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Title:
SOFT COCOA BUTTER COMPOSITIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/149323
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Soft cocoa butter compositions and uses thereof in foods, beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Inventors:
HOLLANDER, Frank (Waalzicht 6, BL Ochten, NL-4051, NL)
SAHMAOUI, Dounia (Rue Mommaerts 72, Bruxelles, B-1080, BE)
SMITH, Paul Raymond (avenue des Pâquerettes 17, Waterloo, B-1410, BE)
VAN LEEUWEN, Sander (Valkenburgstraat 30A, LZ Amsterdam, NL-1011, NL)
WALLECAN, Joël René Pierre (avenue Henri Conscience 43, Evere, B-1140, BE)
Application Number:
EP2010/003718
Publication Date:
December 29, 2010
Filing Date:
June 21, 2010
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CARGILL INCORPORATED (15407 McGinty Road West, Wayzata, MN, 55391, US)
HOLLANDER, Frank (Waalzicht 6, BL Ochten, NL-4051, NL)
SAHMAOUI, Dounia (Rue Mommaerts 72, Bruxelles, B-1080, BE)
SMITH, Paul Raymond (avenue des Pâquerettes 17, Waterloo, B-1410, BE)
VAN LEEUWEN, Sander (Valkenburgstraat 30A, LZ Amsterdam, NL-1011, NL)
WALLECAN, Joël René Pierre (avenue Henri Conscience 43, Evere, B-1140, BE)
International Classes:
A23D9/00; A23G1/36; A23G1/56; C11B3/00; C11B7/00; C11C3/10
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DOTTRIDGE, Cass (Cargill Europe bvba, Bedrijvenlaan 9, Mechelen, B-2800, BE)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A cocoa butter composition characterised in that it has a melting point of no more than 250C1 preferably of no more than 23°C.

2. A composition according to claim 1 , characterised in that it consists of one or more olein fractions, super-olein fractions and/or mid-fractions of an interesterified cocoa butter.

3. A composition according to claim 2, characterised in that the one or more fractions are fractions of an enzymatically interesterified cocoa butter.

4. A composition according to claim 2 or claim 3, characterised in that the one or more fractions are fractions of an interesterified and dry fractionated cocoa butter.

5. A composition according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterised in that it comprises:

- 25% by weight or less C16:0;

- 35% by weight or less, preferably 28-35% by weight C18:0 and

- 35% by weight or more, preferably 35-45% by weight C18:1.

6. A composition according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterised in that it comprises:

- 12% by weight or less, preferably 10% by weight or less trisaturates;

- 50% by weight or more, preferably 50-60% by weight disaturates; and - 25-35% by weight monosaturates.

7. A food, beverage, cosmetic or pharmaceutical composition comprising a cocoa butter composition according to any one of claims 1 to 6.

8. A composition according to claim 7, characterised in that if further comprises whole cocoa butter.

9. A liquid chocolate composition or a spread according to claim 7 or claim 8.

10. A liquid chocolate composition characterised in that it has a fat phase comprising:

- a cocoa butter composition according to any one of claims 1 to 6 and;

- optionally, one or more additional fats selected from the group consisting of: whole cocoa butter, vegetable oils, vegetable oil fractions, milk fat, milk fat fractions and mixtures of two or more thereof.

11. A liquid chocolate composition according to claim 10, characterised in that the cocoa butter composition consists of one or more cocoa butter super-olein fractions.

12. A liquid chocolate composition according to claim 10 or claim 11 , characterised in that it comprises less than 3.5% whole cocoa butter by weight, preferably less than 3%, even more preferably less than 2%.

13. A liquid chocolate composition according to any one of claims 10 to 12, characterised in that the one or more additional fats are selected from milk fat olein fractions, milk fat super- olein fractions and mixtures of two or more thereof.

14. A liquid chocolate composition according to any one of claims 9 to 13, characterised in that it further comprises one or more additional ingredients selected from the group consisting of: sugar, sugar substitutes, milk, milk powder, cocoa mass, cocoa powder, one or more emulsifiers, one or more flavouring agents and mixtures of two or more thereof.

15. A liquid chocolate composition according to any one of claims 10 to 14, in the form of an emulsion comprising 10-60% water by weight.

Description:
SOFT COCOA BUTTER COMPOSITIONS

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to so-called cocoa butter soft fractions and to their use in food, beverage and cosmetic applications.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Cocoa butter is a vegetable fat obtained from the cocoa bean. Cocoa beans are collected, fermented, dried, cleaned, de-shelled (winnowed) and roasted to produce cocoa nibs. The nibs are then ground into a liquor which is pressed to separate out cocoa butter and a cocoa press cake which can be further milled to produce cocoa powder.

Cocoa butter is a valuable commodity, especially in the food and beverage industries. It is used, for example, for the production of chocolate products where it contributes to a positive sensory experience. Unfortunately, because of its relatively high melting point (it is solid at room temperature), it is not suitable, when used alone, for a number of applications. For example, if used to produce chocolate-chips for ice-cream, it can become very hard with an unpleasant, waxy mouth-feel and taste. Similarly, it is not suitable for use in liquid or semi- liquid (soft) applications intended for use without pre-heating (e.g. for producing chocolate fillings for pralines or liquid chocolate for drinking). For these applications, manufacturers have had to turn to alternative oil sources and blends to obtain the desired physical characteristics (e.g. softness or fluidity at room temperature). Palm oil and palm oil fractions, for instance, are often used instead of cocoa butter. Other possible alternatives include illipe, coconut, sal, shea, kokum gurgi and mango kernel oils.

The use of such alternatives can, however, create new problems. By way of example, palm oil does not have the same taste and does not impart the same creamy mouth-feel as cocoa butter. It is also less desirable from a consumer perspective than a product that can be labelled as "100% cocoa" or "pure cocoa butter" which would be perceived as healthier and of higher quality. What's more, although oil blends can be formulated to an exact, desired hardness, they do have a tendency to separate over time meaning both that shelf-life is reduced (with an oily layer appearing at the surface of the product) and that, in reality, the target hardness may be hard to maintain without the use of additives (emulsifiers). Incompatibility of non-cocoa fats with cocoa butter can also lead to bloom formation.

The use of fractionation to separate "hard" and "soft fractions" of fats is well known. It might therefore be expected that such a technique could easily be used to isolate a soft fraction of cocoa butter. Fractionation can be achieved either by dry fractionation or by solvent fractionation. Dry fractionation is very hard to apply to cocoa butter because of its exceptionally uniform composition and sharp melting profile. Its high proportion of triglycerides with a similar structure means that mixed crystals can easily be formed and that separation of the different triglycerides is then impossible. As a result, it is very difficult to separate cocoa butter hard and soft fractions, leading to low yields and inconsistent, unpredictable results. Solvent fractionation, whilst perhaps more effective, is however very expensive. As such, the use of fractionation to produce soft cocoa butter has never been commercially viable.

There is therefore a clear need in the art for improved "soft" cocoa butter products, suitable for use in food and beverage compositions but also suitable for use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a cocoa butter composition characterised in that it has a melting point of no more than 25°C, preferably of no more than 23°C.

According to a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a food, beverage, cosmetic or pharmaceutical composition comprising the above cocoa butter composition.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a liquid chocolate composition characterised in that it has a fat phase comprising:

- a cocoa butter composition as defined above and;

- optionally, one or more additional fats selected from the group consisting of: whole cocoa butter, vegetable oils, vegetable oil fractions, milk fat, milk fat fractions and mixtures of two or more thereof. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a "soft" cocoa butter composition. The "softness" of a fat or fat blend at any given temperature will be determined by its melting profile. The melting profile of a fat is used to describe the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid, with the "melting point" being the temperature at which the solid and liquid phases exist in equilibrium. The melting profile and specific melting point of a particular fat or fat blend can be determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR - AOCS Recommended Practice 16-81 (AOCS 1978)).

The "soft" cocoa butter composition of the present invention will have a melting point which is lower than that of a conventional whole cocoa butter (i.e. a cocoa butter as pressed from the cocoa liquor). According to one possible embodiment, it may have a melting point which is below 25°C. Preferably, the composition will have a melting point of no more than 23°C, alternatively, of no more than 20°C and, according to certain embodiments, of no more than 15°C or even 10 0 C (meaning that, at these temperatures, the composition will contain less than 50% solids by weight).

Of course, the specific melting point will depend on the desired end use of the composition of the invention. By way of example only, for an ice-cream topping, it may be desirable that the composition remain liquid at room temperature but solidify upon contact with the frozen dessert. Alternatively, it may be desirable that it remains in a liquid state even after contact with the frozen dessert. Similarly, it will be understood by a skilled person that the appropriate melting profile for a chocolate cream to be used as a filling for pralines will be different to that of a liquid chocolate composition intended for drinking. One of the advantages of the present invention is that it allows for any melting profile to be tailor-made based on requirements without the need for non-cocoa butter oils or fats and without the use of additives.

It is indeed an advantage of the present invention that the desired melting point may be achieved without the use of cocoa butter equivalents or other non-cocoa butter fats or oils. Thus, according to one particular embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a cocoa butter composition comprising only fats and/or oils sourced from cocoa butter itself. The cocoa butter may be of any origin or, indeed, from multiple origins in the case of blends.

The composition will preferably comprise only fats or oils selected from the group consisting of: one or more olein fractions of cocoa butter, one or more super-olein fractions of cocoa butter, one or more mid-fractions of cocoa butter and mixtures of two or more thereof. Generally speaking, cocoa butter can be separated (or "fractionated") into its stearin and olein fractions. The olein fraction can be further fractionated to produce one or more super- olein and mid-fractions. Preferably, the term "olein" or "olein fraction" as used herein will refer to a fatty acid composition comprising 40% or more by weight C18:1 fatty acids and with a solid fat content (SFC) at 2O 0 C of less than 35% by weight. The term "super-olein" or "super- olein fraction" will refer to a fatty acid composition comprising 45% or more by weight C18:1 fatty acids and a SFC at 20 0 C of less than 10% by weight. The term "mid-fraction" will refer to a fatty acid composition comprising 35% or more by weight C18:1 fatty acids and a SFC at 20°C of less than 60% by weight.

According to a preferred embodiment, the cocoa butter composition of the present invention will may be characterised by an overall fatty acid composition comprising:

- 25% by weight or less C16:0; - 35% by weight or less, preferably 28-35% by weight C18:0; and

- 35% by weight or more, preferably 35-45% by weight C18:1.

It may also be characterised by its degree of saturation. Preferably, the cocoa butter composition of the present invention will comprise: - 12% by weight or less, preferably 10% by weight or less tri-saturates;

- 50% by weight or more, preferably 50-60% by weight di-saturates; and

- 25-35% by weight mono-saturates.

Each of the constituents of the cocoa butter composition may be individually modified or not. Modifications may be physical, chemical and/or enzymatic (e.g. hydrogenation, interesterification, etc.). For example, the one or more olein, super-olein and/or mid-fractions, will preferably be olein, super-olein and/or mid-fractions of an interesterified cocoa butter, preferably of an enzymatically interesterified cocoa butter. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is thought that cocoa butter interesterification gives it a much wider melting profile thereby facilitating fractionation, especially dry fractionation. Indeed, the one or more olein, super-olein and/or mid-fractions will preferably be dry fractionated cocoa butter fractions. The extent of interesterification and the type and number of fractionations to be used will of course depend on the desired melting profile of the final composition, as described above. Advantageously, the cocoa butter will at least 50% interesterified, more preferably at least 75% interesterified, even more preferably at least 90% interesterified and most preferably 100% interesterified. A process of preparing a soft cocoa butter composition is also part of the present invention. It will preferably include the steps of: interesterifying one or more cocoa butters, fractionating the interesterifed cocoa butter, recovering one or more fractions selected from cocoa butter oleins, super-oleins and/or mid-fractions and, optionally, blending one or more of the recovered fractions to reach a pre-defined melting point. The terms "fractionation" and "fractionating" as used herein may refer to a single fractionation process or to multiple fractionations (e.g. double or triple fractionation). If necessary, the recovered fractions may undergo a further interesterification and fractionation.

The cocoa butter composition may, of course, be subjected to additional modifications, either of its individual components or as a whole. Indeed, the exact nature of the cocoa butter composition will depend on its intended end-use and desired melting profile. An advantage of the composition of the present invention is its ability to replace non-cocoa fats without loss of functionality (e.g. softness or fluidity). It may also be used to improve the functionality (e.g. plasticity) of standard cocoa butters. As such, the present invention further provides the use of a cocoa butter composition as defined above as a fat source for products such as food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical compositions. Such compositions are also part of the present invention.

By way of example only, food compositions of the invention may include: ice-creams or other frozen or refrigerated deserts, shaped/flavoured inclusions or coatings for use in or on such frozen or refrigerated deserts (e.g. chocolate chips or peanut-butter drops for use in icecreams or yogurts, chocolate coatings for use with refrigerated cake bars, etc.), ice-cream toppings and sauces, dairy products, chocolate syrups, chocolate or other flavoured spreads, chocolate fillings and creams (e.g. for pralines, truffles or layered biscuits or cakes), whipped deserts and chocolate coatings (e.g. for sponge cake products such as Swiss rolls). Examples of beverage compositions may include: cocoa-based beverages, milkshakes, yogurt drinks, so-called "chocolate shots" (liquid chocolates), and chocolate dips. Examples of cosmetic compositions may include: lipsticks, lip glosses, lip balms, hair conditioning products, mascara, face creams and body creams. Similarly, examples of pharmaceutical compositions may include creams, lotions, gels and balms wherein the cocoa butter composition of the invention would be used as an excipient or carrier. Other possible applications of the present invention will be apparent to the person skilled in the art, with the cocoa butter composition simply being used to replace, in whole or in part, the existing fat content of the target product. Advantageously, the composition of the present invention can be used in the same way as any other fat. In particular, where it is used to replace another fat or oil, it can simply be added to the target product as if it were that fat or oil. No special adaptation to the recipe or manufacturing process will be needed. What's more, the composition will contribute to improved stability of the final products in which the cocoa butter compositions are used relative to products made using blends of oils or fats from different sources. In particular, compared to such blends, the compositions of the present invention will have a reduced tendency to separate because they are based entirely on cocoa butter fats. This will be particularly advantageous for compositions which should keep a homogeneous consistency either for visual appeal, ease of application (in the case, for instance, of a cosmetic composition) and/or for optimum mouth-feel (in the case of a food and/or beverage composition). In any event, the cocoa butter composition of the present invention will enhance mouth-feel, providing a more creamy texture to any food or beverage composition it is added to. It can also enhance flavour release, especially when used at low temperatures, because it will melt more easily and more rapidly in the mouth than compositions containing only conventional, whole cocoa butters. It may also improve bloom stability. In particular, when used to produce praline fillings, it has been observed that compositions of the present invention can help to reduce bloom on the praline's chocolate shell. When used e.g. for producing chocolate coatings, it can improve plasticity and thereby reduce cracking compared to conventional coating compositions containing only whole cocoa butter. Other possible advantages will be apparent to the skilled person.

Thus, the present invention also provides the use of a soft cocoa butter composition to:

- improve the bloom stability of chocolate-based or chocolate-coated compositions; - to improve the stability of compositions to which they are added;

- to prevent fat phase separation; and

- to improve mouth-feel and flavour release of edible compositions.

Depending on the final application, it may be desirable to blend the composition of the present invention with whole cocoa butter, one or more cocoa butter stearins and/or with fats or oils of non-cocoa butter origin. Such non-cocoa butter fats may include, by way of example only, vegetable fats and/or oils (such as palm oil or a palm oil fraction), animal fats and/or oils

(such as milk fat) and, especially for cosmetic applications, certain mineral fats and/or oils.

The cocoa butter composition may also be combined with one or more additives, e.g. emulsifiers such as lecithin, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) or sorbitan tristearate (STS). The cocoa butter composition of the present invention will preferably account for at least 50% by weight of the total fat content of any food, beverage, cosmetic or pharmaceutical products to which it is added. More preferably, it will account for at least 60%, more preferably at least 70%, more preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 90%, even more preferably at least 95%, of the product's total fat content. Most preferably, however, the cocoa butter composition will be used on its own, as a unique fat source.

According to one particular embodiment, the cocoa butter composition of the invention may be used in the production of a liquid chocolate. The term "liquid chocolate" as used herein refers to a chocolate composition which is liquid (pourable) at room temperature. Chocolate compositions exist in a variety of forms, most commonly milk and dark chocolates. In addition to cocoa butter, chocolate compositions typically comprise sugar, cocoa mass and/or cocoa powder and, in the case of milk chocolate compositions, milk powder. Accordingly, the liquid chocolate compositions of the present invention will preferably comprise, in the case of a liquid milk chocolate composition:

- sugar,

- cocoa mass and/or cocoa powder,

- a whole, skimmed or partially skimmed milk powder, and

- a fat phase comprising a cocoa butter composition as defined above.

A liquid dark chocolate composition according to the invention will preferably comprise:

- sugar,

- cocoa mass and/or cocoa powder, and

- a fat phase comprising a cocoa butter composition as defined above.

A liquid white chocolate composition may also be formed. It will preferably comprise:

- sugar,

- a whole, skimmed or partially skimmed milk powder, and

- a fat phase comprising a cocoa butter composition as defined above.

The cocoa mass and cocoa powder may be defatted, partially defatted or "whole" (i.e. with its normal fat content) and will preferably be included in the total composition in an amount of up to 25% by weight for the cocoa powder and up to 15% by weight for the cocoa mass. The sugar can be in crystalline, powder or liquid form (e.g. fructose and/or glucose syrups) and will preferably be included in the total composition in an amount of 30-50%, more preferably 35-45% by weight. It may also be replaced, in whole or in part, with artificial sweeteners such as erythritol or steviose. Using such artificial or "intense" sweeteners may require the total amount of sugar in the composition, by weight, to be adjusted but a skilled person would easily be able to do this based on common general knowledge in the art. The whole, skimmed or partially skimmed milk powder will preferably be included in the total composition in an amount of 10-20% by weight. The liquid chocolate may also include one or more further ingredients. These may be selected from one or more emulsifiers (e.g. lecithin), one or more flavoring agents (e.g. vanilla or vanillin), milk (whole, partially or fully skimmed) and/or milk concentrates. The appropriate amounts of each of these ingredients to be used will be apparent to a person skilled in the art.

The liquid chocolate composition will preferably comprise less than 3.5% by weight whole cocoa butter by weight, more preferably less than 3%, even more preferably less than 2% by weight.

The fat phase will preferably account for 25% to 65% by weight of the total composition. According to one embodiment, it may consist solely of the cocoa butter composition defined herein. Alternatively, it may also include one or more additional fats or oils, preferably in an amount of up to 15% by weight based on the total weight of the fat phase. These may be selected from the group consisting of: whole cocoa butter, whole or fractionated vegetable oils, whole or fractionated milk fats and mixtures of two or more thereof. Preferably, they will be selected from one or more milk fat oleins and/or one or more milk fat super-oleins. Advantageously, the cocoa butter composition itself will consist of one or more cocoa butter super-olein fractions.

A particular liquid milk chocolate composition according to the present invention will comprise: sugar, a cocoa butter super-olein composition, skimmed milk powder, cocoa powder, optionally a defatted or partially defatted cocoa mass, a milk fat fraction, optionally one or more emulsifiers, and optionally one or more flavouring agents. Preferably, it will comprise: 35-45% by weight sugar, 25-45% by weight of a cocoa butter super-olein composition, 10-20% by weight skimmed milk powder, 1-25% by weight cocoa powder, 0- 15% by weight of a defatted or partially defatted cocoa mass, 1-10% by weight of a milk fat olein fraction, 0-1% by weight of one or more emulsifiers, and 0-1% by weight of one or more flavouring agents.

A specific dark chocolate composition according to the present invention will comprise: sugar, a cocoa butter super-olein composition, cocoa powder, optionally a defatted or partially defatted coca mass, optionally one or more emulsifiers, and optionally one or more flavouring agents. Preferably, it will comprise: 35-45% by weight sugar, 25-45% by weight of a cocoa butter super-olein composition, 1-25% by weight cocoa powder, 0-15% by weight of a defatted or partially defatted cocoa mass, 0-1% by weight of one or more emulsifiers, and 0-1 % by weight of one or more flavouring agents.

According to an alternative embodiment, the liquid chocolate may be in the form of an emulsion prepared by mixing the liquid chocolate compositions described above with up to 60% water by weight. Preferably, the compositions will be mixed with 10 to 60% water, more preferably with 20 to 50% water. Particularly preferred embodiments will include about 30% or about 50% water by weight. The emulsified liquid chocolate compositions will also comprise an emulsifier such as lecithin, preferably in an amount of 0.05 to 0.5% by weight, even more preferably in an amount of 0.1 to 0.3% by weight and, according to one particular embodiment, in an amount of about 0.2% by weight.

The cocoa butter composition of the present invention may also be used in the preparation of spreads such as chocolate or praline flavoured spreads. A typical spread, prepared in accordance with the present invention, will comprise a cocoa butter composition as defined above (preferably consisting of cocoa butter super-olein), sugar, cocoa powder and/or cocoa mass, milk powder (preferably skimmed) and lecithin. It may also contain hazelnut paste, whey powder and one or more flavouring agents such as vanillin. Various adaptations and alternatives to the above recipe will be apparent to the person skilled in the art. A particular spread recipe, in accordance with the present invention, may comprise:

- 20-40%, preferably 25-35% by weight cocoa butter composition as defined above,

- 40-60%, preferably 45-55% by weight sugar,

- 5-15%, preferably 5-10% by weight cocoa powder or cocoa mass, - 0-15%, preferably 5-10% by weight hazelnut paste,

- 0-15%, preferably 2-10% by weight milk powder,

- 0-10%, preferably 1-5% by weight whey powder,

- 0-5%, preferably 0.1-2% by weight lecithin, and

- 0-2%, preferably 0.01-1% by weight flavouring agents such as vanillin.

The invention will now be illustrated by the following, non-limiting examples.

EXAMPLES

1 - Enzymatic lnteresterification of Cocoa Butter

Cocoa butter from Cargill Cocoa was interesterified using Lipozyme TL IM (Novozymes). 5kg cocoa butter was heated to 70 0 C in a reaction vessel. 100g enzyme (2%) was added and the mixture was stirred for 16h at about 40mbar. The product was isolated by filtration. During conversion the free fatty acid content increased from 2.1% to 2.4-2.7%. The melting point of the interesterified cocoa butter (using the slip point method) was found to have increased from 26 0 C to 42.5°C already after only 6h.

2 - Dry Fractionation of Interesterified Cocoa Butter

15kg of interesterified cocoa butter from Example 1 was heated to 70 0 C. It was cooled to 46°C under gentle agitation over 2 hours. It was then further cooled to 40°C over 7 hours with continued gentle stirring. Several kg of the slurry was then filtered through press with the pressure rising up to 15 bar. Pressing was stopped when no more liquid flowed out of the press. The solid fat content of the solid stearin phase was found to be over 70% at 25°C and the solid content of the liquid, olein, phase was found to be less than 20% at 25°C when measured using the standard NMR cocoa method (AOCS Recommended Practice 16-81 (AOCS 1978)).

3 - Dry Fractionation of Interesterified Cocoa Butter Olein

15kg of interesterified cocoa butter olein from Example 2 was heated to 65°C. It was cooled to 32°C under gentle agitation over 5 hours. It was then further cooled to 22°C over 10 hours with continued gentle stirring. Several kg of the slurry was then filtered through press with the pressure rising up to 30 bar. Pressing was stopped when no more liquid flowed out of the press. The solid fat content of the solid mid-fraction phase was found to be 55% at 20 0 C and the solid content of the liquid, super-olein phase was found to be less than 5% at 25°C when measured using the standard NMR Cocoa method (AOCS Recommended Practice 16-81 (AOCS 1978)).

4 - Analysis

The melting profiles of the interesterified cocoa butter (IECB - from Example 1), its stearin and olein fractions (from Example 2) and its super-olein and mid-fractions (from Example 3) were analysed using the Slip Melting Point (SMP) and Solid Fat Content (SFC) methods. The results are shown in Tables 1 and 2 below. Table 1

SFC was measured after holding the samples at 0 0 C for one hour followed by 45min at the given temperature.

Table 2

5 - Liquid Chocolate Compositions

Liquid milk chocolate samples were prepared using the super-olein obtained according to the method of Example 3. The ingredients of each sample are listed in Table 3. They were prepared as follows: the sugar, cocoa powder, milk solids, cocoa mass and 20% of the super-olein were mixed until a homogenous and malleable composition was obtained. The composition was then ground to obtain sufficiently small particles to avoid detection in the mouth. The ground composition was then blended in a conche for 1 hour at 6O 0 C. The remaining super olein and emulsifier was added to the liquid chocolate mass 30 minutes before the end of conching. No tempering was needed. The obtained liquid chocolate was then simply collected and stored in aseptic bottles.

Table 3

1 : partially defatted cocoa mass (comprising about 25% cocoa butter and 75% cocoa solids by weight); 2: defatted cocoa powder (less than 1% cocoa butter); 3: anhydrous milk fat with a melting point of 5°C; 4: sorbitan tristearate.

6 - Emulsions

12Og of liquid chocolate prepared as described in Example 5 (Sample 2) were poured into a 400 ml plastic beaker, together with 80 g of boiled water and 0.4 g of soy lecithin. The ingredients were then stirred with a spatula for 1 minute and homogenized at 10 000 rpm with the Ultra-Turrax ® T18 from IKA® for 3 minutes. The resulting product was labeled Sample 4. Samples 5 and 6 were made in the same way but with 30 and 50% water respectively - as shown in Table 4 below.

Table 4

All samples remained homogeneous for at least 2 months, with no visual water/oil separation and no visual particle sedimentation.

7 - Spreads

The ingredients as listed in Table 5 were poured into a Macintyre wet mixer and mixed for 4.5 hours.

Table 5

The spread was then removed from the mixer and cooled. It was found to have an average particle size ("finesse") of approximately 20 micrometer. A nice appearance, texture (viscosity, thickness, etc.) and taste were obtained.




 
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