers, the genetic yield potential of existing rice varieties can be achieved and rice deficiency can be easily solved.

To achieve the optimum growth and yield potential of plants requires the availability of 20 elements acknowledged to be necessary in different degrees according to plant classification and stage of plant development. These elements are: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, copper, boron, zinc, chlorine, sodium, cobalt, vanadium, and silicon. The growing medium's ideal ph is about 6.5. The medium can be soil, rock, synthetic or hydroponics solutions.

Silicon is a non-metallic element with the atomic weight of 28.086. It is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust (25%), and is the most important

semi-conducting element; it can form more compounds than any other element except carbon. Therefore, it does not occur free in nature, but is a major portion of silica and silicates (rocks, quartz, clays, etc. ) The most common natural source that is currently used for agriculture is wollastonite ore. Synthetic silicon sources are mainly slags from iron ore smelters. Organic silicon sources such as rice straw and rice hulls contain roughly 4% silicon. All the above silicon sources are water insoluble.

CURRENT STATE OF THE ART In Japan, the average dosage of calcium silicate slag, a by-product of iron smelting for silicon deficient rice paddies is about 1.5-2 tons per hectare, and. 50 to 1.30 million tons of silicate materials are consumed every year as fertilizers.

In Korea, the annual consumption of 400,000 tons of silicate slag for rice fertilizers has been reported. In Taiwan, silicate slag has been found to be effective in a wide range of paddy soils, but the high price and unavailability of this material has prevented its adoption as a standard agricultural input.

In Taiwan, Japan, and Korea silicate slag application to paddy were determined to be 1.5-2 tons per hectare. Beyond this quantity there were no further yield increases.

In Taiwan, Japan, and Korea surface top dressing of silicate slag 7-14 days after transplanting of rice seedlings have become the usual practice, as it is the more convenient practice for farmers to follow.

S. K. de Datta Ph. D. a renowned scientist of the International Rice Research Institute [IRRI] in Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines reported in his article, "Fertilizer and Soil Amendments for Tropical Soils". The following are results of his study conducted in 1966.

Using calcium silicate (40% silicate) as source of silicon, IRRI conducted field trials to show the effect of different rates of silicate application together with a rate of 60 kgs/hectare of Nitrogen or 60 Kg/hectare of

Nitrogen and 87.2 Kg/hectare of phosphorous. These were compared with fertilizer treatment of 60 Kg/hectare of Nitrogen and treatment of 87.2 Kg/hec. of phosphorous alone. These two rates of fertilizers were mixed with the following quantities of calcium silicate 40%: 250,500, 750,1000, 1500 and 2000 kg/hectare. All treatments were applied as basal applications.

The nitrogen application alone gave an average yield of 6.5 tons unmilled rice yield per hectare. The phosphorous application gave an average yield of 5.8 tons unmilled rice per hectare. The nitrogen and different quantities of silicate combination gave an average yield of 7.6 tons unmilled rice/hectare.

The nitrogen and phosphorous and different quantities of silicon combination gave an average yield of 7.9 tons unmilled rice/hectare.

Then graduating student of agriculture of University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Hermenigildo C. Gines conducted these trials at the IRRI, agronomy area under James C. Moomaw Ph. D. , agronomist with advisers S. K. de Datta Ph. D. and Cesar Mamaril Ph. D. for his thesis.

Using Calcium Magnesium Silicate (C-Mg-Si) 40% silicate as source of synthetic silicon, and using as standard fertilizer application of 30 Kg nitrogen/hectare top dressed on all treatments at the ear initiation stage, devised the following treatments and got the corresponding results.

The basal incorporation of rice hull was optimum at 500 Kg/hec. with a yield of 2.252 tons unmilled rice/hec. The combination of 500 Kg/hec. basically applied rice hull and 500 Kg/hec. Ca-Mg-Si was the highest yielder at 3.736 tons unmilled rice/hec. The control yielded 1.746 tons unmilled rice/hec.

TABLE ! Results of H. Gines Experiments

Treatment No. Basal Ear Initiation Yield Tons 30 Kg N At Application Unmilled Rice per Ear Initiation Rice Hull Ca-Mg-Silicate Hectare T-1 0 0 1.746 T-2 500 0 2. 252 T-3 1000 0 2. 062 T-4 2000 0 1. 797 T-5 250 250 2.226 T-6 500 500 3.736 T-7 1000 1000 3.010 The desirability of using silicon as a regular input in sustainable rice production was scientifically argued by N. K. Savant, G. H. Snyder and L. E. Datnoff in their monograph"Silicon Management And Sustainable Rice Production"published by the University of Florida in 1997. A seemingly unachievable goal is laid out by the authors in the section"Suggestions For Research".

"Development of cheaper and efficient sources and their use: Silicate slags are expensive Silicon sources, and therefore, most rice farmers of tropical and sub-tropical regions will be unable to use them at the rates of 1-2 tons per hectare per year. There is need to identify and/or develop cheaper, efficient sources of Silicon and to determine their appropriate use integrated with the other nutrient management practices. Findings of this research should enable rice farmers to efficiently use slag at affordable rates. In

the future, if Silicon fertilization is required as a part of a balanced integrated nutrient management system for sustaining rice production in developing countries, sufficient amounts of silicate slags may not be available to many rice farmers in those countries.

CURRENT PARADIGM OF ROLE OF SILICON IN AGRICULTURE 1) Silicon helps increase the effectiveness of applied chemical fertilizers. Applied silicon further raises the optimum rate of applied nitrogen, therefore increasing the yield potential due to more nitrogen inputs. Silicon liberates phosphorous from iron and aluminum complexes in the soil. The liberated phosphorous is then available for root absorption. Silicon and potassium applied at the early to middle stage of rice reproductive stage have increased rice yields.

2) Silicon prevents the absorption by rice plants toxic amounts of iron, manganese, and aluminum.

3) Increased silicon absorption by plants improves the oxygen transport system from the tops (leaves) to the roots and this increases the oxidizing power help lessen the greenhouse gas evolution of rice paddies.

4) Increased silicon uptake means more silicon deposition just beneath the cuticle layer of the leaf and stems of rice plants resulting in increased mechanical strength resulting in rice plants with erect leaves which are better sunlight interceptors, and therefore, perform more photosynthesis, and which plants are more resistant to lodging. More erect leaves lessen transpiration which in turn lessen the absorption of dissolved sodium, magnesium and chloride which in turn makes the plant more tolerant of saline soils. The location and strength of the absorbed silicon that are deposited in the stems and leaves of rice provide a strong physical barrier against the penetration of fungal disease and the attacks of insect pests.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION This present invention consists of water Soluble Silicon formulations or blends (hereafter referred to as Soluble Silicon) that are homogeneously mixed with dry formulated nitrogen based chemical fertilizers and broadcast applied just once on rice crops at about maximum tiller number stage but not beyond the panicle initiation state (70-65 days before harvest) to increase the number of productive panicles and yield by as much as 68% compared to identical rice crop gives identical fertilizer treatment alone (control).

A variation in the timing of application is a double application: 1) Broadcast application of the Soluble Silicon blended with complete (Nitrogen-Phosphorous- Potassium) dry formulated fertilizer 2-3 days after soil establishment of direct sown or transplanted rice & 2) The application explained in the previous paragraph. This double application variation can add up to another 20% in the numbers of productive panicles and yield over the single application approach.

The present invention is composed of 3 major components. The first component is the Soluble Silicon and the 2 processes of manufacturing it. The second component is the proper combination and homogeneous mixing of Soluble Silicon and the prescribed quantity and quality of dry formulated chemical fertilizer. The Soluble Silicon hastens the effect and increases the duration of the effectiveness of the applied fertilizer to sufficiently supply the nutritional requirements of the rice plant until harvest. The third component is the proper timing of broadcast application of the second component of this invention to produce significantly great numbers of effective panicles while, practically maintaining the average weight of the panicles of the treated rice grain on the same level as the average weight of the panicles of the control rice group.

THE INVENTION Part 1: Soluble Silicon Formulations and Processes of Manufacture A. The present invention consists of different formulations or blends, and different processes of their manufacture, with a possible range of active ingredients percentage from 1% to 40% in the water Soluble Silicon formulation or blend (hereinafter referred to as Soluble Silicon). Soluble Silicon formulations are dry, free-flowing mixtures of powders and little granules.

B. The present invention consists of processes of manufacture of the Soluble Silicon that are suitable for homogeneous blending with dry manufactured commercial chemical fertilizers for even broadcast application on irrigated rice crops. The ph of the water silicon formulation for the above purpose is not ph. 7 but will conform to the ph of the water in the irrigated rice field shortly after broadcast application. The range of active ingredients from the process is 1%- 40%.

C. The present invention claims the process of manufacture of the water soluble silicon formulation and blend that has a ph. 7 This product is suitable to be used either as in II. A above or as an ingredient in the manufacturing of commercial dry chemical fertilizer. The range of active ingredient from this process is 1 %-19%.

Processes of Manufacture Having used a 100,000 ppm (10%) active ingredient Soluble Silicon formulation in our field trials, we will continue to use that particular active ingredient percentage in our explanation of the process of manufacture of Soluble Silicon.

Process No. 1: Formulations that, upon broadcast on irrigated rice paddies, produces solutions with ph value approximating the ph of the irrigation water.

A 10% active ingredient (100,000 ppm) water Soluble Silicon formulation has a ph value of 12.6 and will cause damage to plants. The recommended single application

dosage of 5kgs of 10% active ingredient Soluble Silicon per hectare will produce a 2 ppm dilute solution in the irrigated rice paddies. The 1Kg per hectare 15t application of the double application variation will produce. 4 ppm dilute solution in the irrigated field.

Having been diluted 250,000 times by the paddy water, the final ph of the Soluble Silicon will assume the ph of the water, and all possible plant damage is erased.

Obtain synthetic Soluble Silicon from any available source with guaranteed analysis of soluble silicon, like Calcium silicate, calcium magnesium silicate, magnesium silicate, potassium silicate, sodium silicate etc. , or any of their variations after determining the target active ingredient requirement of a formulation, which has a range possibility of 1%-40% under this process of manufacturing the soluble silicon invention, proceed to the do the necessary mathematics: Target Soluble Silicon Active Ingredient Percentage Active Ingredient Percentage of Soluble Silicon Source = % weight of Soluble Silicon source in final products.

The balance should come from any dry inert, flowable carrier. The Soluble Silicon source and the inert carrier are, next, dry mixed by any method to produce a homogeneous blend.

Process No. 2 Formulation that are made with a ph value of 6.5-7. 5 Most plants, including upland rice, are not grown in flooded paddies. It is, therefore, imperative that any exogenous applied inputs, like the Soluble Silicon and chemical fertilizers, should have a near neutral ph value (ph 7) to avoid inflicting harm to the plants.

Obtain synthetic Soluble Silicon from any available source with guaranteed analysis of Soluble Silicon like calcium silicate, calcium magnesium silicate, magnesium silicate, potassium silicate, sodium silicate, or any of this variation. After determining the target active ingredient requirement of a formulation, which has an active ingredient range possibility of 1%-19% under this process of manufacturing the soluble silicon invention, proceed to do the necessary mathematics.

Target Active ingredient Soluble Silicon Percentage Active Ingredient Percentage of soluble Silicon Source = % weight of Soluble Silicon source in final product A 10% Soluble Silicon source would likely have a ph 12.6 value. To bring down the ph value of the final product to approximately ph 7, mix the water Soluble Silicon source with an acidified yet free flowing inert carrier. The active ingredient range in this process of manufacturing Soluble Silicon is 1%-19%. This neutral ph Soluble Silicon formulation will be next supplemented by a neutral ph inert carrier and dry mixed together by any method to produce a homogenous blend.

Part ll : Soluble Silicon and Chemical Fertilizer broadcast application increases rice bio-mass and yield.

The present invention consists of a methodology that synergizes the effects of homogeneously mixed Soluble Silicon and chemical fertilizers. Its method of use can be elementary or high-tech, from hand broadcasting to aerial application. It can conform to any local cultural practice, such as plowing under, row or side-dressing, etc.

The proof that mixed Soluble Silicon and chemical fertilizer broadcast applications are more efficiently absorbed and utilized by rice plants is shown in Table II. All the rice plants in the 5 research trials were given identical fertilization rates at identical time of application. The control, however, were not applied Soluble Silicon.

The time of Soluble Silicon and fertilizer mixture broadcast application varied, but all treated rice plants showed big weight increases over the control.

TABLE II Fertilized Rice Weight Comparison of Grain Yield & Straw w/o (Control) & w/(Treated) Soluble Silicon TRIAL COUNT CONTROL TREATED % INCREASE in (Tons/hec. ) (Tons/hec.) WEIGHT ist TRIAL Straw 9.538 12.645 32% Grain 4.958 6.49 30% 2nd TRIAL Straw 14.9992 15.297 19% Grain 6. 63 6. 865 3. 5% 3r TRIAL Grain 2. 118 2. 383 25% 4"'TRIAL Grain 6. 05 7. 1 17% 5"'TRIAL A) Grain 4.50 7.16 59% B) Grain 18.22 30. 37 66%

The most important major fertilizer for rice is Nitrogen. It is important for vegetation, initiation, and development of panicles, and source of chemicals for photosynthesis which produces the starch in the grains. The Soluble Silicon possesses a unique ability to create a condition where applied chemical fertilizers, particularly nitrogen are efficiently absorbed and conserved for a prolonged period of time for translocation to plant parts that need it later.

The uptake of more nitrogen, however, also induces leaf droopiness. The Soluble Silicon with nitrogen prevents leaf droopiness. Instead, rice plants that are given Soluble Silicon application are tall, erect, sturdy, and produce normal panicles.

Part III : The present invention consists of an optimum timing of broadcast application of mixed Soluble Silicon and Chemical Fertilizer. Proper timing of broadcast application of Soluble Silicon and chemical fertilizer mixture dramatically increases the number of productive panicles per unit land area while practically maintaining the weight of each panicle.

This phenomenon is unique. Usually a severe trade-off manifests itself : The more the effective panicles per land area, the less the average weight of the panicles.

Table III shows the effect of different times of broadcast application of Soluble Silicon with fertilizer vs. Control on the number of effective panicles, yield per land area, and the average panicle weight, and the trade-off phenomenon between the positive effects of increased panicles per land area which, in turn, are negatively countered by a decrease in the average weight of the panicles. Table III under 5th Trial, shows the dramatic ability of this present invention to substantially increase the number of effective panicles per land area with insignificant decrease in the average weight of the panicles.

In Trial 5, the Soluble Silicon and fertilizer blend was broadcast applied 70 days before harvest-about the time of maximum count of vegetative tillers and about one week before start of the reproductive stage in for any rice variety. In the temperate zones there might be an addition of 5 to 10 days to above mentioned 70 days due to the cooler temperature.

The maximum rice plant population is called the maximum tiller stage. This presents the maximum potential yield of rice. However, at this stage the rice plant is still vegetative. And before the rice can become reproductive the die-off phase follows and about 50% of the vegetative tillers just die, no matter what kind of fertilizer or system of application is employed.

Broadcast application of the Soluble Silicon and nitrogen-based chemical fertilizer mixture applied at this time until the time of panicle initiation (70-65 days before harvest) greatly improve the absorption of the applied fertilizer by the vegetative tillers such that the die-off rate is dramatically reduced. Instead of only 50% of the vegetative tillers continuing on to develop into reproductive tillers, about 80% of vegetative tillers live-on to develop into productive tillers. Chart I illustrates the development of a rice seed from sowing to harvest. Broadcast application of Soluble Silicon and nitrogen- based chemical fertilizer applied just once 70-65 days before harvest, corresponds to application at the top of the bell curve. The higher productive panicle live after the bell curve shows the 60%-70% additional numbers of panicles that this invention has achieved as shown in the 5th trial of Table Ill. These greater numbers of productive panicles are panicles of the same weight and quality as the control, unlike the lighter

panicles produced when the broadcast application of the Soluble Silicon and nitrogen- based chemical fertilizer mixture was done at a later time.

The data presented in Table III clearly indicate that employing standard agronomic practices in rice culture and adopting application of homogenously mixed Soluble Silicon and nitrogen based chemical fertilizer at 70-65 days before harvest dramatically increases the number of effective panicles by as much as 71%, while practically maintaining the average weight of the panicles on the same level as the control.

To make the presentation of the present invention user-friendly, Table IV was designed. It brings together the common fertilizer recommendation of the Philippine Department of Agriculture for average fertility soils, and the technology of this present invention. CHART I Plant Height About 70% additional productive panicles Dying and non-productive tillers Normal count of productive panicles -Tiller No. Panicle Length boys from Seeding Seeding o) c E z c 0 O, o > 0 z (D. 0 E'0 a) . 2 0 3 : (n'--. E-a. C = LL I ! s - i a 0 Nkffs, ery Period Active Vegetative Crowth Nursery Pefiod Active Vegetative Gtwh l Vegetative Phase---I-Reproductive Phase E-Ripening Phase- Growth stages and development phases of rice.

TABLE III Effect Of Broadcast Application Time On Number Of Effective Panicles & Average Weight Of Panicle Fertilized Rice Trials without (Control) and with (Treated) Soluble Silicon Data of 5 Research Trials August 1999-2002 A) Trial No. & Dates A) Time Of Fertilizer Broadcast A) Effective Panicles/Sq. M. Effect Of Soluble Silicon On B) Rice Variety & Maturity (Control & Treated) B) Average Weight Of Panicle A) Effective Panicle B) Soluble Silicon/Hec. C) Average Yield/Sq. M. (% Increase) B) Panicle Ave. Weight (% Decrease) Control Treated 1stTrial : Aug.-Dec. 1999 33 Days Before Harvest 263 431 Rc 64/125 Days (5 Kgs/Hec.) 1. 882 Gms 1. 505 Gms Plus 63% 495 Gms 648 Gms Minus 21% 2nd Trial : Jan.-May 2000 33 Days Before Harvest 253 353 Rc 64/125 Days (5 Kgs/Hec.) 2.62 Gms 1.997 Gms Plus 39% 662 Gms 704 Gms Minus 24% 3rd Trial : Jun.-Nov. 2000 A) 33 Days Before Harvest 166 210 Rc 64/125 Days (5 Kgs/Hec.) 1.27 Gms 1.08 Gms Plus 26% 210 Gms 226 Gms Minus 15% B) I 7 Days After Transplant----- (1 Kg/Hec.) 166 241 li 33 Days Before Harvest 1.27 Gms. 987 Gms Plus 45% (4 Kgs/Hec.) 210 Gms 237 Gms Minus 23% 4th Trial : Dec. 2000-Apr. 1 7 Days After Transplant 328 432 2001 (1 Kg/Hec.) 1. 844 Gms 1.643 Gms Plus 31% Rc 28/110 Days li 33 Days Before Harvest 604 Gms 709 Gms Minus 11% (4Kgs/Hec.) 5th Trial : Jan.-May 2002 372 605 A) Ir 58025 A/135 Days 1.217 Gms 1. 183 Grs Plus 62% 7o Days Before Harvest 452 Gms 715 Gms Minus 3% R) r 34686 R/135 Days (5Kgs/Hec.) 630 1083 2.892 Gms 2.812 Gms Plus 71% 1,821 Gms 3,045 Gms Minus 3% Table IV Recommended Soluble Silicon (10% A. I.) & Fertilizer Broadcast (Dosage Per Hectare) 2"d Broadcast Last Broadcast 15t Broadcast Maturity Of (Dry Season) 3-4 Bags 14-14-14 2 Bags 4 Kgs Different Mixed Well With Ammonium Sulfate Soluble Silicon 1 Kg-----------0-----------Mixed Well With Varieties Soluble Silicon (Wet Season) (Dry Season) 1 Bag 2 Bags Urea Of Rice Ammonium Sulfate-------------0--------- (Wet Season) 1 Bag Urea 110 Days Ir 36,60, 66,72, 110 Rc 8,10, 14,20, 28, 32, 7-10 Dat None 20-25 Dat 82,106, 26h 12-15 Das None 42-45 Das 115 Days Ir 62, 64 Rc 6, 30, 36, 7-10 Dat None 23-28 Dat 52,54, 56,74 12-15 Das None 45-48 Das 125 Days Rc 2,18, 34,36, 38, 7-10 Dat None 30-35 Dat 58,64,66,72h 12 - 15 Das 35 - 40 Das 55 - 60 Das 135 Days I r 42,74 Rc 2, 20, 40 7-10 Dat 25-30 Dat 40-45 Dat Ax R Parent Lines 12-15 Das 40-45 Das 65-70 Das Mestizo-Hybrid Dat-Days After Transplant I For Use With Transplant Method Of Planting.

Das-Days After Sowing/For Use With Direct Seeding Method Planting.