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Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/189374
Kind Code:
The SIVRT disclosed includes a unique, ordered geartrain; it allows a large-continuous range of input: output velocity ratios (forward or reverse). This range is controlled by fluid-coupled gearsets which direct the power flow to the output shaft. The SIVRT requires no torque converter or friction clutches and has been designed for fully-loaded work machines which must operate reliably at creep speeds for extended periods with 1-3 stop-reverse-stop-forward operations every minute of the workshift. The "clutchless" variformer system disclosed herein provides a robust, heavy-duty, continuously-variable mechanical transmission especially designed and scaled for applications in vehicles and working machines which operate at creep speeds with frequently "stop-start-reverse" activity.

Application Number:
Publication Date:
November 02, 2017
Filing Date:
April 23, 2017
Export Citation:
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International Classes:
F16H47/04; F16D19/00; F16D57/00; F16H3/00; F16H48/38
Foreign References:
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HUFFSTUTLER, M., Conrad (Liberty Hill, TX, US)
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[0093] A robust, friction-clutchless, torque-converterless, non-self-shifting, non-CVT, non-IVT mechanical variformer transmission including a ratio- and power-scalable geartrain provided with multiple meshing gears and related supportive countershafts for variforming of a particular range of source rotational input power, PI N-m/sec, into a predetermined range of output power, P2 N-m/sec, in the same or opposite rotation direction over a continuous range of output angular velocities upon inputs and commands by a human operator characterized in that:

(a) the variformer geartrain includes an integrated VariGyro (20) sub-assembly housing, GFa or GFb, which receives torque input Tl via shaft AA or A and is provided with first gears 1-8 and output shafts C and D, said first- gears ratio being especially scaled to match said input and output torque levels;

(b) the geartrain includes an integrated VariSpeed (21) sub-assembly which receives inputs from shafts C and D of said VariGyro (20) and is provided with second gears 9-18, and gear-connected shafts E, F and G ;

(c) the geartrain includes integrated VariSafe (22) sub-assemblies FCG1, FCG2, F 1 and FR2 which provide feedback torques to shafts F and G responsive to particular said operator setup inputs sufficient to manage said source of input power and to specific said operator manual commands sufficient to regulate the variformer to deliver the desired output angular velocity and direction of rotation of said shaft E, the transmission output, T2;

whereby the relative angular velocity variformed to the output shaft E is any value between 0 and about 4 times the angular velocity provided to said input shaft; and

further whereby, T2, the relative available torque variformed to the output shaft E, is any value between 0 and about 100 times said input torque, Tl, provided to said input shaft.

[0094] 2. The geartrain of Claim 1 further characterized by:

(a) the variformer is adapted, by means of an integrated digital VariLogic (24) network and microprocessor, to receive and respond to any of: digital setup inputs and dynamic manual commands from said operator;

(b) said microprocessor is further provided with unique algorithms and related, integrated digital-setup input devices including one or more of: VariRPM (51), VariRange (52) and VariMode (55) each being especially adapted for use with the particular input source and the specific load connected to said output shaft E;

(c) said microprocessor is adapted to receive and respond to dynamic-digital commands from a VariPedal (53) relative to output velocity or torque desired from the variformer; and

(d) said VariSafe (22) sub-assemblies also include one or more of: fluid reservoir (HR), couplings (Kl, K2), heat exchanger (OHE) and direction-control valves (DCV).

[0095] 3. The geartrain of Claim 1 further characterized by:

(a) the variformer is adapted, by means of an integrated digital VariLogic (24) network and microprocessor, to receive and respond to any of: digital setup inputs and dynamic manual commands from said operator;

(b) said microprocessor is further provided with unique algorithms and related, integrated digitalhsetup input devices including one or more of: VariRPM (51), VariRange (52), VariPanel (54) and VariMode (55) each being especially adapted for use with the particular input source and the specific load connected to said output shaft E; and

(c) said microprocessor is adapted to receive and respond to dynamic-digital commands from a VariPedal (53) relative to output velocity or torque desired from the variformer.

[0096] 4. The geartrain of Claim 3 is further characterized by: (a) the sub-assemblies FCG1 and FCG2 are each provided with fluid-bypass channels (37-39) and an articulated plug (35) adapted to rotate to a bypass-open orientation when the particular FCG is operator comanded into an idle state;

(b) ..the sub-assemblies FR1 and FR2 are known servo-controlled needle valves adapted to provide sufficient flow resistance that the related FCG and related shaft (F or G) can be stopped upon operator VariPedal (53) command; and

(c) said variformer transmission is installed to propel a working machine powered by an internal-combustion engine.

[0097] 5. The geartrain of Claim 4 further characterized by:

(a) said variformer transmission is installed to propel a refuse truck powered by an internal-combustion engine and fitted with an integrated, on-board hydraulic compactor as an external load on said VariSafe (22);

(b) said VariSafe (22) sub-assemblies also include permanent fluid connections to actuate said external hydraulics along with appropriate fluid check valves and emergency fluid reserves to assure variformer functions if compactor lines rupture;

(c) said VariLogic (24) includes algorithms to manage one or more of the following functions:

(cl) actuate compactor only when said PI is greater than 0 .AND. (55) is in either neutral or park:

(c2) actuate compactor when the truck is moving forward or reverse at creep speed; and

(c3) actuate compactor when the truck is moving forward at highway speed.

[0098] 6. The geartrain of Claim 5 further characterized by:

said variformer transmission is provided with an interconnected network of lubrication channels within moving parts of said VariGyro (20) and said VariSpeed (21) whereby an appropriate, selected hydraulic fluid under pressure from either FCG1 or FCG2 is delivered in sufficient quantities to provide boundary-layer lubrication to all the bearings thereof.

PCT Patent Applicatipn


Cross-Reference to Related Applications

[0001] This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of prior-filed US Provisional Application 62/327145, filed 25 Apr 2016 which is included in its entirety by reference.

Background of the invention.

[0002] The SIVRT invention disclosed herein is an advanced speed-, environment- and power- scalable mechanical transmission which transfers input torque and rotation velocity, respectively as provided from a defined source, to a particular output-object by means of an advanced geartrain with torque feedback controls which provides a continuous, not stepped, selection range of output shaft-rotation velocities within specific defined upper and lower values. This transmission includes unique, rationalized operator controls especially adapted for various types of engine-powered working machines which operate mainly at or below creeping speeds and are also subject to repeated stop-forward-stop-reverse-stop events under full load.

[0003] Because the typical refuse truck has a portion of its daily route on highways and city streets at traveling at 10-25 m/sec, it is not practical to use hydrostatic transmissions as are utilized in robust off-road equipment such as skid loaders, backhoes and tractors. Compactor-bodies for refuse trucks are almost universally fitted to a std. cab- chassis including an automatic transmission which was never designed for the unique creep, stop, reverse, start operation of a trash route; thus, it comes as no surprise that transmission failures are an expensive and frequent problem. After careful searching, no patent publication or Grant could be found which discloses a clutchless, infinitely-variable mechanical transmission for a heavy work truck. Further, no research publications have been found On experimental gearboxes similar in any way to the SIVRT.

[0004] Advantages of the SIVRT. The invention disclosed is the result of careful analysis of failure modes of typical, commercial automatic transmissions in EPA-compliant, standard-production trucks subject to repeated stop- start-reverse operations. The present invention has been tested by building a full-size working model and making a 3D CAD model of individual parts and resulting actual working assemblies. These new analytical results and precise measurements formed the original starting point for rethinking transmission science and engineering optimization of the several functions critical to stop-start-reverse performance. This project has led to the SIVRT embodiments scaled for particular power, gear ratios and duty cycles. These new power-transfer-geartrain mechanisms convert available torque at a preferred RPM (for a particular prime mover) into a continuous_ non- interrupted_ stepless series of torque outputs over a wide range of output-shaft rotation speeds.

Brief Summary of Invention

The technical problem.

[0005] Sophisticated robotic-automated vehicle transmissions with up to 10 forward speeds have been developed to comply with increasingly stringent fuel-economy and emissions rules enforced upon small autos to be sold for typical family use in USA. The technology for such gearboxes is improving, at least for low-power gasoline and electric-gasoline hybrids intended mainly for highway use (EPA Tier-3 driving schedules). There are now also N- speed automatic transmissions (N = more than 4) provided for emissions and fuel-economy compliant light trucks used for highway operation.

[0006] However, providing a robust, reliable, 10+ speed robotic-automatic transmission for trucks, especially for EPA-compliant, diesel-powered, vocational vehicles (Classes 4 - 8) which operate mainly at very low speeds and under continual stop-reverse-hold-start sequences is a entirely different engineering-design challenge. During the past several years, the many accounts of transmission breakdowns due to design oversights and some in-service catastrophes confirm that even the "strongest" versions of EPA-robo-auto transmissions (including CVT or DCT) are neither reliable nor cost-effective for such heavy-duty applications which involve mainly creeping speeds and repeated stop-start and stop-reverse operations.

[0007] Solution to the technical problem. Elimination of (electro-) and mechanical clutches, which are the main failure mode of automatic truck transmissions, solves the problem. The SIVRT is a "clutch-free", durable, cost- effective, direct replacement for various commercial versions of automatic and robotic_CVT transmissions.

The present variformer transmission accomplishes torque transfer to the output shaft continuously over a range of gear ratios; the operator is not required to use a classic foot clutch mechanism and traditional shift lever to shift from forward to reverse gears or to shift 4 to 10 times from "creeping" gears to low to highway gear.

[0008] The variformer transmission is adaptable to specific applications (power, torque, ratio, duty

cycles_patterns, environmental considerations, specific cost/weight limits, noise_vibration limits and the probable service life etc.) by scaling of the model characteristics as shown in Table 1. These factors include: (a) the overall gear ratio available between input and output (either direction), (b) tooth profile, especially within in the meshing zone, (c) tooth face width and (d) gearwheel materials / mechanical properties / tooth-surface finish / tooth-surface treatments, etc. Adaptation scaling and customization from the present design model is done using known design and modeling software such as KISSsoft, LISP, MatLab and Gleason in conformance with international standards_practices such as AGMA, ISO, DIN, JIS in either US popular units or Si-metric units.

[0009] SIVRT variformer embodiments adapted to small working machines or to large vocational trucks can offer a wide range of overall forward and/or reverse speed ratios (input shaft A or AA : output shaft E, in forward .OR. reverse). According to std. engineering practice, the overall ratio of a geartrain is always stated as a number greater than 1, whichever of torque or velocity is >1, regardless of the direction of power flow; for the SIVRT, the range is about 1 000 (creeping) up to about 2 (highway speeds).

[0010] The SIVRT variformer geartrain includes three advanced features : (a) a VariGyro assembly for stepless engagement of any desired gear ratio within the range of the mechanisms, (b) two VariSpeed torque feedback systems to provide a wide range of selectable gear ratios within the geartrain and (c) a user-friendly VariSafe operator interface to accomplish arming_ activating, managing the VariSpeed sub-assembly to achieve the particular desired ratio with maximum control over the various engine and transmission functions. An inherent safety feature of the latter is full-time, operator-friendly display of the status of the several variformer controls.

Brief Description of Drawings

[0011] Fig. la is a schematic representation of a first alternative input portion of the variformer , the VariGyro in this alternative includes gear 1. Shaft AA is the input from the power source, typically a truck or vehicle engine; most engines comply with SAE J824, i.e., output rotation is CCW as viewed from output end of crankshaft (flywheel). This sub-assembly includes gear 2 which drives rotation of the gyro-frame housing, GFa; the latter supports bevel gears 3a and 4a, which, in turn, drive bevel gears 5a, shaft BB, bevel gear 6a and shaft C. PA and PB are mating halves of the coupling which is actuated by sliding PA laterally along splined portion of C and into locking engagement with PB; in this state shaft C, GFa and gear 2 are locked together thus locking shaft BB to C; this also locks shaft E, i.e., " park " is engaged. As indicated, gear 2 includes a concentric, tubular shaft extension which is supported independently on bearings and rotates around BB. .

[0012] Fig. lb is a schematic representation of a second alternative input portion of the variformer , the VariGyro ' ; this alternative embodiment illustrates input A which drives rotation of the gyro-frame housing, GFb. The latter supports bevel gears 3b and 4b, which, in turn, drive bevel gear 5b, shaft B, gear 6b and shaft C. PA and PB are mating halves of the coupling which is actuated by sliding PA laterally along the splined portion of C and into locking engagement with PB; in this state shaft C, GFb and shaft B are locked together; this also locks shaft E, i.e., " park " is engaged.. As indicated, gear 7b is fixed to gear 5b and supported on concentric tubular shaft B by independent bearings. The distal end of A is supported on bearings supported by gear 6b and shaft C.

[0013] Fig. lc is a schematic representation of the output portion of the variformer , the VariSpeed sub-assembly. This assemblage receives rotational inputs from shafts C and D. Shaft C is fixed to and drives gears 13 and 16. Shaft D is fixed to and drives gears 9 and 17. Internal ring gear 15 is driven by gear 9 on shaft D and supported for the resulting rotation by an array of n idler gears, 18a to 18n, where n is a number in the range 3-6. In Fig. lc, only idler 18a, which is supported on shaft Jl, is shown. For clarity only two planet gears, 14a and 14b, are shown in Fig. lc; both are supported by carrier PC which is fixed to output shaft E and meshes with 15 and 13. However, there may be 3-6 planet gears, designated 14c, 14d, 14e and 14f in exemplary alternative embodiments. Shafts F and G drive ratio-control elements described in Fig. Id.

[0014] Fig. Id is a schematic representation of the integrated control mechanisms underlying the operator- interface portion of the variformer, the VariSafe sub-assembly. The two torque-feedback elements, Fluid-Coupled- G_earsets, FCGl and FCG2, provide resistive rotational torques to control the VariSpeed components and thus the output gear ratio of shaft E to input shaft A or AA. The two fluid-coupled gearsets (FCG), function to circulate hydraulic fluid from a reservoir (HR) and into the two control circuits shown; each circuit is provided with a Eluid- Resistance element, (FR) which is variable and under the operator ' s control. VariSafe operator controls are adapted to provide variable volumetric flow resistance to FCGl and FCG2 by means of the two connected variable elements, FR1 and FR2.

[0015] Fig. 2a is an view of the 3D CAD model of the variformer taken oblique to the axis of shaft C looking from the input aspect; it shows the VariGyro and VariSpeed sub-assemblies. This model was prepared to confirm pitch circles, shaft spacings and other design details of the present invention. All the major mechanical elements are indicated; this model is similar to Fig. la with input AA.

[0016] Fig. 2b is a view of the 3D CAD model of the variformer taken oblique to the axis of shaft E looking from the output aspect; it shows the VariGyro and VariSpeed sub-assemblies. CAD models are important to confirm pitch circles, shaft spacings and other design details of the present invention. This model is similar to Fig. la with input AA; CAD simulation in software such as KISSsoft is used to optimize bearing design and placement of the counter-shafts for alternative embodiments.

[0017] Fig. 2c is a view of another 3D CAD model of the variformer geartrain taken oblique to the axis of shaft C looking from the input aspect; it shows the VariGyro and VariSpeed sub-assemblies along with FCGl and FCG2. To show the VariGyro clearly, the following features are not shown: GFa, GFb, splines on shaft C for PA lateral movements and gear 9; this model is similar to Fig. lb with input A.

[0018] Fig. 2d is a view of the same 3D CAD model of Fig. 2c showing the variformer from an output aspect oblique to the axis of shaft E; it shows the VariGyro and VariSpeed sub-assemblies along with FCGl and FCG2; this model is similar to Fig. lb with input A.

[0019] Fig. 3 is a sectional cut-away view of the components of a fluid-coupled gearset, such as FCG1 or FCG2, connected to, and providing feedback torque to one of, shaft F or G respectively. In this view the internal portion of the plug is shown displaced from its location in the housing cover and shown to one side thereof. When the particular gearset is inactive, the plug is oriented in the open state as shown; this allows fluid to bypass the resistance element in that circuit and flow back into the fluid-inlet zone of the gearset. The known mechanical actuators, which are mounted and configured to rotate the plugs over arc (36) after sensing an operator command, are not shown. The purpose of the fluid bypass is to reduce the lost work done by the inactive FCG. Views 3a and 3b are sectional views of the plug showing the size, location and proportions of the channel.

[0020] Fig. 4a Oblique VariSafe Cab View This figure shows the cab layout of: (a) stalk throttle = VariRPM , (b) fingertip interface = VariPanel and (c) speed pedal = VariPedal in a typical left-hand-drive (LHD) vocational truck. The viewpoint for this schematic is approximately perpendicular to the surface of the pivoting VariPedal. This sketch illustrates advanced VariSafe controls (51) to (55) as installed in a typical standard truck cab; dashed lines depict outlines of standard cab features such as windshield, driver-side door-window, steering wheel, seat edge, and normal service brake pedal. Ideally, the replaced controls, i.e., the classic accelerator pedal, gear-selector stick (auto or manual transmission) and certain dash displays/warnings along with other unnecessary / old controls/displays are eliminated.

[0021] Fig. 4b Oblique View of Fingertip Interface This figure shows the VariMode selector and its Y-form pattern on the VariPanel. This figure also shows the VariRange control embodied as a vertical-stack array of lighted push buttons which provide a selected number of available options and displays current-selected status.

[0022] Fig. 4c Oblique View of Stalk Control of Input Power This figure shows the VariRPM in an alternative positioning on the right-hand side of the steering column with an angle range (51a) of about 120 deg.

Detdiled desuipliuii uf llie invention.


[0023] Certain unique coined words used in the following specification are claimed as wordmarks. To save space in this document, these words are used without the required superscript identifier™ . The designated words are: SIVRT, variform (-er, -ing), VariGyro, VariSpeed, VariSafe, VariLogic, VariRPM, VariRange, VariPedal, VariPanel and VariMode.

Special Terms.

[0024] The SIVRT variformer transmission of the present invention uses an advanced-design geartrain including a non-reverted array of meshing gearsets supported on multiple countershafts within a housing enclosure. As used herein:

(a) the unique verb "variform" means mechanical conversion of input torque and angular velocity, without use of classic band- or disc- clutches, into a continuous series of output torque-velocities using a uniquely ordered combination of particular gearsets as may be found in typical mechanical transmissions (manual, automatic, CVT, other);

(b) the unique gerund "variforming" means torque-velocity conversion without use of friction clutches and particular-stepped-gear ratios typical of known mechanical transmissions (manual or automatic);

(c) the unique adjectival modifier "variformer" means a mechanism adapted to variform torque and capable of variforming torque over a wide range of speeds and torques; and

(d) the noun "variformer" means an advanced power-transfer geartrain for a vehicle or working machine combined with ancillary torque feedback energy-interchange and ratio-control systems cooperating with connected operator inputs-controls. The latter includes programmable sequences of speeds-durations_location-zones and advanced safety interlocks to prevent truck-crew accidents and property damage.

[0025] Together, the elements of this system accomplish the function of continuous_seamless_stepless modulation of gear ratios to accomplish the transfer of power from a traditional IC engine operating at a predetermined efficient speed-load combination to vocational-vehicle drive wheels in service applications involving repeated stops / neutrals / starts_creeping / reverses, i.e., variforming operational modes. This geartrain does not involve known, complex planetary mechanisms and friction-type band-clutch controls such as those employed in state-of-the-art, reverted, 10-speed automatic transmissions.

The proprietary names of the following elements of the SIVRT are shortened in the following.

[0026] VariGyro (20) means the geartrains shown in Figs, la and lb and specified in Table 1. This sub-assembly of the present invention is the specialized geartrain designed for operation at full design-level of power .AND. under continual, substantial differences in rotational velocity between its pinion- and side-bevel gears. As used herein, VariGyro (20) means a bevel-gear sub-assembly supported on a robust gear-frame adapted to support the stresses of rotating at 100% duty cycle and full power and further provided with internal channels to deliver lubricant from a pressurized supply both to gear bearings and tooth faces. Because this sub-assembly is designed to operate much of the time with one toothed wheel of its array restrained by the control system, it is profoundly different in basic concept and actual function from traditional drive-axle spider gears in a truck differential. In contrast to a simple drive-axle gearset designed to power to both wheels of a light vehicle rotating at the same velocity (except for the few meters of turning during hundreds of km traveled straight ahead), both the kinetics (dynamic forces) and the kinematics (geometric motions) of the VariGyro™ toothwheels and housing have been optimized by working models and careful modeling of stresses and tribology-friction. This modeling-analysis has also enabled visualization of unanticipated backlash and vibration as well as providing significant guidance toward reduction of lubricant churning and fluid-friction processes.

[0027] Design of bearings and supporting lubricant-delivery systems for the critical VariGyro gears operating continually at high speedjoad requires careful analysis to provide: sufficient flow rates/pressures of effective, stable fluid lubricants suited to fit-up tolerances of the particular anti-friction elements, the separation and thrust loads related to helical-and-bevel gearing as well as to provide localized cooling of the components by a regulated flow of lubricant within a predetermined temperature range.

[0028] VariSpeed (21) means the geartrains shown in Figs, lc and Id and specified in Table 1.

As used herein, VariSpeed means the combination of two sub-assemblies which control the variformer ; these elements consist of two integrated torque feedback circuits which exert mechanical-control torques on shafts F and G and thereby alter the rotation-direction and speed-ratio between the input shaft (A or AA) and output shaft E. Direct operator commands are provided to valves FR1 and FR2 which in turn adjust the volumetric flow rate and flow resistance of the torque feedback circuits. Alternative embodiments may also incorporate a sequence of predetermined time-x-power stages defined by one or more timely, prompted inputs from the operator.The VariSpeed element includes a rotating, two-sided planetary gear, 4 planet gears, a sun gear; the planet carrier drives the output shaft E. Two shafts, F and G, of the "variforming" transmission are provided with mechanical-torque inputs regulated by either: predetermined control algorithms for a sequence of actions .OR. by instantaneous_direct manual commands from the operator.

[0029] The VariSpeed subassembly is connected to the VariGyro outputs by shafts C and D which drive gears 16- 11-12-13 and 17-9-10 respectively. If resistive feedback torque is applied to shaft G by an operator command, its rate of free rotation in the default direction will be reduced; this reduces the rate of rotation of shaft C and gear 13. The variformer will adapt to this reduction by increasing the rotation rate of shaft D and gear 9; this causes a correlated increase in the rate of gear 15. The resulting speed differential between gears 13 and 15 will drive PC and output shaft E to rotate in the opposite direction to that of the specific GF, i.e., either GFa or GFb and at a ratio resposive to the particular level of resistive torque feedback applied.

[0030] Fluid-Coupled Gearsets: Fig. 3 is a cut-away schematic of the housing and cover showing functional details for the two identical FCGs. The main elements are: (30) - FCG housing body; (31a) - FCG driven gear [the identical meshing idler gear, (31b), cannot be seen in this cut-away view]; (32) - gear-driving shaft, F or G; (31c) - shaft + gear rotation direction; (34) - FCG housing cover; (34b) - plug cavity in cover; (35) - internal portion of bypass plug; (36) - plug exterior-portion rotation arc ~ 90 deg; (37) - bypass outlet channel; (38) - bypass inlet channel; (39) - bypass flow slot in plug.

[0031] The cylindrical plug portion (35) is: (a) rotatable about its axis over an arc (36) of about 90 deg between its open and closed orientations, (b) the plug portion which extends outside the cover is driven by a connected, adjacent mechanical link and actuated on the basis of an operator command to variformer controls and (c) sealingly fitted into the cover (34). In the open orientation, (39) connects (37) and (38) to allow flow; in the closed orientation there is no flow connection there between. The transverse flow area of the rectangular slot (39) in its open state is comparable to the circular flow areas of (37) and (38); the transverse flow area of all bypass portions is approximately the 0.75 x (addendum + dedendum, in mm) 2 of the driven gear (31) teeth. The rotation direction of the driven gear is shown by (31c) and the bypass fluid flow direction is shown by (31d). The dimensional characteristics of the driven (31a) and idler (31b) gears are: 35 < pitch diam, mm < 300; 3 < module, mm < 5; and 20 < face width, mm < 50; channels (37) and (38) are spaced apart in the cover and sufficiently positioned relative to length of action of the meshing gear teeth so that fluid flows from the zone of higher pressure to the domain of lower pressure when the plug is open. The plug actuator, which is a known digital servo motor, is mounted external to the variformer and not shown; it is coupled and coordinated to open the bypass of the inactive FCG simultaneously with closing of the bypass on the active FCG, upon operator command.

[0032] FR Pressure Control in Flow Circuit. The active FCG draws known liquid hydraulic fluid ( chosen for specific characteristics including viscosity, density, boiling point, chemical-thermal stability, etc.) at low pressure from the reservoir and outputs working fluid under high pressure to either:

(a) a variable-fluid-resistance energy conversion/storage system, i.e., a known fluid-powered electromagnetic generator connected to a known electrical-storage device and controlled by an integrated energy-management module regulated by operator inputs; or

(b) a variable- fluid-resistance-throttling device, i.e., a precision mechanical needle valve actuated by operator inputs to VariSafe controls. The fluid discharge line from the valves may also be fitted with a heat exchanger to provide optional fluid cooling during its return to the fluid reservoir.

[0033] While in stationary operation with the engine providing input power, shafts F and G each (respectively) receives minimal mechanical feedback (= are free to rotate) when the respective flow-resistance device, FR1 or FR2, is in the full-open state. When one discharge port is completely closed, the related shaft does not rotate. In such a closed state, the pressurizing system will generate heat in the pressurized fluid and a controlled, small reflux flow is allowed to circulate through the heat exchanger where the excess heat is rejected to the environment and the fluid returned to the reservoir. With the discharge port in a partially open state, the torque applied to the related shaft is variable according to operator inputs, and working together, the control valves result in precise regulation of both the output shaft rotational speed and direction.

[0034] Couplings Kl, K2 are known types of shaft couplings which transfer power, allow for optional decoupling and tolerate misalignment including HRC, gear, chain, universal, pin, spline, and taper locks.

[0035] Fluid Resistance (FR) Elements for Speed Control. An operator command for selection of travel direction, i.e., forward or reverse, drives one of the FR components of the VariSpeed sub-assembly to increase its flow resistance; see Fig. Id. In these figures known FR devices are indicated only schematically.

[0036] FR Commands. The detailed arguments of such a command also delimit the desired speed and whether the operator may also have continuing, real-time incremental-trim control (foot-pedal or manual device) of the selected level of speed and the resulting vehicle speed range. Optionally, a preset duration-limit for time and/or travel- distance for the new setting may also be added by operator inputs. Fluid resistance and speed control are added by removing p AV work from the active fluid circuit. This is accomplished by throttling the flow by a nozzle-and-spray chamber or by engaging a connected fluid-motor load; either / both alternative method(s) may be utilized for fluid- resistance modulation in the present invention. The FR symbol indicates an assembly of known, interconnected components for either alternative.

[0037] Operator commands for throttling are accomplished by several known alternative flow-resistance devices such as a digital-servo needle valve for a continuous, multi-turn range of Δρ values or a rationally-staged series of selectable orifices of particular bores. The angular velocity of shaft E is controlled by the ΔΡ available to the active FCG from its FR device.

[0038] Operator commands for increasing resistance by extraction of useful work from the active circuit are accomplished providing the following arguments: desired speed in m/sec and where to store the extracted work. In this mode, the work may be watt-hrs of electrical energy produced by a std. connected generator and automatically stored into a connected electrochemical battery; alternatively the work may be mechanical work to operate a associated, vehicle-mounted machine such as a conveyor. User-friendly interface devices allow the operator to: move a control knob or lever to a marked point to accomplish all FR inputs; alternative VariSafe™ arrays provide rational arrangements of such input controls and status displays optimized for the specific application.

[0039] Feedback-Control Functions of FCGs for Forward or Reverse Direction of Travel.

[0040] Case A -- An embodiment with direct drive from the engine to shaft A as shown in Fig. lb.

[0041] In this figure, GFb is driven directly by shaft A, forward motion is accomplished by closing or partially closing FR2, causing feedback torque on FCG2 which results in the slowing or stopping of shaft F. This action forces shaft D into control mode of VariGyro, and slowing or stopping ring gear 15. Shaft C then becomes the working shaft, driving PC and output shaft E in the same direction as the input shaft A. Thus, CW rotation (looking into the front of the SIVRT) provided to shaft A gives CW on output shaft E viewed from the same direction; this results in forward-direction travel.

[0042] For reverse, slowing or stopping shaft G via FR1 and FCG1 causes shaft C to become the control shaft for the VariGyro and slowing or stopping gear 13. Shaft D then becomes the working shaft, rotating ring gear 15 and driving PC and shaft E in the opposite direction; this results in reverse-direction travel and FCG2 is "inactive". [0043] Case B— An embodiment with direct drive from the engine into shaft AA as shown in Fig. la.

[0044] Due to the addition of gears 1 and 2 in Fig. la, which cause a reduction of angular velocity of the engine input, the rotation-direction of the VariGyro is changed. For forward travel, closing FRl (slowing or stopping FCGl and shaft G) changes shaft C into the control shaft, and shaft D the work shaft, turning output shaft E the same direction as input shaft A, forward. FCG2 is "inactive".

[0045] For reverse travel, closing FR2, which slows or stops FCG2 and shaft F, converts shaft D into the control shaft and shaft C into the work shaft. This action drives output shaft E in opposite direction, i.e., reverse. FCGl is "inactive".

Feedback-Control Functions of FCGs for Speed of Travel.

[0046] Case A— An embodiment with direct drive from the engine to shaft A as shown in Fig. lb. For this embodiment, GFb rotates at same speed as input shaft A. With shaft A rotating at 2200 rpm and FR2 completely closed, shaft C will be rotating at 4400 rpm. If gears 10 and 12 are the same size as gears 16 and 17, thus not changing speed ratios to the FCG's, shaft G and FCGl will be rotating at 4400 rpm also. Output shaft E will be rotating at 1100 rpm in the same direction as input shaft A. Shafts D,F and FCG2 will be stationary.

[0047] Case B As shown in Fig.la, gear size ratios between gear 1 and gear 2 determine the speed of shaft AA (from the engine) to GFa. If the speed of GFa and gear 2 is 2200 rpm and FRl is completely closed, shaft D, shaft F and FCG2 will be rotating at 4400 rpm, provided gears 10 and 12 are same sized as gears 16 and 17. Output shaft E will be rotating at 1100 rpm in same direction as input shaft AA. Shafts C,G and FCGl will be stationary.

[0048] Function and Operation of Bypass Plugs in FCGs.

[0049] The purpose of the rotating bypass plugs in the FCGs is to improve engine fuel efficiency by removing the resistance force of circulating fluid through the entire fluid circuit when the FCGs are "inactive", i.e., being driven by their respective shaft F or G, and related FR valve is fully open. In the bypass-open state, fluid is allowed to shunt from the high-pressure (outlet) side of the FCG gearset directly back to the low-pressure (inlet) side of the without building pressure in the rest of the circuit or flowing through the entire system. The fluid-friction losses of flow through this short passage in the housing cover (34) immediately adjacent the gears are minimal.

[0050] The rotation orientation of the bypass plugs between open and closed states is controlled by digital servo motor managed by the variformer microprocessor. When VariMode is in the "Park" position or, optionally also in " Neutral " , both FCGs are inactive and both bypasses are opened.

[0051] When a travel direction is selected by the VariMode, the servo on the bypass for the FCG that becomes the "control" is closed, and the FCG and its corresponding FR valve then controls the rotational speed of its corresponding shaft, either F or G. The bypass on the other "inactive" FCG is kept open.

[0052] Fluid reservoir details (hydraulic systems). The shared fluid reservoir connected between the two torque- feedback systems is a known low-pressure tank (unheated, rated for about 100 to 1 500 kPa) of sufficient volume to contain at least 3X the volume of liquid needed to fill the all the interconnecting lines and system devices. The reservoir is provided with an array of known dynamic-monitoring devices to sense instant contents-level and temperature thereof. In case either parameter is outside predetermined limits for the specific application and working fluid, the integrated monitoring system is adapted to activate immediate corrective responses (visual alarm signals to operator, commence sufficient fluid-cooling actions and, if indicated, initiate variformer shut-down procedures).

Hydraulic Working Fluid / Variformer Lubricant.

[0053] The fluid used in FCG_FR hydraulic circuits of the present invention may be: a known hydraulic fluid such as mineral oil base, synthetic base, phosphate ester base or an advanced fluid which exhibits physical properties appropriate for the proposed application. In light-duty embodiments the fluid may be standard automatic- transmission fluid and shared with geartrain elements of the variformer. For heavy-duty embodiments, the FCG_FR fluid is separated from the variformer lubricant and its properties including: high boiling point, minimal corrosion tendencies toward FR-system materials, high chemical decomposition stability, high oxidation resistance and appropriate lubricant characteristics, are critical.

Optional Heat-Exchange Means (heating or cooling):

[0054] For conditions when either of the two torque-feedback units is operating at high output pressure and low flow volume, the circulating fluid will be subject to Joule heating and require an effective heat exchanger, (OHE), in the circuit; this exchanger is provided with provisions for free and forced convection to surrounding air. Optionally, for applications which experience cold starts at temperatures below ~ 10 deg C, the (OHE) may be further adapted to provide means for heating for the working fluid up to about 20 deg C before torque is transferred through the variformer. A known heat exchanger with specified characteristics (area, thermal duty, air-circulation, internal volume, pressure, etc.) may be provided . This sub-assembly will provide cooling under typical operating conditions and also allow for pre-heating of 10-50 L of working fluid to optimum operational temperature range (~ 2-10 deg C), i.e., within about 30 min, in the case of a vehicle parked at temperatures below freezing. Known devices for fluid overtemp / overpressure safety are provided for both FCG_FR loops.

External Hydraulic Loads.

[0055] As shown in Fig. Id, the torque-feedback circuits may optionally provide high-pressure operational fluid to ancillary hydraulics of the machine or vehicle. Appropriate known flow-controls, directional control valves (DCV), are shown in Fig. Id are used to manage the interconnection; a reserve_emergency fluid vessel and manual isolation valves are not shown for such attachments and may also be needed depending upon conditions, i.e., power being delivered for vehicle propulsion and simultaneous power demand of ancillary circuits.

[0056] VariSafe Operator Interface Elements, Functions and Indicia. The VariSafe (22) group of sub-assemblies includes: VariLogic (24), VariRPM (51), VariRange (52), VariPedal (53), VariPanel (54) and the VariMode (55). These elements are shown in Figs. 4a-4c and the specific indicia are indicated in Table 1. Each of these special terms is defined and explained below.

[0057] As used herein, the term VariRPM (51) means a control system to set the minimum speed and power level of the transmission input. The system may be mechanically or digitally connected to the power source, typically an engine, whereby the range of speeds to be used is set. The operator input device may be a combination of known devices / mechanisms which receives one or more specific linear or rotary movements as operator commands and delivers / translates them to define a particular range of minimum-allowable and a maximum-allowable engine speed. Alternatively the speed-input device may be a combination of known electronic components which are adapted to communicate signals to the variformer microprocessor reflective of its angular or linear displacements during setting by the operator. For example, this control is adapted to command the engine to run within a predetermined RPM range, e.g., a specific minimum of 1000 and precise upper limit of 1800.

[0058] For a truck adapted for network control of engine and driveline functions, this sub-assembly includes a known, stalk-mounted, manual lever which provides engine-speed-selection inputs to algorithms stored in the variformer microprocessor or in the engine-control-module (ECM). This lever-control element provides digital- electric signals to set desired input speed and power (of the electrical-motor or engine ) with an optional array of predetermined set points (audible clicks, visible colored LED status display, tactile-marked positions, etc). In a typical embodiment this lever is attached on the right side of the steering column and moves over an arc of about 120 deg. The lever housing is provided with integrated, visible status indicator means to display the current setting as well as human-perceptible means to confirm resetting to different angle and a new status. Because some FMVSS-203 compliant steering wheels have a large hub to enclose air bag(s), the visible status display for such situations may not be fully visible to the operator; in such cases, the status indicator aspects is adapted for rational placement on the VariPanel for full visibility to the driver at all times and at any ambient light level.

[0059] With such fully-customized command possibilities and input devices as provided by the variformer, the vehicle max speed by pedal command would be limited by engine assuming that: (a) the load was approximately constant, (b) the engine was operating in an allowable- preferable mode, i.e., torque, , fuel-consumption, GHG emissions, imminent-stalling, etc. and (c) a fixed drive-axle ratio.

[0060] Custom versions of the VariRPM are adapted for left-handed operators or RHD countries by fixing it on the left of the column. This control may also be provided with a set of visible status markers/lights to show the input setting as a fraction (0 to 1) of the preferred range of the power source (IC engine or electric motor).

[0061] As used herein, the term VariRange (52) means a system of controls and displays which sets the instant desired gear-ratio limits which are available to VariPedal (53). This allows operator to set the vehicle speed range accessible by full-travel of the VariPedal. This feature allows travel speed to be coordinated with the instant-local roadway situation and other factors including distance to upcoming stops. FMVSS-102 does not anticipate such controls.

[0062] As shown in the illustrative embodiment of Fig. 4b, there are four buttons to select a percentage of of the total inherent geartrain ratio-range which is currently allocated to the VariPedal (53); a single lighted button displays the current setting. Once the engine speed is set, the range control then allocates a portion of the geartrain-range allowed to the pedal. For example with engine speed set to about 1500 RPM, the operator can select the allowable variformer geartrain ratio range to a particular upper limit (in the range 0.1 m/sec < creeping vehicle forward speed < 1 m/sec) and a specific lower limit (in the range 1 m/sec < max vehicle forward speed < 15 m/sec).

[0063] It is anticipated that this control will be very helpful to drivers during their transition stages from typical standard transmissions. This feature allows travel speed to be coordinated with the instant-local roadway situation or with upcoming stops. Such a setting FMVSS-102 does not anticipate such controls. In another illustrative embodiment, the buttons are programmed to command the variformer to allow a predetermined, customized progression of 2-4 min-max angular velocity domains of shaft E.

[0064] The term VariLogic (24) means the relationship and interdependence of an ordered sequence of SIVRT responses to operator inputs and commands for intended vehicle movements, and other optional on-board activities, into the networked variformer microprocessor which controls safe operation of a working machine provided with the SIVRT transmission. This logic is implemented as an ordered combination of commands and algorithms which assure that instant operator commands for safe, efficient engine and transmission-creeping functions

override_replace OEM-normal-default inputs from vehicle-control systems provided_required for highway operation. Classic working machines were operated by skilled technicians with extensive experience using only: gearshift lever, foot clutch, and fuel-feed pedal. Today, all operators drive-by-wire and OEM-required regulatory software-hardware filters all commands to conform them to latest legal limits; often expensive and deadly UNK- UNKS in the code, such as persistent engine stalling due to low idle, are discovered. As learned in the recent dieselgate case, typical ECM code: may contain defeat mechanisms in engine controls / transmission shifting patterns, is secret, is highly vulnerable to network hacking, highly proprietary, is not revealed to or understandable by government regulatory agencies and not likely to be known by any owner, even in part. VariLogic algorithms have been developed to prevent refuse-truck accidents resulting from such malicious code.

[0065] VariLogic (24) is an rational, orderly setup process between the operator, engine, machine and the job at hand which may obviate some undocumented software glitches as typically plague new, well-intentioned robotic controls. VariLogic (24) includes the sequential process of setting: 1- engine speed, min, max; 2-travel direction; 3- variformer ratio-range, min, max; and 4-variety/range of allowed operator-dynamic commands (pedal or other). Dynamic or real-time operator commands include signals from a foot pedal or hand lever. Command range includes the extent of the arc of movement of a peda ever and rate of movement; optionally, the device may also be assigned a resistance-force profile, i.e., increasing linear or exponential across its range.

[0066] The series of manual inputs for vehicle articulation is accomplished by buttons, knobs, levers, pedals and other known means in the cab, as shown in Figs. 4 a-c. The variformer digital interface combines and translates these inputs into arguments for digital commands of the stored operational algorithms. Many modern working machines with rigid emissions-control systems may also require the SIVRT microprocessor to interact with the ECM (engine control module) and to operate the engine .ONLY, within mandatory efficiency and emissions parameters.

[0067] The VariLogic setup sequence of the present invention includes the following unique order of operator inputs: (a) set the governance values for min_max engine speed; (b) input the desired geartrain ratio limit values by pressing the appropriate button in the array (52), or other input means; (c) set the desired vehicle travel direction from available options PNRF and; (d) set management option for external hydraulics from the choices: None, ExHyl, ExHy2 and ExHy3.

[0068] As used herein, the term VariPedal (53) means an ordered combination of known mechanical and / or electronic devices adapted to convey dynamic operator-input commands for the desired vehicle travel velocity to the variformer. One embodiment shown in Fig. 4a is a foot-actuated pedal capable of about 30 deg of angular motion. This element includes combinations of devices which sense the instant angular position of the pedal and provide related digital signals to operate valves FR1 and FR2. The pedal can also be configured to measure the impulse characteristics of the particular input action, i.e., force and angular rate of the operator's foot. Similarly, the pedal can also be configured to provide a particular, selectable force-feedback profile to the operator's foot.

[0069] The VariPedal (53) can also be provided with differing and / or graded sensitivity along its angular travel, i.e., the percentage of gear-ratio change per degree of angular deflection can be predetermined according to the operator's preferences. For example a certain vehicle speed range could be coordinated with strong force feedback and low speed-sensitivity per degree of travel. Some heavily-loaded refuse trucks may have a low rollover threshold (~ 0.2 g) due to the instant vertical center of gravity (CG) being greater than 2.5m. VeriPedal characteristics can be automatically controlled by coordinating dynamic input data on: sensed load, velocity, turning radius and roadway angle under the vehicle; this is done in novel ways far beyond the elementary roll stability control requirements of latest FMVSS-136 (rev 2015). While it is anticipated that the pedal will be operated by the operator's right foot in RHD applications, placement of the pedal (53) is variable.

[0070] The VariPedal (53) rotates downward from its default "up" position about its pivot axis which is typically configured at the "h" end. Alternatively, for a "overhead suspended pedal" the pedal pivot axis may be fixed under the dash, i.e., not at a point along the pedal length.

[0071] As used herein, the term VariPanel (54) means an accessory panel which may be positioned uniquely and securely by the operator adjacent the steering wheel for ease of fingertip use and to support / display the several advanced VariSafe controls. The panel (54) may be provided in a range of sizes / shapes (rectangle, circle, oval, other) to meet particular preferences and needs. The instrumentation modules supported on the panel are positionable across a modular array and it is expected that most operators will be able to setup a particular array which suits their special needs. It is also expected that certain additional status_hazard-warnings not anticipated by FMVSS -114 and -135 may be added, e.g., OSHA warnings; the modular configuration will allow such additions.

[0072] VariPanel may also include optional controls for ranging sensors and machine / computer vision to detect surrounding environment and activate certain additional warnings and displays , e.g., operator_preference selected (accurate Differential Global Positioning System coordinates, route codes, client_stop_point service data, etc). The VariPanel (54) is also the new placement location for the present advanced safety controls- status_displays and warning_prompts not found in classic cabs. An alternative RHD VariPanel is a raised floor console.

[0073] As used herein, the term VariMode (55) means a operator command input device by which the transmission mode (= direction-of-travel state for the vehicle) is selected. As disclosed in the embodiment shown in Fig. 4b, one such device is a mechanical, "Y-pattern" lever which is is moveable between P, N, R and F state_positions. Park, Neutral, Beverse and Forward modes are indicated for the VariMode selector (55).

[0074] The VariMode selector may also be configured to activate hazard sensors & warnings for overhead, crew- lateral position, forward or reverse truck movements (~ 5m range, radar-sonar-other). The VariMode selector mounted on operator-positionable VariPanel on right side of steering column provides optimized ergonomics (easy driver-reach-distance, separated_distinct_positive selector positions [ human perceptions audible, touch, feel, sight], no other close-by controls which can be accidentally committed_ triggered_disconnected, etc)

[0075] Another alternative embodiment for the VariMode selector is provision of lever-integrated haptic-devices or features (touch-perceptible detents, gates, etc.) at preset points along the accessible range of transmission ratios for the current vehicle-travel direction (either forward or reverse, both FCG1 and FCG2). For this embodiment, the preset values would be defined in the purchase specification or in an "original setup for service".

[0076] As used herein, the special scaling terms for variformer transmission elements have the following meanings.

[0077] Element_component size and shape: the physical dimensions of the element, i.e., module, pitch circle, gear-axis spacing, L, W, T, working-face curvature, gear diameter(s), bore, web thickness, etc.;

[0078] Element material: the metals, alloys, weldments of different alloys, cermets, bonded composites of polymers and elastomers which may be used to prepare the element. The term material also includes all special time + temperature + stress "conditioning treatments" used to impart extraordinary microstructure and_or mechanical properties to the element, e.g., heat treatment, warm-working and maraging.

[0079] Element surface characteristics: the specialized treatments applied to selected working surfaces of an element such as chemical deburring, mechanical polishing, electropolishing, carburizing, nitriding, vapor deposition, plating, etc used to impart critical mechanical or chemical properties. Examples of such properties include:

resistance to fatigue / abrasive wear, low coefficient of dry friction and chemical affinity for bonding with lubricant molecules provided as solid films or fluids.

[0080] Examples below illustrate scaling of : tooth-profile features, pitch-circle diameter, tooth-face width, material TYS strength, material fatigue strength, working-face-surface layers &-tribo!ogy (including localized alloying, and heat treatments). Such scaling adapts the variforming transmission of the present invention to a particular application ,i.e., max geartrain ratio, torque, power, duty cycles, special environments (dust, high temperature, noise- vibration limits, etc).

Example El. Illustrative 30kW Working-Machine Embodiment. [0081] This example illustrates how the working-model variformer parameters disclosed in Table 1 and enablingly described herein are conservatively scaled into a particular type of challenging, practical application using known design technics for US (AGMA) and / or Si-metric (ISO) unit systems. The basis for this example is a vehicle powered by a typical 30 kW diesel engine, i.e., relatively-flat torque v. PM operating characteristic and optimum RPM of about 2200. The application for this machine is taken as a daily pickup route of 200-400 material-loading stops, many of which occur within about 200 m of each other and the vehicle must be stopped repeatedly and safely positioned relative to buildings, gates (and other incidental objects including pedestrians and vehicle crew) by forward and reverse creeping movements at each stop. The only vehicle travel which requires sustained highway speeds of about 90 km/hr are the short trips, assumed for this example embodiment as less than 30 km, from a base- point to the beginning or end of the route. This SIVRT example includes a typical on-board hydraulic compactor, i.e., a fluid-coupled external load which is powered by one or both variformer FCG gearsets and may be either manually engaged or automatically-engaged by integrated firmware in the variformer microprocessor. Automated compactor-actuation events and their duration, as triggered by the microprocessor, may be based upon elapsed time since last cycle or alternatively upon data inputs from networked load sensors fixed into the body. Further, the compactor function may be called either during.creeping or highway travel.

[0082] Pitch Circle, Tooth Profile and Face Width Scaling. For this example, scaling of the various geartrain elements is done using known methods and appropriate technical documents for gearsets and geartrains as currently offered by AGMA. However, any / all application-scaling of the original variformer model elements disclosed herein may alternatively be done using KISSsoft software, which includes relevant ISO standards and certain established European gear-design practices.

[0083] The first step of the general scaling procedure is to consider loading, i.e., power rating of the prime mover; this step confirms the typical required steady-state output power and possible inertia loads. Using these factors, the basic design loads for the individual toothed elements can be defined for expected service life and fail-soft modes; this process also includes addition of suitable design-multipliers to protect against failure / damage due to unexpected overloads.

[0084] For the straight bevel gears and a 90 deg shaft angle of this exemplary VariGyro, AGMA 2005-D03 - Design Manual for Bevel Gears, covers the special scaling process for the bevel gears; calculation steps are comprehensively described in Figs. 1, 8, 9 and 13 as well as in Annexes A, B and C of this AGMA document.

[0085] Pinions 3a, 3b, 4a and 4b are scaled as follows: 30 < V, equivalent pitch radius, mm < 80; 20 < pressure angle, deg < 25; 2 < module, mm < 5; 15 < face width, mm < 30;

[0086] Meshing gears 5a, 5b, 6a and 6b are scaled as follows: 70 < pitch diameter, mm < 200; 20 < pressure angle, deg < 25; 2 < module, mm < 5; 15 < face width, mm < 30;

[0087] For this example, the simplest spur-gear embodiment for this small working machine is chosen for gears 7- 18; this choice eliminates the complex process of analysis of axial-thrust forces in each gearset and the special related bearing requirements which are involved in scaling the variformer model into special-purpose helical gears. However, KISSsoft accomplishes the several steps of both rough and final scaling processes quickly and accurately based upon particular scaling factors which are marked during the computer-modeling process.

[0088] For gears 7-18, except 15: 70 < pitch diameter, mm < 200; 20 < pressure angle, deg < 25; 2 < module, mm < 5; 15 < face width, mm < 30;

[0089] For gear 15: 200 < pitch diameter, mm < 500; 20 < pressure angle, deg < 25; 2 < module, mm < 5; 15 < face width, mm < 30; [0090] For other embodiments which may require helical spur gears

10 < helix angle, deg < 30; 2 < module, mm < 5; 15 < face width, mm < 30;

[0091] For the sun, planetary and ring gear scaling, spur tooth format :

20 < pressure angle, deg < 25; 2 < module, mm < 5; 15 < face width, mm < 30;


TABLE 1. SIVRT Elements, Functions, Specifications and Indicia

Indicia Figs. Form Function d, mm IN OUT

A lb cyl shaft, w. splined end GFb input, torque + power source input to GFb ang. velocity

AA la cyl shaft, w. splined end GFa input, torque + power source gear l ang.velocity

B lb cyl tube, concentric to links 5b to 7b

A gear 5b gear 7b

BB la cyl shaft links 5a to 7a gear 5a gear 7a

C la-c cyl shaft links 6a or 6b to 13 gear 6a or 6b gears 16, 13, 1

D la-c cyl shaft link 8 to 9, with 17 gear 8 gears 17, 9

E lc cyl shaft final drive output PC carrier final drive, E

F lc cyl shaft drives FCG2 gear 10 FCG2

G lc cyl shaft drives FCG1 gear 12 FCG1

H lc Fixed cyl shaft carries gear 11

J1.J2.J3 lc Fixed cyl shafts carries idler gears 18a-


GFa la GearFrame, fixed to 2 GFb input, torque + gear 2 fixed to PB ang.velocity

GFb lb GearFrame, fixed to A GFa input, torque + shaft A fixed to PB ang.velocity

PC lc planetary carrier drives shaft E gears 14a-14-d shaft E

PA la-b PB-mate, male features park engagement N3 PB engagement shaft C

PB la-b PA-mate, female fixed to GFa or GFb, PA engagement

features engages w. PA

PSL pivotable lever (not fixed to move PA re PB, operator

shown) N4

FCG1 Id fluid coupled gearset mech. torque, control shaft G FR1


FCG2 Id fluid coupled gearset mech. torque, control shaft F FR2


Kl, K2 Id optional mech. coupling shafts F, G

FR1 Id fluid-flow resistance energy transfer, fm. operator


FR2 Id fluid-flow resistance energy transfer, fm. operator


OHE Id oil heat exchanger oil heating / cooling

1 la gear#, N2 torque transfer to trans. N6 shaft AA gear 2

2 la gear#, N2 torque transfer to trans. N6 gear 1 GFa

3a la bevel gear* link BB to C N7 gear 2 gears 5a,6a

3b lb bevel gear* link B to C N7 shaft A gears 5b,6b

4a la bevel gear* link BB to C N7 gear 2 gears 5a,6a

4b ' lb bevel gear* link B to C N7 shaft A gears 5b,6b

5a la bevel gear* link BB to C N7 gears 3a,4a shaft BB

5b lb bevel gear* link B to C N7 gears 3b,4b shaft B

6a la bevel gear* link BB to C N7 gears 3a,4a shaft C

6b lb bevel gear* link B to C N7 gears 3b,4b shaft C

7a la gear#, N2, N5 fixed to shaft BB 123.6 gear 5a gear 8

7b lb gear#, N2, N5 fixed to shaft B 123.6 gear 5b gear 8

8 la gear#, N2, N5 fixed to shaft D 123.6 gear 7a gears 9, 17

8 lb gear#, N2, N5 fixed to shaft D 123.6 gear 7b gears 9, 17

9 lc planetary gear# fixed on D, links to 15 123.6 gear 8 Ring gear 15

10 lc gear#, N2, N5 drive FCG2 N8 gear 17 shaft F

11 lc gear#, N2, N5 link C to G 123.6 gear 16 gear 12

12 lc gear#, N2, N5 drive FCG1 N8 gear 11 shaft G

13 lc gear#, N2, N5 links shaft C to PC 123.6 gear 6a or 6b gears 14a-14d

14a-14d lc planetary gear#, N2, Links gears 13, 15 to PC , 123.6 gears 13, 15 Planet Carrier

N5 4X

15 lc 54 tooth ring gear# Links D to E 370.8 gear 9 Planet Carrier

16 lc 18 tooth gear#, N2, N5 fixed on C, links to G 123.6 shaft C gear 11

17 lc gear#, N2, N5 fixed on D, links to F 123.6 shaft D gear 10 TABLE 1. SIVRT Elements, Functions, Specifications and Indicia

Indicia Figs. Form Function d, mm IN

18a, 18b, 18c lc gear#, N2, N5 idlers, 3X, carry ring - 123.6 gear 15

gear 15

la-b VariGyro SIVRT sub-assy, group

lc-d VariSpeed SIVRT sub-assy, group

4a-c VariSafe SIVRT sub-assy, group

Id VariLogic SIVRT sub-assy, group

30 3,3a-b FCG housing body

31a.31b 3,3a-b FCG gears# N10

31c 3,3a-b driven gear rotation

31d 3,3a-b bypass fluid flow

32 3,3a-b gear drive shaft

34 3,3a-b FCG housing cover

34b 3,3a-b plug cavity in cover

35 3,3a-b bypass plug portion

36 3,3a-b plug rot. arc ~90deg Nil

37 3,3a-b bypass outlet channel N9

38 3,3a-b bypass inlet channel N9

39 3,3a-b plug bypass slot N9

51 4a VariRPM device to set desired

RPM, pivoted lever

51a 4c RPM range limit values typ. RPM range, low ->


52 4b VariRange device to limit pedal- available RPMs,

selection(s) & display


53 4a VariPedal speed control device,

pivoted foot pedal w.

heel-toe ends

54 4a VariPanel panel to support controls

St displays,

customizeable size,

position & layout

VariMode device to select

transmission mode,

options presented in


50a 4a (traditional truck cab) windshield outline

50b 4a (traditional truck cab) driver-door window outline

50c 4a (traditional truck cab) driver seat outline

50d 4a (traditional truck cab) service-brake outline

50e 4a (traditional truck cab) dash panel outline

50f 4a (traditional truck cab) steering wheel outline


d = pitch circle diam, mm

* denotes straight, spiral or zerol; # denotes straight or helical

Nl - GEN. FEATURE notation and gears of embodiments of the present invention comply w. ISO 1122, 21771 and others N2 - gear profiles, face width and size-scaling are according to to ISO conventions for the noted material, module

and torque range

N3 - bore of PA is splined to connect w. shaft C and slidable along C between "in", or "not in", engagement

with PB by action of pivoting PSL.

N4 - PSL tip engages a mating groove-like feature in PA to move it laterally along C. The linkage between

PA and PB is controlled by PSL

N5 - gears 7-14 and 16-18 in model have 18 teethN3 - bore of PA is splined to connect w. shaft C and slidable

along C between "in", or "not in", engagement with PB by action of pivoting PSL.

N6 - gears 1 and 2 are defined by ISO gear-scaling algorithms to provide input speed reduction or increase for application N7 - bevel/spider gear characteristics for each embodiment are defined by ISO gear-scaling algorithms

N8 - gears 10 and 12 can be sized as needed to set speed of FCGl and FCG2, but should both be sized the same N9 - the transverse flow area of the rectangular slot (39) in its open state is comparable to the circular flow areas of

(37) and (38); the transverse flow area of all bypass portions is approximately

the 0.75 x (addendum + dedendum, in mm) Λ 2 of the driven gear (31) teeth.

N10 - the dimensional characteristics of the driven (31a) and idler (31b) gears are:

35 < pitch diam, mm < 300; 3 < module, mm < 5; and 20 < face width, mm < 50.

Nil - Plug rotation arc ~ 90 deg.