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Title:
SILYLETHYNYL HETARYL COMPOUNDS AS NITRIFICATION INHIBITORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/145140
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to the use of silylethynyl hetaryl compound as nitrification Inhibitors.

Inventors:
CUNNINGHAM, Allan F (Klybeckstrasse 141, 4002 Basel, 4002, CH)
NESVADBA, Peter (Klybeckstrasse 141, 4002 Basel, 4002, CH)
WISSEMEIER, Alexander (Speyerer Straße 2, Limburgerhof, 67117, DE)
WALLQUIST, Olof (Klybeckstrasse 141, 4002 Basel, 4002, CH)
NAVE, Barbara (Speyerer Straße 2, Limburgerhof, 67117, DE)
Application Number:
EP2019/050322
Publication Date:
August 01, 2019
Filing Date:
January 08, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
BASF SE (Carl-Bosch-Str. 38, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, 67056, DE)
International Classes:
A01N33/00; A01N31/00; C05G3/08; C07F7/08; C07F7/18
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MAIWALD PATENTANWALTS- UND RECHTSANWALTSGESELLSCHAFT MBH (Eva Dörner, Postfach 33 05 23, München, 80065, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. Use of a silylethynyl hetaryl compound of formula I

or a salt, stereoisomer, tautomer or N-oxide thereof as a nitrification inhibitor,

wherein

Z is H, C1-C4-alkyl, C-i-C4-haloalkyl, C C^alkoxy, CrC4-haloalkoxy, phenyl, or A; or

-(CH2)2-Si(CH3)2-CºC-A, or -[0-Si(CH3)2]m -CºC-A;

and wherein

A is a 5- or 6-membered hetaryl group, which hetaryl group contains one or more, same or different heteroatoms, N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which hetaryl group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more, same or different substituents RA;

RA is CN, N02, halogen, C C4-alkyl, C^Orhaloalkyl, ORa, NRbRc, C(=0)Ra, C(=0)0Ra, C(=0)NRbRc, or S(=0)nRd;

wherein

Ra is H, C-i-C4-alkyl, CrC^haloalkyl, CrC^hydroxyalkyl, phenyl, or phenyl-CrC^alkyl;

Rb and Rc are independently of each other H, CrC^alkyl, C(=0)Rd, or S(=0)nRd; or

Rb and Rc may together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a 5- or 6-mem- bered heterocyclyl or hetaryl group, which group may contain one or more, same or differ- ent additional heteroatoms N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which group is un- substituted or substituted by one or more, same or different substituents Ra;

phenyl;

2. The use of claim 1 , wherein

A is a pyridine or pyrazine group, which group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more, same or different substituents RA as defined in claim 1.

3. The use of claim 1 or 2, wherein

A is selected from the following groups A1 , A2, and A3 wherein § represents the bond to the silylethynyl moiety,

wherein RA is as defined in claim 1 , and

wherein o is 0, 1 , or 2.

4. The use of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein

RA is halogen, C1-C4-alkyl, C-|-C4-haloalkyl, or C-|-C4-alkoxy.

5. The use of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein

Z is H, CH3I or CH2CI.

6. A composition for use in reducing nitrification comprising at least one compound of for- mula I as defined in any one of claims 1 to 5 and at least one carrier.

7. An agrochemical mixture comprising (i) at least one fertilizer; and (ii) at least one corn- pound of formula I as defined in any one of claims 1 to 5, or the composition of claim 6.

8. The use of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein said compound of formula I is used in combi- nation with a fertilizer, optionally in the form of the agrochemical mixture of claim 7.

9. The use of any one of claims 1 to 5 or 8, wherein said reduction of nitrification occurs in or on a plant, in the root zone of a plant, in or on soil or soil substituents and/or at the locus where a plant is growing or is intended to grow.

10. A method for reducing nitrification, comprising treating a plant growing on soil or soil sub- stituents and/or the locus or soil or soil substituents where the plant is growing or is intended to grow with at least one compound of formula I as defined in any one of claims 1 to 5, or a corn- position as defined in claim 6.

1 1. The method of claim 10, wherein the plant and/or the locus or soil or soil substituents where the plant is growing or is intended to grow is additionally provided with a fertilizer.

12. The method of claim 10 or 11 , wherein the application of said compound of formula I and of said fertilizer is carried out simultaneously or with a time lag, preferably an interval of 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks.

13. A method for treating a fertilizer or a composition, comprising the application of a nitrifica- tion inhibitor as defined in any one of claims 1 to 5.

14. The agrochemical mixture of claim 7, the use of claim 8 or 9, or the method of any one of claims 11 to 13, wherein said fertilizer is an solid or liquid ammonium-containing inorganic fertil izer such as an NPK fertilizer, ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate, ammonium sul- fate nitrate, ammonium sulfate or ammonium phosphate; an solid or liquid organic fertilizer such as liquid manure, semi-liquid manure, biogas manure, stable manure and straw manure, worm castings, compost, seaweed or guano, or an urea-containing fertilizer such as urea, formaldehyde urea, anhydrous ammonium, urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution, urea sul- phur, urea based NPK-fertilizers, or urea ammonium sulfate.

15. The use of claim 9 or 14 or the method of any one of claims 10 to 12 or 14, wherein said plant is an agricultural plant such as wheat, barley, oat, rye, soybean, corn, potatoes, oilseed rape, canola, sunflower, cotton, sugar cane, sugar beet, rice, or a vegetable such as spinach, lettuce, asparagus, or cabbages; or sorghum; a silvicultural plant; an ornamental plant; or a hor- ticultural plant, each in its natural or in a genetically modified form.

Description:
SILYLETHYNYL HETARYL COMPOUNDS AS NITRIFICATION INHIBITORS

Description

The present invention relates to novel nitrification inhibitors of formula I, which are silylethynyl hetaryl compounds. Moreover, the invention relates to the use of compounds of formula I as ni- trification inhibitors, i.e. for reducing nitrification, as well as agrochemical mixtures and composi- tions comprising the nitrification inhibitors of formula I. Further encompassed by the present in- vention are methods for reducing nitrification, said methods comprising the treatment of plants, soil and/or loci where the plant is growing or is intended to grow with said nitrification inhibitor and methods for treating a fertilizer or a composition by applying said nitrification inhibitor.

Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and reproduction. About 25% of the plant available nitrogen in soils (ammonium and nitrate) originate from decomposition processes (mineralization) of organic nitrogen compounds such as humus, plant and animal residues and organic fertilizers. Approximately 5% derive from rainfall. On a global basis, the biggest part (70%), however, is supplied to the plant by inorganic nitrogen fertilizers. The mainly used nitro- gen fertilizers comprise ammonium compounds or derivatives thereof, i.e. nearly 90% of the ni- trogen fertilizers applied worldwide is in the NH 4 + form (Subbarao et al., 2012, Advances in Agronomy, 1 14, 249-302). This is, inter alia, due to the fact that NH 4 + assimilation is energeti- cally more efficient than assimilation of other nitrogen sources such as N0 3 .

Moreover, being a cation, NH 4 + is held electrostatically by the negatively charged clay surfaces and functional groups of soil organic matter. This binding is strong enough to limit NH 4 + -loss by leaching to groundwater. By contrast, N0 3 , being negatively charged, does not bind to the soil and is liable to be leached out of the plants' root zone. In addition, nitrate may be lost by denitri fication which is the microbiological conversion of nitrate and nitrite (N0 2 ) to gaseous forms of nitrogen such as nitrous oxide (N 2 0) and molecular nitrogen (N 2 ).

However, ammonium (NH 4 + ) compounds are converted by soil microorganisms to nitrates (N0 3 ) in a relatively short time in a process known as nitrification. The nitrification is carried out primarily by two groups of chemolithotrophic bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) of the genus Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter, which are ubiquitous component of soil bacteria popula- tions. The enzyme, which is essentially responsible for nitrification is ammonia monooxygenase (AMO), which was also found in ammonia-oxidizing archaea (Subbarao et al., 2012, Advances in Agronomy, 1 14, 249-302).

The nitrification process typically leads to nitrogen leakage and environmental pollution. As a result of the various losses, approximately 50% of the applied nitrogen fertilizers are lost during the year following fertilizer addition (see Nelson and Huber; Nitrification inhibitors for corn pro- duction (2001 ), National Corn Handbook, Iowa State University).

As countermeasure, the use of nitrification inhibitors, mostly together with fertilizers, was sug- gested. Suitable nitrification inhibitors include biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs) such as linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate, MHPP, Karanjin, brachialacton or the p-benzoquinone sorgoleone (Subbarao et al., 2012, Advances in Agron- omy, 1 14, 249-302). Further suitable nitrification inhibitors are synthetic chemical inhibitors such as nitrapyrin, dicyandiamide (DCD), 3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate (DMPP), 4-amino-1 ,2,4- triazole hydrochloride (ATC), 1-amido-2 -thiourea (ASU), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine (AM), 5-ethoxy-3-trichloromethyl-1 ,2,4-thiodiazole (terrazole), or 2-sulfanilamidothiazole (ST) (Slangen and Kerkhoff, 1984, Fertilizer research, 5(1 ), 1-76).

However, many of these inhibitors only work sub-optimal. In addition, the world population is expected to grow significantly in the next 20-30 years, and, therefore, food production in suffi- cient quantities and quality is necessary. In order to achieve this, the use of nitrogen fertilizers would have to double by 2050. For environmental reasons, this is not possible, since nitrate levels in drinking water, eutrophication of surface water and gas emissions into the air have already reached critical levels in many places, causing water contamination and air pollution. However, fertilizer efficiency increases significantly and less fertilizer may therefore be applied, if nitrification inhibitors are used. Therefore, there is a clear need for novel nitrification inhibitors, as well as for methods using them.

It was already discovered in 1986 that certain acetylene compounds including 2-ethynylpyri- dine and phenylacetylene compare favorably with the nitrification inhibitors nitrapyrin and etridi- azole (G. W. McCarty and J. M. Bremner, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., Vol. 50, 1986, pp. 1 198-1201 ).

US 3,533,774 discloses ethynylpyridine compounds as nitrification inhibitors with 3- ethynylpyridine being particularly preferred. However, it has been found that these compounds are disadvantageous, in particular in view of their rather high volatility.

It was an object of the present invention to provide improved nitrification inhibitors.

In particular, it was an object of the present invention to provide nitrification inhibitors, which have a high activity as nitrification inhibitors, but at the same time have a reduced volatility in comparison to the nitrification inhibitors described in the prior art.

Furthermore, it was an object of the present invention to provide nitrification inhibitors, which may cost-effectively be prepared, and which are environmentally safe.

It has surprisingly been found that these objects can be achieved by the nitrification inhibitors according to the present invention, which are silylethynyl hetaryl compounds of formula I

or the salts, stereoisomers, tautomers or N-oxides thereof,

wherein

Z is H, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, (VC^haloalkyl, (VC -alkoxy, CrC -haloalkoxy, phenyl, or A; or

-(CH 2 ) 2 -Si(CH 3 ) 2 -CºC-A, or -[0-Si(CH 3 ) 2 ] m -CºC-A;

and wherein

A is a 5- or 6-membered hetaryl group, which hetaryl group contains one or more, same or different heteroatoms, N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which hetaryl group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more, same or different substituents R A ;

R A is CN, N0 2 , halogen, CrC 4 -alkyl, C^Orhaloalkyl, OR a , NR b R c , C(=0)R a , C(=0)OR a , C(=0)NR b R c , or S(=0) n R d ; wherein

R a is H, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, (VC^haloalkyl, (VC -hydroxyalkyl, phenyl, or phenyl-C 1 -C 2 -alkyl;

R b and R c are independently of each other H, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, C(=0)R d , or S(=0) n R d ; or

R b and R c may together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a 5- or 6-mem- bered heterocyclyl or hetaryl group, which group may contain one or more, same or differ- ent additional heteroatoms N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which group is un- substituted or substituted by one or more, same or different substituents R a ;

haloalkyl, or phenyl;

The inventors surprisingly found that by applying the compounds of formula I as defined above and hereinafter the nitrification of ammonium to nitrate can significantly be reduced. Further- more, the compounds of formula I surprisingly exhibit a low toxicity and a low volatility.

Thus, according to one embodiment, the present invention relates to the use of a silylethynyl hetaryl compound of formula I

or a salt, stereoisomer, tautomer or N-oxide thereof as a nitrification inhibitor,

wherein

Z is H, CrC^alkyl, (VC^haloalkyl, (VC -alkoxy, CrC -haloalkoxy, phenyl, or A; or

-(CH 2 ) 2 -Si(CH 3 ) 2 -CºC-A, or -[0-Si(CH 3 ) 2 ] m -CºC-A;

and wherein

A is a 5- or 6-membered hetaryl group, which hetaryl group contains one or more, same or different heteroatoms, N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which hetaryl group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more, same or different substituents R A ;

R A is CN, N0 2 , halogen, C C 4 -alkyl, Ci-C 4 -haloalkyl, OR a , NR b R c , C(=0)R a , C(=0)0R a , C(=0)NR b R c , or S(=0) n R d ;

wherein

R a is H, CrC 4 -alkyl, CrC^haloalkyl, (VC -hydroxyalkyl, phenyl, or phenyl-CVC^-alkyl;

R b and R c are independently of each other H, C^-C -alkyl, C(=0)R d , or S(=0) n R d ; or

R b and R c may together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a 5- or 6-mem- bered heterocyclyl or hetaryl group, which group may contain one or more, same or differ- ent additional heteroatoms N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which group is un- substituted or substituted by one or more, same or different substituents R a ;

-haloalkyl, or phenyl;

In one preferred embodiment of said use, in said compound of formula I

A is a pyridine or pyrazine group, which group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more, same or different substituents R A as defined in claim 1.

In another preferred embodiment of said use, in said compound of formula I A is selected from the following groups A1 , A2, and A3 wherein § represents the bond to the silylethynyl moiety,

wherein R A is as defined in claim 1 , and

wherein o is 0, 1 , or 2.

In another preferred embodiment of said use, in said compound of formula I

R A is halogen, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, C- | -C 4 -haloalkyl, or C- | -C 4 -alkoxy.

In another preferred embodiment of said use, in said compound of formula I

Z is H, CH 3 , or CH 2 CI.

In a further aspect, the present invention relates to an agrochemical composition for use in re- ducing nitrification, comprising at least one compound of formula I as defined above and at least one carrier.

In a further aspect, the present invention relates to an agrochemical mixture comprising at least one fertilizer and at least one compound of formula I as defined above; or at least one fer- tilizer and a composition as mentioned above for use in reducing nitrification.

In a preferred embodiment, said compound of formula I as defined above is used for reducing nitrification in combination with a fertilizer. In a further specific embodiment, said compound of formula I as defined above is used for reducing nitrification in combination with a fertilizer in the form of an agrochemical mixture as mentioned above. In a further preferred embodiment, said reduction of nitrification as mentioned above occurs in or on a plant, in the root zone of a plant, in or on soil or soil substituents and/or at the locus where a plant is growing or is intended to grow.

In another aspect, the present invention relates to a method for reducing nitrification, compris- ing treating a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus or soil or soil sub- stituents where the plant is growing or is intended to grow with at least one compound of for- mula I as defined above, or with an agrochemical composition as defined above. In a preferred embodiment of the method, the plant and/or the locus or soil or soil substituents where the plant is growing or is intended to grow is additionally provided with a fertilizer. In a further preferred embodiment of the method, the application of the nitrification inhibitor, i.e. the compound of for- mula I, and of said fertilizer is carried out simultaneously or with a time lag. In a particularly pre- ferred embodiment, said time lag is an interval of 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5, days, 6 days, 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks. In case of application with a time lag, the nitrification inhibitor may be applied first and then the fertilizer. In a further preferred embodiment of the method, in a first step the nitrification inhibitor as defined above is applied to seeds, to a plant and/or to the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow and in a second step the fertilizer is applied to a plant and/or to the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow, wherein the appli cation of a said nitrification inhibitor in the first step and the fertilizer in the second step is carried out with a time lag of at least 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5, days, 6 days, 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks. In other embodiments of application with a time lag, a fertilizer may be applied first and then the nitrification inhibitor as defined above may be applied. In a further preferred em- bodiment of the method, in a first step a fertilizer is applied to a plant and/or to the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow and in a second step the nitrification inhibitor as de- fined above is applied to seeds, to a plant and/or to the locus where the plant is growing or is in- tended to grow, wherein the application of a said fertilizer in the first step and said nitrification inhibitor in the second step is carried out with a time lag of at least 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5, days, 6 days, 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks.

In a preferred embodiment of the use, agrochemical mixture or method of the invention, said fertilizer is a solid or liquid ammonium-containing inorganic fertilizer such as an NPK fertilizer, ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate nitrate, ammonium sulfate or ammonium phosphate; a solid or liquid organic fertilizer such as liquid manure, semi-liquid ma- nure, stable manure, biogas manure and straw manure, worm castings, compost, seaweed or guano, or an urea-containing fertilizer such as urea, formaldehyde urea, urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution, urea sulphur, urea based NPK-fertilizers, or urea ammonium sulfate.

In a further preferred embodiment of the use or method of the invention, said plant is an agri- cultural plant such as wheat, barley, oat, rye, soybean, corn, potatoes, oilseed rape, canola, sunflower, cotton, sugar cane, sugar beet, rice or a vegetable such as spinach, lettuce, aspara- gus, or cabbages; or sorghum; a silvicultural plant; an ornamental plant; or a horticultural plant, each in its natural or in a genetically modified form.

The compounds of formula I can be prepared by standard processes of organic chemistry. For example, the silylethynyl substituent may be introduced by metal catalyzed cross-coupling reac- tions with hetaryl halides. For example, the Sonogashira reaction employing palladium catalysts can be used for the preparation of silylethynylpyridine compounds. Silylethynylpyridine corn- pounds may also be prepared by addition of metallated acetylene derivatives to activated pyrid- ine intermediates such as pyridine N-oxides or related compounds without resorting to the use of palladium.

Suitable methods of preparing the compounds of formula I may be derived from methods de- scribed in the literature (T. R. Webb, Tetrahedron Letters 1985, Vol. 26, No. 27, pp. 3194; T. Sakamoto, Synthesis 1983, pp. 312-314). The preparation of trimethylsilylacetylene, which is the relevant precursor for these reactions may be obtained according to Organic Synthesis,

Coll. Vol. 8, p. 606 (1993); Vol. 65, p. 61 (1987).

Before describing in detail exemplary embodiments of the present invention, definitions impor- tant for understanding the present invention are given.

As used in this specification and in the appended claims, the singular forms of "a" and "an" also include the respective plurals unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. In the context of the present invention, the terms "about" and "approximately" denote an interval of accuracy that a person skilled in the art will understand to still ensure the technical effect of the feature in question. The term typically indicates a deviation from the indicated numerical value of ±20 %, preferably ±15 %, more preferably ±10 %, and even more preferably ±5 %. It is to be under- stood that the term "comprising" is not limiting. For the purposes of the present invention the term "consisting of" is considered to be a preferred embodiment of the term "comprising of". If hereinafter a group is defined to comprise at least a certain number of embodiments, this is meant to also encompass a group which preferably consists of these embodiments only. Fur- thermore, the terms "first", "second", "third" or "(a)", "(b)", "(c)", "(d)" etc. and the like in the de- scription and in the claims, are used for distinguishing between similar elements and not neces- sarily for describing a sequential or chronological order. It is to be understood that the terms so used are interchangeable under appropriate circumstances and that the embodiments of the in- vention described herein are capable of operation in other sequences than described or illus trated herein. In case the terms "first", "second", "third" or "(a)", "(b)", "(c)", "(d)", "i", "ii" etc. re- late to steps of a method or use or assay there is no time or time interval coherence between the steps, i.e. the steps may be carried out simultaneously or there may be time intervals of sec- onds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months or even years between such steps, unless other- wise indicated in the application as set forth herein above or below. It is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the particular methodology, protocols, reagents etc. described herein as these may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention that will be limited only by the appended claims. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meanings as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.

The term "nitrification inhibitor" is to be understood in this context as a chemical substance which slows down or stops the nitrification process. Nitrification inhibitors accordingly retard the natural transformation of ammonium into nitrate, by inhibiting the activity of bacteria such as Ni- trosomonas spp .The term "nitrification" as used herein is to be understood as the biological oxi- dation of ammonia (NH 3 ) or ammonium (NH 4 + ) with oxygen into nitrite (N0 2 ) followed by the oxi- dation of these nitrites into nitrates (N0 3 ) by microorganisms. Besides nitrate (N0 3 ) nitrous ox ide is also produced through nitrification. Nitrification is an important step in the nitrogen cycle in soil. The inhibition of nitrification may thus also reduce N 2 0 losses. The term nitrification in- hibitor is considered equivalent to the use of such a compound for inhibiting nitrification

The term "compound(s) according to the invention", or "compounds of formula I" comprises the compound(s) as defined herein as well as a stereoisomer, salt, tautomer or N-oxide thereof. The term "compound(s) of the present invention" is to be understood as equivalent to the term "compound(s) according to the invention", therefore also comprising a stereoisomer, salt, tau- tomer or N-oxide thereof.

Depending on the substitution pattern, the compounds according to the invention may have one or more centers of chirality, in which case they are present as mixtures of enantiomers or diastereomers. The invention provides both the single pure enantiomers or pure diastereomers of the compounds according to the invention, and their mixtures and the use according to the in- vention of the pure enantiomers or pure diastereomers of the compounds according to the in- vention or their mixtures. Suitable compounds according to the invention also include all pos- sible geometrical stereoisomers (cis/trans isomers) and mixtures thereof. Cis/trans isomers may be present with respect to an alkene, carbon-nitrogen double-bond or amide group. The term "stereoisomer(s)" encompasses both optical isomers, such as enantiomers or diastereomers, the latter existing due to more than one center of chirality in the molecule, as well as geomet- rical isomers (cis/trans isomers). The present invention relates to every possible stereoisomer of the compounds of formula I, i.e. to single enantiomers or diastereomers, as well as to mixtures thereof.

The compounds of formula I may be amorphous or may exist in one or more different crys- talline states (polymorphs) which may have different macroscopic properties such as stability or show different biological properties such as activities. The present invention relates to amor- phous and crystalline compounds of formula I, mixtures of different crystalline states of the re- spective compound I, as well as amorphous or crystalline salts thereof.

Salts of the compounds of the formula I are preferably agriculturally acceptable salts. They can be formed in a customary manner, e.g. by reacting the compound with an acid of the anion in question if the compound of formula I has a basic functionality. Agriculturally useful salts of the compounds of formula I encompass especially the acid addition salts of those acids whose cations and anions, respectively, have no adverse effect on the mode of action of the corn- pounds of formula I. Anions of useful acid addition salts are primarily chloride, bromide, fluoride, hydrogensulfate, sulfate, dihydrogenphosphate, hydrogenphosphate, phosphate, nitrate, bicar- bonate, carbonate, hexafluorosilicate, hexafluorophosphate, benzoate, and the anions of C 1 -C 4 - alkanoic acids, preferably formate, acetate, propionate and butyrate. They can preferably be formed by reacting compounds of formula I with an acid of the corresponding anion, preferably of hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid or nitric acid.

The term "N-oxide" includes any compound of formula I, wherein a tertiary nitrogen atom, e.g. the pyridine nitrogen atom, is oxidized to an N-oxide moiety.

Tautomers of the compounds of formula I may be present, if, e.g., any one of the substituents at the aromatic ring has tautomeric forms. Preferred tautomers include keto-enol tautomers.

The organic moieties mentioned in the above definitions of the variables are - like the term halogen - collective terms for individual listings of the individual group members. The prefix C n - C m indicates in each case the possible number of carbon atoms in the group.

The term "halogen" denotes in each case fluorine, bromine, chlorine or iodine, in particular flu orine, chlorine or bromine. Preferred halogens according to the invention are chlorine and fluo- rine, especially chlorine.

The term "alkyl" as used herein denotes in each case a straight-chain or branched alkyl group having usually from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, especially 1 or 2 carbon atoms. Preferred alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, 2-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, 1-methylbutyl, 2-methylbutyl, 3-methylbutyl, and 2,2-dimethyl- propyl. Methyl and ethyl are particularly preferred.

The term "hydroxyalkyl" as used herein denotes in each case a straight-chain or branched alkyl group having usually from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, espe- cially 1 or 2 carbon atoms, wherein the hydrogen atoms of this group are partially or totally re- placed with hydroxyl groups. Preferred hydroxyalkyl groups include hydroxymethyl and hydrox- yethyl.

The term "haloalkyl" as used herein denotes in each case a straight-chain or branched alkyl group having usually from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, especially 1 or 2 carbon atoms, wherein the hydrogen atoms of this group are partially or totally replaced with halogen atoms. Preferred haloalkyl moieties are selected from C 1 -C 4 -haloalkyl, more preferably from C- | -C 3 -haloalkyl or C 1 -C 2 -haloalkyl, in particular from C 1 -C 2 -fluoroalkyl such as fluoromethyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, 1-fluoroethyl, 2-fluoroethyl, 2,2-difluoroethyl, 2,2,2- trifluoroethyl, pentafluoroethyl, and the like. Tifluormethyl is particularly preferred according to the invention.

The term“alkoxy” as used herein denotes in each case a straight-chain or branched alkyl group, which is bonded via an oxygen group, having usually from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, prefer- ably from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, especially 1 or 2 carbon atoms. Examples of alkoxy groups are methoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, iso-propoxy, n-butyloxy, 2-butyloxy, iso-butyloxy, tert.-butyloxy, and the like.

The term“haloalkoxy” as used herein denotes in each case a straight-chain or branched alkoxy group having usually from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, es- pecially 1 or 2 carbon atoms, wherein the hydrogen atoms of this group are partially or totally re- placed with halogen atoms, in particular fluorine atoms. Preferred haloalkoxy moieties include C-i-C 4 -haloalkoxy, in particular C-i-C 2 -fluoroalkoxy, such as fluoromethoxy, difluoromethoxy, tri- fluoromethoxy, 1-fluoroethoxy, 2-fluoroethoxy, 2,2-difluoroethoxy, 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy, 2-chloro- 2-fluoroethoxy, 2-chloro-2,2-difluoro-ethoxy, 2,2dichloro-2-fluorethoxy, 2,2,2-trichloroethoxy, pentafluoroethoxy and the like.

The term "alkenyl" as used herein denotes in each case an at least singly unsaturated hydro- carbon radical, i.e. a hydrocarbon radical having at least one carbon-carbon double bond, hav- ing usually 2 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably 2 or 3 carbon atoms, e.g. vinyl, allyl (2-propen-1-yl),

1 -propen-1 -yl, 2-propen-2-yl, methallyl (2-methylprop-2-en-1-yl), 2-buten-1-yl, 3-buten-1-yl, 2- penten-1-yl, 3-penten-1-yl, 4-penten-1-yl, 1-methylbut-2-en-1-yl, 2-ethyl prop-2-en-1-yl and the like.

The term "alkynyl" as used herein denotes in each case a hydrocarbon radical having at least one carbon-carbon triple bond and having usually 2 to 4, preferably 2 or 3 carbon atoms or 3 or 4 carbon atoms, e.g. ethynyl, propargyl (2-propyn-1-yl, also referred to as prop-2-yn-1-yl), 1- propyn-1-yl (also referred to as prop-1 -yn-1-yl), 1-methylprop-2-yn-1-yl, 2-butyn-1-yl, 3-butyn-1- yl, 1-pentyn-1-yl, 3-pentyn-1-yl, 4-pentyn-1-yl, 1-methylbut-2-yn-1-yl, 1-ethylprop-2-yn-1-yl and the like. A preferred alkynyl group according to the invention is ethynyl.

The term "phenylalkyl” as used herein denotes a phenyl group, which is bonded via an alkyl group, preferably a CrC 2 -alkyl group, in particular a methyl group (= phenylmethyl), to the re- mainder of the molecule. The most preferred phenylalkyl group is benzyl.

The term“hetaryl” includes monocyclic 5- or 6-membered heteroaromatic radicals comprising as ring members 1 , 2, 3 or 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S. Examples of 5- or 6-membered heteroaromatic radicals include pyridyl, i.e. 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, i.e.

2-, 4- or 5-pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, i.e. 3- or 4-pyridazinyl, furyl, i.e. 2-or 3-furyl, pyrrolyl, i.e. 2- or 3-pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, i.e. 2-, 3- or 5-oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, i.e. 3-, 4- or 5-isoxa- zolyl, thiazolyl, i.e. 2-, 3- or 5-thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, i.e. 3-, 4- or 5-isothiazolyl, pyrazolyl, i.e. 1-,

3-, 4- or 5-pyrazolyl, i.e. 1-, 2-, 4- or 5-imidazolyl, oxadiazolyl, e.g. 2- or 5-[1 ,3,4]oxadiazolyl,

4- or 5-(1 ,2,3-oxadiazol)yl, 3- or 5-(1 ,2,4-oxadiazol)yl, 2- or 5-(1 ,3,4-thiadiazol)yl, thiadiazolyl, e.g. 2- or 5-(1 ,3,4-thiadiazol)yl, 4- or 5-(1 ,2,3-thiadiazol)yl, 3- or 5-(1 ,2,4-thiadiazol)yl, triazolyl, e.g. 1 H-, 2H- or 3H-1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl, 2H-triazol-3-yl, 1 H-, 2H-, or 4H-1 ,2,4-triazolyl and tetra- zolyl, i.e. 1 H- or 2H-tetrazolyl. Particular preferred hetaryl groups according to the invention in- clude pyridine and pyrazine groups.

The term“heterocycle” or "heterocyclyl" includes 5- or 6-membered, in particular 6-membered monocyclic heterocyclic non-aromatic radicals. The heterocyclic non-aromatic radicals usually comprise 1 , 2, 3, 4, or 5, preferably 1 , 2 or 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S as ring members, where S-atoms as ring members may be present as S, SO or S0 2 . Ex- amples of 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic radicals comprise saturated or unsaturated, non-aro- matic heterocyclic rings, such as oxiranyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, thietanyl-S-oxid (S-oxothietanyl), thietanyl-S-dioxid (S-dioxothiethanyl), pyrrolidinyl, pyrrolinyl, pyrazolinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, di- hydrofuranyl, 1 ,3-dioxolanyl, thiolanyl, S-oxothiolanyl, S-dioxothiolanyl, dihydrothienyl, S-oxodi- hydrothienyl, S-dioxodihydrothienyl, oxazolidinyl, oxazolinyl, thiazolinyl, oxathiolanyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, pyranyl, dihydropyranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, 1 ,3- and 1 ,4-dioxanyl, thiopyranyl, S.ox- othiopyranyl, S-dioxothiopyranyl, dihydrothiopyranyl, S-oxodihydrothiopyranyl, S-dioxodihydro- thiopyranyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, S-oxotetrahydrothiopyranyl, S-dioxotetrahydrothiopyranyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, S-oxothiomorpholinyl, S-dioxothiomorpholinyl, thiazinyl and the like. Examples for heterocyclic rings also comprising 1 or 2 carbonyl groups as ring members comprise pyrrolidin-2-onyl, pyrrolidin-2,5-dionyl, imidazolidin-2-onyl, oxazolidin-2-onyl, thiazolidin-2-onyl and the like.

As has been set out above, the present invention concerns in one aspect the use of a silylethynyl hetaryl compound of formula I

or a salt, stereoisomer, tautomer or N-oxide thereof as a nitrification inhibitor,

wherein

Z is H, CrC 4 -alkyl, Ci-C 4 -haloalkyl, Ci-C 4 -alkoxy, CrC 4 -haloalkoxy, phenyl, or A; or

-(CH 2 ) 2 -Si(CH 3 ) 2 -CºC-A, or -[0-Si(CH 3 ) 2 ] m -CºC-A;

and wherein

A is a 5- or 6-membered hetaryl group, which hetaryl group contains one or more, same or different heteroatoms, N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which hetaryl group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more, same or different substituents R A ;

R A is CN, N0 2 , halogen, C C 4 -alkyl, C^Orhaloalkyl, OR a , NR b R c , C(=0)R a , C(=0)0R a , C(=0)NR b R c , or S(=0) n R d ;

wherein

R a is H, C-i-C 4 -alkyl, Ci-C -haloalkyl, (VC -hydroxyalkyl, phenyl, or phenyl-CVC^-alkyl;

R b and R c are independently of each other H, C^-C -alkyl, C(=0)R d , or S(=0) n R d ; or

R b and R c may together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a 5- or 6-mem- bered heterocyclyl or hetaryl group, which group may contain one or more, same or differ- ent additional heteroatoms N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which group is un- substituted or substituted by one or more, same or different substituents R a ;

R d is C-i-C 4 -alkyl, CrC -haloalkyl, or phenyl; m is ³ 1 ;

n is 0, 1 , or 2.

Furthermore, the present invention concerns compositions and agrochemical mixtures corn- prising the compounds of formula I, and methods of applying the compounds of formula I.

Preferred embodiments regarding the compounds of formula I, which are relevant for all as- pects of the invention, are defined hereinafter.

In one embodiment of the invention, in the compound of formula I,

A is a 5- or 6-membered hetaryl group, which hetaryl group contains one or more, same or different heteroatoms, N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which hetaryl group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more, same or different substituents R A ; wherein R A is CN, N0 2 , halogen, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, CVC^haloalkyl, OR a , NR b R c , C(=0)R a , C(=0)0R a , C(=0)NR b R c , or S(=0) n R d ;

In one preferred embodiment of the invention, in the compound of formula I,

A is pyridine or pyrazine, which group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more, same or different substituents R A as defined above.

In a more preferred embodiment,

A is selected from the following groups A1 , A2, and A3 wherein § represents the bond to the silylethynyl moiety,

wherein R A is as defined above, and

wherein o is 0, 1 , or 2.

Thus, the compound of formula I is preferably a compound of any one of the following formu- lae 1.1 , 1.2, or l.3.

In connection with compounds of formulae 1.1 , 1.2, or 1.3, it is preferred that o is 0 or 1 , i.e. that either R A is absent or only one R A is present.

Accordingly, the compound of formula I is in one particularly preferred embodiment a corn- pound of any one of formulae 1.1 (i), 1.1 (ii), 1.1 (iii), 1.1 (iv), or 1.1 (v) as depicted below. In another particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula I is a compound of any one of formulae l.2(i), 1.2(H), l .2(iii), l .2(iv), or l .2(v) as depicted below.

In another particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula I is a compound of any one of formulae l.3(i), 1.3(H), l .3(iii), or l .3(iv) as depicted below.

In another preferred embodiment of the invention, in the compound of formula I, and preferably in the compounds of formulae 1.1 , 1.2, or 1.3, and particularly in the compounds of formulae 1.1 (i),

1.1 (ii), l.1 (iii), 1.1 (iv), or 1.1 (v), or in the compounds of formulae l.2(i), l.2(ii), l.2(iii), l.2(iv), or l.2(v), or in the compounds of formulae l.3(i), l.3(ii), l.3(iii), or l.3(iv),

R A if present, is CN, N0 2 , halogen, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, (VC^haloalkyl, OR a , NR b R c , C(=0)R a ,

C(=0)OR a , C(=0)NR b R c , or S(=0) n R d ;

wherein

R a is H, CrC^alkyl, Ci-C^haloalkyl, C C^hydroxyalkyl, phenyl, or phenyl-C 1 -C 2 -alkyl;

R b and R c are independently of each other H, (VC^alkyl, C(=0)R d , or S(=0) n R d ; or

R b and R c may together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a 5- or 6-mem- bered heterocyclyl or hetaryl group, which group may contain one or more, same or differ- ent additional heteroatoms N, O, or S, wherein S may be oxidized, and which group is un- substituted or substituted by one or more, same or different substituents R a ;

phenyl;

and wherein preferably,

R a is H, CrC^alkyl, (VC^haloalkyl, (VC^hydroxyalkyl, phenyl, or phenyl-CVC^-alkyl;

R b and R c are independently of each other H, or CrC 4 -alkyl;

haloalkyl, or phenyl;

In a more preferred embodiment of the invention,

R A if present, is halogen, C- | -C 4 -alkyl, C- | -C 4 -haloalkyl, or C- | -C 4 -alkoxy.

In a preferred embodiment, R A is halogen or C- | -C 2 -alkyl.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, R A is Cl or CH 3 .

Thus, in connection with the compounds of formulae 1.1 , I.2, or 1.3 as defined above, it is par- ticularly preferred that R A , if present, is halogen or C- | -C 2 -alkyl, preferably Cl or CH 3 .

According to one preferred embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula I is a corn- pound of formula 1.1 , wherein o is 0 or 1 , and R A , if present, is Cl or CH 3 .

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula I is a compound of formula 1.2, wherein o is 0 or 1 , and R A , if present, is Cl or CH 3 .

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula I is a compound of formula 1.3, wherein o is 0 or 1 , and R A , if present, is Cl or CH 3 .

According to one particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula I is a compound of formula 1.1 (i).

According to one particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula I is a compound of any one of formulae 1.1 (ii), 1.1 (iii), 1.1 (iv), and 1.1 (v), wherein R A is Cl or CH 3 .

According to one particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula I is a compound of formula l.2(i).

According to one particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula I is a compound of any one of formulae l.2(ii), l.2(iii), l.2(iv), and l.2(v), wherein R A is Cl or CH 3 . According to one particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula I is a compound of formula l.3(i).

According to one particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula I is a compound of any one of formulae l.3(ii), l.3(iii), or l.3(iv), wherein R A is Cl or CH 3 .

In another embodiment of the invention, in the compound of formula I, and preferably in the compounds of formulae 1.1 , 1.2, or 1.3, and particularly in the compounds of formulae 1.1 (i), 1.1 (ii), 1.1 (iii), 1.1 (iv), or 1.1 (v), or in the compounds of formulae l.2(i), l.2(ii), l.2(iii), l.2(iv), or l.2(v), or in the compounds of formulae l.3(i), l.3(ii), l.3(iii), or l.3(iv),

Z is H, C 1 -C 4 -alkyl, phenyl, or A; or

-(CH 2 ) 2 -Si(CH 3 ) 2 -

wherein

m is ³ 1 ;

and preferably

Z is -[0-Si(CH 3 ) 2 ]-CºC-A, wherein A is preferably pyridine or pyrazine, in particular 2-pyri- dine, or

Z is phenyl, or

Z is H, CH 3 , or CH 2 CI;

and particularly preferably

Z is CH 3 .

In one preferred embodiment of the invention, in the compound of formula I,

Z is -[0-Si(CH 3 ) 2 ]-CºC-A, wherein A is as defined above, and wherein preferably A is pyri dine or pyrazine, in particular 2-pyridine (2-py).

Such compounds are referred to as compound of formula I.Za.

In another preferred embodiment of the invention, in the compound of formula I,

Z is phenyl.

Such compounds are referred to as compound of formula I. Zb.

In yet another preferred embodiment of the invention, in the compound of formula I,

Z is H, CH 3 , or CH 2 CI, preferably CH 3 . Such compounds are referred to as compounds of formulae I.Zc, I.Zd, or I.Ze, respectively, of which the compounds of formula I.Zd with Z = CH 3 are preferred. It is noted that the compounds of formula I.Ze are preferably present in the form of salts, preferably hydrochloride salts.

It is to be understood that the above preferences with regard to the group A also apply to the above formulae I.Za, I. Zb, I.Zc, I.Zd, and I.Ze.

Thus, particularly preferred compounds of the invention are compounds of formula I.I .Za,

1.1. Zb, I.I .Zc, 1.1. Zd, or 1.1.Ze, which are depicted below. It is noted that the compounds of for- mula I.I .Ze are preferably present in the form of salts, preferably hydrochloride salts.

The meaning of R A and o corresponds to the meanings provided above in connection with the compounds of formula I, in particular the compounds of formula 1.1 . Furthermore, it is preferred that o is 0 or 1 . If o is 1 , each of the positions at the pyridine ring may be realized by R A as indi cated in connection with the compounds of formulae 1.1 (ii), 1.1 (iii), 1.1 (iv), or 1.1 (v).

Further, particularly preferred compounds of the invention are compounds of formula l.2.Za, 1.2. Zb, l.2.Zc, l.2.Zd, or l.2.Ze, which are depicted below.

The meaning of R A and o corresponds to the meanings provided above in connection with the compounds of formula I, in particular the compounds of formula I.2. Furthermore, it is preferred that o is 0 or 1 . If o is 1 , each of the positions at the pyridine ring may be realized by R A as indi cated in connection with the compounds of formulae l.2(ii), l.2(iii), l.2(iv), or l.2(v).

Further, particularly preferred compounds of the invention are compounds of formula l.3.Za, 1.3. Zb, l.3.Zc, l.3.Zd, or l.3.Ze, which are depicted below.

The meaning of R A and o corresponds to the meanings provided above in connection with the compounds of formula I, in particular the compounds of formula 1.3. Furthermore, it is preferred that o is 0 or 1 . If o is 1 , each of the positions at the pyridine ring may be realized by R A as indi cated in connection with the compounds of formulae l.3(ii), l.3(iii), or l.3(iv).

In connection with the methods, uses, compositions, and mixtures of the invention, and in par- ticular with a view to their use, preference is given to the compounds of formula I compiled in the tables below. Each of the groups mentioned for a substituent in the tables is furthermore per se, independently of the combination in which it is mentioned, a particularly preferred aspect of the substituent in question.

Table 1

Compounds of the formula 1.1 (i), in which Z correspond in each case to one row of Table A Table 2

Compounds of the formula l.2(i), in which Z correspond in each case to one row of Table A Table 3

Compounds of the formula l.3(i), in which Z correspond in each case to one row of Table A

Table A

Table 4

Compounds of the formula 1.1 (H), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B

Table 5

Compounds of the formula 1.1 (iii), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B

Table 6

Compounds of the formula 1.1 (iv), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B

Table 7

Compounds of the formula 1.1 (v), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of T a- ble B

Table 8

Compounds of the formula l.2(ii), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B

Table 9

Compounds of the formula l.2(iii), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B

Table 10

Compounds of the formula l.2(iv), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B

Table 1 1

Compounds of the formula l.2(v), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B

Table 12

Compounds of the formula l.3(ii), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B

Table 13

Compounds of the formula l.3(iii), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B Table 14

Compounds of the formula l.3(iv), in which R A and Z correspond in each case to one row of Ta- ble B

Table B

It has been found that the compounds as defined in the above tables are not only advantage- ous in terms of reducing nitrification, but also in view of the fact that they have advantageous properties, e.g., in terms of their low volatility and/or their environmental safety. Furthermore, the compounds according to the present invention can cost-efficiently be prepared.

In a central aspect the present invention thus relates to the use of a compound of formula I as defined herein as a nitrification inhibitor, or to the use of a composition comprising said corn- pound of formula I as defined herein for reducing nitrification. The compound of formula I or de- rivatives or salts thereof as defined herein, in particular the compounds of formula I and/or salts or suitable derivatives thereof, as well as compositions comprising said compound of formula I, or agrochemical mixtures comprising said compound of formula I may be used for reducing nitri fication.

The use may be based on the application of the nitrification inhibitor, the composition or the agrochemical mixture as defined herein to a plant growing on soil and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow, or the use may be based on the application of the nitrifi cation inhibitor, the composition or the agrochemical mixture as defined herein to soil where a plant is growing or is intended to grow or to soil substituents. In specific embodiments, the nitrifi- cation inhibitor may be used for reducing nitrification in the absence of plants, e.g. as prepara- tory activity for subsequent agricultural activity, or for reducing nitrification in other technical ar- eas, which are not related to agriculture, e.g. for environmental, water protection, energy pro- duction or similar purposes. In specific embodiments, the nitrification inhibitor, or a composition comprising said nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention may be used for the re- duction of nitrification in sewage, slurry, manure or dung of animals, e.g. swine or bovine feces. For example, the nitrification inhibitor, or a composition comprising said nitrification inhibitor ac- cording to the present invention may be used for the reduction of nitrification in sewage plants, biogas plants, cowsheds, liquid manure tanks or containers etc. Furthermore, the nitrification in- hibitor, or a composition comprising said nitrification inhibitor may be used in exhaust air sys- tems, preferably in exhaust air systems of stables or cowsheds. The present invention therefore also relates to the use of compounds of formula I for treating exhaust air, preferably the exhaust air of stables and cowsheds. In further embodiments, the nitrification inhibitor, or a composition comprising said nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention may be used for the re- duction of nitrification in situ in animals, e.g. in productive livestock. Accordingly, the nitrification inhibitor, or a composition comprising said nitrification inhibitor according to the present inven- tion may be fed to an animal, e.g. a mammal, for instance together with suitable feed and thereby lead to a reduction of nitrification in the gastrointestinal tract of the animals, which in turn is resulting in reduction of emissions from the gastrointestinal tract. This activity, i.e. the feeding of nitrification inhibitor, or a composition comprising said nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention may be repeated one to several times, e.g. each 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , 6 th , 7 th day, or each week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, or month, 2 months etc.

The use may further include the application of a nitrification inhibitor or derivatives or salts thereof as defined herein above, in particular compounds of formula I and/or salts or suitable derivatives thereof, as well as compositions comprising said nitrification inhibitor, or agrochemi- cal mixtures comprising said nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above to environments, ar- eas or zones, where nitrification takes place or is assumed or expected to take place. Such en- vironments, areas or zones may not comprise plants or soil. For example, the inhibitors may be used for nitrification inhibition in laboratory environments, e.g. based on enzymatic reactions or the like. Also envisaged is the use in green houses or similar indoor facilities.

The term "reducing nitrification" or "reduction of nitrification" as used herein refers to a slowing down or stopping of nitrification processes, e.g. by retarding or eliminating the natural transfor- mation of ammonium into nitrate. Such reduction may be a complete or partial elimination of ni- trification at the plant or locus where the inhibitor or composition comprising said inhibitor is ap- plied. For example, a partial elimination may result in a residual nitrification on or in the plant, or in or on the soil or soil substituents where a plant grows or is intended to grow of about 90% to 1 %, e.g. 90%, 85%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% or less than 10%, e.g. 5% or less than 5% in comparison to a control situation where the nitrification inhibitor is not used. In certain embodiments, a partial elimination may result in a residual nitrification on or in the plant or in or on the soil or soil substituents where a plant grows or is intended to grow of below 1 %, e.g. at 0.5%, 0.1 % or less in comparison to a control situation where the nitrification inhibitor is not used.

The use of a nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, or of a composition as defined herein for reducing nitrification may be a single use, or it may be a repeated use. As single use, the nitrification inhibitor or corresponding compositions may be provided to their target sites, e.g. soil or loci, or objects, e.g. plants, only once in a physiologically relevant time interval, e.g. once a year, or once every 2 to 5 years, or once during the lifetime of a plant.

In other embodiments, the use may be repeated at least once per time period, e.g. the nitrifica- tion inhibitor as defined herein above, or a composition as defined herein may be used for re- ducing nitrification at their target sites or objects two times within a time interval of days, weeks or months. The term "at least once" as used in the context of a use of the nitrification inhibitor means that the inhibitor may be used two times, or several times, i.e. that a repetition or multiple repetitions of an application or treatment with a nitrification inhibitor may be envisaged. Such a repetition may be a 2 times, 3 times, 4 times, 5 times, 6 times, 7 times, 8 times, 9 times, 10 times or more frequent repetition of the use.

The nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention may be used in any suitable form. For example, it may be used as coated or uncoated granule, in liquid or semi-liquid form, as sprayable entity, or in irrigation approaches etc. In specific embodiments, the nitrification in- hibitor as defined herein may be applied or used as such, i.e. without formulations, fertilizer, ad- ditional water, coatings, or any further ingredient.

The term "irrigation" as used herein refers to the watering of plants or loci or soils or soil sub- stituents where a plant grows or is intended to grow, wherein said watering includes the provi- sion of the nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention together with water.

In a further aspect the invention relates to a composition for reducing nitrification comprising at least one nitrification inhibitor wherein said nitrification inhibitor is a compound of formula I or a derivative as defined herein above; and at least one carrier.

The term " composition for reducing nitrification" as used herein refers to a composition which is suitable, e.g. comprises effective concentrations and amounts of ingredients such as nitrifica- tion inhibitors, in particular compounds of formula I or derivatives as defined herein, for reducing nitrification in any context or environment in which nitrification may occur. In one embodiment, the nitrification may be reduced in or on or at the locus of a plant. Typically, the nitrification may be reduced in the root zone of a plant. However, the area in which such reduction of nitrification may occur is not limited to the plants and their environment, but may also include any other habitat of nitrifying bacteria or any site at which nitrifying enzymatic activities can be found or can function in a general manner, e.g. sewage plants, biogas plants, animal effluents from pro- ductive livestock, e.g. cows, pigs etc.. "Effective amounts" or "effective concentrations" of nitrifi- cation inhibitors as defined herein may be determined according to suitable in vitro and in vivo testings known to the skilled person. These amounts and concentrations may be adjusted to the locus, plant, soil, climate conditions or any other suitable parameter which may have an influ- ence on nitrification processes.

A "carrier" as used herein is a substance or composition which facilitates the delivery and/or release of the ingredients to the place or locus of destination. The term includes, for instance, agrochemical carriers which facilitate the delivery and/or release of agrochemicals in their field of use, in particular on or into plants.

Examples of suitable carriers include solid carriers such as phytogels, or hydrogels, or mineral earths e.g. silicates, silica gels, talc, kaolins, limestone, lime, chalk, bole, loess, clays, dolomite, diatomaceous earth, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxide, ground synthetic materials, fertilizers, such as, e.g. an solid or liquid ammonium-containing inorganic fertilizer such as an NPK fertilizer, ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate ni- trate, ammonium sulfate or ammonium phosphate; an solid or liquid organic fertilizer such as liquid manure, semi-liquid manure, stable manure, biogas manure and straw manure, worm castings, compost, seaweed or guano, or an urea-containing fertilizer such as urea, formalde- hyde urea, anhydrous ammonium, urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution, urea sulphur, stabi- lized urea, urea based NPK-fertilizers, or urea ammonium sulfate, and products of vegetable origin, such as cereal meal, tree bark meal, wood meal and nutshell meal, cellulose powders and other solid carriers. Further suitable examples of carriers include fumed silica or precipi- tated silica, which may, for instance, be used in solid formulations as flow aid, anti-caking aid, milling aid and as carrier for liquid active ingredients. Additional examples of suitable carriers are microparticles, for instance microparticles which stick to plant leaves and release their con- tent over a certain period of time. In specific embodiments, agrochemical carriers such as com- posite gel microparticles that can be used to deliver plant-protection active principles, e.g. as described in US 6,180,141 ; or compositions comprising at least one phytoactive compound and an encapsulating adjuvant, wherein the adjuvant comprises a fungal cell or a fragment thereof, e.g. as described in WO 2005/102045; or carrier granules, coated with a lipophilic tackifier on the surface, wherein the carrier granule adheres to the surface of plants, grasses and weeds, e.g. as disclosed in US 2007/0280981 may be used. In further specific embodiments, such car- riers may include specific, strongly binding molecule which assure that the carrier sticks to the plant, the seed, and/or loci where the plant is growing or is intended to grow, till its content is completely delivered. For instance, the carrier may be or comprise cellulose binding domains (CBDs) have been described as useful agents for attachment of molecular species to cellulose (see US 6,124,1 17); or direct fusions between a CBD and an enzyme; or a multifunctional fu- sion protein which may be used for delivery of encapsulated agents, wherein the multifunctional fusion proteins may consist of a first binding domain which is a carbohydrate binding domain and a second binding domain, wherein either the first binding domain or the second binding do- main can bind to a microparticle (see also WO 03/031477). Further suitable examples of carri- ers include bifunctional fusion proteins consisting of a CBD and an anti-RR6 antibody fragment binding to a microparticle, which complex may be deposited onto treads or cut grass (see also WO 03/031477). In another specific embodiment the carrier may be active ingredient carrier granules that adhere to e.g. the surface of plants, grasses, weeds, seeds, and/or loci where the plant is growing or is intended to grow etc. using a moisture-active coating, for instance includ- ing gum arabic, guar gum, gum karaya, gum tragacanth and locust bean gum. Upon application of the inventive granule onto a plant surface, water from precipitation, irrigation, dew, co-appli- cation with the granules from special application equipment, or guttation water from the plant it- self may provide sufficient moisture for adherence of the granule to the plant surface (see also US 2007/0280981 ).

In another specific embodiment the carrier, e.g. an agrochemical carrier, may be or comprise polyaminoacids. Polyaminoacids may be obtained according to any suitable process, e.g. by polymerization of single or multiple amino acids such as glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, proline, tryptophan, serine, tyrosine, cysteine, methionine, as- paragine, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, arginine, histidine and/or or- nithine. Polyaminoacids may be combined with a nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention and, in certain embodiments, also with further carriers as mentioned herein above, or other nitrification inhibitors as mentioned herein in any suitable ratio. For example,

Polyaminoacids may be combined with a nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention in a ratio of 1 to 10 (polyaminoacids) vs. 0.5 to 2 (nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention).

The composition for reducing nitrification comprising at least one nitrification inhibitor as de- fined herein may further comprise additional ingredients, for example at least one pesticidal compound. For example, the composition may additionally comprise at least one herbicidal compound and/or at least one fungicidal compound and/or at least one insecticidal compound and/or at least one nematicide and/or at least one biopesticide and/or at least one biostimulant. In further embodiments, the composition may, in addition to the above indicated ingredients, in particular in addition to the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I, further comprise one or more alternative or additional nitrification inhibitors. Examples of envisaged alternative or additional nitrification inhibitors are linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate, methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate (MHPP), Karanjin, brachialacton, p-ben- zoquinone sorgoleone, 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine (nitrapyrin or N-serve), dicyandi- amide (DCD, DIDIN), 3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate (DMPP, ENTEC), 4-amino-1 , 2, 4-triazole hydrochloride (ATC), 1-amido-2-thiourea (ASU), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine (AM), 2- mercapto-benzothiazole (MBT), 5-ethoxy-3-trichloromethyl-1 ,2,4-thiodiazole (terrazole, etridia- zole), 2-sulfanilamidothiazole (ST), ammoniumthiosulfate (ATU), 3-methylpyrazol (3-MP), 3,5- dimethylpyrazole (DMP), 1 ,2,4-triazol thiourea (TU), N-(1 H-pyrazolyl-methyl)acetamides such as N-((3(5)-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl)acetamide, and N-(1 H-pyrazolyl-methyl)formamides such as N-((3(5)-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl formamide, N-(4-chloro-3(5)-methyl-pyrazole- 1-ylmethyl)-formamide, N-(3(5),4-dimethyl-pyrazole-1-ylmethyl)-formamide, neem, products based on ingredients of neem, cyan amide, melamine, zeolite powder, catechol, benzoquinone, sodium terta board, zinc sulfate.

In a preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2-chloro-6- (trichloromethyl)-pyridine (nitrapyrin or N-serve).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 5-ethoxy-3- trichloromethyl-1 ,2,4-thiodiazole (terrazole, etridiazole).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and dicyandi- amide (DCD, DIDIN).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 3,4- dimethyl pyrazole phosphate (DMPP, ENTEC).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2-amino-4- chloro-6-methylpyrimidine (AM).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2-mer- capto-benzothiazole (MBT).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2-sulfanil- amidothiazole (ST).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and ammoni- umthiosulfate (ATU). In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 3- methylpyrazol (3-MP).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 3,5- dimethylpyrazole (DMP).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 1 ,2,4-tria- zol.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and thiourea (TU).

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and linoleic acid.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and alpha- linolenic acid.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and methyl p- coumarate.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and methyl 3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate (MHPP).

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and methyl fer- ulate.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and Karanjin.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and brachialac- ton.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and p-benzo- quinone sorgoleone.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 4-amino- 1 ,2,4-triazole hydrochloride (ATC).

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 1-amido-2- thiourea (ASU). In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and N-((3(5)- methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl)acetamide.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and N-((3(5)- methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl formamide.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and N-(4- chloro-3(5)-methyl-pyrazole-1-ylmethyl)-formamide.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and N-(3(5),4- dimethyl-pyrazole-1-ylmethyl)-formamide.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and neem or products based on ingredients of neem.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and

cyanamide.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and melamine.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and zeolite powder.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and batechol.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and benzo- quinone.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and sodium terat borate.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and zinc sul- fate.

In further embodiments, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and two entities selected from the group comprising: linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl feru- late, methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate (MHPP), Karanjin, brachialacton, p-benzoquinone sorgoleone, 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine (nitrapyrin or N-serve), dicyandiamide (DCD, DIDIN), 3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate (DMPP, ENTEC), 4-amino-1 ,2,4-triazole hydrochloride (ATC), 1-amido-2-thiourea (ASU), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine (AM), 2-mercapto-ben- zothiazole (MBT), 5-ethoxy-3-trichloromethyl-1 ,2,4-thiodiazole (terrazole, etridiazole), 2-sulfanil- amidothiazole (ST), ammoniumthiosulfate (ATU), 3-methylpyrazol (3-MP), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMP), 1 ,2,4-triazol and thiourea (TU), N-(1 H-pyrazolyl-methyl)acetamides such as N-((3(5)- methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl)acetamide, and N-(1 H-pyrazolyl-methyl)formamides such as N- ((3(5)-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl formamide, N-(4-chloro-3(5)-methyl-pyrazole-1-ylmethyl)- formamide, or N-(3(5),4-dimethyl-pyrazole-1-ylmethyl)-formamide neem, products based on in- gredients of neem, cyan amide, melamine, zeolite powder, catechol, benzoquinone, sodium terta board, zinc sulfate.

In yet another group of embodiments, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and three, four or more entities selected from the group comprising: linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, methyl p- coumarate, methyl ferulate, methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate (MHPP), Karanjin, brachialacton, p-benzoquinone sorgoleone, 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine (nitrapyrin or N-serve), dicyandiamide (DCD, DIDIN), 3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate (DMPP, ENTEC), 4- amino-1 , 2, 4-triazole hydrochloride (ATC), 1-amido-2 -thiourea (ASU), 2-amino-4-chloro-6- methylpyrimidine (AM), 2-mercapto-benzothiazole (MBT), 5-ethoxy-3-trichloromethyl-1 ,2,4-thio- diazole (terrazole, etridiazole), 2-sulfanilamidothiazole (ST) ammoniumthiosulfate (ATU), 3- methylpyrazol (3-MP), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMP), 1 ,2,4-triazol and thiourea (TU), N-(1 H-pyra- zolyl-methyl)acetamides such as N-((3(5)-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl)acetamide, and N- (I H-pyrazolyl-methyl)formamides such as N-((3(5)-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl formamide, N-(4-chloro-3(5)-methyl-pyrazole-1 -ylmethyl)-formamide, or N-(3(5),4-dimethyl-pyrazole-1 -yl- methyl)-formamide neem, products based on ingredients of neem, cyan amide, melamine, zeo- lite powder, catechol, benzoquinone, sodium terta board, zinc sulfate.

In further embodiments, the composition may, in addition to the above indicated ingredients, in particular in addition to the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I, further comprise one or more urease inhibitors. Examples of envisaged urease inhibitors include N-(n-butyl) thio- phosphoric acid triamide (NBPT, Agrotain), N-(n-propyl) thiophosphoric acid triamide (NPPT), 2- nitrophenyl phosphoric triamide (2-NPT), further NXPTs known to the skilled person, phenylphosphorodiamidate (PPD/PPDA), hydroquinone, ammonium thiosulfate, and mixtures of NBPT and NPPT (see e.g. US 8,075,659). Such mixtures of NBPT and NPPT may comprise NBPT in amounts of from 40 to 95% wt.-% and preferably of 60 to 80% wt.-% based on the total amount of active substances. Such mixtures are marketed as LIMUS, which is a composition comprising about 16.9 wt.-% NBPT and about 5.6 wt.-% NPPT and about 77.5 wt.-% of other in- gredients including solvents and adjuvants.

In a preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and N-(n-butyl) thiophos- phoric acid triamide (NBPT, Agrotain).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and

phenylphosphorodiamidate (PPD/PPDA).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and N-(n- propyl) thiophosphoric acid triamide (NPPT). In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2-nitro- phenyl phosphoric triamide (2-NPT).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and hydro- quinone.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and ammonium thiosulfate.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and neem.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and

cyanamide.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and melamine.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and a mixture of NBPT and NPPT such as LIMUS.

In further embodiments, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and two or more entities selected from the group comprising: N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric acid triamide (NBPT, Agrotain), N-(n-propyl) thiophosphoric acid triamide (NPPT), 2-nitrophenyl phosphoric triamide (2-NPT), further NXPTs known to the skilled person, phenylphosphorodiamidate (PPD/PPDA), hydro- quinone, ammonium thiosulfate, and LIMUS.

In further embodiments, the composition may, in addition to one, more or all of the above indi- cated ingredients, in particular in addition to the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I, further comprise one or more plant growth regulators. Examples of envisaged plant growth regulators are antiauxins, auxins, cytokinins, defoliants, ethylene modulators, ethylene re- leasers, gibberellins, growth inhibitors, morphactins, growth retardants, growth stimulators, and further unclassified plant growth regulators.

Suitable examples of antiauxins to be used in a composition according to the present invention are clofibric acid or 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid.

Suitable examples of auxins to be used in a composition according to the present invention are 4-CPA, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, 2,4-DEP, dichlorprop, fenoprop, IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), IBA, naphthaleneacetamide, alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, 1-naphthol, naphthoxyacetic acid, potas- sium naphthenate, sodium naphthenate or 2,4,5-T.

Suitable examples of cytokinins to be used in a composition according to the present invention are 2iP, 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA) (= N-6 Benzyladenine), 2,6-Dimethylpuridine (N-Oxide- 2,6-Lultidine), 2,6-Dimethylpyridine, kinetin, or zeatin. Suitable examples of defoliants to be used in a composition according to the present invention are calcium cyanamide, dimethipin, endothal, merphos, metoxuron, pentachlorophenol, thidi- azuron, tribufos, or tributyl phosphorotrithioate.

Suitable examples of ethylene modulators to be used in a composition according to the present invention are aviglycine, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)

Prohexadione (prohexadione calcium), or trinexapac (Trinexapac-ethyl).

Suitable examples of ethylene releasers to be used in a composition according to the present invention are ACC, etacelasil, ethephon, or glyoxime.

Suitable examples of gibberellins to be used in a composition according to the present inven- tion are gibberelline or gibberellic acid.

Suitable examples of growth inhibitors to be used in a composition according to the present in- vention are abscisic acid, S-abscisic acid, ancymidol , butralin, carbaryl ,chlorphonium, chlor- propham, dikegulac, flumetralin, fluoridamid,fosamine, glyphosine sopyrimol, jasmonic acid, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat (mepiquat chloride, mepiquat pentaborate),piproctanyl, prohy- drojasmon, propham, or 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid.

Suitable examples of morphactins to be used in a composition according to the present inven- tion are chlorfluren, chlorflurenol, dichlorflurenol, or flurenol

Suitable examples of growth retardants to be used in a composition according to the present invention are chlormequat (chlormequat chloride), daminozide, flurprimidol, mefluidide, paclobu- trazol, tetcyclacis, uniconazole, metconazol.

Suitable examples of growth stimulators to be used in a composition according to the present invention are brassinolide, forchlorfenuron, or hymexazol.

Suitable examples of further unclassified plant growth regulators to be used in a composition according to the present invention are amidochlor, benzofluor, buminafos, carvone, choline chloride, ciobutide, clofencet, cloxyfonac, cyanamide, cyclanilide, cycloheximide, cyprosul- famide, epocholeone, ethychlozate, ethylene, fenridazon, fluprimidol, fluthiacet, heptopargil, holosulf, inabenfide, karetazan, lead arsenate, methasulfocarb, pydanon, sintofen, diflufenzopyr or triapenthenol.

In a preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and at least one corn- pound selected from the group comprising: abscisic acid, amidochlor, ancymidol, 6-benzy- laminopurine (= N-6 benzyladenine), brassinolide, butralin, chlormequat (chlormequat chloride), choline chloride, cyclanilide, daminozide, diflufenzopyr, dikegulac, dimethipin, 2,6-dimethylpyri- dine, ethephon, flumetralin, flurprimidol, fluthiacet, forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid, inabenfide, indole-3-acetic acid, maleic hydrazide, mefluidide, mepiquat (mepiquat chloride), 1-methylcyclo- propene (1-MCP), naphthaleneacetic acid, N-6 benzyladenine, paclobutrazol, prohexadione (prohexadione calcium), prohydrojasmon, thidiazuron, triapenthenol, tributyl phospho- rotrithioate, 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid, trinexapac-ethyl, and uniconazole.

In a preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and clofibric acid.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2,3,5-tri- iodobenzoic acid. In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 4-CPA.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2,4-D.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2,4-DB.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2,4-DEP.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and dichlor- prop.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and fenoprop.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and IAA (in- dole-3-acetic acid).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and IBA.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and naphthale- neacetamide.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and alpha- naphthaleneacetic acid.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 1-naphthol.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and naphthoxy- acetic acid.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and potassium naphthenate.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and sodium naphthenate.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2,4,5-T.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2iP.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 6-Benzy- laminopurine (6-BA) (= N-6 Benzyladenine). In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 2,6- Dimethylpuridine (N-Oxide-2,6-Lultidine).

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and zeatin.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and kinetin.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and calcium cyanamide.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and dimethipin.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and endothal.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and merphos.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and metoxuron.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and pen- tachlorophenol.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and thidi- azuron.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and tribufos.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and tributyl phosphorotrithioate.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and aviglycine.

In a further preferred embodiment, the composition according to the present invention may comprise a combination of the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and 1-methyl- cyclopropene.

A composition as defined herein, in particular a composition comprising a nitrification inhibitor as defined herein and a plant growth regulator as defined herein, may be used for the increase of plant health.

The term "plant health" as used herein is intended to mean a condition of the plant which is determined by several aspects alone or in combination with each other. One indicator (indicator 1 ) for the condition of the plant is the crop yield. "Crop" and "fruit" are to be understood as any plant product which is further utilized after harvesting, e.g. fruits in the proper sense, vegeta- bles, nuts, grains, seeds, wood (e.g. in the case of silviculture plants), flowers (e.g. in the case of gardening plants, ornamentals) etc., that is anything of economic value that is produced by the plant. Another indicator (indicator 2) for the condition of the plant is the plant vigor. The plant vigor becomes manifest in several aspects, too, some of which are visual appearance, e.g. leaf color, fruit color and aspect, amount of dead basal leaves and/or extent of leaf blades, plant weight, plant height, extent of plant verse (lodging), number, strong ness and productivity of tillers, panicles' length, extent of root system, strength of roots, extent of nodulation, in particular of rhizobial nodulation, point of time of germination, emergence, flowering, grain maturity and/or senescence, protein content, sugar content and the like. Another indicator (indicator 3) for an in- crease of a plant's health is the reduction of biotic or abiotic stress factors. The three above mentioned indicators for the health condition of a plant may be interdependent and may result from each other. For example, a reduction of biotic or abiotic stress may lead to a better plant vigor, e.g. to better and bigger crops, and thus to an increased yield. Biotic stress, especially over longer terms, can have harmful effects on plants. The term "biotic stress" as used in the context of the present invention refers in particular to stress caused by living organisms. As a result, the quantity and the quality of the stressed plants, their crops and fruits decrease. As far as quality is concerned, reproductive development is usually severely affected with conse- quences on the crops which are important for fruits or seeds. Growth may be slowed by the stresses; polysaccharide synthesis, both structural and storage, may be reduced or modified: these effects may lead to a decrease in biomass and to changes in the nutritional value of the product. Abiotic stress includes drought, cold, increased UV, increased heat, or other changes in the environment of the plant, that leads to sub-optimal growth conditions. The term "increased yield" of a plant as used herein means that the yield of a product of the respective plant is in- creased by a measurable amount over the yield of the same product of the plant produced un- der the same conditions, but without the application of the composition of the invention. Accord- ing to the present invention, it is preferred that the yield be increased by at least 0,5 %, more preferred at least 1 %, even more preferred at least 2 %, still more preferred at least 4 %. An in- creased yield may, for example, be due to a reduction of nitrification and a corresponding im- provement of uptake of nitrogen nutrients. The term "improved plant vigor" as used herein means that certain crop characteristics are increased or improved by a measurable or notice- able amount over the same factor of the plant produced under the same conditions, but without the application of the composition of the present invention. Improved plant vigor can be charac- terized, among others, by following improved properties of a plant:

(a) improved vitality of the plant,

(b) improved quality of the plant and/or of the plant products, e.g.

(b) enhanced protein content,

(c) improved visual appearance,

(d) delay of senescence,

(e) enhanced root growth and/or more developed root system (e.g. determined by the dry mass of the root),

(f) enhanced nodulation, in particular rhizobial nodulation,

(g) longer panicles,

(h) bigger leaf blade, (i) less dead basal leaves,

(j) increased chlorophyll content

(k) prolonged photosynthetically active period

(L) improved nitrogen-supply within the plant

The improvement of the plant vigor according to the present invention particularly means that the improvement of anyone or several or all of the above mentioned plant characteristics are im- proved. It further means that if not all of the above characteristics are improved, those which are not improved are not worsened as compared to plants which were not treated according to the invention or are at least not worsened to such an extent that the negative effect exceeds the positive effect of the improved characteristic (i.e. there is always an overall positive effect which preferably results in an improved crop yield). An improved plant vigor may, for example, be due to a reduction of nitrification and, e.g. a regulation of plant growth.

In further embodiments, the composition may, in addition to the above indicated ingredients, in particular in addition to the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I, further comprise one or more pesticides.

A pesticide is generally a chemical or biological agent (such as pesticidal active ingredient, compound, composition, virus, bacterium, antimicrobial or disinfectant) that through its effect deters, incapacitates, kills or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms), and mi- crobes that destroy property, cause nuisance, spread disease or are vectors for disease. The term“pesticide” includes also plant growth regulators that alter the expected growth, flowering, or reproduction rate of plants; defoliants that cause leaves or other foliage to drop from a plant, usually to facilitate harvest; desiccants that promote drying of living tissues, such as unwanted plant tops; plant activators that activate plant physiology for defense of against certain pests; safeners that reduce unwanted herbicidal action of pesticides on crop plants; and plant growth promoters that affect plant physiology e.g. to increase plant growth, biomass, yield or any other quality parameter of the harvestable goods of a crop plant.

Biopesticides have been defined as a form of pesticides based on micro-organisms (bacte- ria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, etc.) or natural products (compounds, such as metabolites, pro- teins, or extracts from biological or other natural sources) (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/). Biopesticides fall into two major classes, microbial and biochemical pesticides:

(1 ) Microbial pesticides consist of bacteria, fungi or viruses (and often include the metabo- lites that bacteria and fungi produce). Entomopathogenic nematodes are also classed as microbial pesticides, even though they are multi-cellular.

(2) Biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring substances that control pests or provide other crop protection uses as defined below, but are relatively non-toxic to mammals.

According to one embodiment, individual components of the composition according to the in- vention such as parts of a kit or parts of a binary or ternary mixture may be mixed by the user himself in a spray tank or any other kind of vessel used for applications (e. g. seed treater drums, seed pelleting machinery, knapsack sprayer) and further auxiliaries may be added, if ap propriate.

When living microorganisms, such as microbial pesticides from groups L1 ), L3) and L5), form part of such kit, it must be taken care that choice and amounts of the components (e. g. chemical pesticides) and of the further auxiliaries should not influence the viability of the micro- bial pesticides in the composition mixed by the user. Especially for bactericides and solvents, compatibility with the respective microbial pesticide has to be taken into account.

Consequently, one embodiment of the invention is a kit for preparing a usable pesticidal composition, the kit comprising a) a composition comprising component 1 ) as defined herein and at least one auxiliary; and b) a composition comprising component 2) as defined herein and at least one auxiliary; and optionally c) a composition comprising at least one auxiliary and op- tionally a further active component 3) as defined herein.

The following list of pesticides I (e. g. pesticidally-active substances and biopesticides), in conjunction with which the compounds I can be used, is intended to illustrate the possible com- binations but does not limit them:

A) Respiration inhibitors

Inhibitors of complex III at Q 0 site: azoxystrobin (A.1 .1 ), coumethoxystrobin (A.1.2), coumoxystrobin (A.1.3), dimoxystrobin (A.1 .4), enestroburin (A.1.5), fenaminstrobin (A.1.6), fenoxystrobin/flufenoxystrobin (A.1.7), fluoxastrobin (A.1.8), kresoxim-methyl (A.1.9), mande- strobin (A.1 .10), metominostrobin (A.1 .1 1 ), orysastrobin (A.1 .12), picoxystrobin (A.1.13), pyra- clostrobin (A.1.14), pyrametostrobin (A.1.15), pyraoxystrobin (A.1.16), trifloxystrobin (A.1 .17),

2-(2-(3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1 -methyl-allylideneaminooxymethyl)-phenyl)-2-methoxyimino- /V-methyl-acetamide (A.1.18), pyribencarb (A.1 .19), triclopyricarb/chlorodincarb (A.1 .20), famox- adone (A.1 .21 ), fenamidone (A.1.21 ), methyl-/V-[2-[(1 ,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-pyrazol-3-yl)oxyl- methyljphenylj-AAmethoxy-carbamate (A.1.22), 1-[2-[[1 -(4-chlorophenyl)pyrazol-3-yl]oxymethyl]-

3-methyl-phenyl]-4-methyl-tetrazol-5-one (A.1 .25), (^2£)-5-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)pyrazol-3- yl]-oxy-2-methoxyimino-/V,3-dimethyl-pent-3-enamide (A.1.34), (^2£)-5-[1-(4- chlorophenyl)pyrazol-3-yl]oxy-2-methoxyimino-/V,3-dimethyl-p ent-3-enamide (A.1 .35), pyrimi- nostrobin (A.1 .36), bifujunzhi (A.1 .37), 2-(ortho-((2,5-dimethylphenyl-oxymethylen)phenyl)-3- methoxy-acrylic acid methylester (A.1 .38);

inhibitors of complex III at Q, site: cyazofamid (A.2.1 ), amisulbrom (A.2.2),

[(65,7/?,8A -8-benzyl-3-[(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-pyridine-2-carbonyl)amino] -6-methyl-4,9-dioxo- 1 ,5-dioxonan-7-yl] 2-methylpropanoate (A.2.3), fenpicoxamid (A.2.4);

inhibitors of complex II: benodanil (A.3.1 ), benzovindiflupyr (A.3.2), bixafen (A.3.3), boscalid (A.3.4), carboxin (A.3.5), fenfuram (A.3.6), fluopyram (A.3.7), flutolanil (A.3.8), fluxapy- roxad (A.3.9), furametpyr (A.3.10), isofetamid (A.3.1 1 ), isopyrazam (A.3.12), mepronil (A.3.13), oxycarboxin (A.3.14), penflufen (A.3.15), penthiopyrad (A.3.16), pydiflumetofen (A.3.17), pyrazi- flumid (A.3.18), sedaxane (A.3.19), tecloftalam (A.3.20), thifluzamide (A.3.21 ), inpyrfluxam (A.3.22), pyrapropoyne (A.3.23), fluindapyr (A.3.28), methyl (£)-2-[2-[(5-cyano-2-methyl-phe- noxy)methyl]phenyl]-3-methoxy-prop-2-enoate (A.3.30), isoflucypram (A.3.31 ), 2-(difluo- romethyl)-/V-(1 ,1 ,3-trimethyl-indan-4-yl)pyridine-3-carboxamide (A.3.32), 2-(difluoromethyl)-/V- [(3A -1 ,1 ,3-trimethylindan-4-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (A.3.33), 2-(difluoromethyl)-/V-(3-ethyl- 1 ,1-dimethyl-indan-4-yl)pyridine-3-carboxamide (A.3.34), 2-(difluoromethyl)-/V-[(3A)-3-ethyl-1 ,1 - dimethyl-indan-4-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (A.3.35), 2-(difluoromethyl)-/V-(1 ,1 -dimethyl-3- propyl-indan-4-yl)pyridine-3-carboxamide (A.3.36), 2-(difluoromethyl)-/V-[(3A)-1 ,1-dimethyl-3- propyl-indan-4-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (A.3.37), 2-(difluoromethyl)-/V-(3-isobutyl-1 ,1-dimethyl- indan-4-yl)pyridine-3-carboxamide (A.3.38), 2-(difluoromethyl)-/V-[(3A)-3-isobutyl-1 ,1 -dimethyl- indan-4-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (A.3.39);

other respiration inhibitors: diflumetorim (A.4.1 ); nitrophenyl derivates: binapacryl (A.4.2), dinobuton (A.4.3), dinocap (A.4.4), fluazinam (A.4.5), meptyldinocap (A.4.6), ferimzone (A.4.7); organometal compounds: fentin salts, e. g. fentin-acetate (A.4.8), fentin chloride (A.4.9) or fentin hydroxide (A.4.10); ametoctradin (A.4.1 1 ); silthiofam (A.4.12);

B) Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBI fungicides)

C14 demethylase inhibitors: triazoles: azaconazole (B.1.1 ), bitertanol (B.1.2), bromucona- zole (B.1.3), cyproconazole (B.1.4), difenoconazole (B.1 .5), diniconazole (B.1.6), diniconazole- M (B.1.7), epoxiconazole (B.1.8), fenbuconazole (B.1 .9), fluquinconazole (B.1.10), flusilazole (B.1.1 1 ), flutriafol (B.1.12), hexaconazole (B.1.13), imibenconazole (B.1 .14), ipconazole

(B.1.15), metconazole (B.1.17), myclobutanil (B.1.18), oxpoconazole (B.1.19), paclobutrazole (B.1.20), penconazole (B.1 .21 ), propiconazole (B.1.22), prothioconazole (B.1 .23), simeconazole (B.1.24), tebuconazole (B.1.25), tetraconazole (B.1 .26), triadimefon (B.1 .27), triadimenol (B.1.28), triticonazole (B.1.29), uniconazole (B.1.30), 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1 ,1 -difluoro-3-(tetra- zol-1 -yl)-1-[5-[4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenyl]-2-pyridyl]propan -2-ol (B.1 .31 ), 2-(2,4-difluo- rophenyl)-1 ,1-difluoro-3-(tetrazol-1-yl)-1 -[5-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-2-pyridyl]propan-2-ol (B.1.32), ipfentrifluconazole (B.1.37), mefentrifluconazole (B.1 .38), 2-(chloromethyl)-2-methyl-5- (p-tolylmethyl)-1 -(1 ,2,4-triazol-1 -ylmethyl)cyclopentanol (B.1.43); imidazoles: imazalil (B.1.44), pefurazoate (B.1.45), prochloraz (B.1.46), triflumizol (B.1.47); pyrimidines, pyridines, piper- azines: fenarimol (B.1 .49), pyrifenox (B.1 .50), triforine (B.1 .51 ), [3-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-phenyl)-5- (2,4-difluorophenyl)isoxazol-4-yl]-(3-pyridyl)methanol (B.1 .52);

Delta 14-reductase inhibitors: aldimorph (B.2.1 ), dodemorph (B.2.2), dodemorph-acetate (B.2.3), fenpropimorph (B.2.4), tridemorph (B.2.5), fenpropidin (B.2.6), piperalin (B.2.7), spirox- amine (B.2.8);

Inhibitors of 3-keto reductase: fenhexamid (B.3.1 );

Other Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: chlorphenomizole (B.4.1 );

C) Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors

phenylamides or acyl amino acid fungicides: benalaxyl (C.1 .1 ), benalaxyl-M (C.1.2), ki- ralaxyl (C.1.3), metalaxyl (C.1 .4), metalaxyl-M (C.1.5), ofurace (C.1.6), oxadixyl (C.1.7);

other nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors: hymexazole (C.2.1 ), octhilinone (C.2.2), oxolinic acid (C.2.3), bupirimate (C.2.4), 5-fluorocytosine (C.2.5), 5-fluoro-2-(p-tolylmethoxy)pyrimidin- 4-amine (C.2.6), 5-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenylmethoxy)pyrimidin-4-amine (C.2.7), 5-fluoro- 2-(4-chlorophenylmethoxy)pyrimidin-4 amine (C.2.8);

D) Inhibitors of cell division and cytoskeleton

tubulin inhibitors: benomyl (D.1 .1 ), carbendazim (D.1.2), fuberidazole (D1 .3), thiabenda- zole (D.1 .4), thiophanate-methyl (D.1 .5), 3-chloro-4-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-6-methyl-5-phenyl-pyri- dazine (D.1 .6), 3-chloro-6-methyl-5-phenyl-4-(2,4,6-trifluorophenyl)pyridazi ne (D.1.7), /V-ethyl-2- [(3-ethynyl-8-methyl-6-quinolyl)oxy]butanamide (D.1 .8), AAethyl-2-[(3-ethynyl-8-methyl- 6-quinolyl)oxy]-2-methylsulfanyl-acetamide (D.1.9), 2-[(3-ethynyl-8-methyl-6-quinolyl)oxy]-/V-(2- fluoroethyl)butanamide (D.1 .10), 2-[(3-ethynyl-8-methyl-6-quinolyl)oxy]-/V-(2-fluoroethyl)-2- methoxy-acetamide (D.1 .1 1 ), 2-[(3-ethynyl-8-methyl-6-quinolyl)oxy]-/V-propyl-butanamide (D.1.12), 2-[(3-ethynyl-8-methyl-6-quinolyl)oxy]-2-methoxy-/V-propyl-a cetamide (D.1 .13), 2-[(3- ethynyl-8-methyl-6-quinolyl)oxy]-2-methylsulfanyl-/V-propyl- acetamide (D.1.14), 2-[(3-ethynyl-8- methyl-6-quinolyl)oxy]-/V-(2-fluoroethyl)-2-methylsulfanyl-a cetamide (D.1 .15), 4-(2-bromo-4-flu- oro-phenyl)-/V-(2-chloro-6-fluoro-phenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyraz ol-3-amine (D.1 .16);

other cell division inhibitors: diethofencarb (D.2.1 ), ethaboxam (D.2.2), pencycuron (D.2.3), fluopicolide (D.2.4), zoxamide (D.2.5), metrafenone (D.2.6), pyriofenone (D.2.7);

E) Inhibitors of amino acid and protein synthesis

methionine synthesis inhibitors: cyprodinil (E.1.1 ), mepanipyrim (E.1.2), pyrimethanil (E.1.3);

protein synthesis inhibitors: blasticidin-S (E.2.1 ), kasugamycin (E.2.2), kasugamycin hydrochloride-hydrate (E.2.3), mildiomycin (E.2.4), streptomycin (E.2.5), oxytetracyclin (E.2.6);

F) Signal transduction inhibitors

MAP / histidine kinase inhibitors: fluoroimid (F.1 .1 ), iprodione (F.1.2), procymidone (F.1.3), vinclozolin (F.1.4), fludioxonil (F.1 .5);

G protein inhibitors: quinoxyfen (F.2.1 );

G) Lipid and membrane synthesis inhibitors

Phospholipid biosynthesis inhibitors: edifenphos (G.1 .1 ), iprobenfos (G.1.2), pyrazophos (G.1 .3), isoprothiolane (G.1 .4);

lipid peroxidation: dicloran (G.2.1 ), quintozene (G.2.2), tecnazene (G.2.3), tolclofos-methyl (G.2.4), biphenyl (G.2.5), chloroneb (G.2.6), etridiazole (G.2.7);

phospholipid biosynthesis and cell wall deposition: dimethomorph (G.3.1 ), flumorph (G.3.2), mandipropamid (G.3.3), pyrimorph (G.3.4), benthiavalicarb (G.3.5), iprovalicarb (G.3.6), valifenalate (G.3.7);

compounds affecting cell membrane permeability and fatty acides: propamocarb (G.4.1 ); inhibitors of oxysterol binding protein: oxathiapiprolin (G.5.1 ), 2-{3-[2-(1-{[3,5-bis(difluoro- methyl-1 Apyrazol-1-yl]acetyl}piperidin-4-yl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-4, 5-dihydro- 1 ,2-oxazol-5-yl}phenyl methanesulfonate (G.5.2), 2-{3-[2-(1 -{[3,5-bis(difluoromethyl)-1 Apyrazol-1-yl]acetyl}piperidin-4- yl) 1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-4,5-dihydro-1 ,2-oxazol-5-yl}-3-chlorophenyl methanesulfonate (G.5.3), 4-[1- [2-[3-(difluoromethyl)-5-methyl-pyrazol-1 -yl]acetyl]-4-piperidyl]-/V-tetralin-1 -yl-pyridine-2-carbox- amide (G.5.4), 4-[1 -[2-[3,5-bis(difluoromethyl)pyrazol-1 -yl]acetyl]-4-piperidyl]-AAtetralin-1 -yl-pyri- dine-2-carboxamide (G.5.5), 4-[1-[2-[3-(difluoromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-1-yl] acetyl]-4- piperidyl]-/V-tetralin-1 -yl-pyridine-2-carboxamide (G.5.6), 4-[1-[2-[5-cyclopropyl-3-(difluo- romethyl)pyrazol-1 -yl]acetyl]-4-piperidyl]-/V-tetralin-1 -yl-pyridine-2-carboxamide (G.5.7), 4-[1-[2- [5-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-1 -yl]acetyl]-4-piperidyl]-/V-tetralin-1 -yl-pyridine-2-carboxam- ide (G.5.8), 4-[1-[2-[5-(difluoromethyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-1-yl] acetyl]-4-piperidyl]-/\A tetralin-1 -yl-pyridine-2-carboxamide (G.5.9), 4-[1 -[2-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-1 -yl]acetyl]- 4-piperidyl]-/V-tetralin-1 -yl-pyridine-2-carboxamide (G.5.10), (4-[1 -[2-[5-cyclopropyl-3-(trifluo- romethyl)pyrazol-1 -yl]acetyl]-4-piperidyl]-/V-tetralin-1 -yl-pyridine-2-carboxamide (G.5.1 1 );

H) Inhibitors with Multi Site Action

inorganic active substances: Bordeaux mixture (H.1.1 ), copper (H.1 .2), copper acetate (H.1.3), copper hydroxide (H.1 .4), copper oxychloride (H.1 .5), basic copper sulfate (H.1 .6), sul- fur (H.1.7);

thio- and dithiocarbamates: ferbam (H.2.1 ), mancozeb (H.2.2), maneb (H.2.3), metam (H.2.4), metiram (H.2.5), propineb (H.2.6), thiram (H.2.7), zineb (H.2.8), ziram (H.2.9);

organochlorine compounds: anilazine (H.3.1 ), chlorothalonil (H.3.2), captafol (H.3.3), captan (H.3.4), folpet (H.3.5), dichlofluanid (H.3.6), dichlorophen (H.3.7), hexachlorobenzene (H.3.8), pentachlorphenole (H.3.9) and its salts, phthalide (H.3.10), tolylfluanid (H.3.1 1 );

guanidines and others: guanidine (H.4.1 ), dodine (H.4.2), dodine free base (H.4.3), guazatine (H.4.4), guazatine-acetate (H.4.5), iminoctadine (H.4.6), iminoctadine-triacetate (H.4.7), iminoctadine-tris(albesilate) (H.4.8), dithianon (H.4.9), 2,6-dimethyl-1 7,5/ L [1 ,4]di- thiino[2,3-c:5,6-c']dipyrrole-1 ,3,5,7(2A/,6/ )-tetraone (H.4.10);

I) Cell wall synthesis inhibitors

inhibitors of glucan synthesis: validamycin (1.1.1 ), polyoxin B (1.1 .2);

melanin synthesis inhibitors: pyroquilon (1.2.1 ), tricyclazole (1.2.2), carpropamid (I.2.3), di- cyclomet (1.2.4), fenoxanil (1.2.5);

J) Plant defence inducers

acibenzolar-S-methyl (J.1.1 ), probenazole (J.1.2), isotianil (J.1.3), tiadinil (J.1.4), prohexa- dione-calcium (J.1.5); phosphonates: fosetyl (J.1.6), fosetyl-aluminum (J.1 .7), phosphorous acid and its salts (J.1 .8), calcium phosphonate (J.1 .1 1 ), potassium phosphonate (J.1 .12), potassium or sodium bicarbonate (J.1 .9), 4-cyclopropyl-/V-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)thiadiazole-5-carboxam ide (J.1 .10);

K) Unknown mode of action

bronopol (K.1 .1 ), chinomethionat (K.1.2), cyflufenamid (K.1.3), cymoxanil (K.1 .4), dazomet (K.1.5), debacarb (K.1.6), diclocymet (K.1.7), diclomezine (K.1.8), difenzoquat (K.1 .9), difenzo- quat-methylsulfate (K.1 .10), diphenylamin (K.1 .1 1 ), fenitropan (K.1 .12), fenpyrazamine (K.1 .13), flumetover (K.1.14), flusulfamide (K.1 .15), flutianil (K.1 .16), harpin (K.1.17), methasulfocarb (K.1.18), nitrapyrin (K.1.19), nitrothal-isopropyl (K.1.20), tolprocarb (K.1.21 ), oxin-copper (K.1.22), proquinazid (K.1 .23), tebufloquin (K.1.24), tecloftalam (K.1 .25), triazoxide (K.1.26), N’- (4-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-2,5-dimethyl-phenyl) -/V-ethyl-/V-methyl formamidine (K.1.27), /V i (4-(4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-2,5-dimethyl-p henyl)-/V-ethyl-/V-methyl for- mamidine (K.1 .28), /V-[4-[[3-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-1 ,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl]oxy]-2,5-dimethyl- phenyl]-/V-ethyl-/V-methyl-formamidine (K.1.29), /V^S-bromo-e-indan^-yloxy^-methyl-S- pyridyl)-/V-ethyl-/V-methyl-formamidine (K.1.30), /V i [5-bromo-6-[1-(3,5-difluorophenyl)ethoxy]-2- methyl-3-pyridyl]-/V-ethyl-/V-methyl-formamidine (K.1 .31 ), /V-[5-bromo-6-(4-isopropylcyclohex- oxy)-2-methyl-3-pyridyl]-/V-ethyl-/V-methyl-formamidine (K.1.32), /V i [5-bromo-2-methyl-6-(1 - phenylethoxy)-3-pyridyl]-/V-ethyl-/V-methyl-formamidine (K.1.33), /V i (2-methyl-5-trifluoromethyl- 4-(3-trimethylsilanyl-propoxy)-phenyl)-/V-ethyl-/V-methyl formamidine (K.1 .34), /V-(5-difluo- romethyl-2-methyl-4-(3-trimethylsilanyl-propoxy)-phenyl)-/V- ethyl-/V-methyl formamidine

(K.1.35), 2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-/V-[4-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-isoxazol-5- yl]-2-prop-2-ynyloxy-ac- etamide (K.1.36), 3-[5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-isoxazolidin-3-yl]-pyrid ine (pyrisoxazole) (K.1.37), 3-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-isoxazolidin-3 yl]-pyridine (K.1.38), 5-chloro-1-(4,6- dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yl)-2-methyl-1 T-benzoimidazole (K.1 .39), ethyl (2)-3-amino-2-cyano-3- phenyl-prop-2-enoate (K.1.40), picarbutrazox (K.1 .41 ), pentyl AA[6-[[(2)-[(1 -methyltetrazol-5-yl)- phenyl-methylene]amino]oxymethyl]-2-pyridyl]carbamate (K.1 .42), but-3-ynyl LA[6-[[(2)-[(1- methyltetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl-methylene]amino]oxymethyl]-2-pyr idyl]carbamate (K.1 .43), 2-[2- [(7,8-difluoro-2-methyl-3-quinolyl)oxy]-6-fluoro-phenyl]prop an-2-ol (K.1.44), 2-[2-fluoro-6-[(8-flu- oro-2-methyl-3-quinolyl)oxy]phen-yl]propan-2-ol (K.1 .45), quinofumelin (K.1 .47), 9-fluoro-2,2- dimethyl-5-(3-quinolyl)-3/ ,4-benzoxazepine (K.1 .49), 2-(6-benzyl-2-pyridyl)quinazoline (K.1.50), 2-[6-(3-fluoro-4-methoxy-phenyl)-5-methyl-2-pyridyl]quinazol ine (K.1.51 ), dichlobentia- zox (K.1 .52), /V i (2,5-dimethyl-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-/V-ethyl-/V-methyl-for mamidine (K.1 .53), pyrife- namine (K.1 .54).

L) Biopesticides

L1 ) Microbial pesticides with fungicidal, bactericidal, viricidal and/or plant defense activator ac- tivity: Ampelomyces quisqua/is, Aspergillus fiavus, Aureobasidium pullulans, Bacillus altitudinis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. megaterium, B. moj avert sis, B. mycoides, B. pumi/us, B. simplex, B. so/isa/si, B. subti/is, B. subti/is var. amyloliquefaciens, Candida oleophila, C. saitoana, Ciavibac- ter michiganensis (bacteriophages) , Coniothyrium minitans, Cryphonectria parasitica, Crypto coccus aibidus, Diiophosphora aiopecuri, Fusarium oxysporum, Cionostachys rosea f . catenu- iate (also named Giiociadium catenuiatum), Giiociadium roseum, Lysobacter antibioticus, L. en- zymogenes, Metschnikowia fructicoia, Microdochium dimerum, Microsphaeropsis ochracea, Muscodor aibus, Paenibaciiius aivei, Paenibaciiius epiphyticus, P. poiymyxa, Pantoea vagans, Peniciiiium biiaiae, Ph/ebiopsis gigantea, Pseudomonas s p . , Pseudomonas chioraphis, Pseudo- zyma Hoccuiosa, Pichia anomaia, Pythium oiigandrum, Sphaerodes mycoparasitica, Strepto- myces griseoviridis, S. iydicus, S. vioiaceusniger, Taiaromyces fiavus, Trichoderma asperei- ioides, T. aspereiium, T atroviride, T fertile, T. gamsii, T harmatum, T. harzianum, T. poiyspo- rum, T. stromaticum, T. virens, T. viride, Typhuia phacorrhiza, Uiociadium oudemansii, Verticii- iium dahlia, zucchini yellow mosaic virus (avirulent strain);

L2) Biochemical pesticides with fungicidal, bactericidal, viricidal and/or plant defense activator activity: harpin protein, Reynoutria sacha/inensis extract;

L3) Microbial pesticides with insecticidal, acaricidal, molluscidal and/or nematicidal activity: Agrobacterium radiobacter, Bacillus cereus, B. ftrmus, B. thuringiensis, B. thuringiensis ssp. aizawai, B. t. ssp. israe/ensis, B. t. ssp. gaiieriae, B. t. ssp. kurstaki, B. t. ssp. tenebrionis, Beau- veria bassiana, B. brongniartii, Burkhoideria spp., Chromobacterium subtsugae, Cydia pomoneiia granulovirus (CpGV), Cryptophiebia ieucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV), Fiavobac- terium spp., Heiicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV), Heiicoverpa zea nucle- opolyhedrovirus (HzNPV), Heiicoverpa zea single capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzSNPV), Het- erorhabditis bacteriophora, isaria fumosorosea, Lecaniciiiium iongisporum, L. muscarium, Metarhizium anisopiiae, M. anisopiiae var. anisopiiae, M. anisopiiae var. acrid um, Nomuraea ri- ieyi, Paeciiomyces fumosoroseus, P. iiiacinus, Paenibaciiius popiHiae, Pasteuria spp., P.

nishizawae, P. penetrans, P. ramosa, P. thornea, P. usgae, Pseudomonas fiuorescens, Spodoptera iittoraiis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV), Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feitiae, S. kraussei, Streptomyces g aibus, S. micro fiavus,

L4) Biochemical pesticides with insecticidal, acaricidal, molluscidal, pheromone and/or ne- maticidal activity: L-carvone, citral, (f^^^-dodecadien-l -yl acetate, ethyl formate, (E,Z)- 2,4- ethyl decadienoate (pear ester), Z,Z,E)-Ί ,l 1 ,13-hexadecatrienal, heptyl butyrate, isopropyl myristate, lavanulyl senecioate, cis-jasmone, 2-methyl 1 -butanol, methyl eugenol, methyl jas- monate, (F,2)-2,13-octadecadien-1 -ol, (F,2)-2,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate, {E,Z)- 3,13-oc- tadecadien-1-ol, (/?)-1-octen-3-ol, pentatermanone, (F,Z;2)-3,8,1 1-tetradecatrienyl acetate, ( ;£)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate, (2)-7-tetradecen-2-one, (2)-9-tetradecen-1-yl acetate, (2)- 1 1-tetradecenal, (2)-1 1-tetradecen-1-ol, extract of Chenopodium ambrosiodes, Neem oil, Quil- lay extract;

L5) Microbial pesticides with plant stress reducing, plant growth regulator, plant growth pro- moting and/or yield enhancing activity: Azospirillum amazonense, A. brasiiense, A. iipoferum, A. irakense, A. haiopraeferens, Bradyrhizobium spp. , B. eikanii, B. japonicum, B. iiaoningense, B. iupini, Deiftia acidovorans, G/omus intraradices, Mesorhizobium spp., Rhizobium iegumi- nosarum bv. phaseoii, R. i. bv. trifoiii, R. i. bv. viciae, R. tropici, Sinorhizobium meiiioti

M) Insecticides

M.1 ) Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors: M.1A carbamates, e.g. aldicarb, alanycarb, bendiocarb, benfuracarb, butocarboxim, butoxycarboxim, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, ethiofencarb, fenobucarb, formetanate, furathiocarb, isoprocarb, me- thiocarb, methomyl, metolcarb, oxamyl, pirimicarb, propoxur, thiodicarb, thiofanox, tri- methacarb, XMC, xylylcarb and triazamate; or M.1 B organophosphates, e.g. acephate, azamethiphos, azinphos-ethyl, azinphosmethyl, cadusafos, chlorethoxyfos, chlorfenvin- phos, chlormephos, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, coumaphos, cyanophos, de- meton-S-methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos/ DDVP, dicrotophos, dimethoate, dimethylvin- phos, disulfoton, EPN, ethion, ethoprophos, famphur, fenamiphos, fenitrothion, fen- thion, fosthiazate, heptenophos, imicyafos, isofenphos, isopropyl 0-(methoxyamino- thio-phosphoryl) salicylate, isoxathion, malathion, mecarbam, methamidophos, methidathion, mevinphos, monocrotophos, naled, omethoate, oxydemeton-methyl, parathion, parathion-methyl, phenthoate, phorate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, phoxim, pirimiphos- methyl, profenofos, propetamphos, prothiofos, pyraclofos, pyrid- aphenthion, quinalphos, sulfotep, tebupirimfos, temephos, terbufos, tetrachlorvinphos, thiometon, triazophos, trichlorfon, and vamidothion;

M.2) GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists: M.2A cyclodiene organochlorine corn- pounds, e.g. endosulfan or chlordane; or M.2B fiproles (phenylpyrazoles), e.g.

ethiprole, fipronil, flufiprole, pyrafluprole, and pyriprole;

M.3) Sodium channel modulators from the class of M.3A pyrethroids, e.g. acrinathrin, al- lethrin, d-cis-trans allethrin, d-trans allethrin, bifenthrin, kappa-bifenthrin, bioallethrin, bioallethrin S-cylclopentenyl, bioresmethrin, cycloprothrin, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cy- halothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, theta-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyphenothrin, deltamethrin, empenthrin, esfenvalerate, etofenprox, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, flucythrinate, flu- methrin, tau-fluvalinate, halfenprox, heptafluthrin, imiprothrin, meperfluthrin,meto- fluthrin, momfluorothrin, epsilon-momfluorothrin, permethrin, phenothrin, prallethrin, profluthrin, pyrethrin (pyrethrum), resmethrin, silafluofen, tefluthrin, kappa-tefluthrin, tet- ramethylfluthrin, tetramethrin, tralomethrin, and transfluthrin; or M.3B sodium channel modulators such as DDT or methoxychlor;

M.4) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (nAChR): M.4A neonicotinoids, e.g. acetami- prid, clothianidin, cycloxaprid, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam; or the compounds M.4A.1 4,5-Dihydro-N-nitro-1-(2-oxiranylmethyl)-1 H- imidazol-2-amine, M.4A.2: (2E-)-1-[(6-Chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl]-N'-nitro-2-pentyliden e- hydrazinecarboximidamide; or M4.A.3: 1-[(6-Chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl]-7-methyl-8-ni- tro-5-propoxy-1 ,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydroimidazo[1 ,2-a]pyridine; or M.4B nicotine; M.4C sulfoxaflor; M.4D flupyradifurone; M.4E triflumezopyrim;

M.5) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric activators:spinosyns, e.g. spinosad or spinet- ora m;

M.6) Chloride channel activators from the class of avermectins and milbemycins, e.g.

abamectin, emamectin benzoate, ivermectin, lepimectin, or milbemectin;

M.7) Juvenile hormone mimics, such as M.7A juvenile hormone analogues hydroprene, kinoprene, and methoprene; or M.7B fenoxycarb, or M.7C pyriproxyfen;

M.8) miscellaneous non-specific (multi-site) inhibitors, e.g. M.8A alkyl halides as methyl bromide and other alkyl halides, M.8B chloropicrin, M.8C sulfuryl fluoride, M.8D borax, or M.8E tartar emetic;

M.9) Chordotonal organ TRPV channel modulators, e.g. M.9B pymetrozine; pyrifluquinazon;

M.10 Mite growth inhibitors, e.g. M.10A clofentezine, hexythiazox, and diflovidazin, or M.10B etoxazole;

M.10) Mite growth inhibitors, e.g. M.10A clofentezine, hexythiazox, and diflovidazin, or M.10B etoxazole;

M.1 1)Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes, e.g. bacillus thuringiensis or bacillus sphaericus and the insecticdal proteins they produce such as bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israe/ensis, bacillus sphaericus, bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis, or the Bt crop proteins: CrylAb, CrylAc, Cryl Fa, Cry2Ab, mCry3A, Cry3Ab, Cry3Bb, and Cry34/35Ab1 ;

M.12) Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase, e.g. M.12A diafenthiuron, or M.12B organ- otin miticides such as azocyclotin, cyhexatin, or fenbutatin oxide, M.12C propargite, or M.12D tetrad ifon;

M.13) Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of the proton gradient, e.g. chlorfenapyr, DNOC, or sulfluramid;

M.14) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) channel blockers, e.g. nereistoxin analogues bensultap, cartap hydrochloride, thiocyclam, or thiosultap sodium;

M.15) Inhibitors of the chitin biosynthesis type 0, such as benzoylureas e.g. bistrifluron, chlor- fluazuron, diflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron, noval- uron, noviflumuron, teflubenzuron, or triflumuron;

M.16) Inhibitors of the chitin biosynthesis type 1 , e.g. buprofezin;

M.17) Moulting disruptors, Dipteran, e.g. cyromazine;

M.18) Ecdyson receptor agonists such as diacylhydrazines, e.g. methoxyfenozide, te- bufenozide, halofenozide, fufenozide, or chromafenozide;

M.19) Octopamin receptor agonists, e.g. amitraz;

M.20) Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors, e.g. M.20A hydramethylnon, M.20B acequinocyl, M.20C fluacrypyrim; or M.20D bifenazate; M.21) Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors, e.g. M.21A METI acaricides and insecticides such as fenazaquin, fenpyroximate, pyrimidifen, pyridaben, tebufenpyrad or tolfenpyrad, or M.21 B rotenone;

M.22) Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers, e.g. M.22A indoxacarb, M.22B metaflu- mizone, or M.22B.1 : 2-[2-(4-Cyanophenyl)-1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethylidene ]-N-[4- (difluoromethoxy)phenyl]-hydrazinecarboxamide or M.22B.2: N-(3-Chloro-2-methyl- phenyl)-2-[(4-chlorophenyl)[4-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]p henyl]methylene]-hy- drazinecarboxamide;

M.23) Inhibitors of the of acetyl CoA carboxylase, such as Tetronic and Tetramic acid deriv- atives, e.g. spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, or spirotetramat; M.23.1 spiropidion;

M.24) Mitochondrial complex IV electron transport inhibitors, e.g. M.24A phosphine such as aluminium phosphide, calcium phosphide, phosphine or zinc phosphide, or M.24B cy- anide;

M.25) Mitochondrial complex II electron transport inhibitors, such as beta-ketonitrile derivat- ives, e.g. cyenopyrafen or cyflumetofen;

M.28) Ryanodine receptor-modulators from the class of diamides, e.g. flubendiamide, chlor- antraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, tetraniliprole, M.28.1 : (R)-3-Chlor-N1-{2-methyl-4- [1 ,2,2,2 -tetrafluoro-1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl}-N2-(1 -methyl-2-methylsulf- onylethyl)phthalamid, M.28.2: (S)-3-Chloro-N1-{2-methyl-4-[1 ,2,2,2-tetrafluoro-1-(tri- fluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl}-N2-(1-methyl-2-methylsulfonylethy l)phthalamid, M.28.3: cyc- laniliprole, or M.28.4: methyl-2-[3,5-dibromo-2-({[3-bromo-1-(3-chlorpyridin-2-yl)-1 H- pyrazol-5-yl]carbonyl}amino)benzoyl]-1 ,2-dimethylhydrazinecarboxylate; or M.28.5a) N- [4,6-dichloro-2-[(diethyl-lambda-4-sulfanylidene)carbamoyl]- phenyl]-2-(3-chloro-2- pyridyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide; M.28.5b) N-[4-chloro-2-[(diethyl- lambda-4-sulfanylidene)carbamoyl]-6-methyl-phenyl]-2-(3-chlo ro-2-pyridyl)-5-(trifluoro- methyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide; M.28.5c) N-[4-chloro-2-[(di-2-propyl-lambda-4- sulfanylidene)carbamoyl]-6-methyl-phenyl]-2-(3-chloro-2-pyri dyl)-5-(trifluoro- methyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide; M.28.5d) N-[4,6-dichloro-2-[(di-2-propyl-lambda-4- sulfanylidene)carbamoyl]-phenyl]-2-(3-chloro-2-pyridyl)-5-(t rifluoromethyl)pyrazole-3- carboxamide; M.28.5h) N-[4,6-dibromo-2-[(diethyl-lambda-4-sulfanylidene)carbamoyl] - phenyl]-2-(3-chloro-2-pyridyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole-3 -carboxamide; M.28.5i) N-[2- (5-Amino-1 ,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl]-3-bromo-1-(3- chloro-2-pyrid- inyl)-1 H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide; M.28.5j) 3-Chloro-1 -(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-N-[2,4-di- chloro-6-[[(1-cyano-1-methylethyl)amino]carbonyl]phenyl]-1 H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide; M.28.5k) 3-Bromo-N-[2,4-dichloro-6-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]-1-(3,5-di chloro-2- pyridyl)-1 H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide; M.28.5I) N-[4-Chloro-2-[[(1 ,1-dimethyl- ethyl)amino]carbonyl]-6-methylphenyl]-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridiny l)-3-(fluoromethoxy)-1 H- pyrazole-5-carboxamide; or M.28.6: cyhalodiamide; or

M.29) Chordotonal organ Modulators - undefined target site, e.g. flonicamid;

M.UN. insecticidal active compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action, e.g. afido- pyropen, afoxolaner, azadirachtin, amidoflumet, benzoximate, broflanilide, bromopro- pylate, chinomethionat, cryolite, dicloromezotiaz, dicofol, flufenerim, flometoquin, fluen- sulfone, fluhexafon, fluopyram, fluralaner, metaldehyde, metoxadiazone, piperonyl but- oxide, pyflubumide, pyridalyl, tioxazafen, M.UN.3: 11-(4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-12- hydroxy-1 ,4-dioxa-9-azadispiro[4.2.4.2]-tetradec-11 -en-10-one,

M.UN.4: 3-(4’-fluoro-2,4-dimethylbiphenyl-3-yl)-4-hydroxy-8-oxa-1- azaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-2- one,

M.UN.5: 1-[2-fluoro-4-methyl-5-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)sulfinyl]pheny l]-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazole-5-amine, or actives on basis of bacillus /fr777//s (Votivo, 1-1582);

M.UN.6: flupyrimin;

M.UN.8: fluazaindolizine; M.UN.9.a): 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4H- isoxazol-3-yl]-2-methyl-N-(1-oxothietan-3-yl)benzamide; M.UN.9.b): fluxametamide; M.UN.10: 5-[3-[2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenoxy]propoxy]- 1 H-pyrazole;

M.UN.11.i) 4-cyano-N-[2-cyano-5-[[2,6-dibromo-4-[1 ,2,2,3,3,3-hexafluoro-1-

(trifluoromethyl)propyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]phenyl]-2-methyl -benzamide; M.UN.11.j) 4-cy- ano-3-[(4-cyano-2-methyl-benzoyl)amino]-N-[2,6-dichloro-4-[1 ,2,2,3,3,3-hexafluoro-1- (trifluoromethyl)propyl]phenyl]-2-fluoro-benzamide; M.UN.11.k) N-[5-[[2-chloro-6-cyano- 4-[1 ,2,2,3,3,3-hexafluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)propyl]phenyl]carba moyl]-2-cyano-phenyl]- 4-cyano-2-methyl-benzamide; M.UN.1 1.1) N-[5-[[2-bromo-6-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1- hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]-2-cyano-p henyl]-4-cyano-2-methyl- benzamide; M.UN.1 1.m) N-[5-[[2-bromo-6-chloro-4-[1 ,2,2,3,3,3-hexafluoro-1-(trifluoro- methyl)propyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]-2-cyano-phenyl]-4-cyano-2-me thyl-benzamide;

M.UN.11.n) 4-cyano-N-[2-cyano-5-[[2,6-dichloro-4-[1 ,2,2,3,3,3-hexafluoro-1-(trifluoro- methyl)propyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]phenyl]-2-methyl-benzamide; M.UN.11.o) 4-cyano-N- [2-cyano-5-[[2,6-dichloro-4-[1 ,2,2,2-tetrafluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]car- bamoyl]phenyl]-2-methyl-benzamide; M.UN.11.p) N-[5-[[2-bromo-6-chloro-4-[1 ,2,2,2- tetrafluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]-2-cya no-phenyl]-4-cyano-2- methyl-benzamide; or

M. UN.12. a) 2-(1 ,3-Dioxan-2-yl)-6-[2-(3-pyridinyl)-5-thiazolyl]-pyridine; M.UN.12.b) 2-[6-[2- (5-Fluoro-3-pyridinyl)-5-thiazolyl]-2-pyridinyl]-pyrimidine; M.UN.12.C) 2-[6-[2-(3-Pyrid- inyl)-5-thiazolyl]-2-pyridinyl]-pyrimidine; M.UN.12. d) N-Methylsulfonyl-6-[2-(3- pyridyl)thiazol-5-yl]pyridine-2-carboxamide; M.UN.12.e) N-Methylsulfonyl-6-[2-(3- pyridyl)thiazol-5-yl]pyridine-2-carboxamide;

M.UN.14a) 1-[(6-Chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-1 ,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-5-methoxy-7-methyl-8-ni- tro-imidazo[1 ,2-a]pyridine; or M. UN.14b) 1-[(6-Chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl]-7-methyl-8-ni- tro-1 ,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydroimidazo[1 ,2-a]pyridin-5-ol;

M.UN.16a) 1-isopropyl-N,5-dimethyl-N-pyridazin-4-yl-pyrazole-4-carboxa mide; or

M.UN.16b) 1-(1 ,2-dimethylpropyl)-N-ethyl-5-methyl-N-pyridazin-4-yl-pyrazol e-4-carbox- amide; M.UN.16c) N,5-dimethyl-N-pyridazin-4-yl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-methyl-et hyl)pyra- zole-4-carboxamide; M.UN.16d) 1-[1-(1-cyanocyclopropyl)ethyl]-N-ethyl-5-methyl-N- pyridazin-4-yl-pyrazole-4-carboxamide; M.UN.16e) N-ethyl-1-(2-fluoro-1-methyl- propyl)-5-methyl-N-pyridazin-4-yl-pyrazole-4-carboxamide; M.UN.16f) 1-(1 ,2-dimethyl- propyl)-N,5-dimethyl-N-pyridazin-4-yl-pyrazole-4-carboxamide ; M.UN.16g) 1-[1-(1- cyanocyclopropyl)ethyl]-N,5-dimethyl-N-pyridazin-4-yl-pyrazo le-4-carboxamide;

M.UN.16h) N-methyl-1-(2-fluoro-1-methyl-propyl]-5-methyl-N-pyridazin-4 -yl-pyrazole-4- carboxamide; M.UN.16i) 1-(4,4-difluorocyclohexyl)-N-ethyl-5-methyl-N-pyridazin-4-yl - pyrazole-4-carboxamide; or M.UN.16j) 1-(4,4-difluorocyclohexyl)-N,5-dimethyl-N-pyri- dazin-4-yl-pyrazole-4-carboxamide,

M. UN.17a) N-(1-methylethyl)-2-(3-pyridinyl)-2H-indazole-4-carboxamide; M. UN.17b) N-cy- clopropyl-2-(3-pyridinyl)-2H-indazole-4-carboxamide; M. UN.17c) N-cyclohexyl-2-(3- pyridinyl)-2H-indazole-4-carboxamide; M.UN.17d) 2-(3-pyridinyl)-N-(2,2,2-trifluo- roethyl)-2H-indazole-4-carboxamide; M.UN.17e) 2-(3-pyridinyl)-N-[(tetrahydro-2-fu- ranyl)methyl]-2H-indazole-5-carboxamide; M.UN.17f) methyl 2-[[2-(3-pyridinyl)-2H-in- dazol-5-yl]carbonyl]hydrazinecarboxylate; M.UN.17g) N-[(2,2-difluorocyclo- propyl)methyl]-2-(3-pyridinyl)-2H-indazole-5-carboxamide; M.UN.17h) N-(2,2-difluoro- propyl)-2-(3-pyridinyl)-2H-indazole-5-carboxamide; M.UN.17i) 2-(3-pyridinyl )-N-(2- pyrimidinylmethyl )-2H-indazole-5-carboxamide; M.UN.17j) N-[(5-methyl-2- pyrazinyl)methyl]-2-(3-pyridinyl)-2H-indazole-5-carboxamide,

M.UN.18. tyclopyrazoflor;

M.UN.19 sarolaner, M.UN.20 lotilaner;

M.UN.21 N-[4-Chloro-3-[[(phenylmethyl)amino]carbonyl]phenyl]-1-methy l-3-(1 ,1 ,2,2,2- pentafluoroethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1 H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide; M.UN.22a 2-(3-ethyl- sulfonyl-2-pyridyl)-3-methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)imidazo[4,5- b]pyridine, or M. UN.22b 2-[3- ethylsulfonyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-3-methyl-6-(tri fluoromethyl)imidazo[4,5- b] pyridine;

M. UN.23a) 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-isoxazol-3- yl]-N-[(4R)-2-ethyl-3- oxo-isoxazolidin-4-yl]-2-methyl-benzamide, or M. UN.23b) 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluoro- phenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-isoxazol-3-yl]-N-[(4R)-2-ethy l-3-oxo-isoxazolidin-4-yl]-2- methyl-benzamide;

M. UN.24a) N-[4-chloro-3-(cyclopropylcarbamoyl)phenyl]-2-methyl-5-(1 ,1 ,2,2,2-pentafluoro- ethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide or M. UN.24b) N-[4-chloro-3-[(1-cyano- cyclopropyl)carbamoyl]phenyl]-2-methyl-5-(1 ,1 ,2,2, 2-pentafluoroethyl)-4-(trifluoro- methyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide; M.UN.25 acynonapyr; M.UN.26 benzpyrimoxan;

M.UN.27 2-chloro-N-(1-cyanocyclopropyl)-5-[1-[2-methyl-5-(1 ,1 ,2,2,2-pentafluoroethyl)- 4-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-3-yl]pyrazol-4-yl]benzamide; M.UN.28 Oxazosulfyl;

M. UN.29a) [(2S,3R,4R,5S,6S)-3,5-dimethoxy-6-methyl-4-propoxy-tetrahydr opyran-2-yl] N- [4-[1-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1 ,2,4-triazol-3-yl]phenyl]carbamate; M. UN.29b)

[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6S)-3,4,5-trimethoxy-6-methyl-tetrahydropyran- 2-yl] N-[4-[1-[4-(trifluo- romethoxy)phenyl]-1 ,2,4-triazol-3-yl]phenyl]carbamate; M. UN.29c) [(2S,3R,4R,5S,6S)-

3.5-dimethoxy-6-methyl-4-propoxy-tetrahydropyran-2-yl] N-[4-[1-[4-(1 ,1 ,2,2,2-pentafluo- roethoxy)phenyl]-1 ,2,4-triazol-3-yl]phenyl]carbamate; M.UN.29d) [(2S,3R,4R,5S,6S)-

3.4.5-trimethoxy-6-methyl-tetrahydropyran-2-yl] N-[4-[1-[4-(1 ,1 ,2,2,2-pentafluo- roethoxy)phenyl]-1 ,2,4-triazol-3-yl]phenyl]carbamate; M.UN.29.e) (2Z)-3-(2-isopropy- lphenyl)-2-[(E)-[4-[1-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1 ,2,4-triazol-3-yl]phenyl]methylenehy- drazono]thiazolidin-4-one or M.UN.29f) (2Z)-3-(2-isopropylphenyl)-2-[(E)-[4-[1-[4-

(1 ,1 ,2,2,2-pentafluoroethoxy)phenyl]-1 ,2,4-triazol-3-yl]phenyl]methylenehydrazono]thia- zolidin-4-one.

N) Herbicides

herbicides from the classes of the acetamides, amides, aryloxyphenoxypropionates, benzamides, benzofuran, benzoic acids, benzothiadiazinones, bipyridylium, carbamates, chloroacetamides, chlorocarboxylic acids, cyclohexanediones, dinitroanilines, dinitrophenol, diphenyl ether, glycines, imidazolinones, isoxazoles, isoxazolidinones, nitriles, N- phenylphthalimides, oxadiazoles, oxazolidinediones, oxyacetamides, phenoxycarboxylic acids, phenylcarbamates, phenylpyrazoles, phenylpyrazolines, phenylpyridazines, phosphinic acids, phosphoroamidates, phosphorodithioates, phthalamates, pyrazoles, pyridazinones, pyridines, pyridinecarboxylic acids, pyridinecarboxamides, pyrimidinediones, pyrimidinyl(thio)benzoates, quinolinecarboxylic acids, semicarbazones, sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinones, sulfonylureas, tetrazolinones, thiadiazoles, thiocarbamates, triazines, triazinones, triazoles, triazolinones, triazolocarboxamides, triazolopyrimidines, triketones, uracils, or ureas.

The present invention furthermore relates to agrochemical compositions comprising a mix- ture of at least one compound of formula I, i.e. a nitrification inhibitor of the present invention (compound I or component I) and at least one further active substance useful for plant protec- tion, e. g. selected from the groups A) to N) (component 2), in particular one further herbicide selected from the group N).

By applying compounds I together with at least one active substance from groups A) to N) a synergistic plant health effect can be obtained, i.e. more than simple addition of the individual effects is obtained (synergistic mixtures).

This can be obtained by applying the compounds I and at least one further active substance simultaneously, either jointly (e. g. as tank-mix) or separately, or in succession, wherein the time interval between the individual applications is selected to ensure that the active substance ap- plied first still occurs at the site of action in a sufficient amount at the time of application of the further active substance(s). The order of application is not essential for working of the present invention.

When applying compound I and a pesticide I sequentially the time between both applications may vary e. g. between 2 hours to 7 days. Also a broader range is possible ranging from 0.25 hour to 30 days, preferably from 0.5 hour to 14 days, particularly from 1 hour to 7 days or from 1.5 hours to 5 days, even more preferred from 2 hours to 1 day. In case of a mixture comprising a pesticide II selected from group L), it is preferred that the pesticide I is applied as last treat- ment.

According to the invention, the solid material (dry matter) of the biopesticides (with the ex- ception of oils such as Neem oil, Tagetes oil, etc.) are considered as active components (e. g. to be obtained after drying or evaporation of the extraction medium or the suspension medium in case of liquid formulations of the microbial pesticides).

In accordance with the present invention, the weight ratios and percentages used herein for a biological extract such as Quillay extract are based on the total weight of the dry content (solid material) of the respective extract(s).

The total weight ratios of compositions comprising at least one microbial pesticide in the form of viable microbial cells including dormant forms, can be determined using the amount of CFU of the respective microorganism to calculate the total weight of the respective active component with the following equation that 1 x 10 10 CFU equals one gram of total weight of the respective active component. Colony forming unit is measure of viable microbial cells, in particular fungal and bacterial cells. In addition, here“CFU” may also be understood as the number of (juvenile) individual nematodes in case of (entomopathogenic) nematode biopesticides, such as

Steinernema feltiae.

In the binary mixtures and compositions according to the invention the weight ratio of the component 1) and the component 2) generally depends from the properties of the active com- ponents used, usually it is in the range of from 1:100 to 100:1, regularly in the range of from 1:50 to 50:1, preferably in the range of from 1:20 to 20:1, more preferably in the range of from 1:10 to 10:1, even more preferably in the range of from 1:4 to 4:1 and in particular in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1.

According to further embodiments of the binary mixtures and compositions, the weight ratio of the component 1) and the component 2) usually is in the range of from 1000:1 to 1:1, often in the range of from 100: 1 to 1:1, regularly in the range of from 50:1 to 1:1, preferably in the range of from 20:1 to 1:1, more preferably in the range of from 10:1 to 1:1, even more preferably in the range of from 4:1 to 1:1 and in particular in the range of from 2:1 to 1:1.

According to a further embodiments of the binary mixtures and compositions, the weight ratio of the component 1) and the component 2) usually is in the range of from 1:1 to 1:1000, often in the range of from 1:1 to 1:100, regularly in the range of from 1:1 to 1:50, preferably in the range of from 1:1 to 1:20, more preferably in the range of from 1:1 to 1:10, even more preferably in the range of from 1:1 to 1:4 and in particular in the range of from 1:1 to 1:2.

According to further embodiments of the mixtures and compositions, the weight ratio of the component 1) and the component 2) generally depends from the properties of the active com- ponents used, usually it is in the range of from 1:10,000 to 10,000:1, regularly in the range of from 1:100 to 10,000:1, preferably in the range of from 1:100 to 5,000:1, more preferably in the range of from 1:1 to 1,000:1, even more preferably in the range of from 1:1 to 500:1 and in par- ticular in the range of from 10:1 to 300:1.

According to further embodiments of the mixtures and compositions, the weight ratio of the component 1) and the component 2) usually is in the range of from 20,000:1 to 1:10, often in the range of from 10,000:1 to 1:1, regularly in the range of from 5,000:1 to 5:1, preferably in the range of from 5,000:1 to 10:1, more preferably in the range of from 2,000:1 to 30:1, even more preferably in the range of from 2,000:1 to 100:1 and in particular in the range of from 1,000:1 to 100:1.

According to further embodiments of the mixtures and compositions, the weight ratio of the component 1) and the component 2) usually is in the range of from 1:20,000 to 10:1, often in the range of from 1:10,000 to 1:1, regularly in the range of from 1:5,000 to 1:5, preferably in the range of from 1:5,000 to 1:10, more preferably in the range of from 1:2,000 to 1:30, even more preferably in the range of from 1:2,000 to 1:100 and in particular in the range of from 1:1,000 to 1:100.

In the ternary mixtures, i.e. compositions according to the invention comprising the compo- nent 1) and component 2) and a compound III (component 3), the weight ratio of component 1) and component 2) depends from the properties of the active substances used, usually it is in the range of from 1:100 to 100:1, regularly in the range of from 1:50 to 50:1, preferably in the range of from 1:20 to 20:1, more preferably in the range of from 1:10 to 10:1 and in particular in the range of from 1:4 to 4:1 , and the weight ratio of component 1 ) and component 3) usually it is in the range of from 1 :100 to 100:1 , regularly in the range of from 1 :50 to 50:1 , preferably in the range of from 1 :20 to 20:1 , more preferably in the range of from 1 :10 to 10:1 and in particular in the range of from 1 :4 to 4:1.

Any further active components are, if desired, added in a ratio of from 20:1 to 1 :20 to the component 1).

These ratios are also suitable for inventive mixtures applied by seed treatment.

The active substances listed under groups A) to K), their preparation and their activity e. g. against harmful fungi is known (cf.: http://www.alanwood.net/pesticides/); these substances are commercially available. The compounds described by IUPAC nomenclature, their preparation and their pesticidal activity are also known (cf. Can. J. Plant Sci. 48(6), 587-94, 1968;

EP-A 141 317; EP-A 152 031 ; EP-A 226 917; EP-A 243 970; EP-A 256 503; EP-A 428 941 ; EP-A 532 022; EP-A 1 028 125; EP-A 1 035 122; EP-A 1 201 648; EP-A 1 122 244,

JP 2002316902; DE 19650197; DE 10021412; DE 102005009458; US 3,296,272;

US 3,325,503; WO 98/46608; WO 99/14187; WO 99/24413; WO 99/27783; WO 00/29404;

WO 00/46148; WO 00/65913; WO 01/54501 ; WO 01/56358; WO 02/22583; WO 02/40431 ;

WO 03/10149; WO 03/11853; WO 03/14103; WO 03/16286; WO 03/53145; WO 03/61388;

WO 03/66609; WO 03/74491 ; WO 04/49804; WO 04/83193; WO 05/120234; WO 05/123689;

WO 05/123690; WO 05/63721 ; WO 05/87772; WO 05/87773; WO 06/15866; WO 06/87325;

WO 06/87343; WO 07/82098; WO 07/90624, WO 10/139271 , WO 1 1/028657, WO 12/168188, WO 07/006670, WO 11/77514; WO 13/047749, WO 10/069882, WO 13/047441 , WO 03/16303, WO 09/90181 , WO 13/007767, WO 13/010862, WO 13/127704, WO 13/024009, WO 13/24010, WO 13/047441 , WO 13/162072, WO 13/092224, WO 1 1/135833, CN 1907024, CN 1456054,

CN 103387541 , CN 1309897, WO 12/84812, CN 1907024, WO 09094442, WO 14/60177,

WO 13/116251 , WO 08/013622, WO 15/65922, WO 94/01546, EP 2865265, WO 07/129454, WO 12/165511 , WO 11/081 174, WO 13/47441 ). Some compounds are identified by their CAS Registry Number which is separated by hyphens into three parts, the first consisting from two up to seven digits, the second consisting of two digits, and the third consisting of a single digit.

The commercially available compounds of the group M listed above may be found in The Pes- ticide Manual, 17th Edition, C. MacBean, British Crop Protection Council (2015) among other publications. The online Pesticide Manual is updated regularly and is accessible through http://bcpcdata.com/pesticide-manual.html.

Another online data base for pesticides providing the ISO common names is http://www.alan- wood.net/pesticides.

The M.4 cycloxaprid is known from WO2010/069266 and WO2011/069456. M.4A.1 is known from CN 103814937; CN105367557, CN 105481839. M.4A.2, guadipyr, is known from WO 2013/003977, and M.4A.3 (approved as paichongding in China) is known from WO

2007/101369. M.22B.1 is described in CN10171577 and M.22B.2 in CN102126994. Spiropidion M.23.1 is known from WO 2014/191271. M.28.1 and M.28.2 are known from W02007/101540. M.28.3 is described in W02005/077934. M.28.4 is described in W02007/043677. M.28.5a) to M.28.5d) and M.28.5h) are described in WO 2007/006670, WO2013/024009 and WO

2013/024010, M.28.5i) is described in WO201 1/085575, M.28.5j) in W02008/134969, M.28.5k) in US201 1/046186 and M.28.5I) in WO2012/034403. M.28.6 can be found in WO2012/034472. M.UN.3 is known from W02006/089633 and M.UN.4 from W02008/06791 1. M.UN.5 is descri- bed in W02006/043635, and biological control agents on the basis of bacillus firmus are de- scribed in W02009/124707. Flupyrimin is described in WO2012/029672. M.UN.8 is known from WO2013/055584. M.UN.9.a) is described in WO2013/050317. M.UN.9.b) is described in WO2014/126208. M. UN.10 is known from WO2010/060379. Broflanilide and M.UN.H .b) to M.UN.H .h) are described in WO2010/018714, and M.UN.H i) to M.UN.H .p) in WO

2010/127926. M.UN.12.a) to M.UN.12.C) are known from WO2010/006713, M.UN.12.d) and M.UN.12.e) are known from W02012/000896. M. UN.14a) and M. UN.14b) are known from W02007/101369. M.UN.16.a) to M.UN.16h) are described in WO2010/034737,

WO2012/084670, and WO2012/143317, resp., and M.UN.16i) and M.UN.16j) are described in WO2015/055497. M. UN.17a) to M.UN.17.j) are described in WO2015/038503. M.UN.18 Tyclo- prazoflor is described in US2014/0213448. M.UN.19 is described in WO2014/036056. M.UN.20 is known from W02014/090918. M.UN.21 is known from EP2910126. M.UN.22a and M.UN.22b are known from W02015/059039 and W02015/190316. M. UN.23a and M.UN.23b are known from WO2013/050302. M.UN.24a) and M.UN.24b) are known from WO2012/126766. Acynon- apyr M.UN.25 is known from WO 2011/105506. Benzpyrimoxan M.UN.26 is known from

W02016/104516. M.UN.27 is known from WO2016/174049. M.UN.28 Oxazosulfyl is known from WO2017/104592. M.UN.29a) to M.UN.29f) are known from W02009/102736 or

WO20131 16053.

The biopesticides from group L1 ) and/or L2) may also have insecticidal, acaricidal, mollusci- dal, pheromone, nematicidal, plant stress reducing, plant growth regulator, plant growth promot- ing and/or yield enhancing activity. The biopesticides from group L3) and/or L4) may also have fungicidal, bactericidal, viricidal, plant defense activator, plant stress reducing, plant growth reg- ulator, plant growth promoting and/or yield enhancing activity. The biopesticides from group L5) may also have fungicidal, bactericidal, viricidal, plant defense activator, insecticidal, acaricidal, molluscidal, pheromone and/or nematicidal activity.

Many of these biopesticides have been deposited under deposition numbers mentioned herein (the prefices such as ATCC or DSM refer to the acronym of the respective culture collection, for details see e. g. here: http://www. wfcc.info/ccinfo/collection/bv acronym/), are referred to in lit- erature, registered and/or are commercially available: mixtures of Aureobasidium pullulans DSM 14940 and DSM 14941 isolated in 1989 in Konstanz, Germany (e. g. blastospores in Blos- somProtect® from bio-ferm GmbH, Austria), Azospirill 'um brasilense Sp245 originally isolated in wheat reagion of South Brazil (Passo Fundo) at least prior to 1980 (BR 1 1005; e. g. GELFIX® Gramineas from BASF Agricultural Specialties Ltd., Brazil), A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab- V6 (e. g. in AzoMax from Novozymes BioAg Produtos papra Agricultura Ltda., Quattro Barras, Brazil or Simbiose-Maiz® from Simbiose-Agro, Brazil; Plant Soil 331 , 413-425, 2010), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain AP-188 (NRRL B-50615 and B-50331 ; US 8,445,255); B. amyloliquefa- ciens spp. plantarum D747 isolated from air in Kikugawa-shi, Japan (US 20130236522 A1 ; FERM BP-8234; e. g. Double Nickel™ 55 WDG from Certis LLC, USA), B. amyloliquefaciens spp. plantarum FZB24 isolated from soil in Brandenburg, Germany (also called SB3615; DSM 96-2; J. Plant Dis. Prot. 105, 181-197, 1998; e. g. Taegro® from Novozyme Biologicals, Inc., USA), B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. piantarum FZB42 isolated from soil in Brandenburg, Germany (DSM 231 17; J. Plant Dis. Prot. 105, 181-197, 1998; e. g. RhizoVital® 42 from AbiTEP GmbH, Germany), B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. piantarum MBI600 isolated from faba bean in Sutton Bon- ington, Nottinghamshire, U.K. at least before 1988 (also called 1430; NRRL B-50595;

US 2012/0149571 A1 ; e. g. Integral® from BASF Corp., USA), B. amyloliquefaciens spp. piantarum QST-713 isolated from peach orchard in 1995 in California, U.S.A. (NRRL B-21661 ; e. g. Serenade® MAX from Bayer Crop Science LP, USA), B. amyloliquefaciens s . piantarum TJ1000 isolated in 1992 in South Dakoda, U.S.A. (also called 1 BE; ATCC BAA-390; CA

2471555 A1 ; e. g. QuickRoots™ from TJ Technologies, Watertown, SD, USA), B. firmus CNCM 1-1582, a variant of parental strain EIP-N1 (CNCM 1-1556) isolated from soil of central plain area of Israel (WO 2009/126473, US 6,406,690; e. g. Votivo® from Bayer CropScience LP, USA), B. pumi/us GHA 180 isolated from apple tree rhizosphere in Mexico (IDAC 260707-01 ; e. g. PRO- MIX® BX from Premier Horticulture, Quebec, Canada), B. pumi/us INR-7 otherwise referred to as BU-F22 and BU-F33 isolated at least before 1993 from cucumber infested by Erwinia tra- cheiphiia NRRL B-50185, NRRL B-50153; US 8,445,255), B. pumi/us KFP9F isolated from the rhizosphere of grasses in South Africa at least before 2008 (NRRL B-50754; WO 2014/029697; e. g. BAC-UP or FUSION-P from BASF Agricultural Specialities (Pty) Ltd., South Africa), B. pumi/us QST 2808 was isolated from soil collected in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, in 1998 (NRRL B-30087; e. g. Sonata® or Ballad® Plus from Bayer Crop Science LP, USA), B. simplex NE>\J 288 (NRRL B-50304; US 8,445,255), B. subtHis V W also called UD 1022 or UD10-22 isolated from red beet roots in North America (ATCC PTA-1 1857; System. Appl. Mi- crobiol. 27, 372-379, 2004; US 2010/0260735; WO 201 1/109395); B. thuringiensis ssp. aizawai ABTS-1857 isolated from soil taken from a lawn in Ephraim, Wisconsin, U.S.A., in 1987 (also called ABG-6346; ATCC SD-1372; e. g. XenTari® from BioFa AG, MOnsingen, Germany), B. t. ssp. kurstaki k&TSSb identical to HD-1 isolated in 1967 from diseased Pink Bollworm black larvae in Brownsville, Texas, U.S.A. (ATCC SD-1275; e. g. Dipel® DF from Valent BioSciences, IL, USA), B. t. ssp. kurstakiS&A isolated from E. saccharina larval cadavers (NRRL B-50753; e. g. Beta Pro® from BASF Agricultural Specialities (Pty) Ltd., South Africa), B. t. ssp. tenebrionis NB-176-1 , a mutant of strain NB-125, a wild type strain isolated in 1982 from a dead pupa of the beetle Tenebrio molitor (DSM 5480; EP 585 215 B1 ; e. g. Novodor® from Valent BioSciences, Switzerland), Beauveria bassiana GHA (ATCC 74250; e. g. BotaniGard® 22WGP from Laver- lam Int. Corp., USA), B. bassiana JW-1 (ATCC 74040; e. g. Naturalis® from CBC (Europe)

S.r.l., Italy), B. bassiana PPRI 5339 isolated from the larva of the tortoise beetle Conchyioctenia punctata (NRRL 50757; e. g. Broad Band® from BASF Agricultural Specialities (Pty) Ltd., South Africa), Bradyrhizobium eikanii strains SEMIA 5019 (also called 29W) isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and SEMIA 587 isolated in 1967 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, from an area previ- ously inoculated with a North American isolate, and used in commercial inoculants since 1968 (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(8), 2635, 2007; e. g. GELFIX 5 from BASF Agricultural Specialties Ltd., Brazil), B. japonicum 532c isolated from Wisconsin field in U.S.A. (Nitragin 61A152; Can.

J. Plant. Sci. 70, 661 -666, 1990; e. g. in Rhizoflo®, Histick®, Hicoat® Super from BASF

Agricultural Specialties Ltd., Canada), B. japonicum E-109 variant of strain USDA 138 (INTA E109, SEMIA 5085; Eur. J. Soil Biol. 45, 28-35, 2009; Biol. Fertil. Soils 47, 81-89, 201 1 ); B. japonicum strains deposited at SEMIA known from Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(8), 2635, 2007: SEMIA 5079 isolated from soil in Cerrados region, Brazil by Embrapa-Cerrados used in com- mercial inoculants since 1992 (CPAC 15; e. g. GELFIX 5 or ADHERE 60 from BASF Agricultural Specialties Ltd., Brazil), B. japonicum SEMIA 5080 obtained under lab condtions by Embrapa- Cerrados in Brazil and used in commercial inoculants since 1992, being a natural variant of SEMIA 586 (CB1809) originally isolated in U.S.A. (CPAC 7; e. g. GELFIX 5 or ADHERE 60 from BASF Agricultural Specialties Ltd., Brazil); Burkholderia sp. A396 isolated from soil in Nikko, Japan, in 2008 (NRRL B-50319; WO 2013/032693; Marrone Bio Innovations, Inc., USA), Conio- thyrium minitans CON/M/91-08 isolated from oilseed rape (WO 1996/021358; DSM 9660; e. g. Contans® WG, Intercept® WG from Bayer CropScience AG, Germany), harpin (alpha-beta) protein (Science 257, 85-88, 1992; e. g. Messenger™ or HARP-N-Tek from Plant Health Care pic, U.K.), Halicovarpa armigara nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) (J. Invertebrate Pathol. 107, 1 12-126, 2011 ; e. g. Helicovex® from Adermatt Biocontrol, Switzerland; Diplomata® from Kop- pert, Brazil; Vivus® Max from AgBiTech Pty Ltd., Queensland, Australia), Helicoverpa zea sin- gle capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzSNPV) (e. g. Gemstar® from Certis LLC, USA), Helico v- erpa zea nucleopolyhedrovirus ABA-NPV-U (e. g. Heligen® from AgBiTech Pty Ltd., Queens- land, Australia), g. Nemasys® G from BASF Agricultural Spe- cialities Limited, UK), isaria fumosorosea Apopka-97 isolated from mealy bug on gynura in Apopka, Florida, U.S.A. (ATCC 20874; Biocontrol Science Technol. 22(7), 747-761 , 2012; e. g. PFR-97™ or PreFeRal® from Certis LLC, USA), Metarhizium anisopHae var. anisopHae F52 also called 275 or V275 isolated from codling moth in Austria (DSM 3884, ATCC 90448; e. g. Met52® Novozymes Biologicals BioAg Group, Canada), Metschnikowia fructicola 277 isolated from grapes in the central part of Israel (US 6,994,849; NRRL Y-30752; e. g. formerly Shemer® from Agrogreen, Israel), Paecilomyces Hacinuslb isolated from infected nematode eggs in the Philippines (AGAL 89/030550; W01991/02051 ; Crop Protection 27, 352-361 , 2008; e. g.

BioAct®from Bayer CropScience AG, Germany and MeloCon® from Certis, USA), PaenibaciHus ^/i/b/NAeqΰq isolated from the rhizosphere of grasses in South Africa at least before 2008 (WO 2014/029697; NRRL B-50755; e.g. BAC-UP from BASF Agricultural Specialities (Pty) Ltd., South Africa), PaenibaciHus strains isolated from soil samples from a variety of European loca- tions including Germany: P. epiphyticus LuMW b (WO 2016/020371 ; DSM 26971 ), P. poiymyxa ssp. piantarum Lu 16774 (WO 2016/020371 ; DSM 26969), P. p. ssp. piantarum strain Lu17007 (WO 2016/020371 ; DSM 26970); Pasteuria nishizawae Pn1 isolated from a soybean field in the mid-2000s in Illinois, U.S.A. (ATCC SD-5833; Federal Register 76(22), 5808, February 2, 201 1 ; e.g. Clariva™ PN from Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC, USA), Peniciiiium biiaiae (also called P. biiaii) strains ATCC 18309 (= ATCC 74319), ATCC 20851 and/or ATCC 22348 (= ATCC 74318) originally isolated from soil in Alberta, Canada (Fertilizer Res. 39, 97-103, 1994; Can. J. Plant Sci. 78(1), 91-102, 1998; US 5,026,417, WO 1995/017806; e. g. Jump Start®, Provide® from Novozymes Biologicals BioAg Group, Canada), Reynoutria sachaiinensis extract (EP 0307510 B1 ; e. g. Regalia® SC from Marrone Bioinnovations, Davis, CA, USA or Milsana® from BioFa AG, Germany), Steinernema carpocapsae {e. g. Millenium® from BASF Agricultural Specialities Limited, UK), S. feitiae {e. g. Nemashield® from BioWorks, Inc., USA; Nemasys® from BASF Agricultural Specialities Limited, UK), Streptomyces microfiavus V. B-50550

(WO 2014/124369; Bayer CropScience, Germany), Trichoderma aspereiioides JM41 R isolated in South Africa (NRRL 50759; also referred to as T. fertile, e. g. Trichoplus® from BASF Agricul- tural Specialities (Pty) Ltd., South Africa), T. harzianuml-22 also called KRL-AG2 (ATCC 20847; BioControl 57, 687-696, 2012; e. g. Plantshield® from BioWorks Inc., USA or SabrEx™ from Advanced Biological Marketing Inc., Van Wert, OH, USA).

According to one embodiment of the inventive mixtures, the at least one pesticide II is se- lected from the groups L1) to L6):

L1) Microbial pesticides with fungicidal, bactericidal, viricidal and/or plant defense activator ac- tivity: Aureobasidium pu Hu Ians DSM 14940 and DSM 14941 (L1.1 ), Bacillus amyioiiquefa- ciens AP-188 (L.1.2), B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. p!antarum D747 (L.1.3), B. amyloliquefa ciens ssp. p!antarum FZB24 (L.1.4), B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. p!antarum FZB42 (L.1.5), B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. p!antarum M B 1600 (L.1.6), B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum QST-713 (L.1.7), B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum TJ 1000 (L.1.8), B. pumi/us GB2 > A (L.1.9), B. pumi/us GHA 180 (L.1.10), B. pumi/us INR-7 (L.1.1 1), B. pumi/us QST 2808 (L.1.13), B. simplex ABU 288 (L.1.14), B. subti/is FB17 (L.1.15), Coniothyrium minitans CON/M/91-08 (L.1.16), Metschnikowia fructicola NRRL Y-30752 (L.1.17), PeniciHium bilaiae ATCC 22348 (L.1.19), P. bilaiae ATCC 20851 (L.1.20), PeniciHium bilaiae ATCC 18309 (L.1.21 ), Streptomyces microfiavus NRRL B-50550 (L.1.22), T. harzianum~[-22 (L.1.24);

L2) Biochemical pesticides with fungicidal, bactericidal, viricidal and/or plant defense activator activity: harpin protein (L.2.1 ), Reynoutria sacha/inensis extract (L.2.2);

L3) Microbial pesticides with insecticidal, acaricidal, molluscidal and/or nematicidal activity:

Bacillus firmus 1-1582 (L.3.1); B. thuringiensis ssp. aizawai kBJS 857 (L.3.2), B. t. ssp. kurstaki f\ TS-3b 1 (L.3.3), B. t. ssp. tenebrionis NB-176-1 (L.3.5), Beauveria bassiana GHA (L.3.6), B. bassiana SNA (L.3.7), Burkhoideria sp. A396 (L.3.9), Heiicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) (L.3.10), Heiicoverpa zea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzNPV) ABA-NPV-U (L.3.1 1), Heiicoverpa zea single capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzSNPV)

(L.3.12), Heterohabditis bacteriophora (L.3.13), isaria fumosorosea Apopka-97 (L.3.14), Metarhizium anisopiiae var. anisopiiae F52 (L.3.15), Paeciiomyces Hiacinus 251 (L.3.16), Pasteuria nishizawae Pn1 (L.3.17), Steinernema carpocapsae (L.3.18), S. feitiae (L.3.19); L4) Biochemical pesticides with insecticidal, acaricidal, molluscidal, pheromone and/or nemati- cidal activity: cis-jasmone (L.4.1), methyl jasmonate (L.4.2), Quillay extract (L.4.3);

L5) Microbial pesticides with plant stress reducing, plant growth regulator, plant growth promot- ing and/or yield enhancing activity.

In a further aspect the present invention relates to an agrochemical mixture comprising at least one fertilizer; and at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined as defined herein above; or at least one fertilizer and a composition as mentioned above.

In the terms of the present invention "agrochemical mixture" means a combination of at least two compounds. The term is, however, not restricted to a physical mixture comprising at least two compounds, but refers to any preparation form of at least one compound and at least one further compound, the use of which many be time- and/or locus-related.

The agrochemical mixtures may, for example, be formulated separately but applied in a tem- poral relationship, i.e. simultaneously or subsequently, the subsequent application having a time interval which allows a combined action of the compounds. Furthermore, the individual compounds of the agrochemical mixtures according to the inven- tion such as parts of a kit or parts of the binary mixture may be mixed by the user himself in a suitable mixing device. In specific embodiments further auxiliaries may be added, if appropriate.

The term "fertilizers" is to be understood as chemical compounds applied to promote plant and fruit growth. Fertilizers are typically applied either through the soil (for uptake by plant roots), through soil substituents (also for uptake by plant roots), or by foliar feeding (for uptake through leaves). The term also includes mixtures of one or more different types of fertilizers as men- tioned below.

The term "fertilizers" can be subdivided into several categories including: a) organic fertilizers (composed of decayed plant/animal matter), b) inorganic fertilizers (composed of chemicals and minerals) and c) urea-containing fertilizers.

Organic fertilizers include manure, e.g. liquid manure, semi-liquid manure, biogas manure, sta- ble manure or straw manure, slurry, worm castings, peat, seaweed, compost, sewage, and guano. Green manure crops are also regularly grown to add nutrients (especially nitrogen) to the soil. Manufactured organic fertilizers include compost, blood meal, bone meal and seaweed extracts. Further examples are enzyme digested proteins, fish meal, and feather meal. The de- composing crop residue from prior years is another source of fertility. In addition, naturally oc- curring minerals such as mine rock phosphate, sulfate of potash and limestone are also consid- ered inorganic fertilizers.

Inorganic fertilizers are usually manufactured through chemical processes (such as the Haber process), also using naturally occurring deposits, while chemically altering them (e.g. concen- trated triple superphosphate). Naturally occurring inorganic fertilizers include Chilean sodium ni- trate, mine rock phosphate, limestone, and raw potash fertilizers.

The inorganic fertilizer may, in a specific embodiment, be a NPK fertilizer. "NPK fertilizers" are inorganic fertilizers formulated in appropriate concentrations and combinations comprising the three main nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) as well as typically S, Mg, Ca, and trace elements.

Urea-containing fertilizer may, in specific embodiments, be urea, formaldehyde urea, anhy- drous ammonium, urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution, urea sulfur, urea based NPK-fertiliz- ers, or urea ammonium sulfate. Also envisaged is the use of urea as fertilizer. In case urea-con- taining fertilizers or urea are used or provided, it is particularly preferred that urease inhibitors as defined herein above may be added or additionally be present, or be used at the same time or in connection with the urea-containing fertilizers.

Fertilizers may be provided in any suitable form, e.g. as solid coated or uncoated granules, in liquid or semi-liquid form, as sprayable fertilizer, or via fertigation etc.

Coated fertilizers may be provided with a wide range of materials. Coatings may, for example, be applied to granular or prilled nitrogen (N) fertilizer or to multi-nutrient fertilizers. Typically, urea is used as base material for most coated fertilizers. Alternatively, ammonium or NPK fertil izers are used as base material for coated fertilizers. The present invention, however, also en- visages the use of other base materials for coated fertilizers, any one of the fertilizer materials defined herein. In certain embodiments, elemental sulfur may be used as fertilizer coating. The coating may be performed by spraying molten S over urea granules, followed by an application of sealant wax to close fissures in the coating. In a further embodiment, the S layer may be cov- ered with a layer of organic polymers, preferably a thin layer of organic polymers.

Further envisaged coated fertilizers may be provided by reacting resin-based polymers on the surface of the fertilizer granule. A further example of providing coated fertilizers includes the use of low permeability polyethylene polymers in combination with high permeability coatings.

In specific embodiments the composition and/or thickness of the fertilizer coating may be ad- justed to control, for example, the nutrient release rate for specific applications. The duration of nutrient release from specific fertilizers may vary, e.g. from several weeks to many months. The presence of nitrification inhibitors in a mixture with coated fertilizers may accordingly be adapted. It is, in particular, envisaged that the nutrient release involves or is accompanied by the release of an nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention.

Coated fertilizers may be provided as controlled release fertilizers (CRFs). In specific embodi- ments these controlled release fertilizers are fully coated urea or N-P-K fertilizers, which are ho- mogeneous and which typically show a pre-defined longevity of release. In further embodi- ments, the CRFs may be provided as blended controlled release fertilizer products which may contain coated, uncoated and/or slow release components. In certain embodiments, these coated fertilizers may additionally comprise micronutrients. In specific embodiments these fertil izers may show a pre-defined longevity, e.g. in case of N-P-K fertilizers.

Additionally envisaged examples of CRFs include patterned release fertilizers. These fertilizers typically show a pre-defined release patterns (e.g. hi/standard/lo) and a pre-defined longevity. In exemplary embodiments fully coated N-P-K, Mg and micronutrients may be delivered in a pat- terned release manner.

Also envisaged are double coating approaches or coated fertilizers based on a programmed release.

In further embodiments the fertilizer mixture may be provided as, or may comprise or contain a slow release fertilizer. The fertilizer may, for example, be released over any suitable period of time, e.g. over a period of 1 to 5 months, preferably up to 3 months. Typical examples of ingre- dients of slow release fertilizers are IBDU (isobutylidenediurea), e.g. containing about 31-32 % nitrogen, of which 90% is water insoluble; or UF, i.e. an urea-formaldehyde product which con- tains about 38 % nitrogen of which about 70 % may be provided as water insoluble nitrogen; or CDU (crotonylidene diurea) containing about 32 % nitrogen; or MU (methylene urea) containing about 38 to 40% nitrogen, of which 25-60 % is typically cold water insoluble nitrogen; or MDU (methylene diurea) containing about 40% nitrogen, of which less than 25 % is cold water insolu- ble nitrogen; or MO (methylol urea) containing about 30% nitrogen, which may typically be used in solutions; or DMTU (diimethylene triurea) containing about 40% nitrogen, of which less than 25% is cold water insoluble nitrogen; or TMTU (tri methylene tetraurea), which may be provided as component of UF products; or TMPU (tri methylene pentaurea), which may also be provided as component of UF products; or UT (urea triazone solution) which typically contains about 28 % nitrogen. The fertilizer mixture may also be long-term nitrogen-bearing fertiliser containing a mixture of acetylene diurea and at least one other organic nitrogen-bearing fertiliser selected from methylene urea, isobutylidene diurea, crotonylidene diurea, substituted triazones, triuret or mixtures thereof. Any of the above mentioned fertilizers or fertilizer forms may suitably be combined. For in- stance, slow release fertilizers may be provided as coated fertilizers. They may also be com- bined with other fertilizers or fertilizer types. The same applies to the presence of a nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention, which may be adapted to the form and chemical na- ture of the fertilizer and accordingly be provided such that its release accompanies the release of the fertilizer, e.g. is released at the same time or with the same frequency. The present inven- tion further envisages fertilizer or fertilizer forms as defined herein above in combination with ni- trification inhibitors as defined herein above and further in combination with urease inhibitors as defined herein above. Such combinations may be provided as coated or uncoated forms and/or as slow or fast release forms. Preferred are combinations with slow release fertilizers including a coating. In further embodiments, also different release schemes are envisaged, e.g. a slower or a faster release.

The term "fertigation" as used herein refers to the application of fertilizers, optionally soil amendments, and optionally other water-soluble products together with water through an irriga tion system to a plant or to the locus where a plant is growing or is intended to grow, or to a soil substituent as defined herein below. For example, liquid fertilizers or dissolved fertilizers may be provided via fertigation directly to a plant or a locus where a plant is growing or is intended to grow. Likewise, nitrification inhibitors according to the present invention, or in combination with additional nitrification inhibitors, may be provided via fertigation to plants or to a locus where a plant is growing or is intended to grow. Fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors according to the present invention, or in combination with additional nitrification inhibitors, may be provided to- gether, e.g. dissolved in the same charge or load of material (typically water) to be irrigated. In further embodiments, fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors may be provided at different points in time. For example, the fertilizer may be fertigated first, followed by the nitrification inhibitor, or preferably, the nitrification inhibitor may be fertigated first, followed by the fertilizer. The time in- tervals for these activities follow the herein above outlined time intervals for the application of fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors. Also envisaged is a repeated fertigation of fertilizers and ni- trification inhibitors according to the present invention, either together or intermittently, e.g. ev- ery 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days or more.

In particularly preferred embodiments, the fertilizer is an ammonium-containing fertilizer.

The agrochemical mixture according to the present invention may comprise one fertilizer as defined herein above and one nitrification inhibitor of formula I as defined herein above. In fur- ther embodiments, the agrochemical mixture according to the present invention may comprise at least one or more than one fertilizer as defined herein above, e.g. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more different fertilizers (including inorganic, organic and urea-containing fertilizers) and at least one nitrification inhibitor of formula I as defined herein above, preferably one nitrification inhibitor of formula I selected from Table 1.

In another group of embodiments the agrochemical mixture according to the present invention may comprise at least one or more than one nitrification inhibitor of formula I as defined herein above, preferably more than one nitrification inhibitor of formula I selected from Table 1 , e.g. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more different nitrification inhibitors as defined herein above or as pro- vided in Table 1 and at least one fertilizer as defined herein above. The term "at least one" is to be understood as 1 , 2, 3 or more of the respective compound se- lected from the group consisting of fertilizers as defined herein above (also designated as corn- pound A), and nitrification inhibitors of formula I as defined herein above (also designated as compound B).

In addition to at least one fertilizer and at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, an agrochemical mixture may comprise further ingredients, compounds, active corn- pounds or compositions or the like. For example, the agrochemical mixture may additionally comprise or composed with or on the basis of a carrier, e.g. an agrochemical carrier, preferably as defined herein. In further embodiments, the agrochemical mixture may further comprise at least one pesticidal compound. For example, the agrochemical mixture may additionally corn- prise at least one herbicidal compound and/or at least one fungicidal compound and/or at least one insecticidal compound.

In further embodiments, the agrochemical mixture may, in addition to the above indicated in- gredients, in particular in addition to the nitrification inhibitor of the compound of formula I and the fertilizer, further comprise alternative or additional nitrification inhibitors such as linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate, MHPP, Karanjin, brachialacton, p- benzoquinone sorgoleone, nitrapyrin, dicyandiamide (DCD), 3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate (DMPP), 4-amino-1 , 2, 4-triazole hydrochloride (ATC), 1-amido-2-thiourea (ASU), 2-amino-4- chloro-6-methylpyrimidine (AM), 5-ethoxy-3-trichloromethyl-1 ,2,4-thiodiazole (terrazole), ammo- niumthiosulfate (ATU), 3-methylpyrazol (3-MP), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMP), 1 ,2,4-triazol and thiourea (TU) and/or sulfathiazole (ST), N-(1 H-pyrazolyl-methyl)acetamides such as N-((3(5)- methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl)acetamide, and/or N-(1 H-pyrazolyl-methyl)formamides such as N-((3(5)-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl formamide, N-(4-chloro-3(5)-methyl-pyrazole-1-yl- methyl)-formamide, or N-(3(5),4-dimethyl-pyrazole-1 -ylmethyl)-formamide.

Furthermore, the invention relates to a method for reducing nitrification, comprising treating a plant growing on soil and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow with at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. with an nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof, or a composition comprising said nitrification in- hibitor.

The term "plant" is to be understood as a plant of economic importance and/or men-grown plant. In certain embodiments, the term may also be understood as plants which have no or no significant economic importance. The plant is preferably selected from agricultural, silvicultural and horticultural (including ornamental) plants. The term also relates to genetically modified plants.

The term "plant" as used herein further includes all parts of a plant such as germinating seeds, emerging seedlings, plant propagules, herbaceous vegetation as well as established woody plants including all belowground portions (such as the roots) and aboveground portions.

Within the context of the method for reducing nitrification it is assumed that the plant is grow- ing on soil. In specific embodiments, the plant may also grow differently, e.g. in synthetic labora- tory environments or on soil substituents, or be supplemented with nutrients, water etc. by artifi- cial or technical means. In such scenarios, the invention envisages a treatment of the zone or area where the nutrients, water etc. are provided to the plant. Also envisaged is that the plant grows in green houses or similar indoor facilities.

The term "locus" is to be understood as any type of environment, soil, soil substituent, area or material where the plant is growing or intended to grow. Preferably, the term relates to soil or soil substituent on which a plant is growing.

In one embodiment, the plant to be treated according to the method of the invention is an agri- cultural plant. "Agricultural plants" are plants of which a part (e.g. seeds) or all is harvested or cultivated on a commercial scale or which serve as an important source of feed, food, fibers (e.g. cotton, linen), combustibles (e.g. wood, bioethanol, biodiesel, biomass) or other chemical compounds. Preferred agricultural plants are for example cereals, e.g. wheat, rye, barley, triti- cale, oats, corn, sorghum or rice, beet, e.g. sugar beet or fodder beet; fruits, such as pomes, stone fruits or soft fruits, e.g. apples, pears, plums, peaches, almonds, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries or gooseberries; leguminous plants, such as lentils, peas, alfalfa or soybeans; oil plants, such as rape, oil-seed rape, canola, linseed, mustard, olives, sunflowers, coconut, cocoa beans, castor oil plants, oil palms, ground nuts or soybeans; cucurbits, such as squashes, cucumber or melons; fiber plants, such as cotton, flax, hemp or jute; citrus fruit, such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits or mandarins; vegetables, such as spinach, lettuce, asparagus, cabbages, carrots, onions, tomatoes, potatoes, cucurbits or paprika; lauraceous plants, such as avocados, cinnamon or camphor; energy and raw material plants, such as corn, soybean, rape, canola, sugar cane or oil palm; tobacco; nuts; coffee; tea; bananas; vines (table grapes and grape juice grape vines); hop; turf; natural rubber plants.

In a further embodiment, the plant to be treated according to the method of the invention is a horticultural plant. The term "horticultural plants" are to be understood as plants which are com- monly used in horticulture, e.g. the cultivation of ornamentals, vegetables and/or fruits. Exam- pies for ornamentals are turf, geranium, pelargonia, petunia, begonia and fuchsia. Examples for vegetables are potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, cucurbits, cucumbers, melons, watermelons, gar- lic, onions, carrots, cabbage, beans, peas and lettuce and more preferably from tomatoes, onions, peas and lettuce. Examples for fruits are apples, pears, cherries, strawberry, citrus, peaches, apricots and blueberries.

In a further embodiment, the plant to be treated according to the method of the invention is an ornamental plant. "Ornamental plants" are plants which are commonly used in gardening, e.g. in parks, gardens and on balconies. Examples are turf, geranium, pelargonia, petunia, begonia and fuchsia.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the plant to be treated according to the method of the invention is a silvicultural plant. The term "silvicultural plant" is to be understood as trees, more specifically trees used in reforestation or industrial plantations. Industrial planta- tions generally serve for the commercial production of forest products, such as wood, pulp, pa- per, rubber tree, Christmas trees, or young trees for gardening purposes. Examples for silvicul tural plants are conifers, like pines, in particular Pinus spec., fir and spruce, eucalyptus, tropical trees like teak, rubber tree, oil palm, willow (Salix), in particular Salix spec., poplar (cottonwood), in particular Populus spec., beech, in particular Fagus spec., birch, oil palm, and oak.

The term "plant propagation material" is to be understood to denote all the generative parts of the plant such as seeds and vegetative plant material such as cuttings and tubers (e.g. pota- toes), which can be used for the multiplication of the plant. This includes seeds, grains, roots, fruits, tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, cuttings, spores, offshoots, shoots, sprouts and other parts of plants, including seedlings and young plants, which are to be transplanted after germination or after emergence from soil, meristem tissues, single and multiple plant cells and any other plant tissue from which a complete plant can be obtained.

The term "genetically modified plants" is to be understood as plants, which genetic material has been modified by the use of recombinant DNA techniques in a way that under natural cir cumstances it cannot readily be obtained by cross breeding, mutations or natural recombina- tion. Typically, one or more genes have been integrated into the genetic material of a geneti- cally modified plant in order to improve certain properties of the plant. Such genetic modifica- tions also include but are not limited to targeted post-translational modification of protein(s), oligo- or polypeptides e. g. by glycosylation or polymer additions such as prenylated, acetylated or farnesylated moieties or PEG moieties.

Plants that have been modified by breeding, mutagenesis or genetic engineering, e. g. have been rendered tolerant to applications of specific classes of herbicides, such as auxin herbi- cides such as dicamba or 2,4-D; bleacher herbicides such as hydroxylphenylpyruvate dioxyge- nase (HPPD) inhibitors or phytoene desaturase (PDS) inhibitors; acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors such as sulfonyl ureas or imidazolinones; enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) inhibitors, such as glyphosate; glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitors such as glufosi- nate; protoporphyrinogen-IX oxidase inhibitors; lipid biosynthesis inhibitors such as acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors; or oxynil (i. e. bromoxynil or ioxynil) herbicides as a result of conventional methods of breeding or genetic engineering. Furthermore, plants have been made resistant to multiple classes of herbicides through multiple genetic modifications, such as resis- tance to both glyphosate and glufosinate or to both glyphosate and a herbicide from another class such as ALS inhibitors, HPPD inhibitors, auxin herbicides, or ACCase inhibitors. These herbicide resistance technologies are e. g. described in Pest Managem. Sci. 61 , 2005, 246; 61 , 2005, 258; 61 , 2005, 277; 61 , 2005, 269; 61 , 2005, 286; 64, 2008, 326; 64, 2008, 332; Weed Sci. 57, 2009, 108; Austral. J. Agricult. Res. 58, 2007, 708; Science 316, 2007, 1 185; and refer- ences quoted therein. Several cultivated plants have been rendered tolerant to herbicides by conventional methods of breeding (mutagenesis), e. g. Clearfield ® summer rape (Canola, BASF SE, Germany) being tolerant to imidazolinones, e. g. imazamox, or ExpressSun ® sunflowers (DuPont, USA) being tolerant to sulfonyl ureas, e. g. tribenuron. Genetic engineering methods have been used to render cultivated plants such as soybean, cotton, corn, beets and rape, toler- ant to herbicides such as glyphosate and glufosinate, some of which are commercially available under the trade names RoundupReady ® (glyphosate-tolerant, Monsanto, U.S.A.), Cultivance ® (imidazolinone tolerant, BASF SE, Germany) and LibertyLink ® (glufosinate-tolerant, Bayer Crop- Science, Germany).

Furthermore, plants are also covered that are by the use of recombinant DNA techniques ca- pable to synthesize one or more insecticidal proteins, especially those known from the bacterial genus Bacillus, particularly from Bacillus thuringiensis, such as d-endotoxins, e. g. CrylA(b), CrylA(c), CrylF, CrylF(a2), CryllA(b), CrylllA, CrylllB(bl ) or Cry9c; vegetative insecticidal pro- teins (VIP), e. g. VIP1 , VIP2, VIP3 or VIP3A; insecticidal proteins of bacteria colonizing nema- todes, e. g. Photorhabdus spp. or Xenorhabdus spp. toxins produced by animals, such as scor- pion toxins, arachnid toxins, wasp toxins, or other insect-specific neurotoxins; toxins produced by fungi, such Streptomycetes toxins, plant lectins, such as pea or barley lectins; agglutinins; proteinase inhibitors, such as trypsin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, patatin, cystatin or papain inhibitors; ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP), such as ricin, maize-RIP, abrin, luffin, saporin or bryodin; steroid metabolism enzymes, such as 3-hydroxysteroid oxidase, ecdys- teroid-IDP-glycosyl-transferase, cholesterol oxidases, ecdysone inhibitors or HMG-CoA-reduc- tase; ion channel blockers, such as blockers of sodium or calcium channels; juvenile hormone esterase; diuretic hormone receptors (helicokinin receptors); stilbene synthase, bibenzyl syn- thase, chitinases or glucanases. In the context of the present invention these insecticidal pro- teins or toxins are to be understood expressly also as pre-toxins, hybrid proteins, truncated or otherwise modified proteins. Hybrid proteins are characterized by a new combination of protein domains, (see, e. g. WO 02/015701 ). Further examples of such toxins or genetically modified plants capable of synthesizing such toxins are disclosed, e. g., in EP-A 374 753,

WO 93/007278, WO 95/34656, EP-A 427 529, EP-A 451 878, WO 03/18810 und WO 03/52073.

The methods for producing such genetically modified plants are generally known to the person skilled in the art and are described, e. g. in the publications mentioned above. These insecticidal proteins contained in the genetically modified plants impart to the plants producing these pro- teins tolerance to harmful pests from all taxonomic groups of arthropods, especially to beetles (Coeloptera), two-winged insects (Diptera), and moths (Lepidoptera) and to nematodes (Nema- toda). Genetically modified plants capable to synthesize one or more insecticidal proteins are, e. g., described in the publications mentioned above, and some of which are commercially avail- able such as YieldGard ® (corn cultivars producing the Cry1 Ab toxin), YieldGard ® Plus (corn cul- tivars producing CrylAb and Cry3Bb1 toxins), Starlink ® (corn cultivars producing the Cry9c toxin), Herculex ® RW (corn cultivars producing Cry34Ab1 , Cry35Ab1 and the enzyme phos- phinothricin-N-acetyltransferase [PAT]); NuCOTN ® 33B (cotton cultivars producing the CrylAc toxin), Bollgard ® I (cotton cultivars producing the CrylAc toxin), Bollgard ® II (cotton cultivars pro- ducing CrylAc and Cry2Ab2 toxins); VIPCOT ® (cotton cultivars producing a VIP-toxin);

NewLeaf ® (potato cultivars producing the Cry3A toxin); Bt-Xtra ® , NatureGard ® , KnockOut ® , Bite- Gard ® , Protecta ® , Bt1 1 (e. g. Agrisure ® CB) and Bt176 from Syngenta Seeds SAS, France,

(corn cultivars producing the CrylAb toxin and PAT enyzme), MIR604 from Syngenta Seeds SAS, France (corn cultivars producing a modified version of the Cry3A toxin, c.f.

WO 03/018810), MON 863 from Monsanto Europe S.A., Belgium (corn cultivars producing the Cry3Bb1 toxin), IPC 531 from Monsanto Europe S.A., Belgium (cotton cultivars producing a modified version of the CrylAc toxin) and 1507 from Pioneer Overseas Corporation, Belgium (corn cultivars producing the Cry1 F toxin and PAT enzyme).

Furthermore, plants are also covered that are by the use of recombinant DNA techniques ca- pable to synthesize one or more proteins to increase the resistance or tolerance of those plants to bacterial, viral or fungal pathogens. Examples of such proteins are the so-called“pathogene- sis-related proteins” (PR proteins, see, e. g. EP-A 392 225), plant disease resistance genes (e. g. potato cultivars, which express resistance genes acting against Phytophthora infestans de- rived from the Mexican wild potato Solarium bulbocastanum) or T4-lysozym (e. g. potato culti vars capable of synthesizing these proteins with increased resistance against bacteria such as Erwinia amy!vora). The methods for producing such genetically modified plants are generally known to the person skilled in the art and are described, e. g. in the publications mentioned above.

Furthermore, plants are also covered that are by the use of recombinant DNA techniques ca- pable to synthesize one or more proteins to increase the productivity (e. g. bio mass production, grain yield, starch content, oil content or protein content), tolerance to drought, salinity or other growth-limiting environmental factors or tolerance to pests and fungal, bacterial or viral pathogens of those plants.

Furthermore, plants are also covered that contain by the use of recombinant DNA techniques a modified amount of substances of content or new substances of content, specifically to im- prove human or animal nutrition, e. g. oil crops that produce health-promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or unsaturated omega-9 fatty acids (e. g. Nexera ® rape, DOW Agro Sci- ences, Canada).

Furthermore, plants are also covered that contain by the use of recombinant DNA techniques a modified amount of substances of content or new substances of content, specifically to im- prove raw material production, e. g. potatoes that produce increased amounts of amylopectin (e. g. Amflora ® potato, BASF SE, Germany).

The term "soil substituent" as used herein refers to a substrate which is able to allow the growth of a plant and does not comprise usual soil ingredients. This substrate is typically an in- organic substrate which may have the function of an inert medium. It may, in certain embodi- ments, also comprise organic elements or portions. Soil substituents may, for example, be used in hydroculture or hydroponic approaches, i.e. wherein plants are grown in soilless medium and/or aquatic based environments. Examples of suitable soil substituents, which may be used in the context of the present invention, are perlite, gravel, biochar, mineral wool, coconut husk, phyllosilicates, i.e. sheet silicate minerals, typically formed by parallel sheets of silicate tetrahe- dra with Si 2 0 5 or a 2:5 ratio, or clay aggregates, in particular expanded clay aggregates with a diameter of about 10 to 40 mm. Particularly preferred is the employment of vermiculite, i.e. a phyllosilicate with 2 tetrahedral sheets for every one octahedral sheet present.

The use of soil substituents may, in specific embodiments, be combined with fertigation or irri- gation as defined herein.

In specific embodiments, the treatment may be carried out during all suitable growth stages of a plant as defined herein. For example, the treatment may be carried out during the BBCH prin ciple growth stages.

The term "BBCH principal growth stage" refers to the extended BBCH-scale which is a system for a uniform coding of phenologically similar growth stages of all mono- and dicotyledonous plant species in which the entire developmental cycle of the plants is subdivided into clearly rec- ognizable and distinguishable longer-lasting developmental phases. The BBCH-scale uses a decimal code system, which is divided into principal and secondary growth stages. The abbrevi- ation BBCH derives from the Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (Germany), the Bundessortenamt (Germany) and the chemical industry.

In one embodiment the invention relates to a method for reducing nitrification comprising treat- ing a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow with at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. with a nitrifi- cation inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof at a growth stage (GS) between GS 00 and GS > BBCH 99 of the pant (e.g. when fertilizing in fall after harvesting ap- ples) and preferably between GS 00 and GS 65 BBCH of the plant.

In one embodiment the invention relates to a method for reducing nitrification comprising treat- ing a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow with at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. with a nitrifi- cation inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof at a growth stage (GS) between GS 00 to GS 45, preferably between GS 00 and GS 40 BBCH of the plant.

In a preferred embodiment the invention relates to a method for reducing nitrification compris- ing treating a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is grow- ing or is intended to grow with at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. with a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof at an early growth stage (GS), in particular a GS 00 to GS 05, or GS 00 to GS 10, or GS 00 to GS 15, or GS 00 to GS 20, or GS 00 to GS 25 or GS 00 to GS 33 BBCH of the plant. In particularly preferred em- bodiments, the method for reducing nitrification comprises treating a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow with at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above during growth stages including GS 00.

In a further, specific embodiment of the invention, at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof is applied to a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow at a growth stage between GS 00 and GS 55 BBCH, or of the plant.

In a further embodiment of the invention, at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof is ap- plied to a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow at the growth stage between GS 00 and GS 47 BBCH of the plant.

In one embodiment of the invention, at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof is applied to a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is in- tended to grow before and at sowing, before emergence, and until harvest (GS 00 to GS 89 BBCH), or at a growth stage (GS) between GS 00 and GS 65 BBCH of the plant.

In a preferred embodiment the invention relates to a method for reducing nitrification compris- ing treating a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is grow- ing with at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. with a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof wherein the plant and/or the locus where plant is growing or is intended to grow is additionally provided with at least one fertilizer. The fertilizer may be any suitable fertilizer, preferably a fertilizer as defined herein above. Also envis- aged is the application of more than one fertilizer, e.g. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 fertilizers, or of different fertilizer classes or categories.

In specific embodiments of the invention, at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof and at least one fertilizer is applied to a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow at a growth stage between GS OOand GS 33 BBCH of the plant.

In specific embodiments of the invention, at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof and at least one fertilizer is applied to a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow at a growth stage between GS 00 and GS 55 BBCH of the plant.

In further specific embodiments of the invention, at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof and at least one fertilizer is applied to a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the lo- cus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow at sowing, before emergence, or at a growth stage (GS) between GS 00 and GS > BBCH 99 of the pant (e.g. when fertilizing in fall af- ter harvesting apples) and preferably between GS 00 and 65 BBCH of the plant.

According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention the application of said nitrifica tion inhibitor and of said fertilizer as defined herein above is carried out simultaneously or with a time lag. The term "time lag" as used herein means that either the nitrification inhibitor is applied before the fertilizer to the plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow; or the fertilizer is applied before the nitrification inhibitor to the plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow. Such time lag may be any suitable period of time which still allows to provide a nitrification inhibiting effect in the context of fertilizer usage. For example, the time lag may be a time period of 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, 10 days,

1 1 days, 12 days, 13 days, 14 days, 3 weeks 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, 7 weeks, 8 weeks , 9 weeks, 10 weeks, 11 weeks, 12 weeks, 4 months, 5 months, 6 months, 7 months, 8 months, 9 months, 10 months or more or any time period in between the mentioned time periods. Prefer- ably, the time lag is an interval of 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks. The time lag preferably refers to situations in which the nitrification inhibitor as defined above is provided 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, 10 days, 11 days, 12 days, 13 days, 14 days, 3 weeks 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, 7 weeks, 8 weeks , 9 weeks, 10 weeks, 11 weeks, 12 weeks, 4 months, 5 months, 6 months, 7 months, 8 months, 9 months, 10 months or more or any time period in between the mentioned time periods before the applica- tion of a fertilizer as defined herein above.

In another specific embodiment of the invention at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof is applied between GS 00 to GS 33 BBCH of the plant, or between GS 00 and GS 65 BBCH of the plant, provided that the application of at least one fertilizer as defined herein above is carried out with a time lag of at least 1 day, e.g. a time lag of 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, 10 days, 1 1 days, 12 days, 13 days, 14 days, 3 weeks 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, 7 weeks, 8 weeks , 9 weeks, 10 weeks, or more or any time period in between the mentioned time periods. It is preferred that the nitrification inhibitors, which is applied be- tween GS 00 to GS 33 BBCH of the plant, is provided 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, 10 days, 1 1 days, 12 days, 13 days, 14 days, 3 weeks 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, 7 weeks, 8 weeks , 9 weeks, 10 weeks, 11 weeks, or 12 weeks before the ap- plication of a fertilizer as defined herein above.

In another specific embodiment of the invention, at least one fertilizer as defined herein above is applied between GS 00 to GS 33 BBCH of the plant or between GS 00 and GS 65 BBCH of the plant, provided that the application of at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. of a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof, is carried out with a time lag of at least 1 day, e.g. a time lag of 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, 10 days, 11 days, 12 days, 13 days, 14 days, 3 weeks 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, 7 weeks, 8 weeks , 9 weeks, 10 weeks or more or any time period in between the mentioned time periods.

According to a specific embodiment of the present invention a plant growing on soil or soil sub- stituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow is treated at least once with a nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. with a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof. In a further specific embodiment of the present invention a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow is treated at least once with a nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, i.e. with a nitrification inhibitor being a compound of formula I, or a derivative thereof, and at least once with a fertilizer as defined herein above.

The term "at least once" means that the application may be performed one time, or several times, i.e. that a repetition of the treatment with a nitrification inhibitor and/or a fertilizer may be envisaged. Such a repetition may a 2 times, 3 times, 4 times, 5 times, 6 times, 7 times, 8 times,

9 times, 10 times or more frequent repetition of the treatment with a nitrification inhibitor and/or a fertilizer. The repetition of treatment with a nitrification inhibitor and a fertilizer may further be different. For example, while the fertilizer may be applied only once, the nitrification inhibitor may be applied 2 times, 3 times, 4 times etc. Alternatively, while the nitrification inhibitor may be applied only once, the fertilizer may be applied 2 times, 3 times, 4 times etc. Further envisaged are all combination of numerical different numbers of repetitions for the application of a nitrifica- tion inhibitor and a fertilizer as defined herein above.

Such a repeated treatment may further be combined with a time lag between the treatment of the nitrification inhibitor and the fertilizer as described above.

The time interval between a first application and second or subsequent application of a nitrifi- cation inhibitor and/or a fertilizer may be any suitable interval. This interval may range from a few seconds up to 3 months, e.g. from a few seconds up to 1 month, or from a few seconds up to 2 weeks. In further embodiments, the time interval may range from a few seconds up to 3 days or from 1 second up to 24 hours.

In further specific embodiments, a method for reducing nitrification as described above is car- ried out by treating a plant growing on soil or soil substituents and/or the locus where the plant is growing or is intended to grow with at least one agrochemical mixture as defined herein above, or with a composition for reducing nitrification as defined herein above.

In another embodiment of the invention, an agrochemical mixture comprising an ammonium- or urea-containing fertilizer and at least one nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above is ap- plied before and at sowing, before emergence, and until GS > BBCH 99 of the pant (e.g. when fertilizing in fall after harvesting apples In case the agrochemical mixture is provided as kit of parts or as non-physical mixture, it may be applied with a time lag between the application of the nitrification inhibitor and the fertilizer or between the application of the nitrification inhibitor a secondary or further ingredient, e.g. a pesticidal compound as mentioned herein above.

In a further embodiment plant propagules are preferably treated simultaneously (together or separately) or subsequently.

The term "propagules" or "plant propagules" is to be understood to denote any structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant, e.g. a seed, a spore, or a part of the vegetative body ca- pable of independent growth if detached from the parent. In a preferred embodiment, the term "propagules" or "plant propagules" denotes for seed.

For a method as described above, or for a use according to the invention, in particular for seed treatment and in furrow application, the application rates of nitrification inhibitors, i.e. of the corn- pound of formula I are between 0,01 g and 5 kg of active ingredient per hectare, preferably be- tween 1 g and 1 kg of active ingredient per hectare, especially preferred between 50 g and 300 g of active ingredient per hectare depending on different parameters such as the specific active ingredient applied and the plant species treated. In the treatment of seed, amounts of from 0.001 g to 20 g per kg of seed, preferably from 0.01 g to 10 g per kg of seed, more preferably from 0.05 to 2 g per kg of seed of nitrification inhibitors may be generally required.

As a matter of course, if nitrification inhibitors and fertilizers (or other ingredients), or if mix- tures thereof are employed, the compounds may be used in an effective and non-phytotoxic amount. This means that they are used in a quantity which allows to obtain the desired effect but which does not give rise to any phytotoxic symptoms on the treated plant or on the plant raised from the treated propagule or treated soil or soil substituents. For the use according to the invention, the application rates of fertilizers may be selected such that the amount of applied N is between 10 kg and 1000 kg per hectare, preferably between 50 kg and 700 kg per hectare.

The nitrification inhibitor compounds according to the invention, e.g. compound I as defined herein above, or derivative thereof as defined herein above can be present in different structural or chemical modifications whose biological activity may differ. They are likewise subject matter of the present invention.

The nitrification inhibitor compounds according to the invention, their N-oxides and/or salts etc. may be converted into customary types of compositions, e.g. agrochemical or agricultural corn- positions such as solutions, emulsions, suspensions, dusts, powders, pastes and granules.

The composition type depends on the particular intended purpose; in each case, it should en- sure a fine and uniform distribution of the compound according to the invention. Examples for composition types are suspensions (SC, 00, FS), emulsifiable concentrates (EC), emulsions (EW, EO, ES), microemulsions (ME), pastes, pastilles, wettable powders or dusts (WP, SP, SS, WS, OP, OS) or granules (GR, FG, GG, MG), which can be watersoluble or wettable, as well as gel formulations for the treatment of plant propagation materials such as seeds (GF). Usually the composition types (e.g. SC, 00, FS, EC, WG, SG, WP, SP, SS, WS, GF) are employed di- luted. Composition types such as OP, OS, GR, FG, GG and MG are usually used undiluted.

The compositions are prepared in a known manner (see, for example, US 3,060,084, EP 707 445 (for liquid concentrates), Browning: "Agglomeration", Chemical Engineering, Dec. 4, 1967, 147- 48, Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hili, New York, 1963, S. 8-57 und ff. WO 91/13546, US 4,172,714, US 4,144,050, US 3,920,442, US 5,180,587, US

5,232,701 , US 5,208,030, GB 2,095,558, US 3,299,566, Klingman: Weed Control as a Science (J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1961), Hance et al.: Weed Control Handbook (8th Ed., Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, 1989) and Mollet, H. and Grubemann, A.: Formulation technology (Wiley VCH Verlag, Weinheim, 2001). Compositions or mixtures may also comprise auxiliaries which are customary, for example, in agrochemical compositions. The auxiliaries used depend on the particular application form and active substance, respectively.

Examples for suitable auxiliaries are solvents, solid carriers, dispersants or emulsifiers (such as further solubilizers, protective colloids, surfactants and adhesion agents), organic and inor- ganic thickeners, bactericides, anti-freezing agents, anti-foaming agents, if appropriate col- orants and tackifiers or binders (e.g. for seed treatment formulations). Suitable solvents are wa- ter, organic solvents such as mineral oil fractions of medium to high boiling point, such as kerosene or diesel oil, furthermore coal tar oils and oils of vegetable or animal origin, aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. toluene, xylene, paraffin, tetrahydronaphthalene, alky- lated naphthalenes or their derivatives, alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and cyclohexanol, glycols, ketones such as cyclohexanone and gamma-butyrolactone, fatty acid dimethylamides, fatty acids and fatty acid esters and strongly polar solvents, e.g. amines such as N-methylpyrrolidone.

Suitable surfactants (adjuvants, wetters, tackifiers, dispersants or emulsifiers) are alkali metal, alkaline earth metal and ammonium salts of aromatic sulfonic acids, such as ligninsoulfonic acid (Borresperse® types, Borregard, Norway) phenolsulfonic acid, naphthalenesulfonic acid (Mor- wet® types, Akzo Nobel, U.S.A.), dibutylnaphthalene-sulfonic acid (Nekal® types, BASF, Ger- manY),and fatty acids, alkylsulfonates, alkylarylsulfonates, alkyl sulfates, laurylether sulfates, fatty alcohol sulfates, and sulfated hexa-, hepta- and octadecanolates, sulfated fatty alcohol gly col ethers, furthermore condensates of naphthalene or of naphthalenesulfonic acid with phenol and formaldehyde, polyoxy-ethylene octylphenyl ether, ethoxylated isooctylphenol, octylphenol, nonylphenol, alkylphenyl polyglycol ethers, tributylphenyl polyglycol ether, tristearylphenyl polyglycol ether, alkylaryl polyether alcohols, alcohol and fatty alcohol/ethylene oxide conden- sates, ethoxylated castor oil, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, ethoxylated polyoxypropylene, lauryl alcohol polyglycol ether acetal, sorbitol esters, lignin-sulfite waste liquors and proteins, dena- tured proteins, polysaccharides (e. g. methylcellulose), hydrophobically modified starches, polyvinyl alcohols (Mowiol® types, Clariant, Switzerland), polycarboxylates (Sokolan® types, BASF, Germany), polyalkoxylates, polyvinylamines (Lupasol® types, BASF, Germany), polyvinylpyrrolidone and the copolymers thereof. Examples of suitable thickeners (i.e. corn- pounds that impart a modified flowability to compositions, i.e. high viscosity under static condi- tions and low viscosity during agitation) are polysaccharides and organic and anorganic clays such as Xanthan gum (Kelzan®, CP Kelco, U.S.A.), Rhodopol® 23 (Rhodia, France), Veegum® (R.T. Vanderbilt, U.S.A.) or Attaclay® (Engelhard Corp., NJ, USA). In specific embodiments, bactericides may be added for preservation and stabilization of the composition. Examples for suitable bactericides are those based on dichlorophene and benzyl alcohol hemi formal (Proxel® from ICI or Acticide® RS from Thor Chemie and Kathon® MK from Rohm & Haas) and isothiazolinone derivatives such as alkylisothiazolinones and ben- zisothiazolinones (Acticide® MBS from Thor Chemie).

Examples for suitable anti-freezing agents are ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, urea and glycerin. Examples for anti-foaming agents are silicone emulsions (such as e.g. Silikon® SRE, Wacker, Germany or Rhodorsil®, Rhodia, France), long chain alcohols, fatty acids, salts of fatty acids, fluoroorganic compounds and mixtures thereof.

Suitable colorants are pigments of low water solubility and water-soluble dyes, e.g. rhodamin B, C. I. pigment red 112, C. I. solvent red 1 , pigment blue 15:4, pigment blue 15:3, pigment blue 15:2, pigment blue 15: 1 , pigment blue 80, pigment yellow 1 , pigment yellow 13, pigment red 1 12, pigment red 48:2, pigment red 48:1 , pigment red 57:1 , pigment red 53:1 , pigment orange 43, pigment orange 34, pigment orange 5, pigment green 36, pigment green 7, pigment white 6, pigment brown 25, basic violet 10, basic violet 49, acid red 51 , acid red 52, acid red 14, acid blue 9, acid yellow 23, basic red 10, basic red 108.

Furthermore odorous substances may be present in the compositions as defined above. Such odorous substances comprise citronellynitril, citral, zertrahydrolinalool, tetrahydrogeraniol, gera- nonitril, beta-lonon R, rootanol, linalylacetat, morillol, and p-cresometylether.

Examples for tackifiers or binders are polyvinylpyrrolidons, polyvinylacetates, polyvinyl alco- hols and cellulose ethers (Tylose®, Shin-Etsu, Japan).

Powders, materials for spreading and dusts can be prepared by mixing or concomitantly grind- ing compound of formula I and, if appropriate, further active substances, with at least one solid carrier. Granules, e.g. coated granules, impregnated granules and homogeneous granules, can be prepared by binding the active substances to solid carriers. Examples of such suitable solid carriers are mineral earths such as silica gels, silicates, talc, kaolin, attaclay, limestone, lime, chalk, bole, loess, clay, dolomite, diatomaceous earth, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxide, ground synthetic materials, fertilizers, such as, e.g. ammonium sulfate, am- monium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, ureas, and products of vegetable origin, such as cereal meal, tree bark meal, wood meal and nutshell meal, cellulose powders and other solid carriers.

Examples for composition types are:

i) Water-soluble concentrates (SL, LS) 10 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a compound of formula I according to the invention are dissolved in 90 parts by weight of water or in a water-soluble solvent. As an alternative, wetting agents or other auxiliaries are added. The active substance dissolves upon dilution with water. In this way, a composition having a content of 10% by weight of active substance is obtained.

ii) Dispersible concentrates (DC) 20 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a corn- pound of formula I according to the invention are dissolved in 70 parts by weight of cyclohex- anone with addition of 10 parts by weight of a dispersant, e.g. polyvinylpyrrolidone. Dilution with water gives a dispersion. The active substance content is 20% by weight.

iii) Emulsifiable concentrates (EC) 15 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a corn- pound of formula I according to the invention are dissolved in 75 parts by weight of xylene with addition of calcium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and castor oil ethoxylate (in each case 5 parts by weight). Dilution with water gives an emulsion. The composition has an active substance con- tent of 15% by weight.

iv) Emulsions (EW, EO, ES) 25 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a compound of formula I according to the invention are dissolved in 35 parts by weight of xylene with addition of calcium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and castor oil ethoxylate (in each case 5 parts by weight). This mixture is introduced into 30 parts by weight of water by means of an emulsifying machine (Ultraturrax) and made into a homogeneous emulsion. Dilution with water gives an emulsion. The composition has an active substance content of 25% by weight.

v) Suspensions (SC, 00, FS) In an agitated ball mill, 20 parts by weight of a nitrification in- hibitor such as a compound of formula I according to the invention are comminuted with addition of 10 parts by weight of dispersants and wetting agents and 70 parts by weight of water or an organic solvent to give a fine active substance suspension. Dilution with water gives a stable suspension of the active substance. The active substance content in the composition is 20% by weight.

vi) Water-dispersible granules and water-soluble granules (WG, SG) 50 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a compound of formula I according to the invention are ground finely with addition of 50 parts by weight of dispersants and wetting agents and prepared as wa- ter-dispersible or water-soluble granules by means of technical appliances (e.g. extrusion, spray tower, fluidized bed). Dilution with water gives a stable dispersion or solution of the active sub- stance. The composition has an active substance content of 50% by weight.

vii) Water-dispersible powders and water-soluble powders (WP, SP, SS, WS) 75 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a compound of formula I according to the invention are ground in a rotor-stator mill with addition of 25 parts by weight of dispersants, wetting agents and silica gel. Dilution with water gives a stable dispersion or solution of the active substance. The active substance content of the composition is 75% by weight.

viii) Gel (GF) In an agitated ball mill, 20 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a compound of formula I according to the invention are comminuted with addition of 10 parts by weight of dispersants, 1 part by weight of a gelling agent wetters and 70 parts by weight of wa- ter or of an organic solvent to give a fine suspension of the active substance. Dilution with water gives a stable suspension of the active substance, whereby a composition with 20% (w/w) of active substance is obtained. 2. Composition types to be applied undiluted

ix) Oustable powders (OP, OS) 5 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a corn- pound of formula I according to the invention are ground finely and mixed intimately with 95 parts by weight of finely divided kaolin. This gives a dustable composition having an active sub- stance content of 5% by weight.

x) Granules (GR, FG, GG, MG) 0.5 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a corn- pound of formula I according to the invention is ground finely and associated with 99.5 parts by weight of carriers. Current methods are extrusion, spray-drying or the fluidized bed. This gives granules to be applied undiluted having an active substance content of 0.5-10% by weight, preferably an active substance content of 0.5-2% by weight.

xi) ULV solutions (UL) 10 parts by weight of a nitrification inhibitor such as a compound of for- mula I according to the invention are dissolved in 90 parts by weight of an organic solvent, e.g. xylene. This gives a composition to be applied undiluted having an active substance content of 10% by weight.

The compositions, e.g. agrochemical or agriculatural compositons, generally comprise be- tween 0.01 and 95%, preferably between 0.1 and 90%, most preferably between 0.5 and 90%, by weight of active substance. The active substances are employed in a purity offrom 90% to 100%, preferably from 95% to 100% (according to NMR spectrum).

Water-soluble concentrates (LS), flowable concentrates (FS), powders for dry treatment (OS), water-dispersible powders for slurry treatment (WS), water-soluble powders (SS), emulsions (ES) emulsifiable concentrates (EC) and gels (GF) are usually employed for the purposes of treatment of plant propagation materials, particularly seeds.

These compositions can be applied to plant propagation materials, particularly seeds, diluted or undiluted.

The compositions in question give, after two-to-tenfold dilution, active substance concentra- tions of from 0.01 to 60% by weight, preferably from 0.1 to 40% by weight, in the ready-to-use preparations. Application can be carried out before or during sowing.

Methods for applying or treating agrochemical or agricultural compounds or mixtures, or corn- positions as defined herein, respectively, on to plant propagation material, especially seeds, the plant and/or the locus where the plant is growing or intended to grow are known in the art, and include dressing, coating, pelleting, dusting, soaking and in-furrow application methods of the propagation material. In a preferred embodiment, the compounds or the compositions thereof, respectively, are applied on to the plant propagation material by a method such that germination is not induced, e.g. by seed dressing, pelleting, coating and dusting.

In a preferred embodiment, a suspension-type (FS) composition may be used. Typically, a FS composition may comprise 1-800 g/l of active substance, 1 200 g/l surfactant, o to 200 g/l an- tifreezing agent, 0 to 400 g/l of binder, 0 to 200 g/l of a pigment and up to 1 liter of a solvent, preferably water.

The active substances can be used as such or in the form of their compositions, e.g. in the form of directly sprayable solutions, powders, suspensions, dispersions, emulsions, oil disper- sions, pastes, dustable products, materials for spreading, or granules, by means of spraying, at- omizing, dusting, spreading, brushing, immersing or pouring.

The application forms depend entirely on the intended purposes; it is intended to ensure in each case the finest possible distribution of the active substances according to the invention. Aqueous application forms can be prepared from emulsion concentrates, pastes or wettable powders (sprayable powders, oil dispersions) by adding water.

To prepare emulsions, pastes or oil dispersions, the substances, as such or dissolved in an oil or solvent, can be homogenized in water by means of a wetter, tackifier, dispersant or emulsi- fier. Alternatively, it is possible to prepare concentrates composed of active substance, wetter, tackifier, dispersant or emulsifier and, if appropriate, solvent or oil, and such concentrates are suitable for dilution with water.

The active substance concentrations in the ready-to-use preparations can be varied within rel- atively wide ranges. In general, they are from 0.0001 to 90%, such as from 30 to 80%, e.g. from 35 to 45% or from 65 to 75% by weight of active substance. The active substances may also be used successfully in the ultra-low-volume process (ULV), it being possible to apply corn- positions comprising over 95% by weight of active substance, or even to apply the active sub- stance without additives.

Various types of oils, wetters, adjuvants, herbicides, bactericides, other fungicides and/or pes- ticides may be added to the active substances or the compositions comprising them, if appropri- ate not until immediately prior to use (tank mix). These agents can be admixed with the compo- sitions according to the invention in a weight ratio of 1 : 100 to 100 : 1 , preferably 1 : 10 to 10 :

1 .

Adjuvants which can be used are in particular organic modified polysiloxanes such as Break Thru S 240®; alcohol alkoxylates such as Atplus 245®, Atplus MBA 1303®, Plurafac LF 300® and Lutensol ON 30®; EO/PO block polymers, e.g. Pluronic RPE 2035® and Genapol B®; alco- hol ethoxylates such as Lutensol XP 80®; and dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium such as Leophen RA®.

In a further aspect the invention relates to a method for treating a fertilizer or a composition. This treatment includes the application of a nitrification inhibitor which is a compound of formula I as defined herein above to a fertilizer or a composition. The treatment may accordingly result in the presence of said nitrification inhibitor in a preparation of fertilizers or other compositions. Such treatment may, for example, result in a homogenous distribution of nitrification inhibitors on or in fertilizer preparations. Treatment processes are known to the skilled person and may in- clude, for instance, dressing, coating, pelleting, dusting or soaking. In a specific embodiment, the treatment may be a coating of nitrification inhibitors with fertilizer preparations, or a coating of fertilizers with nitrification inhibitors. The treatment may be based on the use of granulation methods as known to the skilled person, e.g. fluidized bed granulation. The treatment may, in certain embodiments, be performed with a composition comprising the nitrification inhibitor as defined herein above, e.g. comprising besides the inhibitor a carrier or a pesticide or any other suitable additional compound as mentioned above.

In a further specific embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for treating seed or plant propagation material. The term "seed treatment" as used herein refers to or involves steps towards the control of biotic stresses on or in seed and the improvement of shooting and devel- opment of plants from seeds. For seed treatment it is evident that a plant suffering from biotic stresses such as fungal or insecticidal attack or which has difficulties obtaining sufficient suit- able nitrogen-sources shows reduced germination and emergence leading to poorer plant or crop establishment and vigor, and consequently, to a reduced yield as compared to a plant propagation material which has been subjected to curative or preventive treatment against the relevant pest and which can grow without the damage caused by the biotic stress factor. Meth- ods for treating seed or plant progation material according to the invention thus lead, among other advantages, to an enhanced plant health, a better protection against biotic stresses and an increased plant yield.

Seed treatment methods for applying or treating inventive mixtures and compositions thereof, e.g. compositions or agrochemical compositions as defined herein above, and in particular com- binations of nitrification inhibitors as defined herein above and secondary effectors such as pes- ticides, in particular fungicides, insecticides, nematicides and/or biopesticides and/or biostimu- lants, to plant propagation material, especially seeds, are known in the art, and include dress- ing, coating, film coating, pelleting and soaking application methods of the propagation material. Such methods are also applicable to the combinations or compositions according to the inven- tion.

In further embodiments, the treatment of seeds is performed with compositions comprising, besides a nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention, e.g. compositions as defined herein above, a fungicide and an insecticide, or a fungicide and a nematicide, or a fungicide and a biopesticide and/or biostimulant, or an insecticide and a nematicide, or an insecticide and a biopesticide and/or biostimulant, or a nematicide and a biopesticide and/or biostimulant, or a combination of a fungicide, insecticide and nematicide, or a combination of a fungicide, insecti- cide and biopesticide and/or biostimulant, or a combination of an insecticide, nematicide, and biopesticide etc.

In a preferred embodiment, the agricultural composition or combination comprising a nitrifica- tion inhibitor according to the present invention, e.g. as defined herein above, is applied or treated on to the plant propagation material by a method such that the germination is not nega- tively impacted. Accordingly, examples of suitable methods for applying (or treating) a plant propagation material, such as a seed, is seed dressing, seed coating or seed pelleting and alike. It is preferred that the plant propagation material is a seed, seed piece (i.e. stalk) or seed bulb.

Although it is believed that the present method can be applied to a seed in any physiological state, it is preferred that the seed be in a sufficiently durable state that it incurs no damage dur- ing the treatment process. Typically, the seed would be a seed that had been harvested from the field; removed from the plant; and separated from any cob, stalk, outer husk, and surround- ing pulp or other non-seed plant material. The seed would preferably also be biologically stable to the extent that the treatment would cause no biological damage to the seed. It is believed that the treatment can be applied to the seed at any time between harvest of the seed and sowing of the seed or during the sowing process (seed directed applications). The seed may also be primed either before or after the treatment.

Even distribution of the ingredients in compositions or mixtures as defined herein and adher- ence thereof to the seeds is desired during propagation material treatment. Treatment could vary from a thin film (dressing) of the formulation containing the combination, for example, a mixture of active ingredient(s), on a plant propagation material, such as a seed, where the origi nal size and/or shape are recognizable to an intermediary state (such as a coating) and then to a thicker film (such as pelleting with many layers of different materials (such as carriers, for ex- ample, clays; different formulations, such as of other active ingredients; polymers; and colourants) where the original shape and/or size of the seed is no longer recognizable.

An aspect of the present invention includes application of the composition, e.g. agricultural composition or combination comprising a nitrification inhibitor according to the present inven- tion, e.g. as defined herein above, onto the plant propagation material in a targeted fashion, in- cluding positioning the ingredients in the combination onto the entire plant propagation material or on only parts thereof, including on only a single side or a portion of a single side. One of ordi- nary skill in the art would understand these application methods from the description provided in EP954213B1 and WO06/1 12700.

The composition, e.g. agricultural composition or combination comprising a nitrification in- hibitor according to the present invention, e.g. as defined herein above, can also be used in form of a "pill" or“pellet” or a suitable substrate and placing, or sowing, the treated pill, or sub- strate, next to a plant propagation material. Such techniques are known in the art, particularly in EP1124414, W007/67042, and W007/67044. Application of the composition, e.g. agricultural composition, or combination comprising a nitrification inhibitor according to the present inven- tion, e.g. as defined herein above, onto plant propagation material also includes protecting the plant propagation material treated with the combination of the present invention by placing one or more pesticide- and nitrification inhibitor (Nl)-containing particles next to a pesticide- and Nl- treated seed, wherein the amount of pesticide is such that the pesticide-treated seed and the pesticide- containing particles together contain an Effective Dose of the pesticide and the pesti- cide dose contained in the pesticide-treated seed is less than or equal to the Maximal Non-Phy- totoxic Dose of the pesticide. Such techniques are known in the art, particularly in

W02005/120226.

Application of the combinations onto the seed also includes controlled release coatings on the seeds, wherein the ingredients of the combinations are incorporated into materials that release the ingredients over time. Examples of controlled release seed treatment technologies are gen- erally known in the art and include polymer films, waxes, or other seed coatings, wherein the in- gredients may be incorporated into the controlled release material or applied between layers of materials, or both.

Seed can be treated by applying thereto the compound s present in the inventive mixtures in any desired sequence or simultaneously.

The seed treatment occurs to an unsown seed, and the term "unsown seed" is meant to in- clude seed at any period between the harvest of the seed and the sowing of the seed in the ground for the purpose of germination and growth of the plant.

Treatment to an unsown seed is not meant to include those practices in which the active ingre- dient is applied to the soil or soil substituents but would include any application practice that would target the seed during the planting process.

Preferably, the treatment occurs before sowing of the seed so that the sown seed has been pre-treated with the combination. In particular, seed coating or seed pelleting are preferred in the treatment of the combinations according to the invention. As a result of the treatment, the in- gredients in each combination are adhered on to the seed and therefore available for pest con- trol.

The treated seeds can be stored, handled, sowed and tilled in the same manner as any other active ingredient treated seed.

Solutions for seed treatment (LS), suspoemulsions (SE), flowable concentrates (FS), powders for dry treatment (DS), water-dispersible powders for slurry treatment (WS), water-soluble pow- ders (SS), emulsions (ES), emulsifiable concentrates (EC) and gels (GF) are usually employed for the purposes of treatment of plant propagation materials, particularly seeds. Preferred exam- pies of seed treatment formulation types or soil application for pre-mix compositions are of WS, LS, ES, FS, WG or CS-type. The compositions in question give, after two-to-tenfold dilution, active components concentra- tions of from 0.01 to 60% by weight, preferably from 0.1 to 40%, in the ready-to-use prepara- tions. Application can be carried out before or during sowing. Methods for applying or treating compositions or combinations comprising a nitrification inhibitor according to the present inven- tion, e.g. as defined herein above on to plant propagation material, especially seeds include dressing, coating, pelleting, dusting, soaking and in-furrow application methods of the propaga- tion material. Preferably, compositions or combinations comprising a nitrification inhibitor ac- cording to the present invention, e.g. as defined herein above are applied on to the plant propa- gation material by a method such that germination is not induced, e. g. by seed dressing, pellet- ing, coating and dusting.

Typically, a pre-mix formulation for seed treatment application comprises 0.5 to 99.9 percent, especially 1 to 95 percent, of the desired ingredients, and 99.5 to 0.1 percent, especially 99 to 5 percent, of a solid or liquid adjuvant (including, for example, a solvent such as water), where the auxiliaries can be a surfactant in an amount of 0 to 50 percent, especially 0.5 to 40 percent, based on the pre-mix formulation. Whereas commercial products will preferably be formulated as concentrates (e.g., pre- mix composition (formulation), the end user will normally employ di- lute formulations (e.g. tank mix composition).

When employed in plant protection, the total amounts of active components applied are, de- pending on the kind of effect desired, from 0.001 to 10 kg per ha, preferably from 0.005 to 2 kg per ha, more preferably from 0.05 to 0.9 kg per ha, in particular from 0.1 to 0.75 kg per ha. The application rates may range from about 1 x 10 6 to 5 x 10 15 (or more) CFU/ha. Preferably, the spore concentration is about 1 x 10 7 to about 1 x 10 11 CFU/ha. In the case of (ento- mopathogenic) nematodes as microbial pesticides (e.g. Steinernema feltiae), the application rates preferably range inform about 1 x 10 5 to 1 x 10 12 (or more), more preferably from 1 x 10 8 to 1 x 10 11 , even more preferably from 5 x 10 8 to 1 x 10 10 individuals (e.g. in the form of eggs, juve- nile or any other live stages, preferably in an infetive juvenile stage) per ha.

When employed in plant protection by seed treatment, the amount of compositions or combi- nations comprising a nitrification inhibitor according to the present invention, e.g. as defined herein above (based on total weight of active components) is in the range from 0.01-10 kg, preferably from 0.1-1000 g, more preferably from 1-100 g per 100 kilogram of plant propagation material (preferably seeds). The application rates with respect to plant propagation material preferably may range from about 1 x 10 6 to 1 x 10 12 (or more) CFU/seed. Preferably, the con- centration is about 1 x 10 6 to about 1 x 10 11 CFU/seed. Alternatively, the application rates with respect to plant propagation material may range from about 1 x 10 7 to 1 x 10 14 (or more) CFU per 100 kg of seed, preferably from 1 x 10 9 to about 1 x 10 11 CFU per 100 kg of seed.

The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples.

Examples

Example 1 : The compounds of the invention have been tested as follows in terms of the inhibition of nitrifi- cation:

100 g soil is filled into 500 ml plastic bottles (e.g. soil sampled from the field) and is moistened to 50% water holding capacity. The soil is incubated at 20 °C for two weeks to activate the mi- crobial biomass. 1 ml test solution, containing the compound in the appropriate concentration (usually 0,3 or 1 % of nitrogen N), or DMSO and 10 mg nitrogen in the form of ammoniumsul- fate-N is added to the soil and everything mixed well. Bottles are capped but loosely to allow air exchange. The bottles are then incubated at 20 °C for 0 and 14 days.

For analysis 300 ml of a 1 % K 2 S0 4 -soiution is added to the bottle containing the soil and shaken for 2 hours in a horizontal shaker at 150 rpm. Then the whole solution is filtered through a filter (Macherey-Nagel Filter MN 807 ¼). Ammonium and nitrate content is then analyzed in the filtrate in an autoanalyzer at 550 nm (Merck, AA11 ).

The inhibition (Nl @ a specified concentration) is calculated as follows:

(N03 - N , without NI at end of incubation N03 - N , with NI at end of incubation )

inhibition in % = x 100

(N03 ^without NI at end of incubation N03 ^at beginning )

The following compounds of general formula 1.1 (i) have been tested

* Compound is used in the form of the pyridinium hydrochloride salt

The following compounds of general formula 1.1 (iv) have been tested

The following compounds of general formula l .3(i) have been tested Example 2:

The compounds of the invention have been tested in terms of their volatility. 251 mg of the compounds were provided in 10 ml vials open in the hood and tested in comparison to 5-chloro- 2-ethynyl pyridine (Ref.-1). The weight loss was determined after 1 week.

It turned out that the volatility of the compounds of the invention was significantly lower than the volatility of 5-chloro-2-ethynyl pyridine (Ref.-1).