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Title:
SIMPLE OXIDATIVE FUNCTIONALIZATION OF ALKYL ARYL KETONES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/197324
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention refers to a process for reacting an alkyl aryl ketone obtaining thereby the corresponding aryl oxirane or α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal, the aryl oxirane or α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by the process as well as the α-functionalized ketone obtained by the process.

Inventors:
SOMMERLADE, Reinhard (Rheinfeldener Str. 27, Neuenburg am Rhein, 79395, DE)
Application Number:
EP2018/060011
Publication Date:
November 01, 2018
Filing Date:
April 19, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
IGM GROUP B.V. (Gompenstraat 49, 5145 RM Waalwijk, 5145, NL)
International Classes:
C07D295/108; C07C43/307; C07D301/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2006034966A12006-04-06
WO2014151409A12014-09-25
Foreign References:
DE2722264A11978-11-23
US4740624A1988-04-26
Other References:
J KATTENBERG ET AL: "ChemInform Abstract: CHLORINATION OF ALPHA-SULFONYL CARBANIONS WITH HEXACHLOROETHANE, A NOVEL PREPARATION OF ALPHA-HALOSULFONES", CHEMISCHER INFORMATIONSDIENST, 14 May 1974 (1974-05-14), Weinheim, pages no - no, XP055397326, Retrieved from the Internet DOI: 10.1002/chin.197419192
GARY JING CHUANG ET AL.: "A Dinuclear Palladium Catalyst for a-Hydroxylation of Carbonyls with 0", J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 133, 2011, pages 1760 - 1762, XP055454278, DOI: doi:10.1021/ja108396k
CHENGQUN CHEN ET AL.: "An Efficient Method for the Synthesis of a-Hydroxyalkyl Aryl Ketones", SYNTHESIS, vol. 20, 2008, pages 3205 - 3208, XP055411187, DOI: doi:10.1055/s-0028-1083149
MAREK KOPROWSKI ET AL.: "Asymmetric oxidation of enol phosphates to a-hydroxy ketones by (salen)manganese(lll) complex; Effects of the substitution pattern of enol phosphates on the stereochemistry of oxygen transfer", TETRAHEDRON, vol. 62, 2006, pages 12363 - 12374
FRANKLIN A. DAVIS ET AL.: "Oxidation of Silyl Enol Ethers Using 2-Sulfonyloxaziridines; Synthesis of a-Siloxy Epoxides and a-Hydroxy Carbonyl Compounds", J. ORG. CHEM., vol. 52, 1987, pages 954 - 955
YU-FENG LIANG ET AL.: "Highly Efficient C-H Hydroxylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Oxygen under Mild Conditions", ANGEW. CHEM., vol. 126, 2014, pages 558 - 562
YU-FENG LIANG ET AL.: "12- or NBS-Catalyzed Highly Efficient aHydroxylation of Ketones with Dimethyl Sulfoxide", ORG. LETT., vol. 17, 2015, pages 876 - 879
BANG-CHI CHEN ET AL.: "Organic Reactions", vol. 62, 2003, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., article "a-hydroxylation of enolates and silyl enol ethers"
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MAIWALD PATENTANWALTS- UND RECHTSANWALTSGESELLSCHAFT MBH (Angela Zumstein, Elisenstr. 3 / Elisenhof, Munich, 80335, DE)
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Claims:
C L A I M S

1 . A process for reacting an alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I

wherein Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2-C8- alkenyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkynyl, C6-Ci4-aryl or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl or C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs- alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci4-aryl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C7- Ci5-arylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C6-Ci4- aryl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C7-C15- arylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, or Rs form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, or two adjacent R form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I;

with an at least partially halogenated C2-C8-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene, and a base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, obtaining thereby the corresponding aryl oxirane or a- functionalized alkyl aryl ketal.

2. The process according to claim 1 , characterized in that Ri and R2 are the same.

3. The process according to claim 2, characterized in that Ri and R2 are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched C1-C6- alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C4-alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-Cs-alkyl. The process according to claim 1 , characterized in that Ri and R2 are different and are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci C4-alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl.

The process according to claim 1 , characterized in that Ri and R2 form C4-C10- cycloalkyl, preferably C4-C8-cycloalkyl, and most preferably C6-cycloalkyl, together with the connecting C atom.

The process according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are the same.

The process according to claim 6, characterized in that R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C4-alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl.

The process according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are different and at least one of them is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8- alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom.

The process according to any one of claims 1 to 5 or 8, characterized in that one of R3, R4, Rs, R6 and R7 is linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, preferably C2-C6- alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; Ci-Cs-alkoxy, preferably Ci-C6-alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy; C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably Cg- Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy; or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C4-alkyl and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl. 10. The process according to any one of claims 1 to 5 or 8, characterized in that two or three of R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; Ci-Cs-alkoxy, preferably C1-C6- alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6- alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy, and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C4-alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl. 1 1 .The process according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that R3 and R4 or R4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I, preferably a bicyclic, tricyclic or tetracyclic aromatic system, more preferably an aromatic system selected from a naphthyl, anthracenyl and phenanthrenyl system.

12. The process according to claim 1 1 , characterized in that one of the remaining R is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-C5-alkenyloxy; and Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-C12- alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C4-alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl. 13. The process according to any one of claims 1 to 12, characterized in that the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is fully

halogenated, preferably the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-C8-alkene is selected from hexachloroethane, tetrachoroethylene and mixtures thereof.

14. The process according to any one of claims 1 to 13, characterized in that the base is selected from the group comprising sodium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably sodium Ci-C4-alkoxide and most preferably sodium Ci-C2-alkoxide; lithium Ci- C6-alkoxide, preferably lithium Ci-C4-alkoxide and most preferably lithium C1-C2- alkoxide; potassium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably potassium Ci-C4-alkoxide and most preferably potassium Ci-C2-alkoxide; and mixtures thereof.

15. The process according to any one of claims 1 to 14, characterized in that the base is in form of an aqueous solution or the base is provided in an organic solvent, preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.-butanol, dichloromethane,

tetrachloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, N,N- dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane, such as 1 ,3-dioxane or 1 ,4- dioxane, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof.

16. The process according to any one of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that the process is carried out at a temperature in the range from 0 to 120 °C, preferably in the range from 12 to 80 °C, more preferably in the range from 15 to 50 °C, and most preferably in the range from 15 to 30 °C.

17. The process according to any one of claims 1 to 16, characterized in that the process is carried out in an organic solvent, preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.-butanol, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane, such as 1 ,3-dioxane or 1 ,4- dioxane, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof.

18. The process according to any one of claims 1 to 17, characterized in that the process comprises a further step of contacting the aryl oxirane obtained by the process under phase-transfer conditions with a base selected from the group comprising alkali metal hydroxide, earth alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal Ci-

Ce-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures and a compound selected from HOR9, HNHR9 or HNR10R11 with R9, R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-C8- cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci4-aryl, Cz-Cis-arylalkyl, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O.

19. The process according to claim 18, characterized in that the step is carried out in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst, preferably the phase-transfer catalyst is selected from a quaternary ammonium salt, tetraalkylphosphonium chloride, tetraalkylphosphonium bromide and mixtures thereof, preferably the phase- transfer catalyst is a tetraalkylammonium salt or a trialkylarylammonium salt, more preferably the phase-transfer catalyst is selected from the group comprising benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, benzyltriethylammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium bromide, tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, methyltrioctylammonium chloride, cetyl pyridinium and mixtures thereof

20. The process according to any one of claims 1 to 17, characterized in that the process comprises a further step of contacting the a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by the process with an acid, preferably an acid selected from the group comprising hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid, toluene sulfonic acid, methane sulfonic acid, chloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and mixtures thereof.

21 .The process according to any one of claims 18 to 20, characterized in that an a- functionalized ketone of the general formula II is obtained,

wherein Ri , R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are as defined above; and Z is selected from OR9, NHR9 and NR10R11 with R9, R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs- alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci4-aryl, C7- Ci5-arylalkyl, C7-Ci5-arylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O.

22. The process according to claim 21 , characterized in that Z is OR9 with R9 being selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl,

Ci-Ce-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C7-Cis- arylalkoxy and Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably R9 is H or Z is NR10R11 with R10 and R11 being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci4-aryl, or R10 and Rn form a C3-C6-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, preferably R10 and Rn form a Cs-Ce-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom and one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O.

23. An aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by a process

according to any one of claims 1 to 17.

24. An a-functionalized ketone obtained by a process according to any one of claims 18 to 22.

Description:
Simple oxidative functionalization of alkyl aryl ketones

Field of the invention The present invention refers to a process for reacting an alkyl aryl ketone obtaining thereby the corresponding aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal, the aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by the process as well as the a- functionalized ketone obtained by the process. Background of the invention

Photopolymerization processes have attained major importance in a large number of applications, for example in overprint coatings, printing inks, in the manufacture of electronic printed circuit boards and printing plates, and in the coating of various substrates, such as wood, plastics, paper, glass or metal, due their tremendous advantages over conventional hardening systems. One advantage of photo-curing by UV irradiation in the presence of photoinitiators is the great speed. However, the speed is heavily dependent on the photoinitiator used. Among the most effective photoinitiators are a-hydroxylated ketones as described e.g. in German Patent No. 2,722,264 and US patent application US 4,740,624. Further methods for the a-functionalization of ketones are described e.g. in Gary Jing Chuang et al., "A Dinuclear Palladium Catalyst for a- Hydroxylation of Carbonyls with O 2 ", J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 1760-1762 (201 1 ).

Chengqun Chen et al. "An Efficient Method for the Synthesis of a-Hydroxyalkyl Aryl Ketones", Synthesis 2008, No. 20, 3205-3208; Marek Koprowski et al., "Asymmetric oxidation of enol phosphates to a-hydroxy ketones by (salen)manganese(lll) complex; Effects of the substitution pattern of enol phosphates on the stereochemistry of oxygen transfer", Tetrahedron 62 12363-12374 (2006); Franklin A. Davis et al., "Oxidation of Silyl Enol Ethers Using 2-Sulfonyloxaziridines; Synthesis of a-Siloxy Epoxides and a- Hydroxy Carbonyl Compounds", J. Org. Chem. 52, 954-955 (1987); Yu-Feng Liang et al., "Highly Efficient C-H Hydroxylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Oxygen under Mild Conditions", Angew. Chem. 2014, 126, 558-562; Yu-Feng Liang et al., "I 2 - or

NBS-Catalyzed Highly Efficient aHydroxylation of Ketones with Dimethyl Sulfoxide", Org. Lett. 17, 876-879 (2015); Bang-Chi Chen et al., "a-hydroxylation of enolates and silyl enol ethers", Organic Reactions, Vol. 62, 2003, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

However, the processes used for the preparation of a-hydroxylated ketones show a number of disadvantages. In particular, it is to be noted that the α-hydroxylated ketones are prepared by complex reactions resulting in a great variety of unwanted intermediate products and by-products which reduce the yield and purity of the desired a- hydroxylated ketone and which are of no commercial interest. Furthermore, often elaborate purification steps are required. Accordingly, the well-known processes of the prior art are quite complex as well as time- and chemical-consuming.

Therefore, there is a continuous need in the art for providing a process for the preparation of a-functionalized ketones avoiding the forgoing disadvantages.

Furthermore, it is desirable to provide a process for the preparation of a-functionalized ketones which uses cheap starting materials. Furthermore, it is desirable to provide a process for the preparation of α-functionalized ketones which avoids complex processing and elaborate purification steps for obtaining the desired a-functionalized ketones. In addition thereto, it is desirable to provide a process for the preparation of α-functionalized ketones which avoids the formation of unwanted by-products and thus increases the yield and purity of the desired α-functionalized ketones. Furthermore, it is desirable to provide a process which allows the preparation of defined intermediate products, such as alkyl aryl ketals and/or aryl oxiranes.

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a process for the preparation of α-functionalized ketones. It is an even further object of the present invention to provide a process for the preparation of α-functionalized ketones using cheap starting materials and without complex processing or elaborate purification steps for obtaining the desired α-functionalized ketones. It is an even further object of the present invention to provide a process for the preparation of α-functionalized ketones which increases the yield and purity of the desired α-functionalized ketones. It is another object of the present invention to provide a process which allows the

preparation of defined intermediate products, such as alkyl aryl ketals and/or aryl oxiranes. Summary of the invention

The foregoing and other objects are solved by the subject-matter of the present invention.

According to a first aspect of the present invention, a process for reacting an alkyl ketone of the general formula I,

wherein Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C5- Cs-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkynyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl or C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom;

R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8- alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, N(Rs)2 or SRs with Re being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs- Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkoxy, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, or Re form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, or two adjacent R form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I;

with an at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene, and a base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, obtaining thereby the corresponding aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal.

The inventors surprisingly found out that such a process is suitable for the preparation of a-functionalized ketones by the use of cheap starting materials and which avoids complex processing and elaborate purification steps for obtaining the desired α-functionalized ketones. The process thus increases the yield and purity of the desired α-functionalized ketones. Furthermore, the process allows the preparation of defined intermediate products, i.e. aryl oxiranes and α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketals, which are of commercial interest.

Advantageous embodiments of the inventive process are defined in the corresponding sub-claims.

According to one embodiment, Ri and R2 are the same.

According to another embodiment, Ri and R2 are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl. According to yet another embodiment, Ri and R2 are different and are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched C1-C6- alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-Cs- alkyl. According to one embodiment, Ri and R2 form C 4 -Cio-cycloalkyl, preferably C 4 -Cs- cycloalkyl, and most preferably C6-cycloalkyl, together with the connecting C atom.

According to another embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are the same. According to yet another embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl.

According to one embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and at least one of them is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Ce-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom. According to another embodiment, one of R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; Ci-Cs- alkoxy, preferably Ci-C6-alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably Cs-Cs-alkenyloxy; C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy; or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci- Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl.

According to yet another embodiment, two or three of R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, preferably C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; Ci-Ce-alkoxy, preferably Ci-C6-alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy; C2-C8- alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably Cs-Cs-alkenyloxy; and Cg- Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably Cg-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy, and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl.

According to one embodiment, R3 and R 4 or R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I, preferably a bicyclic, tricyclic or tetracyclic aromatic system, more preferably an aromatic system selected from a naphthyl, anthracenyl and phenanthrenyl system.

According to another embodiment, one of the remaining R is linear or branched C2-C8- alkenyl, preferably C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably Cs-Cs-alkenyloxy; and Cg-Cis- alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably Cg-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl. According to yet another embodiment, the at least partially halogenated C2-C8-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is fully halogenated, preferably the at least partially halogenated C2-C8-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is selected from hexachloroethane,

tetrachoroethylene and mixtures thereof.

According to one embodiment, the base is selected from the group comprising sodium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably sodium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably sodium C1-C2- alkoxide; lithium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably lithium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably lithium Ci-C2-alkoxide; potassium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably potassium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably potassium Ci-C2-alkoxide; and mixtures thereof.

According to another embodiment, the base is in form of an aqueous solution or the base is provided in an organic solvent, preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.-butanol, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane, such as 1 ,3-dioxane or 1 ,4-dioxane, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof.

According to yet another embodiment, the process is carried out at a temperature in the range from 0 to 120 °C, preferably in the range from 12 to 80 °C, more preferably in the range from 15 to 50 °C, and most preferably in the range from 15 to 30 °C.

According to one embodiment, the process is carried out in an organic solvent, preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.-butanol, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane, such as 1 ,3- dioxane or 1 ,4-dioxane, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof. According to one embodiment, the process comprises a further step of contacting the aryl oxirane obtained by the process under phase-transfer conditions with a base selected from the group comprising alkali metal hydroxide, earth alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures and a compound selected from HOR9, HNHR9 or HNR10R11 with R9, R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2- Ce-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci 4 - aryl, Cz-Cis-arylalkyl, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, C9- Ci5-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O.

According to another embodiment, the step is carried out in the presence of a phase- transfer catalyst, preferably the phase-transfer catalyst is selected from a quaternary ammonium salt, tetraalkylphosphonium chloride, tetraalkylphosphonium bromide and mixtures thereof, preferably the phase-transfer catalyst is a tetraalkylammonium salt or a trialkylarylammonium salt, more preferably the phase-transfer catalyst is selected from the group comprising benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, benzyltriethylammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium bromide,

tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide,

methyltrioctylammonium chloride, cetyl pyridinium and mixtures thereof.

According to yet another embodiment, the process comprises a further step of contacting the a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by the process with an acid, preferably an acid selected from the group comprising hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid, toluenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, chloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and mixtures thereof.

According to one embodiment, an a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II is obtained,

wherein Ri , R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are as defined above; and Z is selected from OR9, NHR9 and NR10R11 with R9, R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Cz-Cis-arylalkyl, C7-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9- Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O.

According to another embodiment, Z is OR9 with R9 being selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C3-C8-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy and C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably R9 is H or Z is NR10R11 with R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, or R10 and Rn form a C3-C6-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, preferably R10 and Rn form a Cs-Ce-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom and one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O.

According to a further aspect of the present invention, an aryl oxirane or

a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by a process, as defined herein, is provided. According to another aspect of the present invention, an a-functionalized ketone obtained by a process as defined herein, is provided.

In the following, the details and preferred embodiments of the inventive process for reacting an alkyl aryl ketone will be described in more detail. It is to be understood that these technical details and embodiments also apply to the inventive products, as far as applicable.

Detailed description of the invention

A process for reacting an alkyl aryl ketone is provided. In particular, a process for reacting an alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I,

wherein Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C5- Cs-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkynyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl or C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom;

R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8- alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, N(Rs)2 or SRs with Re being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C3- Cs-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C7-Ci5-arylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, or Rs form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, or two adjacent R form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I;

with an at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-C8-alkene, and a base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, obtaining thereby the corresponding aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal, is provided.

Thus, it is appreciated that an alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is used as starting material,

wherein Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, C5- C8-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkynyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl or C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom;

R3, R4, Rs, R6 and R7 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8- alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C7-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs- Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, or Re form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, or two adjacent R form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I.

As regards Ri and R2 in the general formula I, it is to be noted that they can be the same or different. Preferably, Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2- Cs-alkenyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkynyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl or form C3- Ci2-cycloalkyl or C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom.

The term "linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl" in the meaning of the present invention refers to a linear or branched chain alkyl group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, secondary butyl, tertiary butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, 2-ethylhexyl and 1 ,1 ,3,3- tetramethylbutyl.

The term "Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl" in the meaning of the present invention refers to a cyclic alkyl having 3 to 8 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and cycloheptyl.

The term "Cs-Cs-cycloalkenyl" in the meaning of the present invention refers to a cyclic alkenyl having 3 to 8 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl, and cycloheptenyl.

The term "linear or branched C-2-Cs-alkeny in the meaning of the present invention refers to a linear or branched chain alkenyl group having 2 to 8 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, ethenyl, propenyl such as 2-propenyl, butenyl, triisobutenyl, pentenyl, hexenyl, heptenyl and octenyl. The term "alkenyl" in the meaning of the present invention includes the cis and trans isomers.

The term "linear or branched C2-Cs-alkynyl" in the meaning of the present invention refers to a linear or branched chain alkynyl group having 2 to 8 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, ethynyl, propynyl such as 1 -propynyl or 2-propynyl, e.g. propargyl, butynyl, pentynyl, hexynyl, heptynyl and octynyl.

The term "C6-Ci 4 -aryl" in the meaning of the present invention refers to a group containing one or more 6-membered unsaturated hydrocarbon ring(s), wherein the unsaturation is represented formally by conjugated double bonds and which may optionally be substituted at one or more carbon atoms of such ring(s) by independently selected alkyl groups. Thus, the term "C6-Ci 4 -aryl" preferably includes (unsubstituted) C6-Cio-aryl and C6-Ci 4 -alkylaryl. Suitable examples include, for example, phenyl, naphthyl, methylphenyl, dimethoxyphenyl, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyl, methylphenyl, ethylphenyl, dimethylphenyl, t-butylphenyl, methylnaphthyl and dimethylnaphthyl.

The term "form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl together with the connecting C atom" in the meaning of the present invention refers to a mono-, bi- or tricyclic alkyl having 3 to 12 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, norbornyl and adamantyl.

The term "form C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom" in the meaning of the present invention refers to a mono-, bi- or tricyclic alkenyl having 5 to 12 carbon atoms, and includes, one or more, preferably one, double bond(s). Suitable examples include, for example, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl, cyclohexadienyl and cycloheptenyl. It is appreciated that the double bond of the C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl is located such that an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound is not formed. Thus, Ri and R2 in the general formula I can form C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom with the proviso that no α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound is formed.

In one embodiment, Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl together with the connecting C atom. Preferably, Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H or linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl.

For example, Ri and R2 are the same. In this embodiment, Ri and R2 are preferably selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2- Ce-alkenyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkynyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl or form C3- Ci2-cycloalkyl or C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom.

In one embodiment, Ri and R2 are the same and are H.

In another embodiment, Ri and R2 are the same and are linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl. For example, Ri and R2 are the same and are linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear or branched Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C3-alkyl. It is especially preferred that Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci- or C2-alkyl, e.g. Ci-alkyl.

In another embodiment, Ri and R2 form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl together with the connecting C atom. For example, Ri and R2 form C 4 -Cio-cycloalkyl, preferably C 4 -C8-cycloalkyl, more preferably C 4 -C6-cycloalkyl, and most preferably C5- or C6-cycloalkyl, e.g. C6- cycloalkyl, together with the connecting C atom.

In another embodiment, Ri and R2 are the same and are linear or branched C2-C8- alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-Cs-alkenyl. For example, Ri and R2 are the same and are linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C6-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2- C 4 -alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C 4 -alkenyl, and most preferably linear or branched C2- or C3- alkenyl, e.g. linear C2- or C3-alkenyl. It is especially preferred that Ri and R2 are the same and are C3-alkenyl.

In another embodiment, Ri and R2 are the same and are linear or branched C2-C8- alkynyl, e.g. linear C2-Cs-alkynyl. For example, Ri and R2 are the same and are linear or branched C2-C6-alkynyl, e.g. linear C2-C6-alkynyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C 4 - alkynyl, e.g. linear C2-C 4 -alkynyl, and most preferably linear or branched C2- or C3- alkynyl, e.g. linear C2- or C3-alkynyl. It is especially preferred that Ri and R2 are the same and are C3-alkynyl.

In another embodiment, Ri and R2 are the same and are linear or branched C6-Ci 4 -aryl, e.g. (unsubstituted) C6-Cio-aryl or C6-Ci 4 -alkylaryl. For example, Ri and R2 are the same and are (unsubstituted) C6- or Cio-aryl. Alternatively, Ri and R2 are the same and are C8-Ci2-alkylaryl. In another embodiment, Ri and R2 form C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom. For example, Ri and R2 form Cs-Cio-cycloalkenyl, preferably Cs-Cs- cycloalkenyl and most preferably C5- or C6-cycloalkenyl, e.g. C6-cycloalkenyl, together with the connecting C atom.

If Ri and R2 are the same, it is preferred that Ri and R2 are linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl, preferably C5- or C6- cycloalkyl, together with the connecting C atom. More preferably, Ri and R2 are linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl. Most preferably, Ri and R2 are linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear Ci-Cs-alkyl.

Alternatively, Ri and R2 are different. In this embodiment, Ri and R2 are preferably independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, C3-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkynyl or C6- Ci 4 -aryl. For example, Ri and R2 are different and are selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, linear or branched C2- Cs-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C6-alkenyl, more preferably linear or branched C2-C 4 -alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C 4 - alkenyl, even more preferably linear or branched C2- or C3-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2- or Cs- alkenyl and most preferably C3-alkenyl, and linear or branched C2-Cs-alkynyl, e.g. linear C2-C8-alkynyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkynyl, e.g. linear C2-C6-alkynyl, more preferably linear or branched C2-C 4 -alkynyl, e.g. linear C2-C 4 -alkynyl, even more preferably linear or branched C2- or C3-alkynyl, e.g. linear C2- or C3-alkynyl and most preferably C3-alkynyl. In one embodiment, Ri and R2 are different and are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 - alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl. In one embodiment, Ri and R2 are different and are selected from H and Ci- or C2-alkyl, preferably C2-alkyl. If Ri and R2 are different, Ri or R2 is preferably H and the remaining Ri or R2 is preferably linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 - alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, even more preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, and most preferably Ci- or C2-alkyl, e.g. C2-alkyl.

Preferably, Ri and R2 are the same.

The alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I further comprises residues R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 . It is appreciated that R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 can be the same or different.

Furthermore, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci- Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C3-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C 7 -Cis- arylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2- Cs-alkenyloxy, C3-Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C 7 -Ci5-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, or Rs form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, or Rs form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, or two adjacent R form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I.

The term "Ci-Cs-alkoxy" in the meaning of the present invention means that the aikoxy moiety has a linear or branched chain alkyl having 1 to 8 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, isopropoxy, butoxy, isobutoxy, tertiary butoxy, pentyloxy, hexyloxy, heptyloxy and octyloxy.

The term "C2-Cs-alkenyloxy" in the meaning of the present invention means that the alkenyloxy moiety has a linear or branched chain alkenyl having 2 to 8 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, ethenyloxy, propenyloxy, butenyloxy, triisobutenyloxy, pentenyloxy, hexenyloxy, heptenyloxy and octenyloxy.

The term "Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy" in the meaning of the present invention means that the cycloalkoxy moiety has a cyclic alkyl having 3 to 8 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, cyclopropyloxy, cyclobutyloxy, cyclopentyloxy, cyclohexyloxy, and

cycloheptyloxy.

The term "C 7 -Ci5-arylalkoxy" in the meaning of the present invention means that the alkoxy moiety has a linear or branched chain alkyl having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably 1 or 2 carbon atoms, which is connected to C6-Ci 4 -aryl.

The term "Cz-Cis-arylalkyl" in the meaning of the present invention means that the alkyl moiety is a linear or branched chain alkyl having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably 1 or 2 carbon atoms, which is connected to C6-Ci 4 -aryl.

The term "Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy" in the meaning of the present invention means that the alkoxy moiety has a linear or branched chain alkyl having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably 1 or 2 carbon atoms, which is connected to C6-Ci 4 -aryl, preferably C6-aryl, which is further connected to linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably C2-alkenyl. Preferably, the alkoxy and alkenyl moieties are connected in para-position of the aryl moiety.

In one embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are the same. In this embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl. For example, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, preferably linear or branched C1-C4- alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C4-alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl. It is especially preferred that R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H.

Alternatively, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different. In this embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and at least one of them is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom.

The term "at least one" in the meaning of the present invention means that one or more of R3, R4, Rs, R6 and R 7 is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Re)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom.

For example, one or two or three of R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 is/are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom. For example, one or two of R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 is/are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8- alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-C8- alkenyl or Rs form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom.

Preferably, one of R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis- alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Re)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom.

If R3, R4, Rs, R6 and R 7 are different and at least one of them is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, it is preferred that the remaining ones are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched C1-C6- alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl. For example, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and at least one of them is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8- alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-C8- alkenyl or Rs form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom and the remaining ones are H. In one embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8- alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom.

For example, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C8-alkenyl; preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C6-alkenyl; and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl, e.g. C2- or C3-alkenyl; and the remaining ones are H.

Alternatively, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy, e.g. C3- or C 4 - alkenyloxy, especially C3- alkenyloxy; and the remaining ones are H.

In one embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is C2-C8- alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy, e.g. C3- or C4-alkenyloxy, especially C3-alkenyloxy; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C4-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C4-alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl. For example, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy, e.g. C3- or C4- alkenyloxy, especially C3- alkenyloxy; and two of the remaining ones are H and two of the remaining ones are linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C4-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C4-alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl. Alternatively, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy; and the remaining ones are H. Alternatively, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci- alkyl; and the remaining ones are H.

Alternatively, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is N(Rs)2 with Rs forming a C3-Cg-alicyclic system, preferably a C3-C 7 -alicyclic system, more preferably a C 4 -C6-alicyclic system and most preferably a C5- or C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom; and the remaining ones are H. Optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O. Preferably, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is N(Rs)2 with Rs forming a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system, preferably a C3-C 7 -alicyclic system, more preferably a C4-C6-alicyclic system and most preferably a C5- or C6- alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom, wherein one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O; and the remaining ones are H.

If R3, R4, Rs, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, it is preferred that R5 is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cg-Cis- alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom.

Thus, if R3, R4, Rs, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cg-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy or N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl or linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl or Rs form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, it is preferred that this group is in para- position to the keto group.

In an alternative embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and two or three of them are linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C6-alkenyl, and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; Ci-Ce-alkoxy, preferably Ci-C6-alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy; C2-C8- alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and C9- Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy, and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2- alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl. For example, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and two of them are linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C6-alkenyl, and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; Ci-Cs-alkoxy, preferably C1-C6- alkyloxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkyloxy; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6- alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy, and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci- C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl. Preferably, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and two of them are C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl, preferably the remaining ones are H.

Alternatively, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and two of them are Ci-Cs-alkoxy, preferably Ci-C6-alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl, preferably the remaining ones are H.

In one embodiment, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and three of them are C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy, and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2- alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl, preferably the remaining ones are H.

If two or three of R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C6-alkenyl, and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; Ci-Cs-alkoxy, preferably Ci-C6-alkyloxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkyloxy; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-C12- alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy, it is appreciated that preferably R 4 and/or R5 and/or R6 are linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2- Ce-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl, e.g. linear C2-C6-alkenyl, and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; Ci-Cs-alkoxy, preferably Ci-C6-alkyloxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkyloxy; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-C12- alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy.

In one embodiment, R3 and R 4 or R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic, tricyclic or tetracyclic aromatic system, more preferably an aromatic system selected from a naphthyl, anthracenyl and phenanthrenyl system. The aromatic system is preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl. For example, R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci- C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl, preferably H.

It is appreciated that one of the remaining R may be linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy; and the remaining ones may be independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl, preferably H.

In one embodiment, R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl, and R3 is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-C12- alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, preferably H. For example, R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl, and R3 is Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy; and the remaining ones are H.

An especially preferred alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H. For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; and R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H.

Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl, preferably C 4 -Cio-cycloalkyl, more preferably C 4 -Cs- cycloalkyl, even more preferably C 4 -C6-cycloalkyl, and most preferably C5- or C6- cycloalkyl, e.g. C6-cycloalkyl, together with the connecting C atom; and R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H. Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H.

Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl, e.g. C2-alkenyl; and the remaining ones are H.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6- alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl, e.g. C2-alkenyl; and the remaining ones are H.

Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl, e.g. C2-alkenyl; and the remaining ones are H.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6- alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl, e.g. C2-alkenyl; and the remaining ones are H.

Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably I linear Ci- C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear C1-C6- alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear or branched Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci- or C3-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and the remaining ones are H.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and the remaining ones are H.

Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and the remaining ones are H.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and the remaining ones are H.

Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-C5- alkenyloxy, e.g. C3- or C 4 -alkenyloxy, especially C3- alkenyloxy; and two of the remaining ones are H and two of the remaining ones are linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3- C5-alkenyloxy, e.g. C3- or C 4 -alkenyloxy, especially C3- alkenyloxy; and two of the remaining ones, preferably R3 and R 7 , are H and two of the remaining ones, preferably R 4 and R6, are linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched C1-C4- alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl. Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and three of them, preferably R3 and R 4 and R5, are Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably Cg- Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy, and the remaining ones, preferably R6 and R 7 are H.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and three of them, preferably R3 and R 4 and R5, are Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-C12- alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy, and the remaining ones, preferably R6 and R 7 are H. Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are different and are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and two of them, preferably R 4 and R5, are Ci-Cs-alkoxy, preferably C1-C6- alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy, especially Ci-alkoxy; and the remaining ones, preferably R3, R6 and R 7 , are H.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are different and are H and C2-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and two of them, preferably R4 and R5, are Ci-Cs-alkoxy, preferably C1-C6- alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy, especially Ci-alkoxy; and the remaining ones, preferably R3, R6 and R 7 , are H. Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are different and are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is N(Rs)2 with Rs forming a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system, preferably a C3-C 7 -alicyclic system, more preferably a C 4 -C6-alicyclic system and most preferably a C5- or C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom, wherein one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O; and the remaining ones, preferably R3, R4, R6 and R 7 , are H.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are different and are H and C2-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is N(Rs)2 with Rs forming a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system, preferably a C3- C 7 -alicyclic system, more preferably a C 4 -C6-alicyclic system and most preferably a C5- or C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom, wherein one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O; and the remaining ones, preferably Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 - alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl, preferably H.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl; and the remaining ones are H .

Alternatively, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl; and one of the remaining R, preferably R3, is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably Cg-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy and the remaining ones are H.

For example, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl; and one of the remaining R, preferably R3, is C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy and the remaining ones are H.

It is appreciated that the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I is reacted with an at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-C8-alkene, and a base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, obtaining thereby the corresponding aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal .

It is preferred that the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is an at least partially halogenated C2-C6-alkane and/or C2-C6-alkene, more preferably an at least partially halogenated C2-C 4 -alkane and/or C2-C 4 -alkene. For example, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is an at least partially halogenated C2- or C3-alkane and/or C2- or C3-alkene, e.g. an at least partially halogenated C2-alkane and/or C2-alkene. The at least partially halogenated C2-C8-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene may be at least partially chlorinated and/or brominated. For example, the at least partially halogenated C2-C8-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is at least partially chlorinated or brominated.

Alternatively, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is at least partially chlorinated and brominated, and thus is a mixed halogenated C2-C8- alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene.

Preferably, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is at least partially chlorinated.

In one embodiment, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is fully halogenated. Preferably, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-C8-alkene is a fully halogenated C2-C6-alkane and/or C2-C6-alkene, more preferably a fully halogenated C2-C 4 -alkane and/or C2-C 4 -alkene. For example, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is a fully halogenated C2- or C3-alkane and/or C2- or C3-alkene.

For example, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene may be fully chlorinated and/or brominated. For example, the at least partially halogenated C2-C8-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is fully chlorinated or brominated. Alternatively, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is fully chlorinated and brominated, and thus is a mixed halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene.

Preferably, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is fully chlorinated.

In one embodiment, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is selected from hexachloroethane, tetrachoroethylene, pentachloropropane,

hexabromoethane, tetrabromoethylene, pentabromopropane and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is hexachloroethane, tetrachoroethylene and mixtures thereof. For example, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is hexachloroethane or tetrachoroethylene. In one embodiment, the at least partially halogenated C2-C8-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is hexachloroethane.

Another requirement of the process is the addition of a base. It is a requirement of the present invention that the base is selected from the group comprising alkali metal Ci- Ce-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof.

In one embodiment, the base is selected from the group comprising sodium C1-C6- alkoxide, preferably sodium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably sodium Ci-C2-alkoxide; lithium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably lithium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably lithium Ci- C2-alkoxide; potassium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably potassium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably potassium Ci-C2-alkoxide; and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the base is sodium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably sodium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably sodium Ci-C2-alkoxide. Most preferably, the base is sodium Ci-alkoxide.

The base can be added as such into the process. Alternatively, the base is in form of an aqueous solution or the base is provided in an organic solvent, preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.- butanol, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the base is provided in an organic solvent, preferably the organic solvent is methanol.

The process of the present invention can be carried out over a wide temperature range. For example, the process is carried out at a temperature in the range from 0 to

120 °C, preferably in the range from 12 to 80 °C, more preferably in the range from 15 to 50 °C, and most preferably in the range from 15 to 30 °C.

Preferably, the process is carried out at room temperature, i.e. at a temperature of about 21 °C (± 2 °C).

In one embodiment, it is preferred that the process is carried out at elevated

temperature. That is to say, the process is carried out at a temperature above room temperature, preferably in the range from 30 to 120 °C, more preferably in the range from 40 to 100 °C, and most preferably in the range from 40 to 90 °C. It is further appreciated that the process can be carried out in an organic solvent.

Preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.-butanol, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane such as 1 ,3- dioxane or 1 ,4-dioxane, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof.

If the base is provided in an organic solvent, the organic solvent is preferably the same as used in the process. Thus, the organic solvent is preferably methanol.

The reaction and contacting are carried out by mixing the components, i.e. the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-C8-alkene, and the base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof. The skilled man will adapt the mixing conditions (such as the configuration of mixing tools and mixing speed) according to his process equipment.

It has been found that the sequence of addition of the reagents is unimportant for the success of the reaction. Thus, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I, the base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene and, if present, the organic solvent, can be contacted in any order. Preferably, the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I, the base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, and, if present, the organic solvent are contacted first and the at least partially halogenated C2- Ce-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene is metered in. It is appreciated that the process for reacting the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I, with the at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene, and a base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, results in the corresponding aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal. The obtained aryl oxirane is preferably of the following general formula la.

With regard to the definition of Ri , R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, and R7 and preferred

embodiments thereof, reference is made to the statements provided above when discussing the technical details of the process and the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I used as starting material in the process of the present invention.

The obtained a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal is preferably of the following general formula lb.

With regard to the definition of Ri , R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, and R7 and preferred

embodiments thereof, reference is made to the statements provided above when discussing the technical details of the process and the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I used as starting material in the process of the present invention.

The process of the present invention may comprise further steps for isolating and/or purifying the obtained aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal. For example, the process may further comprise a step of

i) separating the obtained aryl oxirane or α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal from the organic phase, and/or ii) taking up the obtained aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal in water and extracting the obtained aqueous phase with an organic solvent.

In one embodiment, the process further comprises the steps of

i) separating the obtained aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal from the organic phase, and

ii) taking up the obtained aryl oxirane or α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal in water and extracting the obtained aqueous phase with an organic solvent. Additionally, the process may further comprise a step of drying the obtained aryl oxirane or α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal.

It is appreciated that the aryl oxirane or α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by the process can be further reacted to the corresponding α-functionalized ketone.

In one embodiment, the process of the present invention thus comprises a further step of contacting the aryl oxirane obtained by the process under phase-transfer conditions with a base selected from the group comprising alkali metal hydroxide, earth alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures and the a compound selected from HORg, HNHR9 or HNR10R11 with R9, R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C3-Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C6- Ci 4 -aryl, Cz-Cis-arylalkyl, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the

connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, resulting thereby in the corresponding α-functionalized ketone.

If an α-functionalized ketone is to be prepared from the aryl oxirane, it is thus required that the process is carried out under phase-transfer conditions. Such phase-transfer conditions are well known in the art such that the skilled person will easily apply reaction conditions that are suitable for the reaction mentioned. The skilled person can also apply variants of such reactions which are known per se and are not mentioned herein in detail. In particular, the reaction of the aryl oxirane is carried out in the presence of a phase- transfer catalyst with the base selected from the group comprising alkali metal hydroxide, earth alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Ce-alkoxide and mixtures and the compound selected from HORg, HNHR9 or HNR10R11 with R9, R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Ce-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C3-C8- cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Cz-Cis-arylalkyl, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O.

The phase-transfer catalyst can be selected from any phase-transfer catalyst known in the art. However, the phase-transfer catalyst is preferably selected from a quaternary ammonium salt, tetraalkylphosphonium chloride, tetraalkylphosphonium bromide and mixtures thereof. More preferably, the phase-transfer catalyst is a tetraalkylammonium salt or a trialkylarylammonium salt, and most preferably the phase-transfer catalyst is selected from the group comprising benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide,

benzyltriethylammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium bromide, tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, methyltrioctylammonium chloride, cetyl pyridinium and mixtures thereof

Such phase-transfer catalysts are well known in the art such that the skilled person will easily apply catalysts that are suitable for the reaction mentioned. The skilled person can also apply variants of such catalysts which are known per se and are not mentioned herein in detail.

The amount of phase-transfer catalysts can be chosen as desired within wide limits, preferably being 0.1 to 100 wt.-%, based on the weight of the aryl oxirane. It is preferred that the base is selected from the group comprising sodium hydroxide; potassium hydroxide; sodium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably sodium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably sodium Ci-C2-alkoxide; lithium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably lithium Ci-C 4 - alkoxide and most preferably lithium Ci-C2-alkoxide; potassium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably potassium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably potassium Ci-C2-alkoxide; and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the base is selected from the group comprising sodium hydroxide and sodium Ci-C6-alkoxide, preferably sodium Ci-C 4 -alkoxide and most preferably sodium Ci-C2-alkoxide. Most preferably, the base is sodium hydroxide. The base can be added as such into the process. Alternatively, the base is in form of an aqueous solution or the base is provided in an organic solvent, preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.- butanol, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane, such as 1 ,3-dioxane or 1 ,4- dioxane, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the base is provided in form of an aqueous solution.

Another essential component to be added for reacting the obtained aryl oxirane to the corresponding a-functionalized ketone, is a compound selected from HORg, HNHR9 or HNR10R11 with R9, R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C3-C8- cycloalkyl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Cz-Cn-arylalkyl, Cz-Cn-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O.

In one embodiment, the compound is HORg with R9 being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C3-C8-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C7-Ci 4 -arylalkoxy and Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably R9 is linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci- C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2- alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl, C3-Cs-cycloalkyl, preferably C 4 -Cs-cycloalkyl, more preferably C 4 -C6-cycloalkyl, and most preferably C5- or C6-cycloalkyl, e.g. C6-cycloalkyl, and

Alternatively, the compound is HNR10R11 with R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, C3-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, or R10 and Rn form a C3-C6-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, preferably R10 and Rn form a Cs-Ce-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom and one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O.

Preferably, the compound is HNR10R11 with R10 and Rn forming a Cs-Ce-alicyclic system, preferably a C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom and one or more carbon atoms, preferably one carbon atom, is/are replaced with O. For example, the compound is morpholine.

The further step of reacting the aryl oxirane to the corresponding a-functionalized ketone can be carried out over a wide temperature range. For example, this step is carried out at a temperature of at least 30 °C, preferably in the range from 30 to 120 °C, more preferably in the range from 40 to 100 °C, and most preferably in the range from 40 to 90 °C.

It is further appreciated that the further step of reacting the aryl oxirane to the

corresponding a-functionalized ketone can be carried out in an organic solvent.

Preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.-butanol, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane, such as 1 ,3- dioxane or 1 ,4-dioxane, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof.

If the base is provided in an organic solvent, the organic solvent is preferably the same as used in the process.

The further step of reacting the aryl oxirane to the corresponding a-functionalized ketone is carried out by mixing the components, i.e. the aryl oxirane, the phase-transfer catalyst, the base selected from the group comprising alkali metal hydroxide, earth alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures and the compound selected from HOR9, HNHR9 or HNR10R11 with R9, R10 and R11 being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-C8- cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Cz-Cn-arylalkyl, Cz-Cn-arylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O. The skilled man will adapt the mixing conditions (such as the configuration of mixing tools and mixing speed) according to his process equipment.

It has been found that the sequence of addition of the reagents is unimportant for the success of the reaction. Thus, the aryl oxirane, the phase-transfer catalyst, the base selected from the group comprising alkali metal hydroxide, earth alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures and the compound selected from HORg, HNHRg or HNR10R11 with R9, R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2- Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci 4 - aryl, Cz-Cis-arylalkyl, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, can be contacted in any order. It is appreciated that the step of reacting the aryl oxirane under phase-transfer conditions with a base selected from the group comprising alkali metal hydroxide, earth alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures and a compound selected from HORg, HNHRg or HNR10R11 with R9, R10 and R11 being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-C8- cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Cz-Cis-arylalkyl, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, Cg-Ci5-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, results in the corresponding a-functionalized ketone.

Subsequent to the step of reacting the aryl oxirane, the process may comprise further steps for isolating and/or purifying the obtained a-functionalized ketone.

For example, the process may further comprise a step of i) separating the obtained a-functionalized ketone from the organic phase, and/or

ii) taking up the obtained a-functionalized ketone in water and extracting the obtained aqueous phase with an organic solvent.

In one embodiment, the process further comprises the steps of

i) separating the obtained α-functionalized ketone from the organic phase, and

ii) taking up the obtained α-functionalized ketone in water and extracting the obtained aqueous phase with an organic solvent.

Additionally, the process may further comprise a step of drying the obtained a- functionalized ketone. Alternatively, the process comprises a further step of contacting the a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by the process with an acid obtaining thereby the corresponding α-functionalized ketone.

It is appreciated that the acid is not restricted to a specific acid, but it is preferred that the acid has a pKa value below 5, more preferably in the range from -10 to 10, and most preferably in the range from -8 to 5.

In one embodiment, the acid is preferably selected from the group comprising

hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid, toluene sulfonic acid, methane sulfonic acid, chloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and mixtures thereof. For example, the acid is selected from hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid and mixtures thereof. In one embodiment, the acid is hydrochloric acid.

The acid can be added as such into the process. Alternatively, the acid is in form of an aqueous solution or the acid is provided in an organic solvent, preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.- butanol, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane, such as 1 ,3-dioxane or 1 ,4- dioxane, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the acid is provided in form of an aqueous solution and thus is in form of a dilute aqueous acid. This is advantageous as the reaction to enol ethers can be avoided.

The subsequent step of reacting the a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal to the

corresponding α-functionalized ketone can be carried out over a wide temperature range. For example, this step is carried out at a temperature in the range from 0 to 120 °C, preferably in the range from 12 to 80 °C, more preferably in the range from 15 to 50 °C, and most preferably in the range from 15 to 30 °C.

Preferably, this step is carried out at room temperature, i.e. at a temperature of about 21 °C (± 2 °C).

It is further appreciated that the subsequent step of reacting the α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal to the corresponding α-functionalized ketone can be carried out in an organic solvent. Preferably the organic solvent is selected from the group comprising methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, tert.-butanol, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene,

tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, acetone, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane, such as 1 ,3-dioxane or 1 ,4-dioxane, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, triethyleneglycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof.

If the acid is provided in an organic solvent, the organic solvents are preferably the same.

The step of reacting the α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal to the corresponding a- functionalized ketone is carried out by mixing the components, i.e. the a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal and the acid and, if present, the organic solvent. The skilled man will adapt the mixing conditions (such as the configuration of mixing tools and mixing speed) according to his process equipment.

It has been found that the sequence of addition of the reagents is important for the success of this reaction step. The best yields are obtained when the a-functionalized a Iky I aryl ketal and, if present, the organic solvent are contacted first and the acid is metered in.

Subsequent to the step of reacting the α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal, the process may comprise further steps for isolating and/or purifying the obtained a-functionalized ketone.

For example, the process may further comprise a step of

i) separating the obtained α-functionalized ketone from the organic phase, and/or

ii) taking up the obtained α-functionalized ketone in water and extracting the obtained aqueous phase with an organic solvent.

In one embodiment, the process further comprises the steps of

i) separating the obtained α-functionalized ketone from the organic phase, and

ii) taking up the obtained α-functionalized ketone in water and extracting the obtained aqueous phase with an organic solvent.

Additionally, the process may further comprise a step of drying the obtained a- functionalized ketone.

It is appreciated that an α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II is obtained by further reacting the aryl oxirane or α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal,

wherein Ri , R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are as defined above; and Z is selected from OR9,

NHR9 and NR10R11 with R9, R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy,

C3-C8-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Cz-Cis-arylalkyl, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9- Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a C3-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O. In one embodiment, Z is ORg with R9 being selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C3-C8- cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C 7 -Cis-arylalkoxy and Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably Rg is H or Z is NR10R11 with R10 and Rn being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, or R10 and Rn form a C3-C6-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, preferably R10 and Rn form a Cs-Ce-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom and one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O. Preferably, Z is ORg with Rg being H or NR10R11 with R10 and Rn forming a Cs-Ce- alicyclic system, preferably a C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom and one or more carbon atoms, preferably one carbon atom, is/are replaced with O.

With regard to the definition of Ri , R2, R3, R4, Rs, R6, and R 7 and preferred

embodiments thereof, reference is made to the statements provided above when discussing the technical details of the process and the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I used as starting material in the process of the present invention.

An especially preferred a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, Rs, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H, and Z is ORg with Rg being H.

For example, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, Rs, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H, and Z is ORg with Rg being H. Alternatively, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl, preferably C4-C10- cycloalkyl, more preferably C 4 -C8-cycloalkyl, even more preferably C 4 -C6-cycloalkyl, and most preferably C5- or C6-cycloalkyl, e.g. C6-cycloalkyl, together with the connecting C atom; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H, and Z is OR9 with R9 being H .

Alternatively, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula I is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H, and Z is NR10R11 with R10 and Rn forming a Cs-Ce-alicyclic system, preferably a C6-alicyclic system. Alternatively, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H, and Z is NR10R11 with R10 and Rn forming a Cs- Ce-alicyclic system, preferably a C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom and one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O.

For example, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are the same and are H, and Z is NR10R11 with R10 and Rn forming a Cs-Ce-alicyclic system, preferably a C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom and one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O. Alternatively, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is linear or branched C2-C8- alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl, e.g. C2-alkenyl; and the remaining ones are H and Z is OR9 with R9 being H. For example, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl, e.g. C2- alkenyl; and the remaining ones are H and Z is OR9 with R9 being H.

Alternatively, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is linear or branched C2-C8- alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl, e.g. C2-alkenyl; and the remaining ones are H and Z is NR10R11 with R10 and Rn forming a Cs-Ce-alicyclic system, preferably a C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom and one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O.

For example, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably linear or branched C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl, e.g. C2- alkenyl; and the remaining ones are H and Z is NR10R11 with R10 and Rn forming a Cs- Ce-alicyclic system, preferably a C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom and one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O. Alternatively, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 - alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and the remaining ones are H and Z is OR9 with R9 being H.

For example, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci- C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and the remaining ones are H and Z is OR9 with R9 being H. Alternatively, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 - alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and the remaining ones are H and Z is NR10R11 with R10 and Rn forming a Cs-Ce-alicyclic system, preferably a C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom and one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O.

For example, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 , R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci- C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and the remaining ones are H and Z is NR10R11 with R10 and Rn forming a C5- C6-alicyclic system, preferably a C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom and one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O.

Alternatively, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them is C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6- alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy, e.g. C3- or C 4 -alkenyloxy, especially C3- alkenyloxy; and two of the remaining ones are H and two of the remaining ones are linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci- C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and Z is OR9 with R9 being H.

For example, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2- C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy, e.g. C3- or C 4 -alkenyloxy, especially C3- alkenyloxy; and two of the remaining ones, preferably R3 and R 7 , are H and two of the remaining ones, preferably R 4 and R6, are linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; and Z is OR9 with R9 being H.

Alternatively, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyI, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyI, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and three of them, preferably R3 and R 4 and R5, are C9- Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy, and the remaining ones, preferably R6 and R 7 are H; and Z is ORg with R9 being H.

For example, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and three of them, preferably R3 and R 4 and R5, are C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-C10- alkenylarylalkoxy, and the remaining ones, preferably R6 and R 7 are H; and Z is ORg with R9 being H.

Alternatively, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are different and are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched C1-C6- alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci- alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and two of them, preferably R 4 and R5, are Ci- Cs-alkoxy, preferably Ci-C6-alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy, especially Ci- alkoxy; and the remaining ones, preferably R3, R6 and R 7 , are H and Z is ORg with R9 being H.

For example, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are different and are H and C2-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and two of them, preferably R 4 and R5, are Ci-Cs-alkoxy, preferably Ci-C6-alkoxy and most preferably Ci-C3-alkoxy, especially Ci-alkoxy; and the remaining ones, preferably R3, R6 and R 7 , are H and Z is ORg with R9 being H.

Alternatively, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are different and are selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched C1-C6- alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci- alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is N(Rs)2 with Rs forming a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system, preferably a C3-C 7 -alicyclic system, more preferably a C 4 -C6-alicyclic system and most preferably a C5- or C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom, wherein one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O; and the remaining ones, preferably R3, R4, R6 and R 7 , are H and Z is OR9 with R9 being H. For example, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are different and are H and C2-alkyl; R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are different and one of them, preferably R5, is N(Rs)2 with Rs forming a C3-C9-alicyclic system, preferably a C3-C 7 -alicyclic system, more preferably a C 4 -C6- alicyclic system and most preferably a C5- or C6-alicyclic system, together with the connecting N atom, wherein one or more, preferably one, carbon atoms are replaced with O; and the remaining ones, preferably R3, R4, R6 and R 7 , are H and Z is OR9 with R9 being H.

Alternatively, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl; and the remaining ones are independently selected from H and linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs- alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 -alkyl, and most preferably linear C1-C3- alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl, preferably H, and Z is OR9 with R9 being H.

For example, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl; and the remaining ones are H and Z is OR9 with R9 being H.

Alternatively, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-Cs-alkyl, preferably linear or branched Ci-C6-alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C6-alkyl, more preferably linear or branched Ci-C 4 -alkyl, e.g. linear Ci-C 4 - alkyl, and most preferably linear Ci-C3-alkyl, e.g. Ci- or C2-alkyl, especially Ci-alkyl; R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl; and one of the remaining R, preferably R3, is linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, preferably C2-C6-alkenyl and most preferably C2-C3-alkenyl; C2-C8-alkenyloxy, preferably C2-C6-alkenyloxy and most preferably C3-Cs-alkenyloxy; and C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-C12- alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably CsrCio-alkenylarylalkoxy and the remaining ones are H, and Z is OR9 with R9 being H.

For example, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process is a ketone, wherein Ri and R2 are the same and are Ci-alkyl; R 4 and R5 form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of general formula I, preferably a bicyclic aromatic system, most preferably naphthyl; and one of the remaining R,

preferably R3, is C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, preferably C9-Ci2-alkenylarylalkoxy and most preferably C9-Cio-alkenylarylalkoxy and the remaining ones are H, and Z is OR9 with R9 being H.

A further aspect of the present invention refers to the aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by the process as defined herein.

Accordingly, the aryl oxirane or α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal are obtained by a process for reacting an alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I,

wherein Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C5- Cs-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkynyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl or C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom,-

R3, R4, Rs, R6 and R7 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8- alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, N(Rs)2 or SRs with Rs being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cs- Cs-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, or Re form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, or two adjacent R form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I;

with an at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene, and a base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, obtaining thereby the corresponding aryl oxirane or a-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal.

With regard to the definition of the process, Ri, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, and R7 and preferred embodiments thereof, reference is made to the statements provided above when discussing the technical details of the process and the alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I used as starting material in the process of the present invention.

Another aspect of the present invention refers to the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II obtained by the process as defined herein. Accordingly, the α-functionalized ketone of the general formula II is obtained by a process for reacting an alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I,

wherein Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C5- Cs-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkynyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl or C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom;

R3, R4, R5, R6 and R 7 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8- alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C 7 -Ci5-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, N(Rs)2 or SRs with Re being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, C3- Cs-cycloalkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkoxy, C 7 -Ci5-arylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, or Rs form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, or two adjacent R form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I;

with an at least partially halogenated C2-C8-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene, and a base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, obtaining thereby the corresponding aryl oxirane, and

further contacting the aryl oxirane obtained by the process under phase-transfer conditions with a base selected from the group comprising alkali metal hydroxide, earth alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures and a compound selected from HOR9, HNHRg or HNR10R11 with R9, R10 and R11 being independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-Cs-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-Cs-alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-C8- cycloalkoxy, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, C 7 -Ci5-arylalkyl, C 7 -Ci5-arylalkoxy, Cg-Cis-alkenylarylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkyl; or R10 and Rn form a Cs-Cg-alicyclic system together with the connecting N or C atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O; obtaining thereby the corresponding a-functionalized ketone.

Alternatively, the a-functionalized ketone of the general formula II is obtained by a process for reacting an alkyl aryl ketone of the general formula I,

wherein Ri and R2 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C5- Cs-cycloalkenyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkynyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl or form C3-Ci2-cycloalkyl or C5-Ci2-cycloalkenyl together with the connecting C atom;

R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are the same or different and are independently selected from H, linear or branched Ci-Cs-alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8- alkenyloxy, Cs-Cs-cycloalkyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, C3-Cs-cycloalkoxy, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-C15- alkenylarylalkoxy, N(Rs)2 or SRs with Re being selected from linear or branched Ci-Cs- alkyl, linear or branched C2-C8-alkenyl, C6-Ci 4 -aryl, Ci-Cs-alkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, Cs- Cs-cycloalkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkoxy, Cz-Cis-arylalkoxy, C9-Ci5-alkenylarylalkoxy, or Re form a C3-C9-alicyclic system together with the connecting N atom, optionally one or more carbon atoms are replaced with O, or two adjacent R form an aromatic system together with the benzene ring of formula I;

with an at least partially halogenated C2-Cs-alkane and/or C2-Cs-alkene, and a base selected from alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide, earth alkali metal Ci-Cs-alkoxide and mixtures thereof, obtaining thereby the corresponding a-functionalized ketal, and further contacting the α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal obtained by the process with an acid, preferably an acid selected from the group comprising hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid, toluene sulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, chloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and mixtures thereof; obtaining thereby the corresponding α-functionalized ketone.

With regard to the definition of the process, the aryl oxirane, the α-functionalized alkyl aryl ketal the α-functionalized ketone and preferred embodiments thereof, reference is made to the statements provided above when discussing the technical details of the process of the present invention. The scope and interest of the invention will be better understood based on the following examples which are intended to illustrate certain embodiments of the invention and are non-limitative.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 : Preparation of 2-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-(4-methylthiophenyl)oxirane

A mixture of sodium methoxide (30% in methanol, 8.34 g, 154 mmol), methanol (15.5 mL), 2-methyl-1 -(4-methylthiophenyl)propan-1 -one (3.00 g, 15.4 mmol) and

hexachloroethane (5.48 g, 23.2 mmol) was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solvent was evaporated, the residue taken up with water (25 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO 4 and the solvent was evaporated. 2-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl-2- (4-methylthiophenyl)oxirane was obtained as a yellow oil (2.86 g, 12.8 mmol, 82% yield).

1 H-NMR (400.1 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 1 .03 (s, 3H), 1 .55 (s, 1 H), 2.52 (s, 3H), 3.23 (s, 3H), 7.24-7.31 (m, 2H), 7.34-7.43 (m, 2 H) ppm.

13 C-NMR (100.6 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 15.5, 19.8, 20.0, 52.6, 67.3, 124.7, 125.8, 128.4, 130.3, 131 .4, 139.0 ppm.

Example 2: Preparation of 2-methyl-1 -(4-methylthiophenyl)-2-morpholino-propan- 1 -one

A mixture of 2-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-(4-methylthiophenyl)oxirane (0.13 g, 0.58 mmol), morpholine (2.27 g, 26.1 mmol), sodium hydroxide solution (50%, 0.28 g, 3.5 mmol) and tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate (0.01 g, 0.03 mmol) was stirred under reflux for 8 h. The reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature, the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure and the residue was taken up with water (10 mL). The phases were separated and the pH of the aqueous layer was adjusted to 7 with saturated ammonium chloride solution. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 5 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (10 mL), dried over Na2SO 4 and the solvent was evaporated. 2-methyl-1 -(4-methylthiophenyl)-2- morpholino-propan-1 -one was obtained as a colorless oil (70 mg, 0.25 mmol, 43 % yield).

1 H-NMR (400.1 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 1 .31 (s, 6H), 2.53 (s, 3H), 2.55-2.61 (m, 4H), 3.66- 3.73 (m, 4H), 7.20-7.26 (m, 2H), 8.49-8.54 (m, 2 H) ppm. 13 C-NMR (100.6 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 14.4, 20.4, 47.2, 67.3, 68.3, 124.3, 130.3, 131 .8, 144.9, 201 .9 ppm.

Example 3: Preparation of 2,2-diethyl-3-methoxy-3-phenyl-oxirane

A mixture of sodium methoxide (30% in methanol, 12.3 g, 87.1 mmol), methanol (1 1 .5 mL), 2-ethyl-1 -phenylbutan-1 -one (2.00 g, 1 1 .4 mmol) and hexachloroethane (2.96 g, 12.5 mmol) was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solvent was evaporated, the residue taken up with water (50 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na2SO 4 and the solvent was evaporated.

The crude product was purified by flash chromatography [basic aluminum oxide, c- C6Hi2 AcOEt, 1 :1 v:v]. 2,2-diethyl-3-methoxy-3-phenyl-oxirane was obtained as a colorless oil (2.26 g, 1 1 .0 mmol, 96% yield).

1 H-NMR (400.1 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 0.79-0.82 (t, 3 H), 1 .06-1 .10 (t, 3H), 1 .16-1 .37 (m, 2H), 1 .79-1 .91 (m, 1 H), 1 .94-2.04 (m, 1 H), 3.21 (s, 3H), 7.34-7.43 (m, 3H), 7.45-7.50 (m, 3H) ppm. 13 C-NMR (100.6 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 8.6, 9.3, 22.3, 22.5, 52.4, 73.7, 91 .9, 127.9, 128.0, 128.3, 134.9 ppm.

Example 4: Preparation of 4-(1,1 -dimethoxy-2-hvdroxybutyl)-1 ,2- dimethoxybenzene

A mixture of sodium methoxide (30% in methanol, 15.82 g, 87.87 mmol), methanol (14.5 mL), 4-butyryl-1 ,2-dimethoxybenzene (3.00 g, 14.4 mmol) and hexachloroethane (3.79 g, 16.0 mmol) was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solvent was evaporated, the residue taken up with water (25 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO 4 and the solvent was evaporated. 4-(1 ,1 -Dimethoxy-2-hydroxybutyl)-1 ,2- dimethoxybenzene was obtained as a yellow oil (2.97 g, 10.9 mmol, 79% yield).

1H-NMR (400.1 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 0.92-0.96 (t, 3H), 0.98-1 .1 1 (m, 1 H), 1 .46-1 .56 (m, 1 H), 2.19-2.24 (dd, 1 H), 3.24 (s, 3H), 3.36 (s, 3H), 3.77-3.85 (m, 1 H), 3.90 (s, 3H), 3.91 (s, 3H), 6.85-6.89 (m, 1 H), 6.99-7.06 (m, 2 H) ppm. 13 C-NMR (100.6 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 10.9, 24.0, 49.3, 49.8, 55.8, 55.9, 76.3, 103.3, 1 10.3, 1 1 1 .3, 120.4, 130.3, 148.3, 148.7 ppm.

Example 5: Preparation of 1 -(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-butan-1 -one

1 -(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1 ,1 -dimethoxy-butan-2-ol (0.50 g, 1 .9 mmol) was dissolved in 1 ,4-dioxane (8 mL). Hydrochloric acid (1 M, 0.14 g, 3.7 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 6 h at room temperature. Afterwards, the reaction mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (50 mL) and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel [c- C6Hi2 AcOEt, 2:1 v:v]. 1 -(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-butan-1 -one was obtained as a colorless oil (0.28 g, 1 .0 mmol, 55% yield).

1 H-NMR (400.1 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 0.94-0.97 (t, 3H), 1 .57-1 .73 (m, 1 H), 1 .90-2.01 (m, 1 H), 3.73-3.74 (d, 1 H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 3.97 (s, 3H), 4.98-5.06 (m, 1 H), 6.91 -6.95 (m, 1 H), 7.51 -7.54 (m, 2H) ppm. 13 C-NMR (100.6 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 9.0, 29.5, 56.0, 56.1 , 73.5, 1 10.2, 1 10.6, 123.2, 126.7, 149.4, 154.0, 200.4 ppm.

Example 6: Preparation of 4-(1,1 -dimethoxy-2-hvdroxybutyl)-phenylmorpholine

A mixture of sodium methoxide (30% in methanol, 4.71 g, 26.1 mmol), methanol (4.5 mL), 4-butyryl-phenylmorpholine (1 .00 g, 4.29 mmol) and hexachloroethane (3.79 g, 4.76 mmol) was stirred under reflux for 6 h. The solvent was evaporated, the residue taken up with water (25 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO 4 and the solvent was evaporated. 4-(1 ,1 -Dimethoxy-2-hydroxybutyl)-phenylmorpholine was obtained in as a yellow oil (1 .04 g, 3.52 mmol, 92% yield). 1 H-NMR (400.1 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 0.91 -0.95 (t, 3H), 0.96-1 .06 (m, 1 H), 1 .46-1 .55 (m, 1 H), 3.18-3.22 (m, 5H; two superimposed signals), 3.23 (s, 3H), 3.35 (s, 3H), 3.79-3.84 (m, 1 H), 3.87-3.89 (m, 4H), 6.88-6.91 (m, 2H), 7.34-7.39 (m, 2H) ppm.

Example 7: Preparation of 2-hvdroxy-1 -(4-morpholinophenyl)butan-1 -one

1 ,1 -dimethoxy-1 -(4-morpholinophenyl)butan-2-ol (0.50 g, 1 .7 mmol) was dissolved in 1 ,4-dioxane (7.5 mL). Hydrochloric acid (1 M, 0.13 g, 3.4 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 6 h at room temperature. Afterwards, the reaction mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (50 mL) and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. 2- hydroxy-1 -(4-morpholinophenyl)butan-1 -onewas obtained as a yellow oil (0.31 g, 1 .0 mmol, 60% yield).

1 H-NMR (400.1 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 0.89-0.92 (t, 3H), 1 .53-1 .65 (m, 1 H), 1 .82-1 .96 (m, 1 H), 3.29-3.31 (m, 4H), 3.42 (wide s, 1 H), 3.81 -3.83 (m, 4H), 4.91 -4.97 (m, 1 H), 6.82- 6.89 (m, 1 H), 7.77-7.86 (m, 2H) ppm. 13 C-NMR (100.6 MHz, CDCIs): δ = 8.9, 29.3, 47.4, 66.5, 73.3, 1 13.1 , 122.8, 123.8, 130.3, 130.6, 154.7, 199.7 ppm.