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Title:
SINGLE SIDE TEMPORARY FASTENER WITH CONSTANT PRESSURE FEATURE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/184904
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A single side temporary fastener (SSTF) capable of maintaining a clamping force in a material stack subject to material creep or adjunct extrusion during clamp up processes is disclosed. The SSTF comprise a rotationally constrained but freely translatable collet body that is disposed within an auxiliary structure such as a fastener housing. A fastener comprises the aforementioned collet body, which at least partially translates within the aforementioned auxiliary structure, and further comprises a threaded screw for rotationally engaging with the collet body, which by way of an anti- rotation means associated therewith and with the auxiliary structure, is rotationally constrained but is free to axially translate. Constant clamping pressures are made possible in such embodiments by the inclusion of at least one biasing element between compression force transmitting elements and/or assemblies of the fasteners.

Inventors:
MCCLURE TRAVIS (US)
Application Number:
US2017/028697
Publication Date:
October 26, 2017
Filing Date:
April 20, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
CENTRIX INC (US)
International Classes:
F16B19/10; B25B31/00
Foreign References:
US20050200066A12005-09-15
US4537542A1985-08-27
US2256243A1941-09-16
US20130039716A12013-02-14
US20110232072A12011-09-29
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
RUSSELL, John D. (McCoy Russell LLP, 806 SW BroadwaySuite 60, Portland Oregon, 97205, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1 . A temporary fastener to hold at least two work pieces together where a portion of the fastener is disposed in substantially aligned holes or bores formed in the work pieces, the SSTF comprising :

a fastener housing havi ng a first end and a second end functioned as a work piece contacting surface;

a collet body with an internal wall portion disposed within the fastener housing, the collet body being rotationally constrained but freely translatable withi n the fastener housing, the collet body comprising a plurality of collet body fingers with each finger comprising a protruding portion incorporating a leading face and a trailing face; and a threaded screw rotationally engaging with the collet body for a translatable th readed screw movement either towards or away from the collet body fi ngers and for a translational movement of collet body within the fastener housing transferred from the rotational movement of the threaded screw;

wherein a translational retracting of the collet body into the fastener housing causes the trailing faces of the collet body fingers and the work piece contacting surface to compressively hold the at least two work pieces together.

2. The temporary fastener of claim 1 further comprises a drive nut coupled to the th readed screw for concurrent rotation.

3. The temporary fastener of claim 2 wherein the fastener housing encompasses a first internal spring and a second internal spring, the first internal spring coupling between the first end of the fastener housing and a threaded screw wall disposed partially within the fastener housing, the second internal spring coupling between the internal wall portion of the collet body and the th readed screw wall.

4. The temporary fastener of claim 3 wherein the drive nut is rotated to translatably retract the collet body, the second internal spring is compressed between the internal wall portion of the collet body and the threaded screw wall.

5. The current sensing structure of claim 3 wherein the drive nut is rotated to translatably retract the collet body, the first internal spring is stretched between the first end of the fastener housing and the threaded screw wall.

6. A temporary fastener to fasten at least two work pieces together where a portion of the fastener is disposed in substantially aligned holes or bores formed in the work pieces, the SSTF comprising :

a fastener housing having a first end and a second end, the second end having a bore to allow extending or retracting translational movement of a collet body within the fastener housing ;

an inner sleeve embracing the second end ;

an outer sleeve encompassing the inner sleeve and retained to the inner sleeve with a cooperating face between the outer sleeve and the inner sleeve, the outer sleeve having relative rotational movement with respect to the inner sleeve around the cooperating face induced by clamping pressure when the at least two work pieces being fastened.

7. The temporary fastener of claim 6, wherein the outer sleeve is manufactured from a material with memory characteristics.

8. The temporary fastener of claim 6 wherein the cooperating face is a partial cooperating face with the outer sleeve and the inner sleeve partially contacting with each other.

9. The temporary fastener of claim 8 wherein there is a gap between the inner sleeve and an outer sleeve.

1 0. The temporary fastener of claim 8 wherein the partial cooperating face is aligned to the translational movement direction of the collet body.

1 1 . The temporary fastener of claim 6 wherein the outer sleeve has a retention end to retain the outer sleeve to a sliding zone on the inner sleeve, the sliding zone allowing the retention end sliding along the sliding zone.

1 2. A temporary fastener of claim 6 further comprising a memory ring disposed between the inner sleeve and the outer sleeve.

1 3. A temporary fastener of claim 1 2 wherein the memory ring is a spring, a grommet, a split washer or a locking washer.

1 4. A temporary fastener of claim 6 wherein the outer sleeve has an integrated memory ring.

1 5. A temporary fastener of claim 6 further comprising a self-adjusti ng seal disposed between an inner sleeve and the outer sleeve.

1 6. A temporary fastener to fasten at least two work pieces together where a portion of the fastener is disposed in substantially aligned holes or bores formed in the work pieces, the SSTF comprising :

a fastener housing having a first end and a second end, the second end having a bore to allow extending or retracting translational movement of a collet body within the fastener housing ;

a hybrid sleeve structure comprising : an inner sleeve embracing the second end, the inner sleeve having a sliding zone;

an outer sleeve encompassing the inner sleeve around a cooperating face, the outer sleeve having a retention end to retain the outer sleeve to the slidi ng zone, the sliding zone allowing the retention end sliding along the sliding zone; and

a memory ring disposed between the inner sleeve and the outer sleeve;

the hybrid sleeve structure enabling the outer sleeve to si multaneously translate for dampening and rotate with respect to the inner sleeve for accommodating changes in geometry of the at least two work pieces.

1 7. The temporary fastener of claim 1 6 wherein the memory ring is a spring, a grommet, a split washer or a locking washer.

1 8. The temporary fastener of claim 1 6 wherein the memory ring is a self-adjusting seal.

1 9. The temporary fastener of claim 1 6 wherein the cooperating face is a partial cooperating face aligned to the translational movement direction of the collet body.

20. The temporary fastener of claim 1 6 wherein the outer sleeve is manufactured from a material with memory characteristics.

Description:
SINGLE SIDE TEMPORARY FASTENER WITH CONSTANT PRESSURE FEATURE

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001 ] This description relates generally to temporary fasteners and more specifically to single side temporary fasteners maintaining a clamping force during clamp up processes.

BACKGROUND ART

[0002] Clamping one or more typically planar plates, or work pieces, in place during assembly can be challenging-especially if a soft pliable material such as glue, adhesive, or other resilient material is used between the pieces. If a conventional clamp is used, the glue can ooze out the sides, the clamp loosens and slips. Or, if the clamp is tightened too much so that it does not slip, all the glue may ooze out leaving insufficient material to bond the work pieces. In a home workshop this is not particularly problematic. However, in a production environment, such as the aerospace industry where such operations are common and must be done in a time efficient manner, it may be desirable to have a clamping device that is easy to apply and exerts a steady pressure while it is being used, resulting in consistent work piece attachment and consistent thicknesses of the resilient material that may be present there between.

[0003] In clamping work pieces together, once a compressive clamping force has been achieved, it is usually desired to maintain the clamping force over the duration needed for temporary clamping. However, this is not the case generally if the material stack is subject to material creep or adjunct extrusion (i.e., loss of a deformable substance from the area being clamped). In such instances, the loss of material or adjuncts results in a decrease in the stack height and in clamping force between the points of fastener contact.

[0004] A common scenario in this regard is created when the material stack includes a sealant, an adhesive, or other fluidic substance that is displaced from the locale being compressively affected by the SSTF. Accordingly, there is a need to a temporary fastener capable of maintaining a clamping force during clamp up processes

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

[0005] The invention is directed to constructing a constant pressure single side temporary fasteners (SSTFs) having various unique mechanisms for maintaining a constant pressure clamping force, or range of constant pressure clamping forces, in a material stack subject to material creep or adjunct extrusion during clamp up processes that would normally cause reduced clamping pressure over time the clamp is applied. These mechanism for clamping may include the inclusion of biasing members, whether internal, external or combinations thereof, to the basic fastener, and operate to preserve, or at least minimize, a decrease in an established clamping force in the material stack when one or more constant pressure single side temporary fasteners are employed. The constant pressure single side temporary fastener may be constructed in several exemplary configurations.

[0006] In some examples, the constant pressure SSTF comprises a rotationally constrained but freely translatable collet body that is disposed within an auxiliary structure such as fastener housing. The fastener encompasses the aforementioned collet body, which at least partially translates within the aforementioned auxiliary structure, and further encompasses a threaded screw for rotationally engaging with the collet body, which by way of anti-rotation devices associated therewith and with the auxiliary structure, is rotationally constrained but is free to axially translate. Constant clamping pressures are made possible in such examples by the inclusion of at least one biasing element between compression force transmitting elements and/or assemblies of the fasteners.

[0007] To facilitate translational movement the collet body used in the various examples of constant pressure SSTF may include a plurality of fingers that terminate at one end. Each finger includes a protruding portion incorporating a leading face and trailing face. The collet body further includes an i nternal wall portion disposed within the fastener housing . The internal wall portion has internal threads complementary to a th readed screw, thereby permitting threadable engagement there between and transferring the rotational movement of the threaded screw into a translational movement of the collet body within the housing body and also translatable threaded screw movement either towards, or away from the collet body fingers.

[0008] The collet body also includes a two part anti-rotation mechanism, which is preferably characterized as a complementary non-circular feature(s) (e.g. , a planar surface, a slot or groove, a land, a key or protrusion, etc.). The collet body further includes a distal end having radially displaceable fingers, each preferably having a work piece g ripping element on an exterior surface thereof and a screw interface on an interior surface thereof. The collet body additionally defines a central , axially aligned bore having an internal threaded portion, preferably at or adjacent to a proximal end.

[0009] The exterior dimensions and surface geometry of the collet body are such that preferably all portions thereof, but the anti-rotation mechanism, which may be localized at the proximal end of the collet body, are translatably extendable past the housing distal end. Preferably, the proximally localized collet body anti-rotation mechanism constitutes another part of the translation arresting mechanism, and axial ly interferes with a portion of the housing, which as previously described constitutes another part of a translations arresting mechanism.

[001 0] According to various invention examples, the threaded screw includes a screw having a threaded portion, a proximal end and a distal end , and which is th readably engageable with the collet body threaded portion. Additionally, the threaded screw is preferably associated with the housing, e.g ., linked or held captive there with, as will be described below with respect to assembled examples of the invention. In this config uration, the screw or structure attached thereto compressively contacts the housing when the screw is placed into tension, such as when the collet body is caused to translate into the housing during fastener clamp up operations. [001 1 ] The various invention examples are characterized in one respect by the previously mentioned constant clamping pressure feature. Basic operation of SSTFs occur when, after partial collet body insertion into a work piece stack having a plurality of aligned holes, the screw rotationally interacts with the collet body, and causes the latter to translatably retract into the housing until the work piece gripping element(s) on the distal end of the collet body compressively contact(s) a distal work piece in the stack. At this juncture, increasing tension-induced force is imparted in the screw, which resists reactive translation towards the collet body through its compressive coupling with the housing. As a consequence, the housing increasingly compressively contacts proximal work piece in the stack as the screw is further rotated until desired clamping has been achieved. These elements are then considered compression force transmitting elements/assemblies in that they are necessary for the establishment of a clamping action on the stack.

[001 2] According to the various invention examples, the SSTF further comprises an inner sleeve and an outer sleeve capable of rotating with respect to the inner sleeve. The rotation matches the angle of the surface clamped against, forced by the impetus of the clamping pressure during the early stages of fastening parts together. This allows clamping faces to align against complex surfaces or to compensate for holes that are not fabricated perpendicular to work piece surfaces.

[001 3] According to the various invention examples, the SSTF further comprises a memory ring coupled between the inner sleeve and the outer sleeve. The

compression of the ring during clamping of the fastener acts as a dampener. The clamping force applied during tightening is distributed more evenly over a longer period of time thus eliminating shock loading. Once compressed, the ring acts as a spring to provide clamping force should the geometry of the work pieces change. Memory ring can be sized to deform a maximal amount, or it can be designed to fill a void completely when compressed to as to prevent further compression and/or create a seal. [001 4] According to the various invention embodi ments, the SSTF may incorporates a combination of retention features, free slide zone, cooperating faces and memory ring to create an articulating outer sleeve which can translate (to dampen and create spring affect), rotate (to align), create a seal if desired, and to do so

simultaneously.

[001 5] It should be noted, however, that only two elements are necessary for creating the desired clamping force, and those are the collet body and the housing ; in the described example, the screw merely provides a means for retracting the collet body into the housing and ensuring that the collet body gripping elements are optimally positioned relative to the distal work piece.

[001 6] Based upon the foregoing, by operatively interposing at least one biasing member between any of these compression force transmitting elements/assemblies (or additional elements/assemblies in the compression chain), a resilience feature can be built into the fastener. Thus, some invention embodi ments interpose at least one biasing member at a compressive coupling between the screw (which includes linked structure) and the housing, while other invention embodi ments interpose at least one biasing member between the housing and adjacent work piece. As noted previously, it is also within the scope of the invention to utilize both mentioned approaches.

[001 7] For purposes of this patent, the terms "area", "boundary", "part",

"portion", "surface", "zone", and their synonyms, equivalents and plural forms, as may be used herein and by way of example, are intended to provide descriptive references or landmarks with respect to the article and /or process being described. These and si milar or equivalent terms are not intended, nor should be inferred , to delimit or define per se elements of the referenced article and /or process, u nless specifically stated as such or facially clear from the several drawings and /or the context in which the term(s) is/are used. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[001 8] The present description will be better understood from the following detailed description read in light of the accompanying drawings, wherein :

[001 9] FIG. 1 i llustrates a single side temporary fastener (SSTF) in an install position and clamping position, in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0020] FIG. 2 illustrates a cross-section view of internal springs of the SSFT in the install position and clamping position, in accordance with embodi ments of the present disclosure.

[0021 ] FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT to clamp unparalleled workpieces, in accordance with embodi ments of the present disclosure.

[0022] FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating sleeves to clamp parallel or unparalleled workpieces, in accordance with one embodi ment of the present disclosure.

[0023] FIG. 5 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating sleeves with partial cooperating faces to clamp parallel or un paralleled workpieces, in accordance with another embodiment of the present d isclosure.

[0024] FIG. 6 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating sleeves and memory rings to clamp parallel before fastening and during fastening, in accordance with another embodiment of the present d isclosure.

[0025] FIG. 7 illustrates a focused cross-section view of the SSFT incorporating sleeves and memory rings to clamp parallel workpieces, in accordance with another embodi ment of the present disclosure.

[0026] FIG. 8 illustrates a focused cross-section view of the SSFT incorporating sleeves and memory rings to clamp unparalleled workpieces before fastening and during fastening, in accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure. [0027] FIG. 9 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating a combination of an outer sleeve and a memory ring to clamp parallel or unparalleled workpieces, in accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0028] FIG. 1 0 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating a combination of an outer sleeve and a self-adjusting seal clamping parallel or unparalleled workpieces, in accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0029] FIG. 1 1 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating a combination of retention features, free slide zone, cooperating faces, and memory ring to clamp parallel or unparalleled workpieces, in accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0030] Like reference numerals are used to designate like parts in the accompanying drawings.

BEST MODE FOR CARYING OUT THE INVENTION

[0031 ] The detailed description provided below in connection with the appended drawings is intended as a description of the present examples and is not intended to represent the only forms in which the present example may be constructed or utilized. The description sets forth the functions of the example and the sequence of steps for constructing and operating the example. However, the same or equivalent functions and sequences may be accomplished by different examples.

[0032] The examples below describe single side temporary fasteners (SSTFs) used to hold, at least temporarily, at least two work pieces together where a portion of a SSTF is disposed in substantially aligned holes or bores formed in the work pieces. Although the present examples are described and illustrated herein as being

implemented in various embodiments, the description is provided as an example and not a limitation. As those skilled in the art will appreciate, the present examples are suitable for application in a variety of different types. [0033] FIG. 1 i llustrates a single side temporary fastener (SSTF) in an install position (Fig. 1 A) and clamping position (Fig. 1 B), in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure. The SSTF 1 00 comprises a fastener housing 1 1 0 and a rotationally constrained but freely translatable collet body 1 30 partially disposed within the fastener housing . The fastener housing 1 1 0 encompasses the collet body 1 30 and a th readed screw 1 40 rotationally engaging with the collet body, which is rotationally constrained but is free to axially translate within the fastener housing 1 1 0. The th readed screw 1 40 may couple to a drive nut 1 50 such that when the d rive nut is rotated by a user, the threaded screw 1 40 is also rotate concurrently. Constant clamping pressures are made possible in such embodi ments by the inclusion of at least one biasing element between compression force transmitting elements and /or assemblies of the fasteners.

[0034] The collet body 1 30 includes a plurality of fingers 1 32 that terminate at one end 1 34. Each finger, best shown in Figure 3, comprises a protruding

portion incorporating a leading face 1 37 and trail ing face 1 38. Collet body 30 further includes an internal wall portion 1 31 disposed within the fastener housing. The internal wall portion 1 31 has internal threads complementary to threaded screw 1 40, thereby permitting threadable engagement there between and transferring the rotational movement of the threaded screw 1 40 into a translational movement of collet body 1 30 within fastener housing 1 1 0 and also translatable threaded screw movement either towards or away from the collet body fingers.

[0035] In some embodiments, the collet body 1 30 includes an anti-rotation means (not shown in Fig. 1 ), which is preferably characterized as (a) non-circular feature(s) (e.g., a planar surface, a slot or groove, a land, a key or protrusion, etc.) for the exterior of the internal wall portion 1 31 to prohibit rotational movement of the collet body 1 30 within fastener housing 1 1 0. The fastener housing 1 1 0 has a first end 1 1 1 and a second end functioned as a work piece contacting surface 1 1 2 with a bore to allow the translational movement of the collet body. Preferably, the bore is circular, although the cross sectional profile of the bore itself may be different and generally consistent throughout its axial run.

[0036] After the collet body insertion into a work piece stack (including at least work pieces 191 and 192) defining a plurality of aligned holes, the screw rotationally interacts with the collet body by rotating the drive nut 150, and causes the latter to translatably retract into the housing until the trailing faces of the collet body fingers and the work piece contacting surface compressively hold the work pieces together in the stack. At this juncture, increasing tension-induced force is imparted in the screw, which resists reactive translation towards the collet body through its compressive coupling with the housing. As a consequence, the housing increasingly compressively contacts proximal work piece in the stack as the screw is further rotated until desired clamping has been achieved. These elements are then considered compression force transmitting elements/assemblies in that they are necessary for the establishment of a clamping action on the stack.

[0037] FIG.2 illustrates a cross-section view of internal springs of the SSFT in the install position (Fig.2A) and clamping position (Fig.2B), in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure. The fastener housing 110 encompasses a first internal spring 116 and a second internal spring 118. The first internal spring 116 couples between the first end 111 of the fastener housing 110 and a threaded screw wall 120 disposed partially within the fastener housing. The second internal spring 118 couples between the internal wall portion 131 of the collet body 130 and the threaded screw wall 120. When the drive nut 150 is rotated to translatably retract the collet body

I 30 and move the threaded screw towards the collet body fingers 132, the internal wall portion 131 of the collet body 130 is retracted to compress the second internal spring

I I 8 in one spring end as shown in Fig. 2B. The threaded screw wall 120 translatably moves to compress the second internal spring 118 from the opposite spring end and also stretch the first internal spring 116 (or allow stretching of the first internal spring 1 1 6). While when the SSFT in the install position (Fig . 2A), the first internal spring 1 1 6 is in a compressed state and the second internal spring 1 1 8 is in a stretched state.

[0038] FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT to clamp unparalleled workpieces, in accordance with embodi ments of the present disclosure. When clamping work pieces 391 and 392 with uneven surfaces, the work piece contacting surface 1 1 2 and the work piece 392 are not fully contacting. Asymmetric loading creates a racking component to the fastener and the work pieces, as shown in reference number 31 0. This is almost never desirable as the racking component produces uneven loading and high stress concentrations. As a consequence, the fastener clamps against the uneven surfaces with asymmetric or unbalanced forces, which may result undesired work piece damage at the clamp spot with the highest clampi ng force.

[0039] FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating sleeves to clamp parallel workpieces (Fig. 4A) and unparalleled workpieces (Fig. 4B), in accordance with one embodi ment of the present disclosure. The SSFT 41 0 incorporates an inner sleeve 420 embracing the SSFT end 41 0 for collet body extending /extraction and an outer sleeve 41 5 with an outer sleeve contacting surface 430 as a clamping face. The outer sleeve 41 5 encompasses the inner sleeve 420 around a cooperating face 425 , which allows differential movement of the outer sleeve with respect to the inner sleeve and allows the clamping face to align against complex surfaces or to compensate for holes that are not fabricated perpend icular to work piece surfaces. Both the outer sleeve and the inner sleeve 420 have openings to allow extending or retracting translational movement of the collet body. In some embodiments, the outer sleeve is manufactured from a material with memory characteristics and sized so that the fastener side opening is slightly smaller than the largest geometric section of the inner sleeve (inner sleeve having cooperating geometry in front of and behind largest section). The outer sleeve may be installed over the inner sleeve by forcefully inserting the outer sleeve to cause the outer sleeve to expand over the largest section of the inner sleeve and then further inserting the outer sleeve over the inner sleeve so that the fastener side opening of the outer sleeve will return to its original shape (shrinking smaller than the inner sleeve's max section) thus keeping it in the desi red position . Other embodi ments for retaining the outer sleeve with respect to the i nner sleeve can include, but are not limited to, retaining rings, crimping means for plastically deforming the outer sleeve after insertion over the inner sleeve, threaded outer piece having a reduced section that th reads over the outer sleeve from the fastener side to create the retention feature, or any other feature that creates a restriction from being removed after insertion.

[0040] As shown in Fig. 4B, when clamping uneven surface, the outer sleeve 41 5 is capable of accommodating changes in geometry of the work pieces by sheer or relative rotational movement with respect to the inner sleeve forced by the i mpetus of the clamping pressure d uring the early stages or process of fastening.

[0041 ] FIG. 5 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating sleeves with partial cooperating faces to clamp parallel workpieces (Fig. 5A) and unparalleled workpieces (Fig. 5 B), in accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure. Instead of a full cooperating face 425 shown in Fig. 4, the cooperating face 525 in Fig. 5 between the an inner sleeve 520 and an outer sleeve 51 5 is a partial cooperating face (reduced contact area) with the outer sleeve and the inner sleeve partially contacting with each other. The partial cooperating face is generally parallel or aligned to the translational movement direction of the collet body. In some embodi ments, there is a gap 530 between the inner sleeve 520 and an outer sleeve 51 5. The outer sleeve 51 5 has a retention end 51 7 to hold the outer sleeve and the inner sleeve together. The retention end 5 1 7 may sl ide along a sliding dent or zone 522 on the inner sleeve. The geometry of outer and inner sleeve is constructed so that retaining end 5 1 7 can slide along the sliding zone 522. When clamping uneven surface as shown in Fig. 5 B, the outer sleeve 51 0 is capable of accommodating changes in geometry of the work pieces by a combination of both relative tilt and sliding movement with respect to the inner sleeve. Such a combination enables enhanced differential movement between the inner sleeve 520 and an outer sleeve 5 1 5 , and allows reduced fastener size. [0042] FIG. 6 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating sleeves and a memory ring 630 to clamp parallel workpieces before fastening (Fig. 6A) and during fastening (Fig. 6B), in accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure. The memory ring 630 is disposed between an inner sleeve 620 and an outer sleeve 61 5. The memory ring can be sized to deform a maxi mal amount, or it can be designed to fill a void completely when compressed to as to prevent further

compression and /or create a seal. Memory rings can take on many forms, such as springs, grommets, split washers, locking washers, etc. Si milarly, the outer sleeve 61 5 has a retention end 61 7 to prevent the outer sleeve disengaged from the i nner sleeve. The retention end 61 7 may slide along a sliding dent or zone 622 on the i nner sleeve. The geometry of outer and inner sleeve is constructed so that retaining end 61 7 can slide along the sliding zone 622 , thus allowing the memory ring to compress and expand unimpeded by either of the two sleeves.

[0043] The compression of the memory ring during clamping of the fastener acts as a dampener. The clamping force applied d uring tightening is distri buted more evenly over a longer period of time thus eli minating shock loading. This is particularly usefully when installation tools (tools that install and uninstall the fastener) operate at high rates of rotational speed. In some cases, such as air powered installation tools, the high speed of rotation within the tool creates rotational inertia which can add unwanted energy to the fastener, resulting in higher than desired clamp loads. In this case, the memory ring acts as an energy dissipater, bleeding off the excessive rotational energy in the tool (the extra time and energy required to compress the ring allows the air motor to drop some of its rotational inertia (or speed) and return to a desired and more pure operating torque). This translates to a desi red and consistent torque and consequently a consistent and desired clamping force being applied by the fastener.

[0044] Once compressed , the memory 630 ring acts as a spring to provide clamping force should the geometry of the work pieces change. For example, if there is a thin shi m placed between the work pieces, and the shi m is removed after the fastener has been installed. The removal of the shi m will decrease the distance between the clamping faces of the tool. Normally, this would result in a loss of clampi ng force as metal components in the fastener would normally be considered rigid, and would not conform to the reduced distance. However, the compressed ring would expand slightly to compensate the thickness decrease due to the removed shim, and provide clamping force proportional to the new compressed thickness of the ring.

[0045] FIG. 7 illustrates a focused cross-section view of the SSFT incorporating sleeves and a memory ri ng to clamp parallel workpieces, in accordance with another embodi ment of the present disclosure. When the memory ring 630 is compressed during fastening, the retention end 61 7 of the outer sleeve 61 5 sl ides along a sliding zone 622 on the inner sleeve 620 with the relative slide motion displacement equal to the compression of the memory ring 630. Preferably, the outer sleeve 61 5 is pliable and deformable.

[0046] FIG. 8 illustrates a focused cross-section view of the SSFT incorporating sleeves and memory rings to clamp unparalleled workpieces before fastening (Fig. 8A) and during fastening (Fig. 8B), in accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure. Inner diameter of outer sleeve 61 5 is slightly smaller than retention feature on inner sleeve 620. The Outer sleeve expands over retention feature but tends to return to its original diameter, thus creating a gripping effect on the inner sleeve.

Typically, this gripping affect is only strong enoug h to prevent the outer sleeve's easy removal from fastener. The outer sleeve translates at the i mpetus of the memory ring and /or clamping force. In addition, the pliable material of the outer sleeve will deform (with memory) to align itself with an angled surface (or other complex shapes) of a part to be clamped as shown in Fig. 8B, then return to its original position at the i mpetus of the memory ring (returni ng to its pre-clamped shape). The memory ring 630 is under non-uniform compression during the fastening process when the SSTF clai ms unparalleled workpieces 391 and 392 together. [0047] FIG. 9 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating a combination of an outer sleeve and a memory ring to clamp parallel or unparalleled workpieces, in accordance with another embod iment of the present disclosure. The outer sleeve 91 5 inherently integrates a memory ring to provide the same combined function of the outer sleeve 61 5 and the memory ring 630 as shown in Fig. 8.

[0048] FIG. 1 0 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating a combination of an outer sleeve and a self-adjusting seal clamping parallel or unparalleled workpieces, in accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure. Compared to Fig. 8, the memory ring is replaced by a self-adjusting seal 1 030 in Fig. 1 0. During the fastening process, the self-adjusting seal 1 030 is compressed accordingly to comply with work piece situation.

[0049] FIG. 1 1 illustrates a cross-section view of an SSFT incorporating a combination of retention features, free slide zone, cooperating faces, and memory ring to clamp parallel or unparalleled workpieces, in accordance with another embodi ment of the present disclosure. The SSTF incorporates a hybrid sleeve structure l 1 1 0 combining the aforementioned retention end, free slide zone, cooperating faces, and memory ring to facilitate a robust and efficient solution for clamping parallel workpieces 1 91 , 1 92 as shown in Fig. 1 1 A or unparalleled workpieces as shown in Fig . 1 1 A. The combination creates an outer sleeve which can translate (to dampen and create spring affect), rotate (to align), create a seal if desired, and to do so simultaneously.

[0050] Those skilled in the art will realize that the single side temporary fastener

(SSTF) can be constructed with various configuration . For example a SSTF may comprise different combination of components other than disclosed in the aforementioned embodi ments. Those skilled in the art will also realize that a SSTF may further incorporate different components. The foregoing description of the invention has been descri bed for purposes of clarity and understanding. Various modifications may be implemented within the scope and equivalence of the appended clai ms.