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Title:
SOLAR RECEIVER WITH COVER GLASS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/210570
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A solar receiver (120) may include a substrate (140), a solar absorber (124) coupled to the substrate (140), and a plurality of components (126) coupled to the substrate (140). The solar receiver (120) may also include one or more cover glass portions (130) positioned proximate the substrate (140) to cover the solar absorber (124) and the plurality of components (126) such that the solar absorber (124) and the plurality of components (126) are located between the substrate (140) and the one or more cover glass portions (130). The one or more cover glass portions (130) may have multiple portions (134, 136) such that each portion may cover a different region of the substrate (e.g., primary substrate region (144), one or more secondary substrate regions (146)) to account for varying heights of the components (126) coupled to the substrate (140).

Inventors:
SUMNER, Michael, Ward (7700 Summer Avenue NE, Albuquerque, NM, 87110, US)
FORESI, James, S. (211 15th Street SW, Albuquerque, NM, 87104, US)
Application Number:
US2017/035704
Publication Date:
December 07, 2017
Filing Date:
June 02, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SUNCORE PHOTOVOLTAICS, INC. (3825 Academy Parkway South NE, Albuquerque, NM, 87109, US)
International Classes:
H01L31/048; F24J2/07; F24J2/50
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GOEDEN, Matthew, C. (Mueting, Raasch & Gebhardt P.A.,P.O. Box 58133, Minneapolis MN, 55458-1336, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS s claimed:

A solar receiver comprising:

a substrate defining a first substrate surface and a second substrate surface opposing the first substrate surface, wherein the first substrate surface defines a primary substrate region and one or more secondary substrate regions;

a solar absorber coupled to the first substrate surface within the primary substrate region; a plurality of components coupled to the first substrate surface within the one or more secondary substrate regions;

a primary cover glass portion positioned proximate the substrate to cover the primary substrate region such that the solar absorber are located between the primary cover glass portion and the first substrate surface; and

one or more secondary cover glass portions, wherein each of the one or more secondary cover glass portions is positioned proximate the substrate to cover a different secondary substrate region of the one or more secondary substrate regions such that the plurality of components are located between the one or more secondary cover glass portions and the first substrate surface, wherein a first distance between the primary cover glass portion and the first substrate surface is different than a second distance between the one or more secondary cover glass portions and the first substrate surface.

A solar receiver comprising:

a substrate defining a first substrate surface and a second substrate surface opposing the first substrate surface, wherein the substrate defines a primary substrate region and one or more secondary substrate regions, wherein the substrate defines a hole extending from the first substrate surface to the second substrate surface;

a solar absorber coupled to the first substrate surface within the primary substrate region; a plurality of components coupled to the first substrate surface within the one or more secondary substrate regions; one or more cover glass portions positioned proximate the substrate and covering the substrate such that the solar absorber and the plurality of components are located between the one or more cover glass portions and the first substrate surface; and an electrical contact pin to conduct electricity through the substrate, wherein the electrical contact pin comprises a head portion and a feedthrough portion extending from the head portion, wherein the feedthrough portion is positioned through the hole of the substrate such that the head portion is positioned adjacent the first substrate surface to restrict the head portion from passing through the hole and at least some of the feedthrough portion extends beyond the second substrate surface, wherein the head portion of the electrical contact pin positions the one or more cover glass portions away from the first substrate surface.

3. The solar receiver of claim 2, wherein the one or more cover glass portions comprise: a primary cover glass portion positioned proximate the substrate to cover the primary substrate region; and

one or more secondary cover glass portions, wherein each of the one or more secondary cover glass portions is positioned to cover a different secondary substrate region of the one or more secondary substrate regions.

4. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 1 and 3, wherein a gap is defined extending between the primary cover glass portion and the solar absorber, wherein the gap is less than or equal to about 500 micrometers.

5. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 1 and 3-4,

wherein the primary cover glass portion defines a primary glass thickness extending

between a first primary glass surface facing away from the substrate and a second primary glass surface opposing the first primary glass surface, and wherein the one or more secondary cover glass portions define a secondary glass

thickness extending between a first secondary glass surface facing away from the substrate and a second secondary glass surface opposing the first secondary glass surface, wherein the primary glass thickness is different than the secondary glass thickness.

6. The solar receiver of claim 5, wherein the primary glass thickness is greater than the secondary glass thickness.

7. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 5-6, wherein the second primary glass surface and the second secondary glass surface lie in different planes.

8. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 1 and 3-7, wherein the one or more secondary substrate regions comprises a first secondary substrate region and a second secondary substrate region, wherein the primary substrate region is positioned between the first secondary substrate region and the second secondary substrate region, wherein the one or more secondary cover glass portions comprises a first secondary cover glass portion positioned proximate the substrate to cover the first secondary substrate region and a second secondary cover glass portion positioned proximate the substrate to cover the second secondary substrate region.

9. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 1 and 3-8, wherein the substrate comprises one or more side surfaces extending between the first substrate surface and the second substrate surface and defining a perimeter of the substrate, wherein at least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions and at least a portion of the one or more secondary substrate regions extend along at least a portion of the perimeter of the substrate and cover the first substrate surface.

10. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 1 and 3-9, wherein the primary cover glass portion comprises one or more side surfaces extending between the first primary glass surface and the second primary glass surface and defining a perimeter of the primary cover glass portion, wherein the solar receiver further comprises at least one positioning element coupled to the first substrate surface and adjacent the one or more side surfaces of the primary cover glass portion to position the primary cover glass portion to cover the primary substrate region.

11. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 1 and 3-10, wherein the primary cover glass portion comprises one or more side surfaces extending between the first primary glass surface and the second primary glass surface and defining a perimeter of the primary cover glass portion, wherein the solar receiver further comprises at least one positioning element coupled to the first substrate surface and configured to position the primary cover glass portion the first distance away from the first substrate surface and the one or more secondary cover glass portions the second distance away from the first substrate surface, wherein the first distance is different than the second distance.

12. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 1 and 3-11, further comprising a frame portion positioned proximate the one or more secondary cover glass portions to cover at least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions such that the at least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions is between the frame portion and the first substrate surface.

13. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 1 and 3-12, further comprising an optical coupling material located between the primary cover glass portion and the solar absorber.

14. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 2-13, wherein the substrate comprises conductive material located on the first substrate surface and the head portion of the electrical contact pin is electrically and physically coupled to the conductive material of the substrate.

15. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 2-14, further comprising:

a wire;

a connector electrically and physically coupling the feedthrough portion of the electrical contact pin to the wire; and

an insulating tube surrounding the connector.

16. The solar receiver of claim 15, further comprising an electrically insulative material located between the insulating tube and the connector.

17. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 15-16, further comprising a frame portion positioned proximate the second substrate surface and a clamp physically coupling the wire to the frame portion to restrict the wire from un-coupling from the feedthrough portion of the electrical contact pin.

18. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 3-17, wherein the head portion of the electrical contact pin is adjacent to the primary cover glass portion to position the primary cover glass portion a distance away from the first substrate surface.

19. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 2-18, wherein the hole is defined within the primary substrate region.

20. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 3-17, wherein the head portion of the electrical contact pin is adjacent to a secondary cover glass portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions to position the secondary cover glass portion a distance away from the first substrate surface.

21. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 2-17 and 20, wherein the hole is defined within a secondary substrate region of the one or more secondary substrate regions.

22. The solar receiver as in any one of claims 1 and 3-21, wherein the primary cover glass portion and the one or more secondary cover glass portions are separate portions of a single pane of cover glass.

Description:
SOLAR RECEIVER COVER GLASS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Number

62/345,312 filed 03 June 2016, entitled "Solar Receiver Cover Glass," which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0002] The present disclosure relates generally to solar collector systems and,

specifically, solar receivers including solar cells that provide solar power.

[0003] Generally, solar collector systems may include an adjustable solar reflector that is configured to reflect solar radiation to, or on, a solar absorber (e.g., solar cells) located within a solar receiver. The solar receiver may convert the received, impinging solar radiation into electricity and/or thermal energy.

SUMMARY

[0004] The exemplary solar receiver may be described as including one or more cover glass portions that are positioned proximate a solar absorber coupled to a solar receiver substrate and other components coupled to the solar receiver substrate. The one or more cover glass portions may be positioned a different distance from the solar absorber than the other components and/or the one or more cover glass portions may be positioned various distances from the solar receiver substrate.

[0005] One exemplary solar receiver may include a substrate, a solar absorber, a plurality of components, a primary cover glass portion, and one or more secondary cover glass portions. The substrate may define a first substrate surface and a second substrate surface opposing the first substrate surface. The first substrate surface may define a primary substrate region and one or more secondary substrate regions. The solar absorber may be coupled to the first substrate surface within the primary substrate region. The plurality of components may be coupled to the first substrate surface within the one or more secondary substrate regions. The primary cover glass portion may be positioned proximate the substrate to cover the primary substrate region such that the solar absorber are located between the primary cover glass portion and the first substrate surface. Each of the one or more secondary cover glass portions may be positioned proximate the substrate to cover a different secondary substrate region of the one or more secondary substrate regions such that the plurality of components are located between the one or more secondary cover glass portions and the first substrate surface. A first distance between the primary cover glass portion and the first substrate surface may be different than a second distance between the one or more secondary cover glass portions and the first substrate surface.

Another exemplary solar receiver may include a substrate, a solar absorber, a plurality of components, one or more cover glass portions, and an electrical contact pin. The substrate may define a first substrate surface and a second substrate surface opposing the first substrate surface. The substrate may define a primary substrate region and one or more secondary substrate regions. The substrate may define a hole extending from the first substrate surface to the second substrate surface. The solar absorber may be coupled to the first substrate surface within the primary substrate region. The plurality of components may be coupled to the first substrate surface within the one or more secondary substrate regions. The one or more cover glass portions may be positioned proximate the substrate and covering the substrate such that the solar absorber and the plurality of components are located between the one or more cover glass portions and the first substrate surface. The electrical contact pin may conduct electricity through the substrate and include a head portion and a feedthrough portion extending from the head portion. The feedthrough portion may be positioned through the hole of the substrate such that the head portion is positioned adjacent the first substrate surface to restrict the head portion from passing through the hole and at least some of the feedthrough portion extends beyond the second substrate surface. The head portion of the electrical contact pin may position the one or more cover glass portions away from the first substrate surface. [0007] In one or more embodiments, the one or more cover glass portions may include a primary cover glass portion and one or more secondary cover glass portions. The primary cover glass portion may be positioned proximate the substrate to cover the primary substrate region. Each of the one or more secondary cover glass portions may be positioned to cover a different secondary substrate region of the one or more secondary substrate regions. In one or more embodiments, a gap may be defined extending between the primary cover glass portion and the solar absorber. The gap may be less than or equal to about 500 micrometers.

[0008] In one or more embodiments, the primary cover glass portion may define a

primary glass thickness extending between a first primary glass surface facing away from the substrate and a second primary glass surface opposing the first primary glass surface, the one or more secondary cover glass portions may define a secondary glass thickness extending between a first secondary glass surface facing away from the substrate and a second secondary glass surface opposing the first secondary glass surface, and the primary glass thickness may be different than the secondary glass thickness. In one or more embodiments, the primary glass thickness may be greater than the secondary glass thickness. In one or more embodiments, the second primary glass surface and the second secondary glass surface may lie in different planes.

[0009] In one or more embodiments, the one or more secondary substrate regions may include a first secondary substrate region and a second secondary substrate region. The primary substrate region may be positioned between the first secondary substrate region and the second secondary substrate region. In one or more embodiments, the one or more secondary cover glass portions may include a first secondary cover glass portion positioned proximate the substrate to cover the first secondary substrate region and a second secondary cover glass portion positioned proximate the substrate to cover the second secondary substrate region. In one or more embodiments, the substrate may include one or more side surfaces extending between the first substrate surface and the second substrate surface and defining a perimeter of the substrate. At least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions and at least a portion of the one or more secondary substrate regions may extend along at least a portion of the perimeter of the substrate and cover the first substrate surface. [0010] In one or more embodiments, the primary cover glass portion may include one or more side surfaces extending between the first primary glass surface and the second primary glass surface and defining a perimeter of the primary cover glass portion. The solar receiver may also include at least one positioning element coupled to the first substrate surface and adjacent the one or more side surfaces of the primary cover glass portion to position the primary cover glass portion to cover the primary substrate region. In one or more embodiments, the primary cover glass portion may include one or more side surfaces extending between the first primary glass surface and the second primary glass surface and defining a perimeter of the primary cover glass portion. The solar receiver may also include at least one positioning element coupled to the first substrate surface and configured to position the primary cover glass portion the first distance away from the first substrate surface and the one or more secondary cover glass portions the second distance away from the first substrate surface. The first distance may be different than the second distance.

[0011] In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver may include a frame portion

positioned proximate the one or more secondary cover glass portions to cover at least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions such that the at least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions may be between the frame portion and the first substrate surface. In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver may include an optical coupling material located between the primary cover glass portion and the solar absorber. In one or more embodiments, the substrate may include conductive material located on the first substrate surface and the head portion of the electrical contact pin may be electrically and physically coupled to the conductive material of the substrate.

[0012] In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver may include a wire, a connector, and an insulating tube. The connector may electrically and physically couple the feedthrough portion of the electrical contact pin to the wire and the insulating tube may surround the connector. In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver may include an electrically insulative material located between the insulating tube and the connector. In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver may include a frame portion positioned proximate the second substrate surface and a clamp physically coupling the wire to the frame portion to restrict the wire from un-coupling from the feedthrough portion of the electrical contact pin. In one or more embodiments, the head portion of the electrical contact pin may be adjacent to the primary cover glass portion to position the primary cover glass portion a distance away from the first substrate surface. In one or more embodiments, the hole may be defined within the primary substrate region.

[0013] In one or more embodiments, the head portion of the electrical contact pin may be adjacent to a secondary cover glass portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions to position the secondary cover glass portion a distance away from the first substrate surface. In one or more embodiments, the hole may be defined within a secondary substrate region of the one or more secondary substrate regions. In one or more embodiments, the primary cover glass portion and the one or more secondary cover glass portions are separate portions of a single pane of cover glass.

[0014] The above summary is not intended to describe each embodiment or every

implementation of the present disclosure. A more complete understanding will become apparent and appreciated by referring to the following detailed description and claims taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0015] FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an exemplary solar collector system including a solar reflector and a solar receiver.

[0016] FIG. 2 is a perspective view of an exemplary solar receiver.

[0017] FIG. 3 A is a top view of the solar receiver of FIG. 2.

[0018] FIG. 3B is a magnified view of the solar receiver of FIG. 3 A.

[0019] FIG. 3C is a side view of the solar receiver of FIG. 2.

[0020] FIG. 3D is a magnified view of the solar receiver of FIG. 3C.

[0021] FIG. 4A is a top view of another exemplary solar receiver.

[0022] FIG. 4B is a magnified view of the solar receiver of FIG. 4A.

[0023] FIG. 4C is a side view of the solar receiver of FIG. 4A.

[0024] FIG. 4D is a magnified view of the solar receiver of FIG. 4C.

[0025] FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the solar receiver of FIG. 2 including a frame portion. [0026] FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an electrical contact pin, a wire, and a connector.

[0027] FIG. 7 is a perspective view of the electrical contact pin and wire of FIG. 6

including an insulating tube disposed around the connector.

[0028] FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a clamp coupling a frame portion of the solar receiver to a wire.

[0029] FIG. 9 is a cross section of the clamp of FIG. 8 taken across line 9-9' .

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMODIMENTS

[0030] In the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments, reference is made to the accompanying figures of the drawing which form a part hereof, and in which are shown, by way of illustration, specific embodiments which may be practiced. It is to be understood that other embodiments may be utilized and structural changes may be made without departing from (e.g., still falling within) the scope of the disclosure presented hereby.

[0031] Exemplary embodiments shall be described with reference to Figures 1-9. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that elements (e.g., apparatus, structures, parts, portions, regions, configurations, functionalities, method steps, materials, etc.) from one embodiment may be used in combination with elements of the other embodiments, and that the possible embodiments of such apparatus and systems using combinations of features set forth herein is not limited to the specific embodiments shown in the figures and/or described herein. Further, it will be recognized that the embodiments described herein may include many elements that are not necessarily shown to scale. Still further, it will be recognized that the size and shape of various elements herein may be modified but still fall within the scope of the present disclosure, although certain one or more shapes and/or sizes, or types of elements, may be advantageous over others.

[0032] Exemplary systems and apparatus for use in capturing solar energy are described herein. The exemplary systems and apparatus may include a solar reflector configured to reflect solar radiation (e.g., solar rays, sunlight, solar energy, etc.) towards a solar receiver. The solar receiver may include a solar absorber (e.g., photovoltaic cells, deposited/painted solar absorbing coating, etc.) and other electrical components, or parts, such as, e.g., bypass diodes, bond wires, other delicate parts, etc. The solar receiver may also include materials to protect the solar absorber and other components. For example, the solar receiver may include cover glass that is positioned to cover the solar absorber and other components. The volume of space between the cover glass and the top surface topography of the receiver (e.g., solar absorber, cells, bypass diodes, etc.) may be filled with an optically transparent material, e.g., a silicone-based material, that optically couples the cover glass to the solar absorber/photovoltaic cells to, e.g., help avoid Fresnel refraction loss that may be caused by a mismatch between the indices of refraction. Further, the optical coupling material may also help to, e.g., electrically insulate electrically active surfaces, reduce the rate of oxidation of metal surfaces, prevent ingress of debris, slow and/or prevent ingress of water, thermally insulate heat exchanger (e.g., cooler) that functions to capture heat, etc.

[0033] Degradation of common optical coupling materials may change, e.g., as a

function of operating temperature and ultraviolet dosage. The working lifetime (e.g., reliability) of the exemplary solar receiver may be increased by making the optical coupling layer thinner. In other words, the exemplary embodiments may be configured to decrease the distance between the cover glass and the solar absorber, which may help to increase the working lifetime of the solar receiver due to a reduced thickness of the optical coupling material.

[0034] In one or more embodiments, components (e.g., electronic components,

mechanical components, electro-mechanical components, diodes, lead wire ends, spacers, stops, thermal sensors, optical fibers, etc.) mounted on (e.g., coupled to) a printed circuit board of the solar receiver may be taller than the solar absorber also mounted on (e.g., coupled to) the printed circuit board. In one or more embodiments, components may be coupled near the edges of the circuit board of the solar receiver and the solar absorber may be coupled near the center of the circuit board of the solar receiver. As a result of the differences in heights of the components and the solar absorber, the components may limit the distance (e.g., of the gap) between the solar absorber and the cover glass due to a cover glass that is a single, large piece having a flat surface that traverses the solar receiver (e.g., traverses an entire front surface of the solar receiver). In other words, the cover glass may only be as close to the solar receiver as the tallest component mounted on the solar receiver. Therefore, the height of the components may increase the gap between the solar absorber (e.g., the top of the cells) and the cover glass (e.g., the bottom of cover glass), which may reduce the working lifetime of the solar receiver. For example, a solar receiver may fail after only weeks, days, and in some cases only hours of normal operation with a large gap between the solar absorber and cover glass.

[0035] One or more exemplary solar receivers may include a cover glass that reduces the gap between the solar absorber (e.g., photovoltaic cells) and the cover glass, and thus may reduce the thickness of the optical coupling material there between. For example, in at least one embodiment, the cover glass may include various portions, defining various cover glass thicknesses, configured to cover different groups of components having various thicknesses (e.g., to define various optical coupling thicknesses). The various portions of cover glass defining various thicknesses are able to accommodate the varying component thicknesses. In at least one embodiment, the cover glass may include one single pane that protrudes various distances to account for the varying height of solar receiver components such that gaps between the cover glass and the components are minimized. Additionally, other components (e.g., a lead wire) may be modified, as described herein, such that the gap between the cover glass and solar absorber is reduced.

[0036] An exemplary solar collector system 100 including a solar reflector 110 and a solar receiver 120 is shown in FIG. 1. The solar reflector 1 10 may be positioned on a structure such that the solar reflector 110 is spaced away from a ground surface. The solar reflector 110 may include a solar reflector surface 112 configured to reflect solar energy towards the solar receiver 120. For example, the solar reflector surface 112 may face the solar receiver 120 and be aligned with the solar receiver 120 such that solar energy (e.g., solar radiation) impinging on the solar reflector surface 112 is reflected onto the solar receiver 120. The solar collector system 100 may also include a solar receiver support 102 that couples the solar reflector 110 to the solar receiver 120 and positions the solar receiver 120 away from the solar reflector 110. For example, the solar receiver support 102 may be coupled to the solar reflector 110 proximate a solar receiver support base 103 of the solar receiver support 102. In one or more embodiments, the solar reflector 110 reflects solar energy such that the solar energy projects in a substantially uniform configuration, or pattern, on the solar receiver 120. In one or more embodiments, the solar collector system may include intermediate optics (e.g., a concentrator, secondary optical element, etc.) interposed between the solar reflector surface 112 and the solar receiver 120. However, in other embodiments, no intermediate optics may be interposed between the solar reflector surface 112 and the solar receiver 120.

[0037] In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver 120 may include a solar energy- to-electricity converter configured to convert solar energy reflected to the solar receiver 120 into electricity. In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver 120 may also include a heat exchanger (e.g., a cooler) that is thermally coupled to the solar receiver 120 and configured to cool the solar receiver 120 (e.g., to keep the solar receiver 120 within a safe operating temperature and directly or indirectly convert the solar energy into thermal energy). For example, water may be circulated through the heat exchanger using pipes (e.g., extending from the solar receiver 120 to the solar receiver support base 103), which are connected to a water supply and a heated water storage tank. As water passes through the heat exchanger, the water may be heated by the heat exchanger and then may be stored in the heated water storage tank to provide thermal energy or may be used for, e.g., domestic hot water, air conditioning and/or heating, other applications, etc. In one or more embodiments, electrical and/or mechanical components may be coupled (e.g., bonded) to a primary surface of the heat exchanger.

[0038] The solar collector system 100 may move in a variety of different ways to

increase the amount of solar radiation received by the solar receiver 120. For example, the solar collector system 100 may include a dual axis solar tracking apparatus to configure the solar reflector 110 in a position to optimally receive solar radiation as the solar radiation source (e.g., sun) moves over time. Specifically, the dual axis solar tracking apparatus may include a rotational actuator 106 (e.g., to rotate about a rotational axis) and a linear actuator 104 (e.g., to drive along an elevation axis). The rotational actuator 106 may be configured to rotate the solar reflector 110 about a support (e.g., about the rotational axis) and the linear actuator 104 may tilt the solar reflector 110 at different angles relative to the ground surface. Additionally, the solar collector system 100 may include a solar receiver positioner 108 configured to move and position the solar receiver 120 relative to the solar reflector 110. For example, the solar receiver positioner 108 may position the solar receiver 120 such that the solar receiver 120 is aligned with solar radiation reflecting off of, or from, the solar reflector 110. More specifically, the solar receiver positioner 108 may be configured to move the solar receiver 120 closer to or further away from the solar reflector 110 along an axis extending between the solar receiver 120 and the solar reflector 110. Also, more specifically, the solar positioner 108 may be configured to move the solar receiver 120 in a direction perpendicular to the axis extending between the solar receiver 120 and the solar reflector 110.

[0039] Furthermore, the solar collector system 100 may include one or more components similar to those that described in U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. 2010/0252091 Al entitled "Solar Electricity Generation System," U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. 2012/0118351 Al entitled "Solar Electricity Generation System," U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. 2014/0238465 Al entitled "CPV Tracking using Partial Cell Voltages," and PCT App. No.

PCT/US2014/039414 entitled "Systems and Methods for Power Generation," each of which is incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

[0040] An exemplary solar receiver 120 of the solar collector system 100 is illustrated in

FIGS. 3A-3D. Another exemplary solar receiver 120 of the solar collector system 100 is illustrated in FIGS. 4A-4D. The following describes elements included in both exemplary solar receivers 120, except where otherwise noted. The solar receiver 120 may include a substrate 140 on which one or more components (e.g., solar absorber, solar cells, diodes, circuit boards, etc.) may be coupled or mounted (e.g., bonded, attached, etc.). For example, the substrate 140 may define a first substrate surface 141 and a second substrate surface 142 opposing the first substrate surface 141 (e.g., facing away from, etc.) and the one or more components may be coupled or mounted to one or both of the first and second substrate surfaces 141, 142 (e.g., components coupled to the heat exchanger may interact with the second substrate surface 142, and

subsequently, the first substrate surface 141 through vias and/or printed circuit board edge connections). Further, the substrate may be described as a printed circuit board, and may be configured such that one or more circuits may be included thereon (e.g., on the first substrate surface 141, on the second substrate surface 142, etc.) and/or therein (e.g., between the first and second substrate surfaces 141, 142) electrically coupling the one or more components. Further, the substrate 140 may include a conductive material 147 located on a surface of the printed circuit board (e.g., the first substrate surface 141, the second substrate surface 142, etc.). The substrate 140 may include (e.g., be formed of) one or more materials such as, e.g., copper, ceramic, Ni/Au plating, etc.

[0041] The first substrate surface 141 may define a primary substrate region 144 and one or more secondary substrate regions 146. The primary substrate region 144 and the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may be visualized as a perimeter 109 bounded area as shown in FIG. 2. In one or more embodiments, the primary substrate region 144 may include one or more primary substrate regions 144. The components coupled to the substrate 140 may be divided or grouped together by positioning the components within the primary substrate region 144 and/or the one or more secondary substrate regions 146. In other words, the primary substrate region 144 and the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may be used to physically group and/or separate components for any suitable purpose. For example, the primary substrate region 144 may be positioned to receive solar energy (e.g., sunlight) and the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may be positioned to avoid solar energy (e.g., to prevent direct exposure to solar energy). In one or more embodiments, the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may include a single secondary substrate region and, in other embodiments, the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may include multiple secondary substrate regions.

[0042] As described, the solar receiver 120 may include a variety of components to be used to capture solar radiation from the solar reflector 110 and convert the solar radiation into electricity and/or thermal energy. For example, the solar receiver 120 may include a solar absorber 124 (e.g., photovoltaic cells, solar cells, deposited/painted solar absorbing coating configured to absorb thermal radiation, etc.) and a plurality of components 126 (e.g., electronic components, mechanical components, diodes, stops, spacers, pins, plugs, etc.). Specifically, as shown in FIGS. 3A and 4A, the solar absorber 124 may include a plurality of photovoltaic cells. In one or more embodiments, mechanical components and/or electro-mechanical components may be positioned similarly to the plurality of components 126 as described herein. The solar absorber 124 and the plurality of components 126 may be coupled to the substrate 140 in a variety of different positions or groupings. For example, the solar absorber 124 and the plurality of components 126 may be coupled to the first substrate surface 141. The solar absorber 124 and the plurality of components 126 may be coupled within either the primary substrate region 144 or the one or more secondary substrate regions 146. As shown in FIGS. 3-4, the solar absorber 124 may be coupled to the first substrate surface 141 within the primary substrate region 144 (e.g., to receive sunlight) and the plurality of components 126 may be coupled to the first substrate surface 141 within the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 (e.g., to avoid sunlight).

[0043] The solar receiver 120 may also include one or more cover glass portions 130 positioned proximate the substrate 140 as illustrated in FIG. 2. The one or more cover glass portions 130 illustrated in FIG. 2 may correspond with either of the exemplary solar receivers 120 illustrated in FIG. 3 and FIG. 4. The one or more cover glass portions 130 may include (e.g., be formed of) one or more materials such as, e.g., silica, soda-lime, fused silica, fused quartz, barium borosilicate, alkali-aluminosilicate, etc. In one or more embodiments, the one or more cover glass portions 130 may be described as covering the substrate 140 such that the solar absorber 124 and the plurality of components 126 may be located between the one or more cover glass portions 130 and the first substrate surface 141. The one or more cover glass portions 130 may include a various number of portions and the portions may be positioned in a variety of different arrangements. For example, the one or more cover glass portions 130 may include one single glass pane that defines various thicknesses to vary the distance away from the first substrate surface 141. Specifically, a single glass plane may define various thicknesses to vary the distances between the single glass plane and the first substrate surface 141 at various points.

[0044] In one or more embodiments, the one or more cover glass portions 130 may

include multiple portions. For example, as shown in FIGS. 2-4, the one or more cover glass portions 130 may include a primary cover glass portion 134 and one or more secondary cover glass portions 136. In one or more embodiments, the primary cover glass portion 134 may include one or more primary cover glass portions 134 (e.g., multiple primary cover glass portions 134 may cover one or more primary substrate regions 144). The primary cover glass portion 134 may correspond to and be positioned proximate the primary substrate region 144 of the first substrate surface 141. For example, the primary cover glass portion 134 may be positioned proximate (e.g., covering) the substrate 140 such that the solar absorber 124 are located between the primary cover glass portion 134 and the first substrate surface 141. The primary cover glass portion 134 may be described as covering the solar absorber 124 such that the primary cover glass portion 134 is, e.g., on top of, spread over, over much or all of, protecting, surrounding the solar absorber 124.

[0045] Each of the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 may correspond to and be positioned proximate a different secondary substrate region of the one or more secondary substrate regions 146. For example, each of the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 may be positioned proximate (e.g., covering) the substrate 140 such that the plurality of components 126 are located between the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 and the first substrate surface 141. The one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 may be described as covering the plurality of components 126 such that the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 are, e.g., on top of, spread over, over much or all of, protecting, and/or surrounding the plurality of components 126. In one or more embodiments, it may be described that the primary cover glass region 134 may be closer to the first substrate surface 141 than the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 are to the first substrate surface 141.

[0046] The one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may include multiple secondary substrate regions 146 that may be arranged in a variety of different ways. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 include a first secondary substrate region 158 and a second secondary substrate region 159. As shown in these embodiments, the primary substrate region 144 is positioned between the first secondary substrate region 158 and the second secondary substrate region 159. In other embodiments, the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may be positioned relative to the primary substrate region 144 in a variety of different ways (e.g., the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may surround a perimeter of the primary substrate region 144, the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may be located on one side of the primary substrate region 144, etc.).

[0047] Similarly, the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 may include

multiple secondary cover glass portions 136 that may be arranged in a variety of different ways. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 may include a first secondary cover glass portion 138 and a second secondary cover glass portion 139. The first secondary cover glass portion 138 may be positioned proximate the substrate 140 to cover the first secondary substrate region 158 and the second secondary cover glass portion 139 may be positioned proximate the substrate 140 to cover the second secondary substrate region 159.

[0048] Furthermore, the location of the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 and the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may be defined in relation to the edges or sides of the substrate 140. For example, the substrate 140 may include one or more side surfaces 149 (as shown in FIGS. 3A and 3C) extending between the first substrate surface 141 and the second substrate surface 142. The one or more side surfaces 149 of the substrate 140 may be combined to define, or form, a perimeter 109 (e.g., as illustrated in FIG. 2) of the substrate 140. In one or more embodiments, at least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 and at least a portion of the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may extend along at least a portion of the perimeter of the substrate 140 defined by the one or more side surfaces 149 of the substrate 140. In other words, at least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 and the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 may be located on, or near, a side of the substrate 140. Additionally, at least a portion of the primary substrate region 144 and at least a portion of the primary cover glass portion 134 may extend along at least a portion of the perimeter of the substrate 140.

[0049] The solar receiver 120 may also include an electrical contact pin 160 to conduct electricity through the substrate 140 from the first substrate surface 141 to the second substrate surface 142, or vice-versa, as labeled in FIGS. 3-4. For example, the electrical contact pin 160 passes through the substrate 140 to electrically connect components on either side of the substrate 140. In other words, the electrical contact pin 160 may be used to electrically connect components (e.g., the solar absorber 124) proximate the first substrate surface 141 to components (e.g., external components positioned proximate the second substrate surface 142) positioned "on the other side" from the first substrate surface 141, e.g., proximate the second substrate surface 142. The electrical contact pin 160 may be physically and electrically coupled to the conductive material 147 of the substrate 140 to provide an electrical path between the first substrate surface 141 (e.g., the conductive material 147) and the second substrate surface 142.

[0050] The electrical contact pin 160 may include a head portion 162 and a feedthrough portion 164 extending from the head portion 162. The substrate 140 may define a hole 148 extending from the first substrate surface 141 to the second substrate surface 142. The feedthrough portion 164 of the electrical contact pin 160 may be positioned through the hole 148 of the substrate 140 such that the head portion 162 is positioned adjacent the first substrate surface 141 to restrict the head portion 162 from passing through the hole 148. The head portion 162 of the electrical contact pin 160 may define a top surface 161 positionable proximate (e.g., adjacent) the one or more cover glass portions 130 and a bottom surface 163 positionable proximate (e.g., adjacent) the first substrate surface 141 (e.g., the conductive material 147). Also, as shown in FIGS. 3-4, at least some of the feedthrough portion 164 may extend beyond the second substrate surface 142. In other embodiments, the feedthrough portion 164 may not extend beyond or extend flush with the second substrate surface 142. As shown in FIGS. 3-4, the solar receiver 120 includes two electrical contact pins 160 including feedthrough portions 164 that extend beyond the second substrate surface 142. However, in some embodiments, the solar receiver 120 may include only one electrical contact pin 160. In one or more other embodiments, the solar receiver 120 may include more than two electrical contact pins 160 and more than two corresponding holes 148.

[0051] The head portion 162 of the electrical contact pin 160 may be configured to

position, or support, the one or more cover glass portions 130 away from, or above, the first substrate surface 141 (e.g., using the top surface 161 of the head portion 162). For example, the head portion 162 may be in (e.g., direct or indirect) contact with, touching, and/or abutting the one or more cover glass portions 130. In one or more embodiments, the head portion 162 of the electrical contact pin 160 may position the primary cover glass portion 134 and/or the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 away from the first substrate surface 141. Any combinations of electrical contact pins 160 may be used to support any portion of the one or more cover glass portions 130.

[0052] As illustrated in FIGS. 3A-3D, the hole 148 of the substrate 140 may be located within the primary substrate region 144. As a result, the electrical contact pin 160 may extend through the substrate 140 within the primary substrate region 144 such that the head portion 162 of the electrical contact pin 160 may be adjacent, or in contact with, the primary cover glass portion 134. The head portion 162 may position (e.g., through direct or indirect contact) the primary cover glass portion 134 away from the first substrate surface 141 due to the location of the electrical contact pin 160 within the primary substrate region 144 of the substrate 140.

[0053] As illustrated in FIGS. 4A-4D, the hole 148 of the substrate 140 may be located within the one or more secondary substrate regions 146. As a result the electrical contact pin 160 may extend through the substrate 140 within the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 such that the head portion 162 of the electrical contact pin 160 may be adjacent, or in contact with, the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136. The head portion 162 may position (e.g., through direct or indirect contact) the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 away from the first substrate surface 141 due to the location of the electrical contact pin 160 within the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 of the substrate 140. In one or more embodiments, multiple holes 148 of the substrate 140 and corresponding electrical contact pins 160 may be located at both the primary substrate region 144 and the one or more secondary substrate regions 146. Also, in one or more embodiments, an electrical contact pin 160 may not be positioned through each hole 148 (e.g., one or more holes 148 may not include an electrical contact pin 160 passing therethrough). In the one or more embodiments including a hole 148 without an electrical contact pin 160 passing therethrough, a plug (e.g., resembling the head portion 162 of the electrical contact pin 160) may be positioned in the hole 148 and used as a spacer. [0054] The one or more glass cover portions 130 may be positioned relative to or away from the substrate 140 (e.g., using a spacer) such that a gap (e.g., a gap spanning a distance) is defined, or formed, between the one or more cover glass portions 130 and the first substrate surface 141. For example, a gap may be defined between the primary cover glass portion 134 (e.g., second primary glass surface 152 as shown in FIGS. 3D and 4D) or the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 (e.g., second secondary glass surface 155 as shown in FIGS. 3D and 4D) and the first substrate surface 141. More specifically, the gap may also be defined as extending between the one or more cover glass portions 130 (e.g., the primary cover glass portion 134 or the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136) and the solar absorber 124 or the plurality of components 126. Specifically, as shown in FIGS. 3D and 4D, a gap 150 may be defined as extending between the primary cover glass portion 134 (e.g., second primary glass surface 152) and the solar absorber 124 (e.g., a top surface of the solar absorber 124). The gap 150 may be, e.g., greater than or equal to about 10 micrometers, greater than or equal to about 20 micrometers, greater than or equal to about 25 micrometers, greater than or equal to about 40 micrometers, greater than or equal to about 60 micrometers, greater than or equal to about 80 micrometers, etc. and/or less than or equal to about 500 micrometers, less than or equal to about 250 micrometers, less than or equal to about 150 micrometers, less than or equal to about 100 micrometers, less than or equal to about 75 micrometers, less than or equal to about 50 micrometers, etc.

[0055] As described, the solar receiver 120 may include an optical coupling material 121 located between the one or more cover glass portions 130 and the substrate 140 (e.g., the first substrate surface 141). For example, the optical coupling material 121 may be located between the one or more cover glass portions 130 and the solar absorber 124. Specifically, the optical coupling material 121 may be located in the gap 150 between the primary cover glass portion 134 and the solar absorber 124. In one or more embodiments, the optical coupling material 121 may also be located in the space between the primary cover glass portion 134 and the substrate 140 where there are gaps between the solar absorber 124. The optical coupling material 121 may be described as assisting to optically couple the one or more cover glass portions 130 to the solar absorber 124 to, e.g., reduce index of refraction losses. The optical coupling material 121 may include one or more materials, alone or in combination, such as, e.g., silicone, air, optical gels, optical oils, optical grease, etc.

[0056] The optical coupling material 121 may be positioned between the one or more cover glass portions 130 and the substrate 140 for a variety of different reasons, as described herein. For example, the optical coupling material 121 may prevent general exposure of the internal components (e.g., the plurality of components 126, the solar absorber 124, etc.) to the external environment. In one or more embodiments, the internal components may be set back from the edge of the substrate 140 by about 1 mm to 2 mm (preferably 1.2 mm) to help ensure that there is enough optical coupling material 121 between the internal components and the external environment. In some embodiments, the one or more cover glass portions 130 may include rounded edges or chamfers. These chamfers may be about 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm (preferably 0.3 mm) and, therefore, cut into the offset distance between the internal components and the external environment (e.g., which includes optical coupling material 121). In other words, the optical coupling material 121 may not be located at the rounded edge or chamfer of the one or more cover glass portions 130 and, therefore, not extend to the edge of the one or more cover glass portions 130.

[0057] Furthermore, when positioning the one or more cover glass portions 130 relative to the substrate 140, the manufacturing tolerance of the positioning may be about +/- 0.2 mm in the lateral direction in each direction. Therefore, in some embodiments, the optical coupling material 121 may be positioned 0.5 mm away from the edge of the substrate 140 (e.g., because the manufacturing tolerance may set the one or more cover glass portions 130 0.2 mm from the edge of the substrate and the rounded edge or chamfer may offset the optical coupling material 121 by 0.3 mm). As a result, by setting the internal components about 1 mm to 2 mm (preferably 1.2 mm) from the edge of the substrate 140, there may still be sufficient space between the edge of the optical coupling material 121 and the internal components. Specifically, for example, the 0.3 mm chamfer and the 0.2 mm tolerance may add up to a potential 0.5 mm deviation (e.g., offset from the edge of the substrate 140) of the optical coupling material 121, which would provide the internal components with about 0.7 mm buffer distance to the edge of the optical coupling material 121 (e.g., the external environment). In other words, in this example, there would be 0.7 mm of optical coupling material 121 between the internal components and the external environment.

[0058] The one or more cover glass portions 130 may define a variety of thicknesses to help navigate the various thicknesses of components coupled to the substrate 140. In one or more embodiments, the one or more cover glass portions 130 may be a single pane of glass that defines varying thicknesses. In other embodiments, the one or more cover glass portions 130 may include multiple portions (e.g., primary cover glass portion 134, one or more secondary cover glass portions 136) defining various thicknesses. In one or more embodiments, the thickness of at least two of the multiple portions of the one or more cover glass portions 130 may be different.

[0059] The thickness of various portions of the one or more cover glass portions 130 may be defined, or measured, between the surfaces of the one or more cover glass portions 130. For example, the primary cover glass portion 134 may define a primary glass thickness 153 extending between a first primary glass surface 151 and a second primary glass surface 152 opposing the first primary glass surface 151. The orientation of the first primary glass surface 151 may be described as facing away from the substrate 140 (e.g., away from the first substrate surface 141). Also, for example, the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 may define a secondary glass thickness 156 extending between a first secondary glass surface 154 and a second secondary glass surface 155 opposing the first secondary glass surface 154. The orientation of the first secondary glass surface 154 may be described as facing away from the substrate 140 (e.g., away from the first substrate surface 141). In one or more embodiments, the primary glass thickness 153 may be different than the secondary glass thickness 156. For example, the primary glass thickness 153 may be greater than the secondary glass thickness 156 or the primary glass thickness 153 may be less than the secondary glass thickness 156. In other embodiments, the primary glass thickness 153 may be equal to the secondary glass thickness 156.

[0060] Additionally, the surfaces of the various portions of the one or more cover glass portions 130 may lie in a similar plane or in different planes. For example, the first primary glass surface 151 may lie in the same plane as the first secondary glass surface 154 as illustrated in FIGS. 3C-3D and 4C-4D. In other words, the surfaces of the one or more cover glass portions 130 farthest from the substrate 140 may define, or form, a flat surface along a plane. In other embodiments, the first primary glass surface 151 may lie in a different plane than the first secondary glass surface 154 (e.g., in a plane parallel to a plane of the first secondary glass surface 154). Also, as illustrated in FIGS. 3C-3D and 4C-4D, the second primary glass surface 152 may lie in a different plane than the second secondary glass surface 155 (e.g., in a plane parallel to a plane of the second secondary glass surface 155). In other words, the second primary glass surface 152 and the second secondary glass surface 155 may be positioned at different distances from the first substrate surface 141.

In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver 120 may include at least one positioning element 122 (e.g., stops or spacers) coupled (e.g., soldered) to the substrate 140 (e.g., the first substrate surface 141) and adjacent to the primary cover glass portion 134 to position (e.g., laterally position, position in a direction parallel to the surfaces, position away from the first substrate surface 141, etc.) the primary cover glass portion

134 relative to the substrate 140. For example, the at least one positioning element 122 may include a stop that, e.g., laterally positions the primary cover glass portion 134 or the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136, or a spacer that, e.g., positions the primary cover glass portion 134 or the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 away from the first substrate surface 141. The at least one positioning element 122 may include (e.g., be formed of) one or more materials such as, e.g., copper, tin plated copper, nickel tin plated copper, glass, ceramic, any material that may withstand the operating environment and may be bonded to the substrate 140 in a way that may not fail during the lifetime of the system, etc. The primary cover glass portion 134 may include one or more side surfaces 135 (as shown in FIGS. 3D and 4D) extending between the first primary glass surface 151 and the second primary glass surface 152. The one or more surfaces 135 of the primary cover glass portion 134 may be combined to define a perimeter of the primary cover glass portion 134. The at least one positioning element 122 (e.g., stops) may be positioned adjacent the one or more sides

135 of the primary cover glass portion 134 to position the primary cover glass portion 134 to cover the primary substrate region 144, as discussed herein. In one or more embodiments, the at least one positioning element 122 may hold the primary cover glass portion 134 in place during the encapsulation and glassing process.

In one or more embodiments, the at least one positioning element 122 (e.g., spacers or stops) may also be configured to position the one or more cover glass portions 130 away from the first substrate surface 141. In other words, the at least one positioning element 122 may be in contact (e.g., directly or indirectly) with the one or more cover glass portions 130 (e.g., the primary cover glass portion 134 and/or the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136) to separate the one or more cover glass portions 130 a distance, or gap, from the first substrate surface 141. For example, as illustrated in FIGS. 3C-3D, the at least one positioning element 122 is configured to position the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 away from the first substrate surface 141. Yet another example, as illustrated in FIGS. 4C-4D, the at least one positioning element 123 may be configured to position the primary cover glass portion 134 a first distance 114 away from the first substrate surface 141 and the at least one positioning element 123 may be configured to position the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 a second distance 116 away from the first substrate surface 141. Specifically, the at least one positioning element 123 may define a first surface that spaces the primary cover glass portion 134 away from the first substrate surface 141, a second surface that spaces the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 away from the first substrate surface 141, and a vertical step surface that stops or positions the primary cover glass portion 134. In one or more embodiments, the at least one positioning element 123 positioning the one or more cover glass portions 130 at multiple distances may be described as a "stepped" spacer. The at least one positioning element 122, 123 may be positioned at a variety of locations around the primary cover glass portion 134 (e.g., one positioning element proximate each corner of the primary cover glass portion 134) and there may be a variety of different numbers of the at least one positioning element 122, 123 (e.g., one, two, three, four, etc.). In one or more embodiments, the at least one positioning element 122, 123 may have the same thickness as the head portion 162 of the electrical contact pin 160 and, e.g., may function in conjunction with the head portion 162 to position, or support, the one or more cover glass portions 130. For example, in one or more embodiments, each of the one or more cover glass portions 130 may be supported at four distinct locations (e.g., at each corner of a quadrilateral-shaped glass portion). Specifically, the primary cover glass portion 134 may be supported by four of the at least one positioning element 122, 123 (e.g., in each corner) and each of the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 may be supported by the head portion 162 of two electrical contact pins 160 and two of the at least one positioning element 122, 123 (e.g., in each corner).

[0063] The primary cover glass portion 134 may be positioned the first distance 114 away from the first substrate surface 141 and the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 may be positioned the second distance 116 away from the first substrate surface 141 in any suitable way (e.g., by the at least one positioning element 122, 123, by the electrical contact pin 160, etc.). In one or more embodiments, the first distance 114 may be different than the second distance 116. For example, the first distance 114 may be less than the second distance 116 or the first distance 114 may be greater than the second distance 116. In other embodiments, the first and second distances 114, 116 may be equal.

[0064] The solar receiver 120 may further include a frame portion 128 positioned relative to the substrate 140 such that at least a portion of the substrate 140 (e.g., a portion or region of the first substrate surface 141 and/or the second substrate surface 142) is covered as illustrated in FIG. 5. For example, the frame portion 128 may be proximate the one or more side surfaces 149 of the substrate 140. Further, for example, the frame portion 128 may also be proximate the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 to cover at least a portion of the one or more secondary glass portions 136 such that the at least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136 is between the frame portion 128 and the first substrate surface 141. The frame portion 128 may cover at least a portion of the one or more secondary cover glass portions 136, and

subsequently, at least a portion of the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 to protect the plurality of components 126 from direct solar radiation. In one or more embodiments, the portion of the one or more secondary substrate regions 146 covered by the frame portion 128 may also be actively cooled. For example, in some embodiments, the frame portion 128 may provide active cooling upon the one or more secondary substrate regions 146. The covering (and, e.g., active cooling) of the plurality of components 126, e.g., by the frame portion 128, may help to increase the lifetime of the plurality of components 126.

[0065] The solar receiver 120 may also include one or more additional components to couple to the feedthrough portion 164 to the substrate 140 and, e.g., define, or form, an electrical connection between the first substrate surface 141 and the second substrate surface 142. FIGS. 6-7 illustrate the frame portion 128 and the feedthrough portion 164 protruding therefrom. An exemplary embodiment of the solar receiver 120 may also include a wire 166 (e.g., a cable, a flying lead, a flexible electrical connector, etc.) and a connector 168 that electrically and physically couples the feedthrough portion 164 of the electrical contact pin 160 to the wire 166. The connector 168 may be described as providing a stable coupling of the feedthrough portion 164 to the wire 166. The solar receiver 120 may also include an insulating tube 170 configured to surround the connector 168 when the wire 166 and the feedthrough portion 164 are coupled by the connector 168. The insulating tube 170 may define, e.g., a hollow portion, a passageway, etc. through which the connector 168/wire 166/feedthrough portion 164 pass. The insulating tube 170 may be configured to insulate the wire 166 (e.g., in addition to wire insulation covering wire 166) and feedthrough portion 164 from the outside environment to prevent damage. It is noted that FIGS. 1-7 are for illustrative purposes and may not be drawn to scale. For example, in FIG. 7, the diameter of the insulating tube 170 may be roughly twice the diameter of the wire 166.

[0066] In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver 120 may also include an

electrically insulative material 172 located between the insulating tube 170 and the connector 168. The electrically insulative material 172 may provide various benefits such as, e.g., electrically insulating the electrical connection between the wire 166 and the feedthrough portion 164, create a barrier to the ingress of debris, create a watertight seal around the connection between the wire 166 and the feedthrough portion 164, provide thermal conductivity to dissipate heat and keep the connection cool, etc. The electrically insulative material 172 may include one or more materials, e.g., potting material, epoxy (e.g., a thermally conductive, electrically insulating, environmentally robust epoxy), etc. In one or more embodiments, the electrically insulative material 172 may be thermally conductive. [0067] In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver 120 may further include a clamp

174 (e.g., a strain relief) to physically couple the wire 166 to various components, e.g., the frame portion 128 (e.g., a surface of the frame portion 128 opposite the first substrate surface 141) as illustrated in FIGS. 8-9. The clamp 174 may be configured to restrict the wire 166 from un-coupling from the feedthrough portion 164 of the electrical contact pin 160. For example, the clamp 174 may be couplable to the frame portion 128 and couplable (e.g., crimp, attach, compress, etc.) to the wire 166 in a direction perpendicular to the direction the wire 166 extends. The clamp 174 may reduce stress and strain between the wire 166 and the feedthrough portion 164 by holding the wire 166 stationary relative to the frame portion 128. In one or more embodiments, the solar receiver 120 may include a thermal pad located between the second substrate surface 140 and the frame portion 128 that is thermally conductive and electrically insulating. Additionally, in one or more embodiments, the electrically insulative material 172 may be located within the hole between the feedthrough portion 164 and the substrate 140 to provide thermal conductivity, electrical insulation and environmental robustness (e.g., to prevent ingress of water/debris/humidity, to allow for thermal expansion/contraction, etc.).

[0068] In one or more embodiments, the feedthrough portion 164 may be positioned adjacent to the wire 166 and electrically and physically coupled, or attached, using the connector 168 or any other process such as, e.g., soldering, welding, brazing, any suitable type of wire splicing connector, etc. Next, the insulating tube 170 may be positioned relative to (e.g., around) the connector 168 to insulate the electrical connection between an exposed portion of the feedthrough portion 164 and the wire 166. The electrically insulative material 172 may then be disposed within the insulating tube 170 (e.g., the hollow portion or passageway) between the insulating tube 170 and the connector 168 to further insulate the electrical connection made between the feedthrough portion 164 and the wire 166. Finally, the clamp 174 may be coupled to the frame portion 128 and the coupled to the wire 166 to transfer stress/strain from a connection between the feedthrough portion 164 and the wire 166 to the substrate 140 (e.g., at the second substrate surface 142). All patents, patent documents, and references cited herein are incorporated in their entirety as if each were incorporated separately. This disclosure has been provided with reference to illustrative embodiments and is not meant to be construed a limiting sense. As described previously, one skilled in the art will recognize that other various illustrative applications may use the techniques as described herein to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of the system and methods described herein. Various modifications of the illustrative embodiments, as well as additional embodiments of the disclosure, will be apparent upon reference to this description.